Science.gov

Sample records for taenia saginata cysticercosis

  1. An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

  2. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  3. The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

    2014-04-01

    Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

  4. Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

    2010-04-19

    Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357

  5. An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

    2013-04-27

    Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

  6. Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

    2010-10-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n = 10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n = 3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n = 3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n = 4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

  7. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  8. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  9. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'. PMID:24112449

  10. Taenia solium cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  11. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date. PMID:27405121

  12. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.

    PubMed

    Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

  13. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  14. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.

    PubMed

    González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

  15. Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

  16. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression. PMID:26824681

  17. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  18. Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-02-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

  19. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. PMID:26320098

  20. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  1. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  2. Peritonitis caused by jejunal perforation with Taenia saginata: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bekraki, Ali; Hanna, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Complicated Taeniasis necessitating surgical intervention is extremely rare and is usually reported to occur in the distal ileal region of the Gastrointestinal tract. A case of peritonitis secondary to proximal jejunal perforation due to Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative evaluation suggested the diagnosis of acute duodenal ulcer perforation. Although no real change in management and outcome is present, Taenia remains an exceptional direct cause of intestinal perforation, and should be kept on the list of differential diagnosis of peritonitis and acute abdomen in endemic geographical locations. PMID:27065626

  3. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. PMID:26754203

  4. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  5. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  6. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  7. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  8. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  9. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  10. Performance of the ELISA test for swine cysticercosis using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Pinto, P S; Vaz, A J; Germano, P M; Nakamura, P M

    2000-02-29

    Studies were conducted to evaluate antigens of Taenia solium (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) cysticerci in the ELISA test for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. The samples analyzed were cysticercosis positive and negative control sera and heterologous sera. Four antigens were assayed: vesicular fluid (VF) and crude (T) Tcra and scolex (S) and crude (T) Tso. All antigens showed good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best followed by T-Tcra. Sensitivity rates of ELISA were respectively, in 2nd and 3rd standard deviation cut-offs, 96.0 and 80.0% for the VF antigen and specificity of 97.5 and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was verified only for hidatidosis and ascaridiosis. Due to the high performance observed, the ELISA test using Tcra antigens should be recommended for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. PMID:10681029

  11. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the

  12. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control and elimination through community-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Traoré, Aminata A

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium was declared potentially eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992. Yet, very few well-designed community-based randomized controlled trials have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of alternative control strategies. Most strategies have been tested in pre-post intervention designs in very few communities, often without a control group. The only two community-based randomized controlled trials suggest that an educational program alone or a combination of human and porcine mass treatment reduce porcine cysticercosis in the short term. A transmission dynamics model suggests that improved sanitation and pig management are more effective and sustainable than pig vaccination, human or porcine mass treatment. Current evidence does not support the eradication of Taenia solium in the foreseeable future. Investigators should follow international recommendations on the conduct of community-based randomized control trials to provide more valid estimates of the effect and cost-effectiveness of alternative control strategies for cysticercosis. PMID:25544938

  13. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  14. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG. PMID:16338165

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31–48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82–3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

  16. An epidemiological study of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural population in the Bolivian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, J; Iihoshi, N; Widdowson, M A; Roca, Y; Morales, G; Quiroga, J; Cejas, F; Caihuara, M; Ibarra, R; Edelsten, M

    2001-12-21

    A survey of 100 rural households in a village in the Chaco region of Bolivia revealed a serious problem of Taenia solium cysticercosis, with a seroprevalence of 99/447 (22%) in humans and 102/273 (37%) in pigs. Risk factors for humans were being in older age groups, absence of sanitary facilities, poor formal education and inability to recognise infected pork. Significant risk indicators were a history of seizures and the reported elimination of worms in the faeces. Risk factors for pigs were being in older age groups and absence of sanitary facilities in the owner's house. The proportion of households with evidence of human cysticercosis was similar for those who owned pigs (48%) and those that did not (55%). This unexpected finding was attributed to the high overall prevalence of cysticercosis in pigs and the probability that everyone, regardless of pig-ownership, had ample opportunity to become infected in such communities. The main recommendation for reducing the prevalence of human cysticercosis was to provide more effective education campaigns, aimed at preventing both T. solium infection and cysticercosis. PMID:11700180

  17. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  18. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  19. Functionally Expression of Metalloproteinase in Taenia solium Metacestode and Its Evaluation for Serodiagnosis of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; BAE, Young-An; ZONG, Hong-Ying; KONG, Yoon; CAI, Guo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parasite proteases have important roles in cleavage of host proteins during the invasion of host tissues and participate in the parasite’s evasion from the host’s immune response. The aim of the present study was to estimate a metalloproteinase properties of Taenia solium metacestode (TsMP) during host-parasite interactions, and evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Methods: The cDNA coding for the mature catalytic domain of TsMP was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. A recombinant glutathione S-transferase and TsMP fusion protein was induced. After refolding and purification, enzymatic properties of the recombinant metalloproteinase were observed. Immunoblot assay was processed to evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Results: The recombinant TsMP protein showed proteolytic activity, which preferred host extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin as degradable substrates. In immunoblot assay, 87.5% of sera from patients with cysticercosis showed strong reactivity. In sera from patients with other parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed high specificity. Conclusions: TsMP might be involved in the processing of numerous host proteins and play an important role in the parasite life cycle. A single recombinant TsMP antigen could have a potential value for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. PMID:27095967

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  1. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Joshi, Durga Dutt; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; van De, Nguyen; Xiaonong, Zhou

    2003-06-01

    Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis is the cause of epilepsy in up to 50% of Indian patients presenting with partial seizures. It is also a major cause of epilepsy in Bali (Indonesia), Vietnam and possibly China and Nepal. Seroprevalence studies indicate high rates of exposure to the parasite in several countries (Vietnam, China, Korea and Bali (Indonesia)) with rates ranging from 0.02 to 12.6%. Rates of taeniosis, as determined by stool examination for ova, have also been reported to range between 0.1 and 6% in the community in India, Vietnam, China, and Bali (Indonesia). An astonishingly high rate of taeniosis of 50% was reported from an area in Nepal populated by pig rearing farmers. In addition to poor sanitation, unhealthy pig rearing practices, low hygienic standards, unusual customs such as consumption of raw pork is an additional factor contributing to the spread of the disease in some communities of Asia. Undoubtedly, cysticercosis is a major public health problem in several Asian countries effecting several million people by not only causing neurological morbidity but also imposing economic hardship on impoverished populations. However, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates in different regions and different socio-economic groups in the same country. It is important to press for the recognition of cysticercosis as one of the major public health problems in Asia that needs to be tackled vigorously by the governments and public health authorities of the region. PMID:12781378

  2. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  3. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  4. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  5. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium. PMID:26112071

  6. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-07-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  9. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

  10. The present situation of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Li, Tiaoying; Dekumyoy, Paron; Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Three human Taenia species, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, are endemic in rural regions of Asia, with these species sympatrically distributed in parts of Thailand and China. The pork tapeworm, T. solium, is the most pathogenic to humans, causing cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis (NCC). Due to its public health impact, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prioritized by the World Health Organization. In this review, the current status of taeniasis and NCC in several Asian countries will be presented as will possible prevention and control strategies. Among the known T. solium endemic areas in Asia, Bali, Indonesia is of high importance due to the risk of tourists becoming infected. Therefore, special attention will be given to ongoing control initiatives in Bali. PMID:25858304

  11. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region. PMID:26581436

  12. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

  13. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    PubMed

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

  14. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  15. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  16. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts. PMID:27234210

  17. [Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nolte, A; Strube, C; Raue, K; Brämer, C; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2016-01-01

    A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case. PMID:26763526

  18. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T

  19. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-01-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  20. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-07-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  1. Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371

  2. Cysticercosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... called Taenia solium ( T solium ). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in ... after a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T solium as ...

  3. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  4. Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1995-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

  5. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  6. Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

  7. Taenia: An Uninvited Guest

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghi, Afshin; Rezayat, Kambiz Akhavan; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Taeniasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • dyspepsia Medication: Omeprazole • Dicyclomine • Herb Clinical Procedure: Endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare presentation Background: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium species are worldwide in distribution, causing bovine and porcine cysticercosis, and taeniasis in humans having the greatest economic and medical importance. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman living in a village around Rasht (northern Iran) was referred to our hospital with a history of chronic abdominal pain and recent dyspepsia and epigastric fullness. According to her clinical history, she was a candidate for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A large tape worm was seen in the stomach. Our efforts at extracting it from the stomach were unsuccessful. The endoscope was withdrawn and therapy with niclosamide was initiated. At the next visit, her symptoms were alleviated and she was relieved from the chronic pain. Conclusions: We believe that the retrograde migration of the tapeworm into the stomach may be due to low gastric acidity as a result of atrophic gastritis and chronic proton pump inhibitor use. PMID:26226138

  8. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors

  9. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis. PMID:24161749

  10. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people. PMID:16338166

  11. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  12. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  13. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  14. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  15. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-01

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

  16. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  17. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and

  18. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  19. Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Willingham, A Lee; De, Nguyen Van; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Le Dinh; Dung, Truong Van; Dorny, Pierre; Cam, Phung Dac; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated for cysticercosis with most patients being young to middle-aged adults though several juvenile cases have been seen in the south. Clinical manifestations of the disease in humans include subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headache, impaired vision and memory loss. Albendazole has been found to be the best drug for treating cysticercosis though it does not appear to be totally effective for curing cerebral cysts. Information concerning porcine and bovine cysticercosis is very limited and based mostly on passive surveillance at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Surveys for human taeniasis in central and northern provinces indicate a prevalence of 0.2-7.2%. However, techniques of low sensitivity were used and the results are inconclusive since it is unknown with which species of tapeworm the people were infected. In addition to Taenia solium which causes human cysticercosis, T. saginata and T. asiatica are also known to be present in Vietnam. Risk factors investigated thus far with regard to transmission of T. solium suggest that consumption of raw pork, inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some areas, and the use of untreated human waste as fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam but this remains to be validated. The evidence thus far collected suggests that a national surveillance program for cysticercosis is a great need for Vietnam. The authors recommend further research on the epidemiology and impact of cysticercosis in

  20. Comparative evaluation of purified Taenia solium glycoproteins and crude metacestode extracts by immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of human T. solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Allan, J C; Fletes, C; Sutisna, I P; Kapti, I N; Craig, P S

    1997-01-01

    A lentil-lectin purified glycoprotein (LL-Gp) and a crude saline extract of Taenia solium metacestodes were compared for the immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by immunoblotting. The LL-Gp preparation was 95% sensitive for antibodies against a range of seven antigens with molecular masses of 50 to 13 kDa, whereas the sensitivity of the crude saline extract for the detection of antibodies against two major polypeptide molecules (26 and 8 kDa) was 91%. Specificity was 100% with both sets of diagnostic antigens. Affinity-purified antibodies against the 26-kDa molecule from the crude saline extract recognized the 24-kDa diagnostic region in the LL-Gp-purified extract and vice versa, suggesting that the antigens had common epitopes recognized by cysticercotic sera. In addition, in a preliminary community study of 115 randomly selected people from Bali (Indonesia), seroprevalence by immunoblot assay varied from 7.8% (with the crude saline antigen extract) to 9.6% (with the LL-Gp-purified extract). The results of this study demonstrate that both antigenic preparations are applicable for the immunodiagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis. The crude T. solium metacestode antigen extract was as specific as the purified LL-Gp T. solium metacestode extract and simpler to produce but slightly less sensitive. PMID:9302208

  1. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  2. An investigation on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, G M; Margono, S S; Schlan, R; Harjono, C; Rasidi, R; Sutopo, B

    1977-12-01

    A survey was carried out in 3 villages in Bali to determine the prevalence of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in pigs. A total of 548 people were examined and Taenia sp. eggs were found in the faeces of 11. Four individuals passed proglottids; two T. solium and two T. saginata and three of these people also passed eggs in the faeces. A total of 12 or 2.2% were infected. Three pigs from a slaughterhouse were found heavily infected with Cysticercus cellulosae. Socio-ecological data indicate infections to be more common in people who eat raw meat dishes than those who eat fish. Poor sanitary conditions and the easy access of pigs to human faeces perpetuate the infection. PMID:614710

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  4. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  5. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  6. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices. PMID:24678662

  7. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication. PMID:27277232

  8. Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-12-31

    A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture. PMID:19800348

  9. Population dynamics in echinococcosis and cysticercosis: economic assessment of control strategies for Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J R; Roberts, M G; Gemmell, M A; Best, S J

    1988-08-01

    An official control programme against Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena has been in operation in New Zealand for more than 28 years and against Taenia ovis for more than 18 years. This unique effort to control three metazoan parasites at the same time has led to a change from endemic to extinction status for E. granulosus but only a change from hyperendemic to endemic status for T. hydatigena and T. ovis. This has presented problems in determining the most cost-effective future control strategies. To facilitate this, a benefit/cost analysis of 20 options for the combined control of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and T. ovis in New Zealand was undertaken. This showed that for E. granulosus a future change from the current non-targeted to a targeted approach is strongly indicated. For T. ovis 6 options were cost-effective using a discount rate of 10%. These were (1) a targeted control package using a vaccine in the non-targeted attack phase; (2) a targeted control package using a larvicide in the attack phase; (3) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers a larvicide to sheep to be killed for dog food; (4) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers praziquantel every 6 weeks to dogs; (5) and (6) two options involving the discontinuation of control. Control of T. hydatigena was assumed to be an incidental outcome of the policies for the other two parasites. PMID:3140196

  10. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  11. Images in Clinical Medicine. Taenia saginata Infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Guo, Eping

    2016-01-21

    A 38-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, generalized weakness, and weight loss that had begun 3 days earlier. He had a history of eating raw beef. Examination of stool showed an embryonated egg containing an oncosphere. PMID:26789874

  12. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. PMID:27514893

  13. Taenia infestation in the appendix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha

    2013-11-01

    Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata. PMID:24450232

  14. Cysticercosis Update

    PubMed Central

    Grisolia, James Santiago

    1984-01-01

    Already the most common brain parasite disease, cysticercosis has been increasingly seen throughout the American Southwest. Symptoms arise from infection with larvae of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Seizures, hydrocephalus, focal deficits and chronic meningitis most commonly result. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, serology by indirect hemagglutination and computed tomography are helpful adjuncts to diagnosis. New evidence suggests that selective immunosuppression is important for the parasites' survival and that cyst death permits renewed host immunity, which may actually precipitate an acute neurologic presentation. New larvicides, including praziquantel, are being tested in humans; caution is indicated in assessing these drugs because of the acute worsening associated with cyst death. Conventional therapy includes anticonvulsants, steroids or ventricular drainage as needed. Prevention remains the best management. Person-to-person transmission within the United States has recently been documented and merits public health scrutiny. PMID:6377706

  15. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  16. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  17. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26993086

  18. Assessment of the repeatability and border-plate effects of the B158/B60 enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay for the detection of circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA) of Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Famke; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Hul, Anke; Van den Broeck, Nick; Makay, Caroline; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-08-30

    The monoclonal antibody-based circulating antigen detecting ELISA (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA) has been used elaborately in several studies for the diagnosis of human, bovine and porcine cysticercosis. Interpretation of test results requires a good knowledge of the test characteristics, including the repeatability and the effect of the borders of the ELISA plates. Repeatability was tested for 4 antigen-negative and 5 antigen-positive reference bovine serum samples by calculating the Percentage Coefficient of Variation (%CV) within and between plates, within and between runs, overall, for two batches of monoclonal antibodies and by 2 laboratory technicians. All CV values obtained were below 20% (except one: 24.45%), which indicates a good repeatability and a negligible technician error. The value of 24.45% for indicating the variability between batches of monoclonal antibodies for one positive sample is still acceptable for repeatability measures. Border effects were determined by calculating the %CV values between the inner and outer wells of one plate for 2 positive serum samples. Variability is a little more present in the outer wells but this effect is very small and no significant border effect was found. PMID:27523940

  19. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  20. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  1. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  2. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Honduras.

    PubMed

    de Kaminsky, R G

    1991-01-01

    Data on human taeniasis and human and animal cysticercosis from Honduras were gathered from laboratory, medical and slaughterhouse records, proglottid identification and surveys. The infection rate for human taeniasis was 2.7/1000 individuals at the University Hospital, 10/1000 in the southern provinces of Choluteca and Valle, and 0.6/1000 in Cortes and Atlantida in the north. In surveys, the rates found ranged from 14 to 62/1000 in 9 of 15 communities studied. Taenia solium was identified in 135 of 181 individuals (74.5%) who submitted proglottids for speciation, 23 of whom were children 0-5 years old. The male:female ratio of infection rate was 1:2. The rates of infection with cysticercosis in pigs and cattle at one abattoir in 1981-1986 were 5% and 0.05% respectively. Diagnosis of human cysticercosis at the University Hospital increased five-fold with the introduction of computerized tomography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: 22 cases were diagnosed in 1980-1984 and 107 cases in 1985-1988. Rates at the neurosurgical ward were higher (29/1000 patients) than in the general hospital census (1.6/1000 patients). aeniasis-cysticercosis may be a serious health problem in some areas of Honduras. PMID:1755064

  3. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Taenia martis Eye Infection.

    PubMed

    Koch, Till; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Addo, Marylyn; Ostertag, Helmut; Wiechens, Burkhard; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Taenia martis, a tapeworm harbored in the intestine of mustelids, is a rarely encountered zoonotic cysticercosis pathogen. The larval stage closely resembles the Taenia solium cysticercus, but the natural host and thus the epidemiology of the disease is different. We here report a human eye infection diagnosed molecularly in a previously healthy female German patient. The case represents the third human infection described worldwide; the two previous cases were also European, involving eye and brain. PMID:26928837

  5. Orbital Cysticercosis - masquerading as preseptal cellulitis with ptosis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Topiwala, Pratik; Gupta, Panchmi; Sood, Sunandan

    2015-07-01

    We are sharing a case of orbital cysticercosis,which presented to us initially with simple ptosis and later on with upper lid inflammation and restricted ocular motility in upgaze. Human cysticercosis, a parasitic infection caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of the cestode, Taenia solium, is a benign infection of the subcutaneous tissues, inter-muscular fascia, muscles and other organs. Though it exists worldwide, it is more prevalent in the developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, especially in areas where under-cooked pork is consumed regularly (Pushker et al, 2001). However, 5 year study of 33 cases of Ocular/Adnexal cysticercosis showed seventy percent of patients were of low socioeconomic group and 70% were strictly vegetarians (Atul et al, 1995). The clinical manifestation of orbital cysticercosis is entirely different from neuro-cysticercosis or cysticercosis of other parts of body. Diagnosis of cysticercosis is mainly based on highly specific radiological signs and history of exposure in endemic areas. PMID:27363971

  6. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  7. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-02-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  8. Spinal cord cysticercosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bouree, Patrice; Dumazedier, Deborah; Bisaro, Francine; Resende, Paula; Comoy, Jean; Aghakhani, Nozar

    2006-12-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the infection with the larva of Taenia solium, common through out the world, is located in the muscles, the eyes and the central nervous system, but mostly in the brain. Spinal cord infection is rare. The authors report a case of a young girl, living in Paris who had traveled in Latin America, and complained of back pains and troublesome walking. MRI showed a cyst in spinal cord, but other examinations were normal. Diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. It was a pure intramedullary cysticercosis, the check-up to find other locations was negative. Only approximately 130 cases are reported in the literature, with motor and sensory disorders. The diagnosis was based on MRI and pathological examination. Antiparasitic medical treatment was useful when combined with surgery. PMID:17153691

  9. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  10. [The current epidemiological situation of cysticercosis in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Andriantsimahavandy, A; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Rajaonarison, P; Ravoniarimbinina, P; Rakotondrazaka, M; Raharilaza, N; Rakotoarivelo, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Rabarijaona, L P; Ramarokoto, C E; Leutscher, P; Migliani, R

    2003-01-01

    Being associated to fecal-oral transmission, cysticercosis is contracted either by auto-infection or by ingestion of food contaminated with eggs from the pork tape worm (Taenia solium). In the stomach, the larvae named cysticercus (Cysticercus cellulosae) hatches from the eggs and invades the host through the mucosa membrane. Human cysticercosis occurs in highly prevalent proportions in many developing countries including Madagascar where hygiene conditions are deplicable. Serology tests applicable to epidemiological surveillance of cysticercosis and associated pathology in the Malagasy population have been developed: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening purpose, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) for confirmative testing. Two specific bands (13 and 14 kDa) have been identified as significant markers of the cysticercus in an active (vesicle) stage of the infection when cestocidal treatment is strongly indicated. The same bands may on the other hand be absent at early (cyste) as well as late (calcified) stages of the infection. Series of studies, including 4,375 serum samples, have been undertaken from 1994 until 1999 aiming at determinating the cysticercosis sero-prevalence in different provinces of Madagascar. It was confirmed that cysticercosis is highly frequent on the island, and that there exists a marked variation in the prevalence from 7 to 21% between the different provinces: less than 10% in coastal regions (Mahajanga and Toamasina) increasing to 20% in central regions (Ihosy, Ambositra and Mahasolo). It has also been observed that cysticercosis may occur in individuals at any age, and that it is equally distributed in urban as in rural areas. However, it is more frequently detected in women than in men. Madagascar is an endemic country for cysticercosis, which causes major and severe disease with implications in the public health sector. A national control program is, therefore, urgently warranted. PMID

  11. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  12. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  13. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale.

    PubMed

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  14. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  15. Cysticercosis of temporalis muscle: an unusual cause of temporal headaches. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Prahlad K; Sethi, Nitin K; Torgovnick, Josh; Arsura, Edward

    2007-10-01

    Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection caused by encysted larvae of the helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Less common presentations in the CNS include the racemose variety with macroscopic groups of cysticerci in the subarachnoid space giving the appearance of a cluster of grapes and basal or ventricular cysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Involvement of other organs: skeletal muscle, eyes, myocardium and the lungs has also been reported. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present a case of a 43-year-old woman who complained of subacute onset of left temporal pain and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed characteristic imaging findings suggestive of cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle. PMID:17955174

  16. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  17. Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  18. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  19. Genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and other geographical locations as revealed by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

    2013-02-01

    Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439

  20. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M.W.; Assana, E.; Jayashi, C.M.; Gauci, C.G.; Donadeu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  1. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Assana, E; Jayashi, C M; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M

    2015-11-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  2. Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus Due to Cysticercosis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Girson, Mark; Twickler, Diane M.; Wendel, George D.

    1994-01-01

    Background: Cysticercosis, due to the parasite Taenia solium, can involve any organ. When central nervous system infection occurs, signs and symptoms depend on the location of the cerebral lesions. Most patients develop seizures, focal symptoms, or headaches with nausea and vomiting. Case: A case of extraparenchymal (intraventricular) cysticercosis was diagnosed in a patient at term who presented with acute alteration in mental status. Ventriculostomy was performed because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Labor ensued and was augmented with oxytocin. Intrapartum management included magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis and corticosteroids. Intracranial pressures ranged between 4 and 12 cm H2O peripartum with approximately 300 mL of cerebrospinal fluid drained over the first 24 hours. Postpartum management included craniotomy with resection of a larval cyst and oral praziquantel therapy. Conclusion: This case describes an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis that should be considered in gravidas with acute mental status changes. PMID:18475345

  3. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. PMID:27044566

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between September and November, 2007, a total of 661 pigs were tested serologically and examined by tongue inspection. Serum samples were tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). In addition, a questionnaire survey to collect information on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in the selected households from which pigs were sampled. Two hundred thirty-one samples (34.9%) were found positive by the Ag-ELISA, while by tongue inspection on the same animals cysticerci were detected in 84 pigs (12.7%). Increasing age (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.13–2.37) and free-range pig husbandry system (OR = 3.81; 95% CI = 2.08–7.06) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in the district. The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in the region, and that increasing pig age and pig husbandry practices contribute significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission. Further epidemiological studies on the prevalence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis in rural communities in Mozambique are needed to enable collection of more baseline data and implementation of effective control strategies within the country. PMID:20126403

  5. Spatial Clustering of Porcine Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, Helena A.; Kassuku, Ayub A.; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E. D.; Mlozi, Malongo R. S.; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.; Willingham, Arve L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2–12 (median 8) months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each) and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2–9 (median 4) months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784). The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km. The

  6. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assana, E.; Amadou, F.; Thys, E.; Lightowlers, M.W.; Zoli, A.P.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  7. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  8. Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  9. Cysticercosis of Externsor Carpi Ulnaris – A differential diagnosis for painful swelling at elbow

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sharat; Akhtar, Mohammad Nasim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae) of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm). It occurs especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larva become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, vitreous humor, or other tissues. Case report: We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle, which presented as localized swelling at the lateral aspect of elbow. The diagnosis was confirmed on the musculoskeletal ultrasonographic examination of the elbow. It revealed the Cysticercus cellulosae as hyperechoic lesion surrounded by fluid. MRI was done later which localized the larval stage in the Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle at elbow. Conclusion: For swelling in the region of elbow in endemic areas of tapeworm infestations, the differential diagnosis of muscle cysticercosis should be kept in mind.

  10. Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  11. Human cysticercosis and intestinal parasitism amongst the Ekari people of Irian Jaya.

    PubMed

    Muller, R; Lillywhite, J; Bending, J J; Catford, J C

    1987-12-01

    A random sample of 242 people showed that 42 had palpable cysts of Taenia solium. Faecal examination recovered eggs of T. solium in seven (3%), while Trichuris (83%), Ascaris (83%), hookworms (76%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) and Strongyloides sp. (29%), Entamoeba histolytica (14%), Entamoeba coli (22%), Entamoeba hartmanni (7%), Entamoeba polecki (7%), Balantidium coli (9%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (21%) were the most common other intestinal parasites encountered. ELISA tests, using antigens prepared from adults and eggs of T. solium and from cysticerci of T. saginata were not very sensitive, the last diagnosing less than half of known positives while still retaining good specificity. PMID:3430662

  12. Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

  13. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of human Taenia tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which employs a Bst DNA polymerase with strand-displacement activity and four primers (two inner primers and two outer primers) recognizing six distinct regions on the target DNA, is a highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid nucleotide amplification method. Moreover, because the Bst DNA polymerase resists much DNA polymerase inhibitors present in biological specimens, the LAMP method is suitable for the detection of infectious agents from clinical material such as fecal samples. Here, we describe the LAMP method which can differentially detect and identify human Taenia tapeworms, Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, using DNA specimens prepared from parasite tissue and human fecal sample. PMID:24026690

  14. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Tin Aye; Bawm, Saw; Wai, Soe Soe; Htut, Ye; Htun, Lat Lat

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.7-5.4), increased age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.2), husbandry system (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.4-11.2), feed type (OR = 16.9; 95% CI = 2.3-124.3), not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR = 11.9; 95% CI = 5.0-28.5), not using anthelmintics in owner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4-4.4), no hand-washing before feeding (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 4.3-230.9), and pork consumption of owner (OR = 37.4; 95% CI = 9.0-156.1) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. PMID:26464951

  15. Serological survey of human cysticercosis in Irianese refugee camps in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, M; Gottstein, B; Wigglesworth, M C; Eckert, J

    1990-02-01

    In 1984, over 10,000 refugees left the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya, and thus possibly imported Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis into Papua New Guinea, which was believed to be free of T. solium until 1966. In a serological survey carried out in 1986, 50 refugees originating from areas endemic for T. solium and 171 patients from other areas with symptoms suggesting the possibility of cysticercosis were examined. As a sensitive prescreening technique an ELISA was used with a crude antigen extract obtained from T. solium metacestodes of pig origin. Of 221 persons investigated, 79 (36%) were positive in ELISA. For excluding frequently occurring cross-reactions in ELISA, Western-blotting (or EITB, enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot) was employed. In this test the demonstration of antibody activity to the 26 or the 8 kilodalton band has been proved to be species-specific for T. solium cysticercosis. One from 79 patients positive in ELISA was simultaneously positive (26 and 8 kDa) in Western blot, corresponding to the first case found in Papua New Guinea with a highly probable T. solium cysticercosis. This patient, originating from an endemic area in Irian Jaya, had immigrated into Papua New Guinea in 1980. The present work emphasizes the need for using highly specific immunodiagnostic techniques in seroepidemiology of larval cestode infections. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis remains a risk for Papua New Guinea, and refugees originating from endemic areas should be regarded as potential carriers of T. solium. PMID:1969703

  16. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  17. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

    PubMed

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium. PMID:25597721

  18. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  19. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Gilman, Robert H; Farfán, Marilú J; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-12-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 kDa protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 kDa, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). PMID:17850901

  20. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Farfán, Marilú J.; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 KD protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 KD, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.09). PMID:17850901

  1. Feedstuff and poor latrines may put pigs at risk of cysticercosis--A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-11-30

    Attempts to control Taenia solium in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a 'missing link' in our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the parasite and possibly the magnitude of environmental contamination. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis using a case-control study design, utilising known information on persistent or multiple infections of porcine cysticercosis. The study, a combination of questionnaire interviews and observational surveys, was conducted in July 2014 in the two districts Mbeya and Mbozi, Tanzania. Study households were identified based on their status regarding porcine cysticercosis prevalence and allocated into cases or controls based on previous porcine cysticercosis presence. This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group, from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33-43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine. Feeding potato peels to pigs was also associated with increased risk of infection (p=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including the pig management system indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on a dirt floor (p=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1.29-114.55) were more likely to be infected compared to a cemented floor. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs before they reach the household or whether the contamination is from water or dirty hands during the process of peeling, remains to be confirmed. This study suggests that detailed assessment of a number of areas of pig management is essential for designing effective control programmes. PMID:26304509

  2. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  3. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where

  4. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates.

    PubMed

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Gori, Francesca; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn), originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring) when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18%) of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia) taeniaeformis in five cases). Similarly, in 13 (28%) of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases). Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections. PMID:27556010

  5. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Khaing, Tin Aye; Bawm, Saw; Wai, Soe Soe; Htut, Ye; Htun, Lat Lat

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.7–5.4), increased age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2–4.2), husbandry system (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.4–11.2), feed type (OR = 16.9; 95% CI = 2.3–124.3), not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR = 11.9; 95% CI = 5.0–28.5), not using anthelmintics in owner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4–4.4), no hand-washing before feeding (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 4.3–230.9), and pork consumption of owner (OR = 37.4; 95% CI = 9.0–156.1) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. PMID:26464951

  6. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

  7. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

  8. Cysticercosis with an Orbital Tropism in Twins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bradford W; Kumar, Usha R; Lin, Jonathan H; Amaro, Deirdre E; Kikkawa, Don O; Alameddine, Ramzi M; Lowe, Maureen C; Hilger, Peter A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-10-01

    Two fraternal twin sisters developed cysticercosis localizing to the right lateral orbit over the same period after a presumed common-source exposure in China. This case demonstrates that cysticercosis can be related to travel. Similar temporal and spatial occurrences of these infections suggest a genetic tropism of the infecting organism in these twins. PMID:26217041

  9. Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

  10. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  11. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended. PMID:26244682

  12. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods. PMID:26538513

  13. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the

  14. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  15. Validity of the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) for naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-17

    The Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) has been used widely as a screening test for Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine. However, the relation between seropositivity and infection in pig populations from endemic areas has not been well defined. The aim of this study is to relate EITB seropositivity with infection and infection burden, analyse the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity with various cut-off points for the EITB assay, and finally describe the serology changes in a cohort of rural pigs raised under natural conditions. A group of 107 pigs that were used as controls during a vaccination field trial in Peru was our study population. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis determined by necropsy examination was 16.82% (18/107) in these animals. Using EITB reactivity to ≥ 1 band as a cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 88.89% (65.29-98.62, 95% CI) and the specificity was 48.31% (37.59-59.16, 95% CI). Comparing other cut-off points, involving up to as many as 7 reactive bands, a reactivity of ≥ 3 bands provided the best trade-offs in sensitivity and specificity. Using this cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 77.77% (52.36-93.59, 95% CI) and the specificity was 76.40% (66.22-84.76, 95% CI). A significant association was found between cyst counts over 100 cysts and reactivity to ≥ 3 bands in the EITB assay (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that the use of the EITB assay to study porcine cysticercosis may require setting different cut-offs under field and experimental conditions, and depending upon the objective of the screening process. PMID:24183647

  16. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  17. IFN-gamma role in granuloma formation in experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Aline A; Moura, Vânia B L; Irusta, Vicente R C; Vinaud, Marina C; Oliveira, Milton A P; Lino-Júnior, Ruy S

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia parasites in tissues and elicits a host-parasite reaction in which the immune response may be decisive in the disease development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IFNγ (IFN-gamma) in the experimental model of subcutaneous infection with Taenia crassiceps (T. crassiceps) cysticerci using IFNγ knockout mice. Male C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 KO IFNγ mice 8-12 weeks of age were inoculated with T. crassiceps cysticerci into the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum. At 7 and 30 (acute phase), 60 and 90 (chronic phase) days post infection, animals from each group had their blood and the subcutaneous tissues collected for serologic and pathological studies. IFNγ and IL-4 were dosed and the histopathological analysis was performed. In the presence of IFNγ there was the establishment of a mixed Th1/Th2 systemic immune profile. This profile also locally induced the granuloma formation which was constituted by cells that played important roles in the parasitary destruction and that were likely associated to the Th1 axis of mixed immune response. On the other hand, the absence of IFNγ appears to favor the parasitary growth which may be related to the development of a systemic Th2 immune response. This profile influenced the granuloma formation with immunoregulatory properties and appears to be important in the collagen synthesis. PMID:27334396

  18. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P  =  0.02) and those with ≤US$300 monthly income (P  =  0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil. PMID:23683335

  19. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values <0.2, n=13). Necropsies performed on 11 strongly and moderately positive pigs revealed that six strongly positive pigs were infected either solely with T. solium cysticerci (n=3), or co-infected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena (n=3). Four moderately positive pigs were infected solely with T. hydatigena. No cysticerci were found in one pig that was moderately positive by the naked-eye ELISA. Two experimentally infected pigs became antibody positive by 6 weeks post-infection, whereas eight control pigs remained negative. An additional 60 pigs slaughtered at authorized abattoirs on Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected

  20. Research needs in taeniasis—cysticercosis (Memorandum)*

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the epidemiology of taeniasis—cysticercosis, particularly the survival of taeniid eggs in nature, and goes on to consider diagnostic procedures (parasitological and serological), resistance to infection, pathogenesis and clinical pathology, chemotherapy, and the economic and social consequences of infection. Topics requiring further research are listed, and recommendations are made concerning the approach to the problem. PMID:1085668

  1. Intramedullary Spinal Cysticercosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moinay; Khang, Shin-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spinal intramedullary cysticercosis in thoracic spine. A 47-year old man living in Korea referred to our hospital with both feet tingling sensation for about a year. Laboratory evaluations, including serologic tests were not helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.7 cm intramedullary mass at T10-11 level, which believed to be a tumor instead, rather than a cysticercosis preoperatively. Successful operation was done with a histopathological result confirmed it as cysticercosis. Even though the prevalence of intramedullary spinal cysticercosis is extremely rare, and radiologic exams mimic other common tumors like ependymoma or astrocytoma, the disease should be considered as differential diagnosis. PMID:25110489

  2. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. PMID:25837784

  3. Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy. PMID:25968992

  4. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  5. Bio-guided identification of proteins for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in swine.

    PubMed

    Nativel, Priscilla; Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Ramiandrisoa, Sitraka; Rasoamampianinaa, Virginie; Duchateau, Magalie; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Guebey, Remy; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina; Jambou, Ronan

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most prevalent parasitic infection of the brain and the most common cause of seizures in adults in tropical countries. Cysticercosis is caused by larvae of Taenia solium, a human tapeworm. Pig or humans are infected by ingestion of eggs in food contaminated by human feces. Diagnosis and treatment of pigs is a pillar of the control of the disease in a country. However current diagnostic tests are based on ELISA and/or Western blot using native antigens needing laboratory facilities not available in rural areas. Development of a pen side diagnostic test for swines, makes sense. Immunochromatographic test should be adapted for this purpose. To design it we started a bio-guided identification of new proteins in cysticercus fluid. Proteins were analyzed using ion exchange chromatography and 2D separation and were selected by Western blot analysis using sera from infected/non infected pigs. Spots from the Coomassie-stained gel corresponding to these proteins were then analyzed by mass spectroscopy and proteins were identified using a bank of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of T. solium. Eighteen new proteins of interest were identified and nine were selected for further development. PMID:26995717

  6. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  7. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  8. Endogenous prostaglandin in guinea pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Hitzig, B; Coburn, R F

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PGE) is synthesized in the guinea pig taenia coli. A low threshold concentration for an effect of exogenous PGE1 or PGE2 on spontaneous mechanical activity was demonstrated. The PG synthetase inhibitors aspirin, indomethacin, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, at concentrations that inhibited PGE efflux, had effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, membrane potential, membrane resistance, and evoked and spontaneous action potentials (single and double sucrose-gap methods) that were consistent with an action due to inhibition of membrane PGE concentration. The threshold concentration of indomethacin, which inhibited PGE efflux, was the same as the concentration that inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity. Pretreatment with ouabain (10(-6)-10(-5) g/ml) or elevated extracellular K+ (29 and 126 mM) made the guinea pig taenia coli entirely refractory to exogenous PGE1 or PGE2; the mechanical effects of the three prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors also were absent in the presence of elevated K+ or ouabain. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that, under conditions of our experiments, endogenous PGE has an effect on resting tension and spontaneous mechanical activity and on properties of the surface membrane of the guinea pig taenia coli. PMID:1251900

  9. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention. PMID:26992295

  10. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  11. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another. PMID:24745917

  12. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  13. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  14. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  15. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  16. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  17. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  18. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMenamin, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  19. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  20. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  1. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene. PMID:27008188

  2. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

  3. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons. PMID:15759155

  4. Diagnostic Disparity in Solitary Cysticercosis of the Forearm in a Child.

    PubMed

    Naidu, R; Sankar, A; Shaila, M S; Shivananda, I; Desai, R

    2015-01-01

    Solitary cysticercosis of muscle is a rare disease causing diagnostic dilemma. Cysticercosis commonly affects the central nervous system and other tissues by dissemination imposing a serious health problem. We report this rare presentation of solitary cysticercosis of flexor digitorum superficialis in a five year old otherwise healthy child. The fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological diagnosis were inconclusive but ultrasonography of the muscle clinched the diagnosis. PMID:26744203

  5. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  6. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  7. [Disseminated cysticercosis: report of three cases in Togo].

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, A; N'Timon, B; Kumako, V; Darre, T; Saka, B; Tchaou, M; Amegbor, K; Kombate, K; Balogou, A A; Pitche, P

    2015-08-01

    We report 3 cases of disseminated cysticercosis (DC) in adult male subjects in Togo. All had consulted in dermatology for asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology of a resected nodule. Computed tomography allowed us to bring out the widespread dissemination of cysticerci. The skin, brain, muscle, eye, thyroid, and pleura were the affected organs. Treatment was based on albendazole and betamethasone, with adverse side effects in 2 of our 3 patients. Our 3 observations seem to be the first of their kind in Togo. The mechanism of contamination in these disseminated forms is not yet elucidated, however ingesting a gravid proglottis could be the basis of the widespread dissemination of cysticerci in the body. No consensus has yet been established in the treatment of DC and the management should follow the guideline for treatment of neurocysticercosis and ocular cysticercosis. PMID:25893814

  8. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  9. Coadministration of protoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis with metacestode extract confers protective immunity to murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Moreno, S; García-Hernández, A L; Moreno-Fierros, L

    2014-06-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) is a promising mucosal immunogen and adjuvant that induces protective immunity against Naegleria fowleri and malaria infection models. We determined whether pCry1Ac acted as a protective adjuvant against infection with Taenia crassiceps. BALB/C mice were thrice i.p. immunized with (i) pCry1Ac, (ii) metacestode extract, (iii) extract + pCry1Ac or (iv) vehicle, challenged with metacestodes on day 26 and then sacrificed 35 days later. Cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity were counted, while the serum antibody response and cytokines were analysed after immunization and during infection. Only immunization with pCry1Ac plus extract conferred a significant protection (up to 47%). This group presented fluctuating antibody peaks during infection and the highest IgG1 and IgM titres. Immunization with extract alone elicited high IgG1 and the highest IgG2a responses after 25 days of infection, while nonimmunized mice presented a poor, mixed-Th1/Th2 response during infection. Sharp peaks of TNFα and IFN-γ occurred immediately after the first immunization with extract, especially in the presence of pCry1Ac, but not after the challenge, while in the control and pCry1Ac-alone groups, cytokines were only detected after the challenge. The data support the protective-adjuvant effect of co-administration of pCry1Ac in cysticercosis. PMID:24484070

  10. [Major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestode and their molecular biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yue, Long; Fu, Bao-quan

    2014-12-01

    Taeniidae cestodes are the pathogens of cysticercosis and hydatid disease, these diseases lead to substantial economic losses in animal husbandry and cause morbidity and mortality in human population. In recent years, many host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes has been found, and their recombinant protein vaccines have been developed against several species, such as Taenia ovis, T. saginata, T. solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and E. multilocularis. This paper focuses on the major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes and their molecular biological characteristics. PMID:25902683

  11. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  12. Phage-Displayed T-Cell Epitope Grafted into Immunoglobulin Heavy-Chain Complementarity-Determining Regions: an Effective Vaccine Design Tested in Murine Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Manoutcharian, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Petrossian, Pavel; Rodriguez, Miriam; Govezensky, Tzipe

    1999-01-01

    A new type of immunogenic molecule was engineered by replacing all three complementarity-determining-region (CDR) loops of the human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable (VH) domain with the Taenia crassiceps epitope PT1 (PPPVDYLYQT) and by displaying this construct on the surfaces of M13 bacteriophage. When BALB/c mice were immunized with such phage particles (PIgphage), a strong protection against challenge infection in very susceptible female hosts was obtained. When specifically stimulated, the in vivo-primed CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from mice immunized with PT1, both as a free peptide and as the PIgphage construct, proliferated in vitro, indicating efficient epitope presentation by both major histocompatibility complex class II and class I molecules in the specifically antigen-pulsed macrophages used as antigen-presenting cells. These data demonstrate the immunogenic potential of recombinant phage particles displaying CDR epitope-grafted Ig VH domains and establish an alternative approach to the design of an effective subunit vaccine for prevention of cysticercosis. The key advantage of this type of immunogen is that no adjuvant is required for its application. The proposed strategy for immunogen construction is potentially suitable for use in any host-pathogen interaction. PMID:10456929

  13. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  14. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  15. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China. PMID:27276429

  16. A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Bargavee; Aggarwal, Neeti; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, Ramgopal

    2016-04-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications. Knowledge of radiological findings is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of this pleomorphic disease. PMID:26903229

  17. The risk factors for human cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwang'onde, Beda J; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chacha, Mwita

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the persistence of human cysticercosis (HCC) transmission in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. The study was carried out in 25 villages, whereby five major risks were identified. The risks were indiscriminate defaecation and improper use of toilets; a free-range system of keeping pigs; indiscriminate or unregulated slaughtering and inadequate meat hygiene and inspection; consumption of undercooked and porcine cysticerci infected pork; and social structure and roles. All of the identified risks were backed up by the immanent lifestyles of the community involved. These findings are important for the development of intervention strategies in the study area. PMID:25005750

  18. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic.

  19. Two Taenia species found in Japan, with new distribution record of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    PubMed

    Ihama, Y; Sato, H; Makino, Y; Kamiya, H

    2000-02-01

    In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from the central part of Japan. Although we have found neither larval nor strobilar stage of E. multilocularis there, discovery of these taeniid species, having overlapping global distribution with E. multilocularis in red foxes Vulpes vulpes as well as multiple occurrences of hydatid patients having no history of visits to the endemic areas shows the possibility that the life-cycle of E. multilocularis might be maintained at least in the northernmost part of Honshu. PMID:10725694

  20. Selective indications for the use of praziquantel in the treatment of brain cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, D; Cruz-Segura, H; Mateos-Gomez, H; Zenteno Alanis, G

    1987-01-01

    The selective use of praziquantel for the treatment of brain cysticercosis in human beings is described, based upon the results of clinical tests conducted during a 2 year period. Forty patients with clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis, confirmed and documented by CT, were treated. They are divided into four groups, representative of the various forms of the disease. The results assessed by clinical evaluation and sequential CT, give a ten point criterion of the indications for praziquantel. Images PMID:3495636

  1. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system: clinical and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Torrealba, G; Del Villar, S; Tagle, P; Arriagada, P; Kase, C S

    1984-01-01

    In a group of forty cases of cysticercosis of the central nervous system, 59% presented with intracranial hypertension due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Ventricular or cisternal cysts, and chronic cysticercus meningitis were the most common causes of hydrocephalus. Seizures occurred in 40% of the patients, in one-half of them in association with CT-detected parenchymatous cysts. In 20% of the cases progressive mental deterioration was the main clinical feature, at times associated with hydrocephalus. CT scan provided the highest diagnostic yield, being abnormal in 90% of cases. Long term prognosis was poor, with a mortality rate of 38% over a 40-month follow-up period. The most common cause of death (60%) was meningitis. CSF shunting is the treatment of choice for hydrocephalus, irrespective of its mechanism. Surgical resection is indicated in some cases with a single superficial (cortical) or posterior fossa cyst. Supratentorial cysts carry a relatively benign prognosis. Images PMID:6470720

  2. A prognostic classification of cerebral cysticercosis: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, B; Corona, T; Abad, P

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation with a highly variable prognosis and diverse clinical manifestations. Over the period of two years 51 patients were studied prospectively with this infestation, paying particular attention to the duration and severity of the illness, clinical course, CT findings and therapeutic modalities. Patients with parenchymal cysts or calcification without hydrocephalus had a benign disorder presenting commonly with seizures. This type of infestation usually is long-standing, almost never requires surgical treatment, responds to praziquantel therapy and has a good prognosis. In contrast, patients who present with hydrocephalus, large supratentorial cysts, multiple granulomata with cerebral oedema or with vasculitis and cerebral infarction, have an aggressive, acute or subacute illness, presenting with raised intracranial pressure, gait disturbances, mental changes, seizures, cranial nerve palsies, hemisphere syndromes, chronic meningitis and stroke. This malignant form usually requires surgical therapy, does not respond to praziquantel and may produce a fatal outcome or serious sequelae. PMID:3783174

  3. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2013-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (κ<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which

  4. The purinoceptors of the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Piper, A S; Hollingsworth, M

    1995-07-01

    The guinea-pig taenia caeci contains both P1 and P2 purinoceptors mediating relaxation. The P2 purinoceptors have been further characterized using an experimental approach designed to minimise complicating factors. In the presence of the adenosine uptake inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI, 300 nM) and a pA100 concentration of the P1 purinoceptor antagonist 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (140 microM), the potency order of agonists was: 2-methylthio-ATP > adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) = alpha, beta-methylene ATP > beta, gamma-methylene ATP > uridine 5'-triphosphate. Suramin antagonized ATP (pA2 = 5.52 +/- 0.17, Schild plot slope = 0.67 +/- 0.08) and 2-methylthio-ATP (pA2 = 5.78 +/- 0.30, Schild plot slope = 1.37 +/- 0.39) while responses to 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) were unaffected. The findings suggest that suramin, while it is selective for P2 relative to P1 purinoceptors, is not a true competitive antagonist. Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) antagonized ATP in isolated guinea-pig vas deferens, but had no effect on responses to ATP in guinea-pig taenia caeci indicating it is selective for P2X relative to P2Y purinoceptors. PMID:7589176

  5. Cysticercosis of the oral cavity: report of five cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saran, R K; Rattan, V; Rajwanshi, A; Nijkawan, R; Gupta, S K

    1998-12-01

    This paper reports on five cases of cysticercosis of tongue and buccal mucosa, diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), affecting child patients who presented between January 1994 and October 1997. Four cases presented with gradually increasing nodular swelling of the dorsum of tongue and in the fifth case the swelling was situated on the buccal mucosa of the left side. A clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis was not entertained in any of these patients, who each presented with a solitary lesion; instead, it was considered to be a benign cyst or benign tumour of salivary gland or mesenchymal tissue, before FNAC diagnosis. These lesions of the oral cavity may present first to a dentist and, in endemic areas, cysticercosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary nodular lesions of the oral cavity, particularly in young individuals. PMID:9927929

  6. Anticysticercous antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Corona, T; Pascoe, D; González-Barranco, D; Abad, P; Landa, L; Estañol, B

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-one cases of cerebral cysticercosis proved by surgery or CT scanning were studied prospectively with the ELISA test in order to detect anticysticercous antibodies in blood and CSF. The ELISA test was also performed for detection of antibodies in 20 control patients who had CSF withdrawn during a myelogram and in 119 serum samples of asymptomatic subjects. We found an overall sensitivity of the ELISA test in the blood of 87% with a specificity of 90%. In the CSF we found a sensitivity of 87% with a specificity of 100%. However, when we compared patients with cerebral cysticercosis of a benign type with patients with cerebral cysticercosis of a malignant type we found a serum sensitivity of 75% for the benign group as compared to 93% of the malignant group. The CSF sensitivity was 80% in the benign group and 93% in the malignant group. This difference was statistically significant. PMID:3760893

  7. Recent Situation of Taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  8. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

  9. Recent situation of taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  10. A live cysticercosis in anterior chamber leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Abhishek; Singh, Mahendra Kumar; Singh, Virendra Pratap; Rai, Amit Kumar; Chakraborty, Somnath; Maurya, Om Prakash Singh

    2007-03-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with pain and redness in her left eye. On examination, a free-floating cyst of size 4 mm with prominent scolex was observed in the anterior chamber. Scolex was occasionally moving in and out of its bag. To prevent the cyst migrating to the posterior chamber, pilocarpine eye drops were instilled. After 2 hours, the patient developed total pupilary block with iris bombe. The intraocular tension was 48 mm Hg. The diagnosis of cysticercosis leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block was made. The cyst was removed surgically by viscoexpression. The histopathology proved to be a cysticercosis. PMID:17473746

  11. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis, malaria, and Trypanosoma cruzi among North Carolina migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, S; Seed, J R; Estrada, J; Wrenn, E

    1993-01-01

    A seroprevalence study of cysticercosis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and plasmodia species and screening for active malaria was conducted among a randomly selected group of 138 Hispanic and Haitian migrant farmworkers. A random sample of labor camps in eastern North Carolina was selected. Blood samples were tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody techniques for plasmodial antibody and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticerci and T. cruzi antibodies. Questionnaires collected demographic data and medical history of the workers and family. Blood films stained with Leukostat stain were examined for plasmodia species. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis was 10 percent, T. cruzi 2 percent, and plasmodia species 4.4 percent. One case of active malaria (Plasmodium vivax) was demonstrated. The clinical significance of seropositivity was not determined, but these results suggest that a small but significant number of farmworkers are infected with cysticercosis, T. cruzi, and malaria. Migrant health clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of these infections. Greater observance and enforcement of sanitation regulations in farmwork is needed to prevent transmission of cysticercosis. PMID:8265758

  12. Human cysticercosis: antigens, antibodies and non-responders.

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C

    1980-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 6 PMID:7389197

  13. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  14. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  15. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  16. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. PMID:26688203

  17. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  18. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  19. Novel Rat Model for Neurocysticercosis Using Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela R.; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  20. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary

  1. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R.; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. Methodology/Principal Findings T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development–days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15–30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite’s immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations. PMID:26863440

  2. Immunological response of the rat to infection with Taenia taeniaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, A. J.; Williams, J. F.; Leid, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical inhibitors of immediate hypersensitivity were used to treat rats passively immunized against Taenia taeniaeformis with serum containing 7Sγ2a and reaginic antibodies. There was no significant reduction in protection against oral challenge with eggs in these animals, indicating that reagin-mediated hypersensitivity reactions were not an essential component of the protective mechanism. However, systemic reagin sensitization was shown to result in an acceleration of the rate at which challenge organisms were destroyed in immune rats. By 12 h after infection most of the parasites had been killed in the livers of rats which had been both passively immunized and reagin-sensitized, whereas a large proportion survived in rats passively immunized, but not reagin-sensitized. This effect of reagin appeared to be limited to the early stages of resistance since parallel groups left for 21 days after challenge were shown to have been equally well protected. In an effort to determine if vasoactive amines liberated by reagin-mediated reactions could act directly on invading parasites, early larval stages of T. taeniaeformis were exposed to histamine or serotonin (5HT) in vitro or in vivo. Consistent results were not obtained, but significant inhibition (P<0.05) of viability of parasites exposed to histamine occurred on two occasions. Significant (P<0.01) inhibition of infectivity of T. taeniaeformis also resulted when peritoneal anaphylactic diffusate was introduced into isolated gut loops containing hatched embryos of the parasite. The results are discussed in terms of the possible means whereby reagins may participate in protective immunity to infectious organisms. PMID:640720

  3. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  4. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  5. The marketing of cysticercotic pigs in the Sierra of Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986

  6. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  7. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  8. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Pauline

    1972-01-01

    A case is described in which the clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) occurred in a patient with cysticercosis of the central nervous system and associated pachymeningitis of the cervical spinal cord. This is an extremely rare finding. The patient also presented the two symptom complexes more commonly encountered in this condition: focal and generalized epilepsy, and signs of obstructive hydrocephalus. The literature relevant to this case, and to cysticercosis in Great Britain, is briefly reviewed. The case described adds to the concept of motor neurone disease as a syndrome rather than a disease entity of undetermined aetiology. Images PMID:5026014

  9. Isolation and identification of lignans from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Yang, Ya-Nan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Guo, Xue-Feng

    2013-05-15

    Caulis Bambusae in Taenia is a medicinal preparation from Bambusa tuldoides Munro consisting of skinless slices of the stem (bamboo shavings) and used as a traditional health food in tea, wine, and soup in Asia. Three novel lignans, (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), bambulignan A (10), and seven known lignan compounds (1-6 and 9) were isolated from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia. The structures of the lignans were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, HSQC, HMBC, NOE). All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FARP assays. The results showed that the compounds (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9) have strong free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:23578339

  10. [Taenia crassiceps in the anterior chamber of the human eye. A case report].

    PubMed

    Arocker-Mettinger, E; Huber-Spitzy, V; Auer, H; Grabner, G; Stur, M

    1992-07-01

    An otherwise healthy 15-year-old girl developed an iridocyclitis in her right eye. A contractable living parasite measuring two millimeter could be detected in the anterior chamber, the other parts of the eye remained uninvolved. The patient had close contact with the young dog of the family. By using a viscoelastic substance the parasite could be removed alive without any complications. The tapeworm was found to be too young for having developed the characteristic scolex. Western-immunoblotting gave indirect evidence for infection with Taenia crassiceps, a dog's tapeworm. During an observation period of two years no evidence for any other ocular or general Taenia crassiceps infestations could be found. PMID:1513125

  11. Sociocultural factors and local customs related to taeniasis in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1997-11-01

    Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia. According to our estimation, there is an annual loss of US$18,673,495, US$13,641,021, and US$2,425,500 due to taeniasis in the mountainous areas of Taiwan, Cheju Island of Korea, and Samosir Island of Indonesia, respectively. Although taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium have been reported, T. saginata asiatica is the dominate species in part of the world, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera of domestic or wild animals. Therefore, sociocultural factors and local customs are the determinants in the transmission of taeniasis. In this paper, local customs and sociocultural factors including local dishes, accidental infection during dish preparation, and treatment for anaemia of children in the countries of East Asia were reviewed. PMID:9425862

  12. Simulating strategies for control of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R. E.; Revfeim, K. J.; Heath, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A deterministic model to compare various control strategies for parasites having two hosts is presented. When applied to Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis, the model shows that maximum progress would be achieved when both the definitive and the intermediate host are treated simultaneously. This type of model may prove of value in studies on the control of other two-host parasites. PMID:7052222

  13. A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Asaava, Lucas L; Kitala, Phillip M; Gathura, Peter B; Nanyingi, Mark O; Muchemi, Gerald; Schelling, Esther

    2009-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic and public health importance. A survey of this disease was carried out in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection, to determine the prevalence of the adult tapeworm in the human definitive host, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use in assessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio-Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of the serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five adakaars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63, 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakuma were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20.9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (k = 0.025; p = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniosis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Adakaar), the deworming history of household members and the distance (>2 km) of grazing fields from the homestead were significant explanatory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.07 (0.02-0.12); p < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area. PMID:19329200

  14. [Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

    2012-04-30

    The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

  15. Postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae). First part.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H

    1988-01-01

    The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953

  16. A review on diagnostic and preventive aspects of cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sidhartha; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis have recently been included in the list of “neglected tropical diseases” by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both are zoonoses which are prevalent throughout the world and lead to considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic losses as well. This review deals with the disease burden of these two neglected cestode infections. Diagnostic modalities with their specific advantages and disadvantages have also been discussed. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic assays for the two diseases have been dealt with. Various control strategies including the use of veterinary vaccines have been highlighted. PMID:23767016

  17. Expression and motor functional roles of voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) channels in the human taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Adduci, Alice; Martire, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Arena, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Coco, Claudio; Currò, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels modulate the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators and the expression of KV7 channels in the human taenia coli. The effects of KV7 channel modulators on the muscle tone of human taenia coli strips were investigated under nonadrenergic non-nitrergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression and tissue localisation of channels were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Under basal conditions, the KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean EC50 and Emax of 18.7 μM and 30.5% respectively of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed the taenia coli, with mean EC50s of 19.2 μM and 29.9 μM, respectively. Retigabine also relaxed bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 79.2% of the bethanecol-induced precontraction. The motor effects induced by the KV7 channel modulators were not affected by tetrodotoxin or ω-conotoxin GVIA. XE-991 greatly reduced retigabine- and flupirtine-induced relaxations. Transcripts encoded by all KCNQ genes were detected in the taenia coli, with KCNQ4 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 channels were clearly visualised by immunohistochemistry in colonic epithelium, circular muscle layer and taenia coli. KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone of the human taenia coli. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the taenia coli. Thus, they could be useful therapeutic relaxant agents for colonic motor disorders. PMID:24120659

  18. Extracting a large live freely floating cysticercosis cyst from the anterior chamber of the eye using visco expression technique: A case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satya Prakash; Rana, Jagriti; Dukre, Jagdish; Singh, Premala Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Ocular involvement by cysticercosis is uncommon and rare in the anterior chamber. It can give rise to iridocyclitis which can be potentially blinding to the patient. The management is usually surgical. We report a case of 18-year-old girl with large cysticercosis cyst in the anterior chamber. The cyst was removed intact by viscoexpression technique from the anterior chamber of the eye and the patient achieved visual acuity of 6/9 post-operatively. PMID:26949361

  19. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases. PMID:25814395

  20. Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Diaz Camacho, S P; Candil Ruiz, A; Suate Peraza, V; Zazueta Ramos, M L; Felix Medina, M; Lozano, R; Willms, K

    1991-10-01

    This study reports the results of an epidemiologic survey for the detection of Taenia solium in a rural village of 559 inhabitants in Sinaloa, Mexico, as well as a large scale treatment of the population with praziquantel. The study was carried out in two stages. In stage 1, serial stool analysis of 392 persons detected a cluster of three T. solium tapeworms. A fourth T. solium tapeworm was detected through a household census, giving a 1.32% prevalence rate for this helminth. Over 70% of the population over five years of age was treated with a 10 mg/kg dose of praziquantel, and no additional tapeworms were found. Environmental studies for the detection of Taenia sp. eggs in soil, water, and and objects from the houses of tapeworm-infected individuals showed only one soil sample containing eggs compatible with Taenia sp. A total of 72 domestic pigs were examined for the presence of cysticerci under the tongue. One animal had cysts, and belonged to a household that had two T. solium tapeworm infections. Stage 2 of the study was carried out one year after large scale antihelminthic treatment (LSAT), and no infections with Taenia sp. eggs were found. No cysticercus-infected pigs were detected. Intestinal parasitosis decreased from 69.2% to 37.5%. It is concluded that LSAT with praziquantel is efficient in decreasing endemic foci of T. solium. Seropositivity to T. solium bladder fluid antigens was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found to be 11% before LSAT and 7% one year later. In family members living with T. solium tapeworm carriers, the number of seropositive individuals was 28%. The relative risk ratio of seropositivity for persons living in the same household with a T. solium tapeworm carrier was 2.95. Positive response was significantly higher in the 30-39-year-old age group, in which 30% were seropositive in stage 1, compared with 7% one year after LSAT. High seropositivity rates were significantly associated with tapeworm clusters as well as

  1. First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, Mr; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

    2011-12-01

    The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

  2. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis: standardization of ELISA and its application to field conditions.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J; Delgado, E

    1985-09-01

    A standardization procedure for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described. Results were expressed as antibody units (ABU) which represent a multiple of absorbance of the negative control. The method was applied to immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis by IgG antibody determination. Different incubation temperatures had no substantial effect on results. There was a fair correlation between results obtained under field conditions in Cajamarca/Peru and results obtained under optimal laboratory conditions in Hamburg/FRG. Activity of antigen that had been lyophilized and stored under vacuum at ambient temperature was similar to the activity of antigen that had been stored frozen. There was a considerable loss of activity when antigen had been adsorbed to microtitre plates which were then stored in evacuated plastic bags at room temperature. Reproducible results were obtained both under optimal laboratory conditions and in the field. PMID:4081547

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. PMID:26571070

  4. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant

  5. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

  6. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination. PMID:26892239

  7. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature. PMID:26264231

  8. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). Conclusions It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. Objectifs Examiner la prévalence des crises d’épilepsie, de l’épilepsie et de la séropositivité à la cysticercose chez les villageois des zones rurales (cadre

  9. Hypoxia-induced inhibition of calcium channels in guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rekalov, V; Juránek, I; Máleková, L; Bauer, V

    1997-11-15

    1. The effects of hypoxia on whole-cell current in single smooth muscle cells and on a high K(+)-induced contraction of strips of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied. 2. In physiological salt solution (PSS) and K(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg) reversibly inhibited both the inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and outward Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) components of the whole-cell current. 3. In PSS and Cs(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia reversibly suppressed ICa by 30 +/- 5% at 0 mV. 4. When Ba2+ was used as a charge carrier, the IBa was suppressed by hypoxia in a potential-dependent manner, with the maximum of 40 +/- 7% at +10 mV. Alterations of concentrations of EGTA, GDB beta S or ATP in the pipette solution did not change the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on ICa and IBa. 5. In PSS with 2 mM CaCl2 replaced by CoCl2, hypoxia did not affect the Ca2+ influx-independent potassium current. 6. In cells voltage clamped at -20 mV hypoxia reversibly inhibited the spontaneous transient outward currents. 7. The response of high K(+)-contracted taenia caeci to hypoxia was composed of an initial rapid relaxation followed by a small transient contraction and slow relaxation. The transient contraction was blocked by atropine (1-10 microM), while relaxations were unaffected by atropine and guanethidine (10 microM). 8. The results show that hypoxia reversibly inhibits ICa and secondarily suppresses IK(Ca) due to decreased Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. 9. It is suggested that inhibition of ICa was responsible for the rapid relaxation, whereas transient contraction may have been due to release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals upon hypoxia. PMID:9409475

  10. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078