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Sample records for taenia saginata cysticercosis

  1. An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle. PMID:23483261

  2. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  3. The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

    2014-04-01

    Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between farm type (p < 0.05) and prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas. PMID:24429809

  4. Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

    2010-04-19

    Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks. PMID:20083357

  5. An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

    2013-04-27

    Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031

  6. Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

    2010-10-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n = 10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n = 3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n = 3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n = 4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis. PMID:20618079

  7. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  8. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  9. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'. PMID:24112449

  10. Taenia solium cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  11. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date. PMID:27405121

  12. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.

    PubMed

    Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:23802239

  13. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  14. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.

    PubMed

    González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

  15. Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

  16. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, I; Rivera, J T; Garcia, H H

    2016-03-01

    Taenia solium infections (taeniasis/cysticercosis) are a major scourge to most developing countries. Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human nervous system by the cystic larvae of this parasite, has a protean array of clinical manifestations varying from entirely asymptomatic infections to aggressive, lethal courses. The diversity of clinical manifestations reflects a series of contributing factors which include the number, size and location of the invading parasites, and particularly the inflammatory response of the host. This manuscript reviews the different presentations of T. solium infections in the human host with a focus on the mechanisms or processes responsible for their clinical expression. PMID:26824681

  17. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  18. Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-02-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

  19. Taenia solium Cysticercosis--The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; García, Héctor H

    2015-12-15

    Human taeniasis as well as porcine and human cysticercosis--caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium--are ancient diseases. The fact that pigs were considered impure in the ancient Greece and that the Koran prohibited the consumption of pork, were likely related to the knowledge that cysticercosis may affect swine. Evidence suggests that human cysticercosis was also present in the ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Renaissance, the causative agent was properly identified and human cases were recognized. Confirmation that both taeniasis and cysticercosis were caused by the same parasite was provided during the 19th Century by German pathologists. During the 20th Century, bouts of human cysticercosis in non-endemic regions left us valuable lessons on the mechanisms of disease acquisition and spread. These included a large series of neurocysticercosis cases in the United Kingdom that occurred after the return of troops stationed in India (which demonstrated that symptoms may occur years after infection), the epidemic of cysticercosis-related epilepsy in the Ekari people of Papua New Guinea occurring after the gift of pigs with cysticercosis received from Indonesia (demonstrating the fast establishment of endemic transmission and the impact of cysticercosis in epilepsy frequency), and the occurrence of neurocysticercosis among members of an Orthodox Jewish community of New York City, related to Latin American Taenia carriers working in their houses (highlighting the fact that cysticercosis transmission do not require the presence of infected pigs). These lessons of history have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on this disease. PMID:26320098

  20. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  1. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  2. Peritonitis caused by jejunal perforation with Taenia saginata: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bekraki, Ali; Hanna, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Complicated Taeniasis necessitating surgical intervention is extremely rare and is usually reported to occur in the distal ileal region of the Gastrointestinal tract. A case of peritonitis secondary to proximal jejunal perforation due to Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative evaluation suggested the diagnosis of acute duodenal ulcer perforation. Although no real change in management and outcome is present, Taenia remains an exceptional direct cause of intestinal perforation, and should be kept on the list of differential diagnosis of peritonitis and acute abdomen in endemic geographical locations. PMID:27065626

  3. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. PMID:26754203

  4. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  5. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  6. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  7. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  8. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  9. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  10. Performance of the ELISA test for swine cysticercosis using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Pinto, P S; Vaz, A J; Germano, P M; Nakamura, P M

    2000-02-29

    Studies were conducted to evaluate antigens of Taenia solium (Tso) and Taenia crassiceps (Tcra) cysticerci in the ELISA test for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. The samples analyzed were cysticercosis positive and negative control sera and heterologous sera. Four antigens were assayed: vesicular fluid (VF) and crude (T) Tcra and scolex (S) and crude (T) Tso. All antigens showed good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best followed by T-Tcra. Sensitivity rates of ELISA were respectively, in 2nd and 3rd standard deviation cut-offs, 96.0 and 80.0% for the VF antigen and specificity of 97.5 and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was verified only for hidatidosis and ascaridiosis. Due to the high performance observed, the ELISA test using Tcra antigens should be recommended for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. PMID:10681029

  11. Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Héctor Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the

  12. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control and elimination through community-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Traoré, Aminata A

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium was declared potentially eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992. Yet, very few well-designed community-based randomized controlled trials have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of alternative control strategies. Most strategies have been tested in pre-post intervention designs in very few communities, often without a control group. The only two community-based randomized controlled trials suggest that an educational program alone or a combination of human and porcine mass treatment reduce porcine cysticercosis in the short term. A transmission dynamics model suggests that improved sanitation and pig management are more effective and sustainable than pig vaccination, human or porcine mass treatment. Current evidence does not support the eradication of Taenia solium in the foreseeable future. Investigators should follow international recommendations on the conduct of community-based randomized control trials to provide more valid estimates of the effect and cost-effectiveness of alternative control strategies for cysticercosis. PMID:25544938

  13. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  14. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG. PMID:16338165

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31–48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82–3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

  16. An epidemiological study of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural population in the Bolivian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, J; Iihoshi, N; Widdowson, M A; Roca, Y; Morales, G; Quiroga, J; Cejas, F; Caihuara, M; Ibarra, R; Edelsten, M

    2001-12-21

    A survey of 100 rural households in a village in the Chaco region of Bolivia revealed a serious problem of Taenia solium cysticercosis, with a seroprevalence of 99/447 (22%) in humans and 102/273 (37%) in pigs. Risk factors for humans were being in older age groups, absence of sanitary facilities, poor formal education and inability to recognise infected pork. Significant risk indicators were a history of seizures and the reported elimination of worms in the faeces. Risk factors for pigs were being in older age groups and absence of sanitary facilities in the owner's house. The proportion of households with evidence of human cysticercosis was similar for those who owned pigs (48%) and those that did not (55%). This unexpected finding was attributed to the high overall prevalence of cysticercosis in pigs and the probability that everyone, regardless of pig-ownership, had ample opportunity to become infected in such communities. The main recommendation for reducing the prevalence of human cysticercosis was to provide more effective education campaigns, aimed at preventing both T. solium infection and cysticercosis. PMID:11700180

  17. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  18. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  19. Functionally Expression of Metalloproteinase in Taenia solium Metacestode and Its Evaluation for Serodiagnosis of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; BAE, Young-An; ZONG, Hong-Ying; KONG, Yoon; CAI, Guo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parasite proteases have important roles in cleavage of host proteins during the invasion of host tissues and participate in the parasite’s evasion from the host’s immune response. The aim of the present study was to estimate a metalloproteinase properties of Taenia solium metacestode (TsMP) during host-parasite interactions, and evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Methods: The cDNA coding for the mature catalytic domain of TsMP was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. A recombinant glutathione S-transferase and TsMP fusion protein was induced. After refolding and purification, enzymatic properties of the recombinant metalloproteinase were observed. Immunoblot assay was processed to evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Results: The recombinant TsMP protein showed proteolytic activity, which preferred host extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin as degradable substrates. In immunoblot assay, 87.5% of sera from patients with cysticercosis showed strong reactivity. In sera from patients with other parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed high specificity. Conclusions: TsMP might be involved in the processing of numerous host proteins and play an important role in the parasite life cycle. A single recombinant TsMP antigen could have a potential value for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. PMID:27095967

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  1. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Joshi, Durga Dutt; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; van De, Nguyen; Xiaonong, Zhou

    2003-06-01

    Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis is the cause of epilepsy in up to 50% of Indian patients presenting with partial seizures. It is also a major cause of epilepsy in Bali (Indonesia), Vietnam and possibly China and Nepal. Seroprevalence studies indicate high rates of exposure to the parasite in several countries (Vietnam, China, Korea and Bali (Indonesia)) with rates ranging from 0.02 to 12.6%. Rates of taeniosis, as determined by stool examination for ova, have also been reported to range between 0.1 and 6% in the community in India, Vietnam, China, and Bali (Indonesia). An astonishingly high rate of taeniosis of 50% was reported from an area in Nepal populated by pig rearing farmers. In addition to poor sanitation, unhealthy pig rearing practices, low hygienic standards, unusual customs such as consumption of raw pork is an additional factor contributing to the spread of the disease in some communities of Asia. Undoubtedly, cysticercosis is a major public health problem in several Asian countries effecting several million people by not only causing neurological morbidity but also imposing economic hardship on impoverished populations. However, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates in different regions and different socio-economic groups in the same country. It is important to press for the recognition of cysticercosis as one of the major public health problems in Asia that needs to be tackled vigorously by the governments and public health authorities of the region. PMID:12781378

  2. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  3. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  4. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  5. Recent advances and perspectives in molecular epidemiology of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Cysticercosis caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium is spreading all over the world through globalization and is one of the most neglected, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) or neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In the present study, the reason why T. solium cysticercosis has been neglected is discussed at first, and followed with an overview on the most recent advances and perspectives in molecular approaches for epidemiology of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, since although taeniasis does not constitute recognized zoonoses, transmission and complete development are dependent on human definitive hosts. Main topics are discussions on (1) the two, Asian and Afro/American, genotypes of T. solium, (2) comparative analysis of mitochondrial (haploid) and nuclear (diploid) genes, and (3) the presence of hybrids of these two genotypes which indicates out-crossing of two genotypes in hermaphrodite tapeworms in Madagascar. Additional topics are on (4) the usefulness of phylogeographic analyses to discuss where the infection was acquired from, and (5) miscellaneous unsolved topics around these genetic diversity of T. solium. PMID:26112071

  6. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-07-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  9. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

  10. The present situation of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Li, Tiaoying; Dekumyoy, Paron; Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Three human Taenia species, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, are endemic in rural regions of Asia, with these species sympatrically distributed in parts of Thailand and China. The pork tapeworm, T. solium, is the most pathogenic to humans, causing cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis (NCC). Due to its public health impact, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prioritized by the World Health Organization. In this review, the current status of taeniasis and NCC in several Asian countries will be presented as will possible prevention and control strategies. Among the known T. solium endemic areas in Asia, Bali, Indonesia is of high importance due to the risk of tourists becoming infected. Therefore, special attention will be given to ongoing control initiatives in Bali. PMID:25858304

  11. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region. PMID:26581436

  12. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

  13. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    PubMed

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

  14. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  15. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  16. [Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nolte, A; Strube, C; Raue, K; Brämer, C; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2016-01-01

    A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case. PMID:26763526

  17. Role of porcine serum haptoglobin in the host-parasite relationship of Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts. PMID:27234210

  18. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T

  19. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-01-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  20. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-07-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

  1. Advances in diagnosis and spatial analysis of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371

  2. Cysticercosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... called Taenia solium ( T solium ). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in ... after a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T solium as ...

  3. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  4. Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1995-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

  5. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  6. Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

  7. Taenia: An Uninvited Guest

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghi, Afshin; Rezayat, Kambiz Akhavan; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Taeniasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • dyspepsia Medication: Omeprazole • Dicyclomine • Herb Clinical Procedure: Endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare presentation Background: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium species are worldwide in distribution, causing bovine and porcine cysticercosis, and taeniasis in humans having the greatest economic and medical importance. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman living in a village around Rasht (northern Iran) was referred to our hospital with a history of chronic abdominal pain and recent dyspepsia and epigastric fullness. According to her clinical history, she was a candidate for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A large tape worm was seen in the stomach. Our efforts at extracting it from the stomach were unsuccessful. The endoscope was withdrawn and therapy with niclosamide was initiated. At the next visit, her symptoms were alleviated and she was relieved from the chronic pain. Conclusions: We believe that the retrograde migration of the tapeworm into the stomach may be due to low gastric acidity as a result of atrophic gastritis and chronic proton pump inhibitor use. PMID:26226138

  8. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors

  9. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis. PMID:24161749

  10. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people. PMID:16338166

  11. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  12. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. PMID:24450957

  13. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  14. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  15. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-01

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675

  16. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  17. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and

  18. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  19. Current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Willingham, A Lee; De, Nguyen Van; Doanh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Le Dinh; Dung, Truong Van; Dorny, Pierre; Cam, Phung Dac; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This English review concerning the current status of cysticercosis in Vietnam has been compiled from various reports of studies conducted over the past 15 years, which have appeared in national publications in Vietnamese, in order to make the information available to the international community. Hospital surveys indicate that cysticercosis is emerging as a serious health problem in the country though most of the information comes from the Hanoi area. Many more men than women are being treated for cysticercosis with most patients being young to middle-aged adults though several juvenile cases have been seen in the south. Clinical manifestations of the disease in humans include subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headache, impaired vision and memory loss. Albendazole has been found to be the best drug for treating cysticercosis though it does not appear to be totally effective for curing cerebral cysts. Information concerning porcine and bovine cysticercosis is very limited and based mostly on passive surveillance at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Surveys for human taeniasis in central and northern provinces indicate a prevalence of 0.2-7.2%. However, techniques of low sensitivity were used and the results are inconclusive since it is unknown with which species of tapeworm the people were infected. In addition to Taenia solium which causes human cysticercosis, T. saginata and T. asiatica are also known to be present in Vietnam. Risk factors investigated thus far with regard to transmission of T. solium suggest that consumption of raw pork, inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some areas, and the use of untreated human waste as fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam but this remains to be validated. The evidence thus far collected suggests that a national surveillance program for cysticercosis is a great need for Vietnam. The authors recommend further research on the epidemiology and impact of cysticercosis in

  20. Comparative evaluation of purified Taenia solium glycoproteins and crude metacestode extracts by immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of human T. solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Allan, J C; Fletes, C; Sutisna, I P; Kapti, I N; Craig, P S

    1997-01-01

    A lentil-lectin purified glycoprotein (LL-Gp) and a crude saline extract of Taenia solium metacestodes were compared for the immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis by immunoblotting. The LL-Gp preparation was 95% sensitive for antibodies against a range of seven antigens with molecular masses of 50 to 13 kDa, whereas the sensitivity of the crude saline extract for the detection of antibodies against two major polypeptide molecules (26 and 8 kDa) was 91%. Specificity was 100% with both sets of diagnostic antigens. Affinity-purified antibodies against the 26-kDa molecule from the crude saline extract recognized the 24-kDa diagnostic region in the LL-Gp-purified extract and vice versa, suggesting that the antigens had common epitopes recognized by cysticercotic sera. In addition, in a preliminary community study of 115 randomly selected people from Bali (Indonesia), seroprevalence by immunoblot assay varied from 7.8% (with the crude saline antigen extract) to 9.6% (with the LL-Gp-purified extract). The results of this study demonstrate that both antigenic preparations are applicable for the immunodiagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis. The crude T. solium metacestode antigen extract was as specific as the purified LL-Gp T. solium metacestode extract and simpler to produce but slightly less sensitive. PMID:9302208

  1. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  2. An investigation on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, G M; Margono, S S; Schlan, R; Harjono, C; Rasidi, R; Sutopo, B

    1977-12-01

    A survey was carried out in 3 villages in Bali to determine the prevalence of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in pigs. A total of 548 people were examined and Taenia sp. eggs were found in the faeces of 11. Four individuals passed proglottids; two T. solium and two T. saginata and three of these people also passed eggs in the faeces. A total of 12 or 2.2% were infected. Three pigs from a slaughterhouse were found heavily infected with Cysticercus cellulosae. Socio-ecological data indicate infections to be more common in people who eat raw meat dishes than those who eat fish. Poor sanitary conditions and the easy access of pigs to human faeces perpetuate the infection. PMID:614710

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  4. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  5. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  6. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices. PMID:24678662

  7. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication. PMID:27277232

  8. Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-12-31

    A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture. PMID:19800348

  9. Population dynamics in echinococcosis and cysticercosis: economic assessment of control strategies for Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis and T. hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J R; Roberts, M G; Gemmell, M A; Best, S J

    1988-08-01

    An official control programme against Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena has been in operation in New Zealand for more than 28 years and against Taenia ovis for more than 18 years. This unique effort to control three metazoan parasites at the same time has led to a change from endemic to extinction status for E. granulosus but only a change from hyperendemic to endemic status for T. hydatigena and T. ovis. This has presented problems in determining the most cost-effective future control strategies. To facilitate this, a benefit/cost analysis of 20 options for the combined control of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and T. ovis in New Zealand was undertaken. This showed that for E. granulosus a future change from the current non-targeted to a targeted approach is strongly indicated. For T. ovis 6 options were cost-effective using a discount rate of 10%. These were (1) a targeted control package using a vaccine in the non-targeted attack phase; (2) a targeted control package using a larvicide in the attack phase; (3) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers a larvicide to sheep to be killed for dog food; (4) the transfer of all losses due to and responsibility for the control of T. ovis to the producer who administers praziquantel every 6 weeks to dogs; (5) and (6) two options involving the discontinuation of control. Control of T. hydatigena was assumed to be an incidental outcome of the policies for the other two parasites. PMID:3140196

  10. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  11. Images in Clinical Medicine. Taenia saginata Infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Guo, Eping

    2016-01-21

    A 38-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, generalized weakness, and weight loss that had begun 3 days earlier. He had a history of eating raw beef. Examination of stool showed an embryonated egg containing an oncosphere. PMID:26789874

  12. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. PMID:27514893

  13. Taenia infestation in the appendix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha

    2013-11-01

    Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata. PMID:24450232

  14. Cysticercosis Update

    PubMed Central

    Grisolia, James Santiago

    1984-01-01

    Already the most common brain parasite disease, cysticercosis has been increasingly seen throughout the American Southwest. Symptoms arise from infection with larvae of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Seizures, hydrocephalus, focal deficits and chronic meningitis most commonly result. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, serology by indirect hemagglutination and computed tomography are helpful adjuncts to diagnosis. New evidence suggests that selective immunosuppression is important for the parasites' survival and that cyst death permits renewed host immunity, which may actually precipitate an acute neurologic presentation. New larvicides, including praziquantel, are being tested in humans; caution is indicated in assessing these drugs because of the acute worsening associated with cyst death. Conventional therapy includes anticonvulsants, steroids or ventricular drainage as needed. Prevention remains the best management. Person-to-person transmission within the United States has recently been documented and merits public health scrutiny. PMID:6377706

  15. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  16. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  17. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26993086

  18. Assessment of the repeatability and border-plate effects of the B158/B60 enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay for the detection of circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA) of Taenia saginata.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Famke; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Hul, Anke; Van den Broeck, Nick; Makay, Caroline; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-08-30

    The monoclonal antibody-based circulating antigen detecting ELISA (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA) has been used elaborately in several studies for the diagnosis of human, bovine and porcine cysticercosis. Interpretation of test results requires a good knowledge of the test characteristics, including the repeatability and the effect of the borders of the ELISA plates. Repeatability was tested for 4 antigen-negative and 5 antigen-positive reference bovine serum samples by calculating the Percentage Coefficient of Variation (%CV) within and between plates, within and between runs, overall, for two batches of monoclonal antibodies and by 2 laboratory technicians. All CV values obtained were below 20% (except one: 24.45%), which indicates a good repeatability and a negligible technician error. The value of 24.45% for indicating the variability between batches of monoclonal antibodies for one positive sample is still acceptable for repeatability measures. Border effects were determined by calculating the %CV values between the inner and outer wells of one plate for 2 positive serum samples. Variability is a little more present in the outer wells but this effect is very small and no significant border effect was found. PMID:27523940

  19. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  20. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  1. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  2. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Honduras.

    PubMed

    de Kaminsky, R G

    1991-01-01

    Data on human taeniasis and human and animal cysticercosis from Honduras were gathered from laboratory, medical and slaughterhouse records, proglottid identification and surveys. The infection rate for human taeniasis was 2.7/1000 individuals at the University Hospital, 10/1000 in the southern provinces of Choluteca and Valle, and 0.6/1000 in Cortes and Atlantida in the north. In surveys, the rates found ranged from 14 to 62/1000 in 9 of 15 communities studied. Taenia solium was identified in 135 of 181 individuals (74.5%) who submitted proglottids for speciation, 23 of whom were children 0-5 years old. The male:female ratio of infection rate was 1:2. The rates of infection with cysticercosis in pigs and cattle at one abattoir in 1981-1986 were 5% and 0.05% respectively. Diagnosis of human cysticercosis at the University Hospital increased five-fold with the introduction of computerized tomography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: 22 cases were diagnosed in 1980-1984 and 107 cases in 1985-1988. Rates at the neurosurgical ward were higher (29/1000 patients) than in the general hospital census (1.6/1000 patients). aeniasis-cysticercosis may be a serious health problem in some areas of Honduras. PMID:1755064

  3. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Taenia martis Eye Infection.

    PubMed

    Koch, Till; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Addo, Marylyn; Ostertag, Helmut; Wiechens, Burkhard; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Taenia martis, a tapeworm harbored in the intestine of mustelids, is a rarely encountered zoonotic cysticercosis pathogen. The larval stage closely resembles the Taenia solium cysticercus, but the natural host and thus the epidemiology of the disease is different. We here report a human eye infection diagnosed molecularly in a previously healthy female German patient. The case represents the third human infection described worldwide; the two previous cases were also European, involving eye and brain. PMID:26928837

  5. Orbital Cysticercosis - masquerading as preseptal cellulitis with ptosis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Topiwala, Pratik; Gupta, Panchmi; Sood, Sunandan

    2015-07-01

    We are sharing a case of orbital cysticercosis,which presented to us initially with simple ptosis and later on with upper lid inflammation and restricted ocular motility in upgaze. Human cysticercosis, a parasitic infection caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of the cestode, Taenia solium, is a benign infection of the subcutaneous tissues, inter-muscular fascia, muscles and other organs. Though it exists worldwide, it is more prevalent in the developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, especially in areas where under-cooked pork is consumed regularly (Pushker et al, 2001). However, 5 year study of 33 cases of Ocular/Adnexal cysticercosis showed seventy percent of patients were of low socioeconomic group and 70% were strictly vegetarians (Atul et al, 1995). The clinical manifestation of orbital cysticercosis is entirely different from neuro-cysticercosis or cysticercosis of other parts of body. Diagnosis of cysticercosis is mainly based on highly specific radiological signs and history of exposure in endemic areas. PMID:27363971

  6. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  7. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-02-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica. PMID:26951981

  8. Spinal cord cysticercosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bouree, Patrice; Dumazedier, Deborah; Bisaro, Francine; Resende, Paula; Comoy, Jean; Aghakhani, Nozar

    2006-12-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the infection with the larva of Taenia solium, common through out the world, is located in the muscles, the eyes and the central nervous system, but mostly in the brain. Spinal cord infection is rare. The authors report a case of a young girl, living in Paris who had traveled in Latin America, and complained of back pains and troublesome walking. MRI showed a cyst in spinal cord, but other examinations were normal. Diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. It was a pure intramedullary cysticercosis, the check-up to find other locations was negative. Only approximately 130 cases are reported in the literature, with motor and sensory disorders. The diagnosis was based on MRI and pathological examination. Antiparasitic medical treatment was useful when combined with surgery. PMID:17153691

  9. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  10. [The current epidemiological situation of cysticercosis in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Andriantsimahavandy, A; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Rajaonarison, P; Ravoniarimbinina, P; Rakotondrazaka, M; Raharilaza, N; Rakotoarivelo, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Rabarijaona, L P; Ramarokoto, C E; Leutscher, P; Migliani, R

    2003-01-01

    Being associated to fecal-oral transmission, cysticercosis is contracted either by auto-infection or by ingestion of food contaminated with eggs from the pork tape worm (Taenia solium). In the stomach, the larvae named cysticercus (Cysticercus cellulosae) hatches from the eggs and invades the host through the mucosa membrane. Human cysticercosis occurs in highly prevalent proportions in many developing countries including Madagascar where hygiene conditions are deplicable. Serology tests applicable to epidemiological surveillance of cysticercosis and associated pathology in the Malagasy population have been developed: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening purpose, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) for confirmative testing. Two specific bands (13 and 14 kDa) have been identified as significant markers of the cysticercus in an active (vesicle) stage of the infection when cestocidal treatment is strongly indicated. The same bands may on the other hand be absent at early (cyste) as well as late (calcified) stages of the infection. Series of studies, including 4,375 serum samples, have been undertaken from 1994 until 1999 aiming at determinating the cysticercosis sero-prevalence in different provinces of Madagascar. It was confirmed that cysticercosis is highly frequent on the island, and that there exists a marked variation in the prevalence from 7 to 21% between the different provinces: less than 10% in coastal regions (Mahajanga and Toamasina) increasing to 20% in central regions (Ihosy, Ambositra and Mahasolo). It has also been observed that cysticercosis may occur in individuals at any age, and that it is equally distributed in urban as in rural areas. However, it is more frequently detected in women than in men. Madagascar is an endemic country for cysticercosis, which causes major and severe disease with implications in the public health sector. A national control program is, therefore, urgently warranted. PMID

  11. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  12. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  13. An Unusual Eyelid Mass of Cysticercosis: A Twist in the Tale.

    PubMed

    Rai, Poonam J; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Trivedi, Mihir G; Potdar, Nayana A; Gopinathan, Indumati; Shinde, Chhaya A

    2016-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium). The common sites for cysticerosis include the brain, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Ocular or adnexal involvement is commonly seen with the commonest ophthalmic site being subretinal space and the vitreous cavity. However, only a handful of cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the past. We report a rare and unusual case of isolated eyelid cysticercosis in a middle-aged woman masquerading as an asymptomatic slowly growing subcutaneous painless mass in the left eyelid which was presumed to be a benign skin mass, a cyst of appendageal origin such as an epidermoid cyst. This case highlights the ubiquitous nature of cysticercosis in tropical countries and the need for a high degree of suspicion while surgically treating subcutaneous masses. We would additionally emphasize the need to rule out neurocysticercosis in such cases. PMID:27398015

  14. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Asopa, Kirti; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Although cysticercosis is a common disease in some regions of the world and can occur in any body site, oral lesions are rare. In this report, we document the case of oral cysticercosis in a 10-year-old boy who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination, morphological appearance and the histopathologic findings of the excised cyst formed the basis for the diagnosis of the lesion. How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Asopa K, Gumber P, Dutta S. Oral Cysticercosis in a Pediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report with Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):156-161. PMID:27365940

  15. Cysticercosis of temporalis muscle: an unusual cause of temporal headaches. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Prahlad K; Sethi, Nitin K; Torgovnick, Josh; Arsura, Edward

    2007-10-01

    Cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection caused by encysted larvae of the helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Less common presentations in the CNS include the racemose variety with macroscopic groups of cysticerci in the subarachnoid space giving the appearance of a cluster of grapes and basal or ventricular cysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Involvement of other organs: skeletal muscle, eyes, myocardium and the lungs has also been reported. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours) without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present a case of a 43-year-old woman who complained of subacute onset of left temporal pain and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed characteristic imaging findings suggestive of cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle. PMID:17955174

  16. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  17. Study and Ranking of Determinants of Taenia solium Infections by Classification Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  18. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age < 55 years. The CART analysis showed that the most important determinant for both taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. PMID:25404073

  19. Genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and other geographical locations as revealed by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

    2013-02-01

    Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species. PMID:23467439

  20. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M.W.; Assana, E.; Jayashi, C.M.; Gauci, C.G.; Donadeu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  1. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Assana, E; Jayashi, C M; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M

    2015-11-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  2. Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus Due to Cysticercosis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Girson, Mark; Twickler, Diane M.; Wendel, George D.

    1994-01-01

    Background: Cysticercosis, due to the parasite Taenia solium, can involve any organ. When central nervous system infection occurs, signs and symptoms depend on the location of the cerebral lesions. Most patients develop seizures, focal symptoms, or headaches with nausea and vomiting. Case: A case of extraparenchymal (intraventricular) cysticercosis was diagnosed in a patient at term who presented with acute alteration in mental status. Ventriculostomy was performed because of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. Labor ensued and was augmented with oxytocin. Intrapartum management included magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis and corticosteroids. Intracranial pressures ranged between 4 and 12 cm H2O peripartum with approximately 300 mL of cerebrospinal fluid drained over the first 24 hours. Postpartum management included craniotomy with resection of a larval cyst and oral praziquantel therapy. Conclusion: This case describes an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis that should be considered in gravidas with acute mental status changes. PMID:18475345

  3. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. PMID:27044566

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in Angónia District, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between September and November, 2007, a total of 661 pigs were tested serologically and examined by tongue inspection. Serum samples were tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). In addition, a questionnaire survey to collect information on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in the selected households from which pigs were sampled. Two hundred thirty-one samples (34.9%) were found positive by the Ag-ELISA, while by tongue inspection on the same animals cysticerci were detected in 84 pigs (12.7%). Increasing age (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.13–2.37) and free-range pig husbandry system (OR = 3.81; 95% CI = 2.08–7.06) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in the district. The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in the region, and that increasing pig age and pig husbandry practices contribute significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission. Further epidemiological studies on the prevalence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis in rural communities in Mozambique are needed to enable collection of more baseline data and implementation of effective control strategies within the country. PMID:20126403

  5. Spatial Clustering of Porcine Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, Helena A.; Kassuku, Ayub A.; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E. D.; Mlozi, Malongo R. S.; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.; Willingham, Arve L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2–12 (median 8) months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each) and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2–9 (median 4) months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784). The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km. The

  6. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assana, E.; Amadou, F.; Thys, E.; Lightowlers, M.W.; Zoli, A.P.; Dorny, P.; Geerts, S.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  7. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  8. Cysticercosis of Externsor Carpi Ulnaris – A differential diagnosis for painful swelling at elbow

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sharat; Akhtar, Mohammad Nasim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cysticercosis is an infection by the larval stage (cystcercus cellulosae) of the cestode, Taenia Solium (pork tape worm). It occurs especially in those individuals who live in the endemic areas. After gaining entry into the body, the larva become encysted and may lie in subcutaneous tissue, striated muscle, vitreous humor, or other tissues. Case report: We report an unusual case of cysticercosis of the Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle, which presented as localized swelling at the lateral aspect of elbow. The diagnosis was confirmed on the musculoskeletal ultrasonographic examination of the elbow. It revealed the Cysticercus cellulosae as hyperechoic lesion surrounded by fluid. MRI was done later which localized the larval stage in the Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle at elbow. Conclusion: For swelling in the region of elbow in endemic areas of tapeworm infestations, the differential diagnosis of muscle cysticercosis should be kept in mind.

  9. Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  10. Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  11. Human cysticercosis and intestinal parasitism amongst the Ekari people of Irian Jaya.

    PubMed

    Muller, R; Lillywhite, J; Bending, J J; Catford, J C

    1987-12-01

    A random sample of 242 people showed that 42 had palpable cysts of Taenia solium. Faecal examination recovered eggs of T. solium in seven (3%), while Trichuris (83%), Ascaris (83%), hookworms (76%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) and Strongyloides sp. (29%), Entamoeba histolytica (14%), Entamoeba coli (22%), Entamoeba hartmanni (7%), Entamoeba polecki (7%), Balantidium coli (9%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (21%) were the most common other intestinal parasites encountered. ELISA tests, using antigens prepared from adults and eggs of T. solium and from cysticerci of T. saginata were not very sensitive, the last diagnosing less than half of known positives while still retaining good specificity. PMID:3430662

  12. Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

  13. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of human Taenia tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which employs a Bst DNA polymerase with strand-displacement activity and four primers (two inner primers and two outer primers) recognizing six distinct regions on the target DNA, is a highly sensitive, specific, simple, and rapid nucleotide amplification method. Moreover, because the Bst DNA polymerase resists much DNA polymerase inhibitors present in biological specimens, the LAMP method is suitable for the detection of infectious agents from clinical material such as fecal samples. Here, we describe the LAMP method which can differentially detect and identify human Taenia tapeworms, Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, using DNA specimens prepared from parasite tissue and human fecal sample. PMID:24026690

  14. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Tin Aye; Bawm, Saw; Wai, Soe Soe; Htut, Ye; Htun, Lat Lat

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.7-5.4), increased age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.2), husbandry system (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.4-11.2), feed type (OR = 16.9; 95% CI = 2.3-124.3), not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR = 11.9; 95% CI = 5.0-28.5), not using anthelmintics in owner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4-4.4), no hand-washing before feeding (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 4.3-230.9), and pork consumption of owner (OR = 37.4; 95% CI = 9.0-156.1) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. PMID:26464951

  15. Serological survey of human cysticercosis in Irianese refugee camps in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, M; Gottstein, B; Wigglesworth, M C; Eckert, J

    1990-02-01

    In 1984, over 10,000 refugees left the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya, and thus possibly imported Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis into Papua New Guinea, which was believed to be free of T. solium until 1966. In a serological survey carried out in 1986, 50 refugees originating from areas endemic for T. solium and 171 patients from other areas with symptoms suggesting the possibility of cysticercosis were examined. As a sensitive prescreening technique an ELISA was used with a crude antigen extract obtained from T. solium metacestodes of pig origin. Of 221 persons investigated, 79 (36%) were positive in ELISA. For excluding frequently occurring cross-reactions in ELISA, Western-blotting (or EITB, enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot) was employed. In this test the demonstration of antibody activity to the 26 or the 8 kilodalton band has been proved to be species-specific for T. solium cysticercosis. One from 79 patients positive in ELISA was simultaneously positive (26 and 8 kDa) in Western blot, corresponding to the first case found in Papua New Guinea with a highly probable T. solium cysticercosis. This patient, originating from an endemic area in Irian Jaya, had immigrated into Papua New Guinea in 1980. The present work emphasizes the need for using highly specific immunodiagnostic techniques in seroepidemiology of larval cestode infections. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis remains a risk for Papua New Guinea, and refugees originating from endemic areas should be regarded as potential carriers of T. solium. PMID:1969703

  16. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Human Cysticercosis in 60 Villages in Three Provinces of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Millogo, Athanase; Cissé, Assana; Gabriël, Sarah; Sahlu, Ida; Dorny, Pierre; Bauer, Cici; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ganaba, Rasmané

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic infection transmitted between humans and pigs, is considered an emerging infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet individual and community-level factors associated with the human infection with the larval stages (cysticercosis) are not well understood. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of association of individual-level and village-level factors with current human cysticercosis in 60 villages located in three Provinces of Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline cross-sectional data collected between February 2011 and January 2012 from a large community randomized-control trial were used. A total of 3609 individuals provided serum samples to assess current infection with cysticercosis. The association between individual and village-level factors and the prevalence of current infection with cysticercosis was estimated using Bayesian hierarchical logistic models. Diffuse priors were used for all regression coefficients. The prevalence of current cysticercosis varied across provinces and villages ranging from 0% to 11.5%. The results obtained suggest that increased age, being male and consuming pork as well as a larger proportion of roaming pigs and percentage of sand in the soil measured at the village level were associated with higher prevalences of infection. Furthermore, consuming pork at another village market had the highest increased prevalence odds of current infection. Having access to a latrine, living in a household with higher wealth quintiles and a higher soil pH measured at the village level decreased the prevalence odds of cysticercosis. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between variables measured at the individual-, household-, and village-level and the prevalence odds of cysticercosis in humans. Factors linked to people, pigs, and the environment were of importance, which further supports the need for a One Health approach to control

  17. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

    PubMed

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium. PMID:25597721

  18. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  19. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Gilman, Robert H; Farfán, Marilú J; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-12-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 kDa protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 kDa, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). PMID:17850901

  20. Characterization of a novel Taenia solium oncosphere antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Farfán, Marilú J.; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 KD protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 KD, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.09). PMID:17850901

  1. Feedstuff and poor latrines may put pigs at risk of cysticercosis--A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-11-30

    Attempts to control Taenia solium in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a 'missing link' in our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the parasite and possibly the magnitude of environmental contamination. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis using a case-control study design, utilising known information on persistent or multiple infections of porcine cysticercosis. The study, a combination of questionnaire interviews and observational surveys, was conducted in July 2014 in the two districts Mbeya and Mbozi, Tanzania. Study households were identified based on their status regarding porcine cysticercosis prevalence and allocated into cases or controls based on previous porcine cysticercosis presence. This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group, from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33-43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine. Feeding potato peels to pigs was also associated with increased risk of infection (p=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including the pig management system indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on a dirt floor (p=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1.29-114.55) were more likely to be infected compared to a cemented floor. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs before they reach the household or whether the contamination is from water or dirty hands during the process of peeling, remains to be confirmed. This study suggests that detailed assessment of a number of areas of pig management is essential for designing effective control programmes. PMID:26304509

  2. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  3. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where

  4. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates.

    PubMed

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Gori, Francesca; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn), originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring) when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18%) of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia) taeniaeformis in five cases). Similarly, in 13 (28%) of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases). Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections. PMID:27556010

  5. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Khaing, Tin Aye; Bawm, Saw; Wai, Soe Soe; Htut, Ye; Htun, Lat Lat

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.7–5.4), increased age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2–4.2), husbandry system (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.4–11.2), feed type (OR = 16.9; 95% CI = 2.3–124.3), not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR = 11.9; 95% CI = 5.0–28.5), not using anthelmintics in owner (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4–4.4), no hand-washing before feeding (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 4.3–230.9), and pork consumption of owner (OR = 37.4; 95% CI = 9.0–156.1) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. PMID:26464951

  6. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

  7. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

  8. Cysticercosis with an Orbital Tropism in Twins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bradford W; Kumar, Usha R; Lin, Jonathan H; Amaro, Deirdre E; Kikkawa, Don O; Alameddine, Ramzi M; Lowe, Maureen C; Hilger, Peter A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-10-01

    Two fraternal twin sisters developed cysticercosis localizing to the right lateral orbit over the same period after a presumed common-source exposure in China. This case demonstrates that cysticercosis can be related to travel. Similar temporal and spatial occurrences of these infections suggest a genetic tropism of the infecting organism in these twins. PMID:26217041

  9. Use of Oxfendazole to Control Porcine Cysticercosis in a High-Endemic Area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509

  10. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  11. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended. PMID:26244682

  12. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods. PMID:26538513

  13. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the

  14. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  15. Validity of the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) for naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-17

    The Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) has been used widely as a screening test for Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine. However, the relation between seropositivity and infection in pig populations from endemic areas has not been well defined. The aim of this study is to relate EITB seropositivity with infection and infection burden, analyse the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity with various cut-off points for the EITB assay, and finally describe the serology changes in a cohort of rural pigs raised under natural conditions. A group of 107 pigs that were used as controls during a vaccination field trial in Peru was our study population. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis determined by necropsy examination was 16.82% (18/107) in these animals. Using EITB reactivity to ≥ 1 band as a cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 88.89% (65.29-98.62, 95% CI) and the specificity was 48.31% (37.59-59.16, 95% CI). Comparing other cut-off points, involving up to as many as 7 reactive bands, a reactivity of ≥ 3 bands provided the best trade-offs in sensitivity and specificity. Using this cut-off point for the assay, the sensitivity was 77.77% (52.36-93.59, 95% CI) and the specificity was 76.40% (66.22-84.76, 95% CI). A significant association was found between cyst counts over 100 cysts and reactivity to ≥ 3 bands in the EITB assay (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that the use of the EITB assay to study porcine cysticercosis may require setting different cut-offs under field and experimental conditions, and depending upon the objective of the screening process. PMID:24183647

  16. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  17. IFN-gamma role in granuloma formation in experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Aline A; Moura, Vânia B L; Irusta, Vicente R C; Vinaud, Marina C; Oliveira, Milton A P; Lino-Júnior, Ruy S

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia parasites in tissues and elicits a host-parasite reaction in which the immune response may be decisive in the disease development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IFNγ (IFN-gamma) in the experimental model of subcutaneous infection with Taenia crassiceps (T. crassiceps) cysticerci using IFNγ knockout mice. Male C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 KO IFNγ mice 8-12 weeks of age were inoculated with T. crassiceps cysticerci into the subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum. At 7 and 30 (acute phase), 60 and 90 (chronic phase) days post infection, animals from each group had their blood and the subcutaneous tissues collected for serologic and pathological studies. IFNγ and IL-4 were dosed and the histopathological analysis was performed. In the presence of IFNγ there was the establishment of a mixed Th1/Th2 systemic immune profile. This profile also locally induced the granuloma formation which was constituted by cells that played important roles in the parasitary destruction and that were likely associated to the Th1 axis of mixed immune response. On the other hand, the absence of IFNγ appears to favor the parasitary growth which may be related to the development of a systemic Th2 immune response. This profile influenced the granuloma formation with immunoregulatory properties and appears to be important in the collagen synthesis. PMID:27334396

  18. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P  =  0.02) and those with ≤US$300 monthly income (P  =  0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil. PMID:23683335

  19. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values <0.2, n=13). Necropsies performed on 11 strongly and moderately positive pigs revealed that six strongly positive pigs were infected either solely with T. solium cysticerci (n=3), or co-infected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena (n=3). Four moderately positive pigs were infected solely with T. hydatigena. No cysticerci were found in one pig that was moderately positive by the naked-eye ELISA. Two experimentally infected pigs became antibody positive by 6 weeks post-infection, whereas eight control pigs remained negative. An additional 60 pigs slaughtered at authorized abattoirs on Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected

  20. Research needs in taeniasis—cysticercosis (Memorandum)*

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the epidemiology of taeniasis—cysticercosis, particularly the survival of taeniid eggs in nature, and goes on to consider diagnostic procedures (parasitological and serological), resistance to infection, pathogenesis and clinical pathology, chemotherapy, and the economic and social consequences of infection. Topics requiring further research are listed, and recommendations are made concerning the approach to the problem. PMID:1085668

  1. Intramedullary Spinal Cysticercosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moinay; Khang, Shin-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spinal intramedullary cysticercosis in thoracic spine. A 47-year old man living in Korea referred to our hospital with both feet tingling sensation for about a year. Laboratory evaluations, including serologic tests were not helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.7 cm intramedullary mass at T10-11 level, which believed to be a tumor instead, rather than a cysticercosis preoperatively. Successful operation was done with a histopathological result confirmed it as cysticercosis. Even though the prevalence of intramedullary spinal cysticercosis is extremely rare, and radiologic exams mimic other common tumors like ependymoma or astrocytoma, the disease should be considered as differential diagnosis. PMID:25110489

  2. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. PMID:25837784

  3. Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy. PMID:25968992

  4. Bio-guided identification of proteins for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in swine.

    PubMed

    Nativel, Priscilla; Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Ramiandrisoa, Sitraka; Rasoamampianinaa, Virginie; Duchateau, Magalie; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Guebey, Remy; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina; Jambou, Ronan

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most prevalent parasitic infection of the brain and the most common cause of seizures in adults in tropical countries. Cysticercosis is caused by larvae of Taenia solium, a human tapeworm. Pig or humans are infected by ingestion of eggs in food contaminated by human feces. Diagnosis and treatment of pigs is a pillar of the control of the disease in a country. However current diagnostic tests are based on ELISA and/or Western blot using native antigens needing laboratory facilities not available in rural areas. Development of a pen side diagnostic test for swines, makes sense. Immunochromatographic test should be adapted for this purpose. To design it we started a bio-guided identification of new proteins in cysticercus fluid. Proteins were analyzed using ion exchange chromatography and 2D separation and were selected by Western blot analysis using sera from infected/non infected pigs. Spots from the Coomassie-stained gel corresponding to these proteins were then analyzed by mass spectroscopy and proteins were identified using a bank of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of T. solium. Eighteen new proteins of interest were identified and nine were selected for further development. PMID:26995717

  5. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  6. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  7. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  8. Endogenous prostaglandin in guinea pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Hitzig, B; Coburn, R F

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PGE) is synthesized in the guinea pig taenia coli. A low threshold concentration for an effect of exogenous PGE1 or PGE2 on spontaneous mechanical activity was demonstrated. The PG synthetase inhibitors aspirin, indomethacin, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, at concentrations that inhibited PGE efflux, had effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, membrane potential, membrane resistance, and evoked and spontaneous action potentials (single and double sucrose-gap methods) that were consistent with an action due to inhibition of membrane PGE concentration. The threshold concentration of indomethacin, which inhibited PGE efflux, was the same as the concentration that inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity. Pretreatment with ouabain (10(-6)-10(-5) g/ml) or elevated extracellular K+ (29 and 126 mM) made the guinea pig taenia coli entirely refractory to exogenous PGE1 or PGE2; the mechanical effects of the three prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors also were absent in the presence of elevated K+ or ouabain. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that, under conditions of our experiments, endogenous PGE has an effect on resting tension and spontaneous mechanical activity and on properties of the surface membrane of the guinea pig taenia coli. PMID:1251900

  9. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention. PMID:26992295

  10. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  11. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another. PMID:24745917

  12. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  13. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  14. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  15. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  16. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  17. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  18. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMenamin, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  19. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  20. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  1. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene. PMID:27008188

  2. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

  3. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons. PMID:15759155

  4. Diagnostic Disparity in Solitary Cysticercosis of the Forearm in a Child.

    PubMed

    Naidu, R; Sankar, A; Shaila, M S; Shivananda, I; Desai, R

    2015-01-01

    Solitary cysticercosis of muscle is a rare disease causing diagnostic dilemma. Cysticercosis commonly affects the central nervous system and other tissues by dissemination imposing a serious health problem. We report this rare presentation of solitary cysticercosis of flexor digitorum superficialis in a five year old otherwise healthy child. The fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological diagnosis were inconclusive but ultrasonography of the muscle clinched the diagnosis. PMID:26744203

  5. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  6. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  7. [Disseminated cysticercosis: report of three cases in Togo].

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, A; N'Timon, B; Kumako, V; Darre, T; Saka, B; Tchaou, M; Amegbor, K; Kombate, K; Balogou, A A; Pitche, P

    2015-08-01

    We report 3 cases of disseminated cysticercosis (DC) in adult male subjects in Togo. All had consulted in dermatology for asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology of a resected nodule. Computed tomography allowed us to bring out the widespread dissemination of cysticerci. The skin, brain, muscle, eye, thyroid, and pleura were the affected organs. Treatment was based on albendazole and betamethasone, with adverse side effects in 2 of our 3 patients. Our 3 observations seem to be the first of their kind in Togo. The mechanism of contamination in these disseminated forms is not yet elucidated, however ingesting a gravid proglottis could be the basis of the widespread dissemination of cysticerci in the body. No consensus has yet been established in the treatment of DC and the management should follow the guideline for treatment of neurocysticercosis and ocular cysticercosis. PMID:25893814

  8. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  9. Coadministration of protoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis with metacestode extract confers protective immunity to murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Moreno, S; García-Hernández, A L; Moreno-Fierros, L

    2014-06-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) is a promising mucosal immunogen and adjuvant that induces protective immunity against Naegleria fowleri and malaria infection models. We determined whether pCry1Ac acted as a protective adjuvant against infection with Taenia crassiceps. BALB/C mice were thrice i.p. immunized with (i) pCry1Ac, (ii) metacestode extract, (iii) extract + pCry1Ac or (iv) vehicle, challenged with metacestodes on day 26 and then sacrificed 35 days later. Cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity were counted, while the serum antibody response and cytokines were analysed after immunization and during infection. Only immunization with pCry1Ac plus extract conferred a significant protection (up to 47%). This group presented fluctuating antibody peaks during infection and the highest IgG1 and IgM titres. Immunization with extract alone elicited high IgG1 and the highest IgG2a responses after 25 days of infection, while nonimmunized mice presented a poor, mixed-Th1/Th2 response during infection. Sharp peaks of TNFα and IFN-γ occurred immediately after the first immunization with extract, especially in the presence of pCry1Ac, but not after the challenge, while in the control and pCry1Ac-alone groups, cytokines were only detected after the challenge. The data support the protective-adjuvant effect of co-administration of pCry1Ac in cysticercosis. PMID:24484070

  10. [Major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestode and their molecular biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yue, Long; Fu, Bao-quan

    2014-12-01

    Taeniidae cestodes are the pathogens of cysticercosis and hydatid disease, these diseases lead to substantial economic losses in animal husbandry and cause morbidity and mortality in human population. In recent years, many host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes has been found, and their recombinant protein vaccines have been developed against several species, such as Taenia ovis, T. saginata, T. solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and E. multilocularis. This paper focuses on the major host-protective antigens of Taeniidae cestodes and their molecular biological characteristics. PMID:25902683

  11. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  12. Phage-Displayed T-Cell Epitope Grafted into Immunoglobulin Heavy-Chain Complementarity-Determining Regions: an Effective Vaccine Design Tested in Murine Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Manoutcharian, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Petrossian, Pavel; Rodriguez, Miriam; Govezensky, Tzipe

    1999-01-01

    A new type of immunogenic molecule was engineered by replacing all three complementarity-determining-region (CDR) loops of the human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable (VH) domain with the Taenia crassiceps epitope PT1 (PPPVDYLYQT) and by displaying this construct on the surfaces of M13 bacteriophage. When BALB/c mice were immunized with such phage particles (PIgphage), a strong protection against challenge infection in very susceptible female hosts was obtained. When specifically stimulated, the in vivo-primed CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from mice immunized with PT1, both as a free peptide and as the PIgphage construct, proliferated in vitro, indicating efficient epitope presentation by both major histocompatibility complex class II and class I molecules in the specifically antigen-pulsed macrophages used as antigen-presenting cells. These data demonstrate the immunogenic potential of recombinant phage particles displaying CDR epitope-grafted Ig VH domains and establish an alternative approach to the design of an effective subunit vaccine for prevention of cysticercosis. The key advantage of this type of immunogen is that no adjuvant is required for its application. The proposed strategy for immunogen construction is potentially suitable for use in any host-pathogen interaction. PMID:10456929

  13. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  14. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  15. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China. PMID:27276429

  16. The risk factors for human cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwang'onde, Beda J; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chacha, Mwita

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the persistence of human cysticercosis (HCC) transmission in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. The study was carried out in 25 villages, whereby five major risks were identified. The risks were indiscriminate defaecation and improper use of toilets; a free-range system of keeping pigs; indiscriminate or unregulated slaughtering and inadequate meat hygiene and inspection; consumption of undercooked and porcine cysticerci infected pork; and social structure and roles. All of the identified risks were backed up by the immanent lifestyles of the community involved. These findings are important for the development of intervention strategies in the study area. PMID:25005750

  17. A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Bargavee; Aggarwal, Neeti; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, Ramgopal

    2016-04-01

    Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications. Knowledge of radiological findings is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of this pleomorphic disease. PMID:26903229

  18. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic.

  19. Two Taenia species found in Japan, with new distribution record of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    PubMed

    Ihama, Y; Sato, H; Makino, Y; Kamiya, H

    2000-02-01

    In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from the central part of Japan. Although we have found neither larval nor strobilar stage of E. multilocularis there, discovery of these taeniid species, having overlapping global distribution with E. multilocularis in red foxes Vulpes vulpes as well as multiple occurrences of hydatid patients having no history of visits to the endemic areas shows the possibility that the life-cycle of E. multilocularis might be maintained at least in the northernmost part of Honshu. PMID:10725694

  20. Selective indications for the use of praziquantel in the treatment of brain cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, D; Cruz-Segura, H; Mateos-Gomez, H; Zenteno Alanis, G

    1987-01-01

    The selective use of praziquantel for the treatment of brain cysticercosis in human beings is described, based upon the results of clinical tests conducted during a 2 year period. Forty patients with clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis, confirmed and documented by CT, were treated. They are divided into four groups, representative of the various forms of the disease. The results assessed by clinical evaluation and sequential CT, give a ten point criterion of the indications for praziquantel. Images PMID:3495636

  1. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system: clinical and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Torrealba, G; Del Villar, S; Tagle, P; Arriagada, P; Kase, C S

    1984-01-01

    In a group of forty cases of cysticercosis of the central nervous system, 59% presented with intracranial hypertension due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Ventricular or cisternal cysts, and chronic cysticercus meningitis were the most common causes of hydrocephalus. Seizures occurred in 40% of the patients, in one-half of them in association with CT-detected parenchymatous cysts. In 20% of the cases progressive mental deterioration was the main clinical feature, at times associated with hydrocephalus. CT scan provided the highest diagnostic yield, being abnormal in 90% of cases. Long term prognosis was poor, with a mortality rate of 38% over a 40-month follow-up period. The most common cause of death (60%) was meningitis. CSF shunting is the treatment of choice for hydrocephalus, irrespective of its mechanism. Surgical resection is indicated in some cases with a single superficial (cortical) or posterior fossa cyst. Supratentorial cysts carry a relatively benign prognosis. Images PMID:6470720

  2. A prognostic classification of cerebral cysticercosis: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, B; Corona, T; Abad, P

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation with a highly variable prognosis and diverse clinical manifestations. Over the period of two years 51 patients were studied prospectively with this infestation, paying particular attention to the duration and severity of the illness, clinical course, CT findings and therapeutic modalities. Patients with parenchymal cysts or calcification without hydrocephalus had a benign disorder presenting commonly with seizures. This type of infestation usually is long-standing, almost never requires surgical treatment, responds to praziquantel therapy and has a good prognosis. In contrast, patients who present with hydrocephalus, large supratentorial cysts, multiple granulomata with cerebral oedema or with vasculitis and cerebral infarction, have an aggressive, acute or subacute illness, presenting with raised intracranial pressure, gait disturbances, mental changes, seizures, cranial nerve palsies, hemisphere syndromes, chronic meningitis and stroke. This malignant form usually requires surgical therapy, does not respond to praziquantel and may produce a fatal outcome or serious sequelae. PMID:3783174

  3. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2013-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (κ<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which

  4. The purinoceptors of the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Piper, A S; Hollingsworth, M

    1995-07-01

    The guinea-pig taenia caeci contains both P1 and P2 purinoceptors mediating relaxation. The P2 purinoceptors have been further characterized using an experimental approach designed to minimise complicating factors. In the presence of the adenosine uptake inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI, 300 nM) and a pA100 concentration of the P1 purinoceptor antagonist 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (140 microM), the potency order of agonists was: 2-methylthio-ATP > adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) = alpha, beta-methylene ATP > beta, gamma-methylene ATP > uridine 5'-triphosphate. Suramin antagonized ATP (pA2 = 5.52 +/- 0.17, Schild plot slope = 0.67 +/- 0.08) and 2-methylthio-ATP (pA2 = 5.78 +/- 0.30, Schild plot slope = 1.37 +/- 0.39) while responses to 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) were unaffected. The findings suggest that suramin, while it is selective for P2 relative to P1 purinoceptors, is not a true competitive antagonist. Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) antagonized ATP in isolated guinea-pig vas deferens, but had no effect on responses to ATP in guinea-pig taenia caeci indicating it is selective for P2X relative to P2Y purinoceptors. PMID:7589176

  5. Cysticercosis of the oral cavity: report of five cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saran, R K; Rattan, V; Rajwanshi, A; Nijkawan, R; Gupta, S K

    1998-12-01

    This paper reports on five cases of cysticercosis of tongue and buccal mucosa, diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), affecting child patients who presented between January 1994 and October 1997. Four cases presented with gradually increasing nodular swelling of the dorsum of tongue and in the fifth case the swelling was situated on the buccal mucosa of the left side. A clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis was not entertained in any of these patients, who each presented with a solitary lesion; instead, it was considered to be a benign cyst or benign tumour of salivary gland or mesenchymal tissue, before FNAC diagnosis. These lesions of the oral cavity may present first to a dentist and, in endemic areas, cysticercosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary nodular lesions of the oral cavity, particularly in young individuals. PMID:9927929

  6. Anticysticercous antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Corona, T; Pascoe, D; González-Barranco, D; Abad, P; Landa, L; Estañol, B

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-one cases of cerebral cysticercosis proved by surgery or CT scanning were studied prospectively with the ELISA test in order to detect anticysticercous antibodies in blood and CSF. The ELISA test was also performed for detection of antibodies in 20 control patients who had CSF withdrawn during a myelogram and in 119 serum samples of asymptomatic subjects. We found an overall sensitivity of the ELISA test in the blood of 87% with a specificity of 90%. In the CSF we found a sensitivity of 87% with a specificity of 100%. However, when we compared patients with cerebral cysticercosis of a benign type with patients with cerebral cysticercosis of a malignant type we found a serum sensitivity of 75% for the benign group as compared to 93% of the malignant group. The CSF sensitivity was 80% in the benign group and 93% in the malignant group. This difference was statistically significant. PMID:3760893

  7. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

  8. Recent situation of taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  9. Recent Situation of Taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  10. A live cysticercosis in anterior chamber leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Abhishek; Singh, Mahendra Kumar; Singh, Virendra Pratap; Rai, Amit Kumar; Chakraborty, Somnath; Maurya, Om Prakash Singh

    2007-03-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with pain and redness in her left eye. On examination, a free-floating cyst of size 4 mm with prominent scolex was observed in the anterior chamber. Scolex was occasionally moving in and out of its bag. To prevent the cyst migrating to the posterior chamber, pilocarpine eye drops were instilled. After 2 hours, the patient developed total pupilary block with iris bombe. The intraocular tension was 48 mm Hg. The diagnosis of cysticercosis leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block was made. The cyst was removed surgically by viscoexpression. The histopathology proved to be a cysticercosis. PMID:17473746

  11. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis, malaria, and Trypanosoma cruzi among North Carolina migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, S; Seed, J R; Estrada, J; Wrenn, E

    1993-01-01

    A seroprevalence study of cysticercosis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and plasmodia species and screening for active malaria was conducted among a randomly selected group of 138 Hispanic and Haitian migrant farmworkers. A random sample of labor camps in eastern North Carolina was selected. Blood samples were tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody techniques for plasmodial antibody and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticerci and T. cruzi antibodies. Questionnaires collected demographic data and medical history of the workers and family. Blood films stained with Leukostat stain were examined for plasmodia species. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis was 10 percent, T. cruzi 2 percent, and plasmodia species 4.4 percent. One case of active malaria (Plasmodium vivax) was demonstrated. The clinical significance of seropositivity was not determined, but these results suggest that a small but significant number of farmworkers are infected with cysticercosis, T. cruzi, and malaria. Migrant health clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of these infections. Greater observance and enforcement of sanitation regulations in farmwork is needed to prevent transmission of cysticercosis. PMID:8265758

  12. Human cysticercosis: antigens, antibodies and non-responders.

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C

    1980-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 6 PMID:7389197

  13. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece. PMID:26688203

  14. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  15. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  16. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  17. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  18. Novel Rat Model for Neurocysticercosis Using Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela R.; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26216286

  19. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  20. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary

  1. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R.; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. Methodology/Principal Findings T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development–days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15–30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite’s immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations. PMID:26863440

  2. Immunological response of the rat to infection with Taenia taeniaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, A. J.; Williams, J. F.; Leid, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical inhibitors of immediate hypersensitivity were used to treat rats passively immunized against Taenia taeniaeformis with serum containing 7Sγ2a and reaginic antibodies. There was no significant reduction in protection against oral challenge with eggs in these animals, indicating that reagin-mediated hypersensitivity reactions were not an essential component of the protective mechanism. However, systemic reagin sensitization was shown to result in an acceleration of the rate at which challenge organisms were destroyed in immune rats. By 12 h after infection most of the parasites had been killed in the livers of rats which had been both passively immunized and reagin-sensitized, whereas a large proportion survived in rats passively immunized, but not reagin-sensitized. This effect of reagin appeared to be limited to the early stages of resistance since parallel groups left for 21 days after challenge were shown to have been equally well protected. In an effort to determine if vasoactive amines liberated by reagin-mediated reactions could act directly on invading parasites, early larval stages of T. taeniaeformis were exposed to histamine or serotonin (5HT) in vitro or in vivo. Consistent results were not obtained, but significant inhibition (P<0.05) of viability of parasites exposed to histamine occurred on two occasions. Significant (P<0.01) inhibition of infectivity of T. taeniaeformis also resulted when peritoneal anaphylactic diffusate was introduced into isolated gut loops containing hatched embryos of the parasite. The results are discussed in terms of the possible means whereby reagins may participate in protective immunity to infectious organisms. PMID:640720

  3. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  4. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  5. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  6. The marketing of cysticercotic pigs in the Sierra of Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986

  7. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

  8. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Pauline

    1972-01-01

    A case is described in which the clinical and pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) occurred in a patient with cysticercosis of the central nervous system and associated pachymeningitis of the cervical spinal cord. This is an extremely rare finding. The patient also presented the two symptom complexes more commonly encountered in this condition: focal and generalized epilepsy, and signs of obstructive hydrocephalus. The literature relevant to this case, and to cysticercosis in Great Britain, is briefly reviewed. The case described adds to the concept of motor neurone disease as a syndrome rather than a disease entity of undetermined aetiology. Images PMID:5026014

  9. Isolation and identification of lignans from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yong-De; Yang, Ya-Nan; Feng, Zi-Ming; Guo, Xue-Feng

    2013-05-15

    Caulis Bambusae in Taenia is a medicinal preparation from Bambusa tuldoides Munro consisting of skinless slices of the stem (bamboo shavings) and used as a traditional health food in tea, wine, and soup in Asia. Three novel lignans, (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-lyoniresinol 4,9'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), bambulignan A (10), and seven known lignan compounds (1-6 and 9) were isolated from Caulis Bambusae in Taenia. The structures of the lignans were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, HSQC, HMBC, NOE). All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities by DPPH and FARP assays. The results showed that the compounds (+)-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (-)-7'-epi-lyoniresinol 9'-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9) have strong free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:23578339

  10. [Taenia crassiceps in the anterior chamber of the human eye. A case report].

    PubMed

    Arocker-Mettinger, E; Huber-Spitzy, V; Auer, H; Grabner, G; Stur, M

    1992-07-01

    An otherwise healthy 15-year-old girl developed an iridocyclitis in her right eye. A contractable living parasite measuring two millimeter could be detected in the anterior chamber, the other parts of the eye remained uninvolved. The patient had close contact with the young dog of the family. By using a viscoelastic substance the parasite could be removed alive without any complications. The tapeworm was found to be too young for having developed the characteristic scolex. Western-immunoblotting gave indirect evidence for infection with Taenia crassiceps, a dog's tapeworm. During an observation period of two years no evidence for any other ocular or general Taenia crassiceps infestations could be found. PMID:1513125

  11. Sociocultural factors and local customs related to taeniasis in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1997-11-01

    Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia. According to our estimation, there is an annual loss of US$18,673,495, US$13,641,021, and US$2,425,500 due to taeniasis in the mountainous areas of Taiwan, Cheju Island of Korea, and Samosir Island of Indonesia, respectively. Although taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium have been reported, T. saginata asiatica is the dominate species in part of the world, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera of domestic or wild animals. Therefore, sociocultural factors and local customs are the determinants in the transmission of taeniasis. In this paper, local customs and sociocultural factors including local dishes, accidental infection during dish preparation, and treatment for anaemia of children in the countries of East Asia were reviewed. PMID:9425862

  12. Simulating strategies for control of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R. E.; Revfeim, K. J.; Heath, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A deterministic model to compare various control strategies for parasites having two hosts is presented. When applied to Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis, the model shows that maximum progress would be achieved when both the definitive and the intermediate host are treated simultaneously. This type of model may prove of value in studies on the control of other two-host parasites. PMID:7052222

  13. A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Asaava, Lucas L; Kitala, Phillip M; Gathura, Peter B; Nanyingi, Mark O; Muchemi, Gerald; Schelling, Esther

    2009-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic and public health importance. A survey of this disease was carried out in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection, to determine the prevalence of the adult tapeworm in the human definitive host, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use in assessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio-Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of the serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five adakaars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63, 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakuma were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20.9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (k = 0.025; p = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniosis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Adakaar), the deworming history of household members and the distance (>2 km) of grazing fields from the homestead were significant explanatory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.07 (0.02-0.12); p < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area. PMID:19329200

  14. Postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae). First part.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H

    1988-01-01

    The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953

  15. [Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

    2012-04-30

    The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

  16. A review on diagnostic and preventive aspects of cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sidhartha; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis have recently been included in the list of “neglected tropical diseases” by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both are zoonoses which are prevalent throughout the world and lead to considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic losses as well. This review deals with the disease burden of these two neglected cestode infections. Diagnostic modalities with their specific advantages and disadvantages have also been discussed. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic assays for the two diseases have been dealt with. Various control strategies including the use of veterinary vaccines have been highlighted. PMID:23767016

  17. Expression and motor functional roles of voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) channels in the human taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Adduci, Alice; Martire, Maria; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Arena, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Coco, Claudio; Currò, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Voltage-dependent type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels modulate the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators and the expression of KV7 channels in the human taenia coli. The effects of KV7 channel modulators on the muscle tone of human taenia coli strips were investigated under nonadrenergic non-nitrergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression and tissue localisation of channels were studied by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Under basal conditions, the KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean EC50 and Emax of 18.7 μM and 30.5% respectively of the maximal bethanechol-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed the taenia coli, with mean EC50s of 19.2 μM and 29.9 μM, respectively. Retigabine also relaxed bethanechol-precontracted strips, with maximal relaxations of 79.2% of the bethanecol-induced precontraction. The motor effects induced by the KV7 channel modulators were not affected by tetrodotoxin or ω-conotoxin GVIA. XE-991 greatly reduced retigabine- and flupirtine-induced relaxations. Transcripts encoded by all KCNQ genes were detected in the taenia coli, with KCNQ4 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 channels were clearly visualised by immunohistochemistry in colonic epithelium, circular muscle layer and taenia coli. KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone of the human taenia coli. In addition, KV7 channel activators significantly relax the taenia coli. Thus, they could be useful therapeutic relaxant agents for colonic motor disorders. PMID:24120659

  18. Extracting a large live freely floating cysticercosis cyst from the anterior chamber of the eye using visco expression technique: A case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satya Prakash; Rana, Jagriti; Dukre, Jagdish; Singh, Premala Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Ocular involvement by cysticercosis is uncommon and rare in the anterior chamber. It can give rise to iridocyclitis which can be potentially blinding to the patient. The management is usually surgical. We report a case of 18-year-old girl with large cysticercosis cyst in the anterior chamber. The cyst was removed intact by viscoexpression technique from the anterior chamber of the eye and the patient achieved visual acuity of 6/9 post-operatively. PMID:26949361

  19. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases. PMID:25814395

  20. First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sh; Youssefi, Mr; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba

    2011-12-01

    The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

  1. Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Diaz Camacho, S P; Candil Ruiz, A; Suate Peraza, V; Zazueta Ramos, M L; Felix Medina, M; Lozano, R; Willms, K

    1991-10-01

    This study reports the results of an epidemiologic survey for the detection of Taenia solium in a rural village of 559 inhabitants in Sinaloa, Mexico, as well as a large scale treatment of the population with praziquantel. The study was carried out in two stages. In stage 1, serial stool analysis of 392 persons detected a cluster of three T. solium tapeworms. A fourth T. solium tapeworm was detected through a household census, giving a 1.32% prevalence rate for this helminth. Over 70% of the population over five years of age was treated with a 10 mg/kg dose of praziquantel, and no additional tapeworms were found. Environmental studies for the detection of Taenia sp. eggs in soil, water, and and objects from the houses of tapeworm-infected individuals showed only one soil sample containing eggs compatible with Taenia sp. A total of 72 domestic pigs were examined for the presence of cysticerci under the tongue. One animal had cysts, and belonged to a household that had two T. solium tapeworm infections. Stage 2 of the study was carried out one year after large scale antihelminthic treatment (LSAT), and no infections with Taenia sp. eggs were found. No cysticercus-infected pigs were detected. Intestinal parasitosis decreased from 69.2% to 37.5%. It is concluded that LSAT with praziquantel is efficient in decreasing endemic foci of T. solium. Seropositivity to T. solium bladder fluid antigens was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found to be 11% before LSAT and 7% one year later. In family members living with T. solium tapeworm carriers, the number of seropositive individuals was 28%. The relative risk ratio of seropositivity for persons living in the same household with a T. solium tapeworm carrier was 2.95. Positive response was significantly higher in the 30-39-year-old age group, in which 30% were seropositive in stage 1, compared with 7% one year after LSAT. High seropositivity rates were significantly associated with tapeworm clusters as well as

  2. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis: standardization of ELISA and its application to field conditions.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, J; Delgado, E

    1985-09-01

    A standardization procedure for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described. Results were expressed as antibody units (ABU) which represent a multiple of absorbance of the negative control. The method was applied to immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis by IgG antibody determination. Different incubation temperatures had no substantial effect on results. There was a fair correlation between results obtained under field conditions in Cajamarca/Peru and results obtained under optimal laboratory conditions in Hamburg/FRG. Activity of antigen that had been lyophilized and stored under vacuum at ambient temperature was similar to the activity of antigen that had been stored frozen. There was a considerable loss of activity when antigen had been adsorbed to microtitre plates which were then stored in evacuated plastic bags at room temperature. Reproducible results were obtained both under optimal laboratory conditions and in the field. PMID:4081547

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. PMID:26571070

  4. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant

  5. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P < 0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. PMID:22643112

  6. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination. PMID:26892239

  7. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature. PMID:26264231

  8. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Methods Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Results Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). Conclusions It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. Objectifs Examiner la prévalence des crises d’épilepsie, de l’épilepsie et de la séropositivité à la cysticercose chez les villageois des zones rurales (cadre

  9. Hypoxia-induced inhibition of calcium channels in guinea-pig taenia caeci smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rekalov, V; Juránek, I; Máleková, L; Bauer, V

    1997-11-15

    1. The effects of hypoxia on whole-cell current in single smooth muscle cells and on a high K(+)-induced contraction of strips of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied. 2. In physiological salt solution (PSS) and K(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg) reversibly inhibited both the inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and outward Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) components of the whole-cell current. 3. In PSS and Cs(+)-based pipette solution, hypoxia reversibly suppressed ICa by 30 +/- 5% at 0 mV. 4. When Ba2+ was used as a charge carrier, the IBa was suppressed by hypoxia in a potential-dependent manner, with the maximum of 40 +/- 7% at +10 mV. Alterations of concentrations of EGTA, GDB beta S or ATP in the pipette solution did not change the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on ICa and IBa. 5. In PSS with 2 mM CaCl2 replaced by CoCl2, hypoxia did not affect the Ca2+ influx-independent potassium current. 6. In cells voltage clamped at -20 mV hypoxia reversibly inhibited the spontaneous transient outward currents. 7. The response of high K(+)-contracted taenia caeci to hypoxia was composed of an initial rapid relaxation followed by a small transient contraction and slow relaxation. The transient contraction was blocked by atropine (1-10 microM), while relaxations were unaffected by atropine and guanethidine (10 microM). 8. The results show that hypoxia reversibly inhibits ICa and secondarily suppresses IK(Ca) due to decreased Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. 9. It is suggested that inhibition of ICa was responsible for the rapid relaxation, whereas transient contraction may have been due to release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals upon hypoxia. PMID:9409475

  10. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078

  11. Spectrum of Typical and Atypical Clinico-Histopathological and Radiological Presentation of Soft Tissue and Muscular Cysticercosis in Mid-Western and Far-Western Region of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Pragya Gautam; Rana, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soft tissue and muscular involvement in cysticercosis is a relatively rarer presentation. Materials and Methods Twenty seven histopathologically confirmed cases of soft tissue and muscular cysticercosis were collected and the clinical, radiological data was reviewed. Results There was female predominance for the lesions (19 cases among 27 cases). The most common location for the lesion was in the arm (9 cases), thigh (4 cases), forearm (7 cases), abdominal wall (4 cases) followed by nape of the neck (2 cases). Lesion ranged from 8 mm to 5 cm in size. Ultrasound was diagnostic in 24 cases and inconclusive in three cases. Histopathologically, intact cyst wall was noted in 12 cases, scolex in 5 cases. Seven cases showed degenerating cyst wall surrounded by inflammatory cells, granulation tissue and fibrosis. Conclusion Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological assessment is prudent in the diagnosis of soft tissue and muscular cysticercosis in cases posing clinical diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26500910

  12. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Culling, Mark A; Janko, Karel; Boron, Alicja; Vasil'ev, Victor P; Côté, Isabelle M; Hewitt, Godfrey M

    2006-01-01

    In the last 20 years, new species, asexual reproduction, polyploidy and hybridization have all been reported within the genus Cobitis. An understanding of the current distribution and baseline phylogeographical history of 'true' nonhybrid Cobitis species is crucial in order to unravel these discoveries. In the present work, we investigated the phylogeography of the spined loach, Cobitis taenia, using 1126 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 174 individuals collected at 47 sites. In total, 51 haplotypes that differed at 49 positions (4.35%) were detected. We deduce that C. taenia survived European glaciations in at least three refugees in the Ponto-Caspian area. Two of these refugees each provided a major lineage that recolonized Europe in separate directions: one westward to England and the other spreading north into Russia before moving west. A third (minor) lineage that contributed little to the recolonization of Europe was also revealed--remaining near its Black Sea refuge. However, more recent history was difficult to resolve with colonization from a more western refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM) a distinct possibility. Nested clade analysis indicates a pattern of restricted gene flow with isolation by distance at the first two levels and overall. Unlike many other European freshwater fish species, the Danube is not part of the current distribution of C. taenia, nor was it used as either a refuge or a source of colonization of Europe. Low genetic diversity within C. taenia suggests that its colonization of Europe is relatively recent. Demographic analyses revealed a history of recent expansion and isolation by distance. PMID:16367839

  13. Relaxation of isolated taenia coli of guinea-pig by enantiomers of 2-azido analogues of adenosine and adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Planker, M.

    1979-01-01

    1 2-Azido photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine have been synthesized and tested on guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP were approximately 20 times more potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli, and required prolonged washout times before recovery of the muscle. 3 2-Azido-AMP and 2-azidoadenosine were 2 to 12 times more potent than ATP, but took much longer (up to 100 s) to reach maximal relaxation. This behaviour is different from that of AMP and adenosine which were much less potent than ATP. 4 L-Enantiomers of adenosine and adenine nucleotides were also tested. L-ATP and L-ADP were 3 to 6 times less potent than ATP and ADP, and L-AMP and L-adenosine were inactive. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-ADP were approximately 120 times less potent than 2-Azido-ATP and 6 times less potent than ATP as relaxants of taenia coli. 2-Azido-L-AMP and 2-azidio-L-adenosine were almost inactive. 5 2-Azido derivatives are photolysed by u.v. irradiation to reactive intermediates. 2-Azido-ATP and 2-azidoadenosine might be suitable photoaffinity ligands for labelling putative P2 and P1 purine receptors respectively. 2-Azido-L-ATP and 2-azido-L-adenosine could be useful controls for nonspecific labelling. PMID:497519

  14. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. PMID:25631403

  15. Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System - How Should It Be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Taenia solium neurocysticercosis has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent findings Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also revised in this manuscript. Summary Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management to later consider antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropiate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC. PMID:21788891

  16. Preservation of taenia coli by freezing and storage at -196 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Penninckx, F; Vandekerckhove, P; De Loecker, W; Kerremans, R

    1986-06-01

    Some damaging effects that occur during cryopreservation by freezing to -196 degrees C have been evaluated in rabbit taenia coli by analyzing the proportional recovery of acetylcholine- and histamine-induced maximal contractions. Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) 10 v/v% was used as the cryoprotectant; it reversibly abolishes spontaneous contractility even after incubation at 37 degrees C during 2 hr. Programmed freezing at 0.6 degrees C/min with compensation for the latent heat of fusion and warming at 35 degrees C/min proved to be slightly superior to programmed cooling without compensation and slower warming. The degree of functional recovery was comparable after either abrupt or stepwise removal of Me2SO. Freeze-thawing resulted in a significant reduction of contractile force in each buffer solution tested, and acetylcholine-induced contractility was always better preserved than histamine-induced contractility. The best preservation (approximately 65%) was obtained in a potassium-rich buffer solution. The absence of calcium and magnesium from the incubating medium had no influence, whereas the presence of EDTA significantly affected functional recovery. It is difficult to compare our results with those reported by others because of multiple methodological differences. However, it seems that previous results can be improved by changing the freezing rate and the composition of the incubating and cryoprotecting medium. PMID:3731818

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  18. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States

    PubMed Central

    Townes, John M.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H.; Stauffer, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement. PMID:22377408

  19. Auranofin-induced oxidative stress causes redistribution of the glutathione pool in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; del Arenal, I P

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we have studied the effect of the gold-compound auranofin (AF) on both thioredoxin-glutathione reductasa (TGR) activity and viability of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. It was demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of AF were high enough to fully inhibit TGR and kill the parasites. In this work, the dynamics of changes in the glutathione pool of T. crassiceps cysticerci following the addition of AF, was analyzed. A dose-dependent decrease in the internal glutathione concentration, concomitant with an increase in ROS production was observed. These changes were simultaneous with the formation of glutathione-protein complexes and the export of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the culture medium. Incubation of cysticerci in the presence of both AF and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prevents all the above changes, maintaining cysticerci viability. By contrast, the presence of both AF and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in a potentiation of the effects of the gold compound, jeopardizing cysticerci viability. These results suggest the lethal effect of AF on T. crassiceps cysticerci, observed at micromolar concentrations, can be explained as a consequence of major changes in the glutathione status, which results in a significant increase in the oxidative stress of the parasites. PMID:26024834

  20. Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis by Detection of Taenia solium DNA Using a Global DNA Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Amanda T.; Creutzfeldt, Claire J.; SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Zunt, Joseph R.; Cookson, Brad T.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infection of the brain. Diagnosis is most often made by visualization of the parasitic scolex by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or by characteristic neuroimaging findings with serologic test results positive for T. solium. A patient who presents with a solitary brain lesion usually poses a diagnostic dilemma, because the differential diagnosis often includes neurocysticercosis and other infections or neoplasm. Although the sensitivity of serologic testing for T. solium approaches 100% in patients with multiple intraparenchymal cysts, the sensitivity of testing for patients with solitary cysts is <50%, which makes serologic testing a less useful diagnostic tool for patients with solitary central nervous system (CNS) lesions. We describe 2 patients with solitary CNS lesions who received a neurocysticercosis diagnosis after identification of T. solium DNA in brain biopsy tissue with use of a global DNA screening platform. Global screening is a promising tool for the diagnosis of CNS infection, especially when traditional diagnostic tools are insensitive. PMID:19025499

  1. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Wnt4 Gene in Metacestodes of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium. PMID:24850959

  2. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    SciTech Connect

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  3. A Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor enhances ovarian follicle atresia and oocyte degeneration in female mice.

    PubMed

    Solano, S; Zepeda, N; Copitin, N; Fernandez, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2015-01-01

    The histopathological effects of Taenia crassiceps infection or T. crassiceps metacestode factor inoculation on the mouse ovary were determined using six female mice in three groups: infected mice, mice inoculated with the metacestode factor and control mice. The control group was subcutaneously inoculated with healthy peritoneal fluid. The infected group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 40 T. crassiceps metacestodes, and the metacestode factor group was subcutaneously inoculated with T. crassiceps metacestode factor (MF). Light and electron microscopy and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays revealed a significant increase in ovarian follicular atresia (predominantly in antral/preovulatory stages of development), oocyte degeneration (P< 0.05), and a decrease in the amount of corpus luteum in follicles of mice infected and inoculated with MF compared with the control group. Significant abnormalities of the granulosa cells and oocytes of the primordial, primary and secondary ovarian follicles occurred in both treated mouse groups (P< 0.05) compared with no degeneration in the control group. These pathological changes in female mice either infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes or inoculated with T. crassiceps MF may have consequences for ovulation and fertility. PMID:23962763

  4. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  5. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  6. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  7. Morphology and genetic variability within Taenia multiceps in ruminants from Italy.

    PubMed

    Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Tamponi, Claudia; Pau, Marco; Scala, Antonio; Boufana, Belgees

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability and population structure of Taenia multiceps, and to correlate morphological features of individual coenuri with haplotypes. A total of 92 animals (86 sheep; 4 goats; 1 cattle; 1 mouflon, Ovis musimon) aged between 6-36 months showing clinical symptoms of cerebral coenurosis were included in this study. T. multiceps coenuri (n=118) sampled from live animals during routine surgery procedures or at post-mortem inspections were examined morphologically and molecularly identified. Morphological features of the 52 coenuri selected for this study (number and size of large and small hooks) were within the range reported in the literature. Fifty-two of the molecularly confirmed T. multiceps coenuri harboured by 47 animals (sheep=41; cattle=1; goats=4; mouflon=1) were used to determine gene genealogies and population genetic indices and were compared to the 3 T. multiceps genetic variants, Tm1-Tm3 previously described from Sardinia, Italy. For the 379 bp cox1 dataset we identified 11 polymorphic sites of which 8 were parsimony informative. A high haplotype diversity (0.664±0.067) was recorded for the cox1 sequences defining 10 haplotypes (TM01-TM10). The comparison of haplotypes generated in this study with published T. multiceps Tm1 variant pointed to the possible existence of a common lineage for T. multiceps. No correlation was detected between the size of the small and large hooks and the cox 1 haplotypes. Polycystic infestation (2-9 coenuri) was recorded in 27.7% of animals (13/47). No statistical correlation between polycystic T. multiceps infection and haplotypes was detected. PMID:27198798

  8. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  9. Decrease in establishment of Haemonchus contortus caused by inoculation of a Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Verde, C; Buendía-Jiménez, J A; Valdivia-Anda, G; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2011-05-11

    The effect of Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate (ThLVC) on the establishment of an experimental infection by Haemonchus contortus was evaluated. The lambs that received ThLVC showed a greater (P<0.05) average of blood eosinophils (BE) than the lambs that did not receive ThLVC. Lambs that were only infected with H. contortus larvae showed a fecal egg count (FEC) and an adult phase (AP) number greater (P<0.05) than lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection. No effect was observed in size and prolificacy of AP after the administration of ThLVC. The infection with H. contortus caused an increase (P<0.05) in CD4+ lymphocytes in abomasal lymph node (ALN) and the combination of ThLVC plus the infection with H. contortus caused an increase (P<0.05) in CD4+ lymphocytes in the abomasal wall (AW). In addition, a positive correlation between gamma-delta lymphocytes of ALN (r=0.73, P<0.05) with the presence of AP in the abomasum was observed. The quantity of plasma cells in ALN and AW was not affected by the administration of ThLVC nor related to the resistance observed. The results shown in this work leave no doubt that ThLVC administration prior to inoculation produces eosinophilia and partially protects against the establishment of H. contortus. However, this protection is not only attributable to the role of eosinophils, since ThLVC can function stimulating other immune response cells, such as T lymphocytes, both contributing to prevent the presence of worms. PMID:21216105

  10. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  11. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  12. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  13. Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and

  14. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  15. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771 bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3 h and lost it in 24 h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1 h and lost activity completely in 24 h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at −70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12 kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  16. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  17. Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

    2007-01-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

  18. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci. PMID:26336013

  19. Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

  20. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  1. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitão; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot. PMID:23778661

  2. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Pajuelo, Mónica J.; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. Methods For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. Results The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. Conclusions/Significance The availability of draft

  3. [Caffeine-induced contraction of guinea pig taenia coli (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Chujyo, N

    1978-01-01

    Caffeine (10 or 20 mM)-induced isometric contraction of guinea pig taenia coli showed two successively occurring phasic contractions (I and II) followed by a low sustained tension. Half-time of tension decay in II was 4 approximately 6 times longer than in I. The contraction occasionally showed only a single phasic contraction, of which tension, however, decayed showing two half-times as in two phasic contractions. In the presence of procaine 0.1 approximately 0.5 mM, DNP 0.03 approximately 0.1 mM or Mn2+ 0.5 approximately 1.0 mM, II was entirely abolished whereas I was partially inhibited and such were confirmed by analyzing the time course of tension decay. Maximal tension of I decreased in parallel with lowering the external Na while II was enhanced with 50 approximately 100 mM Na and inhibited by further withdrawal of Na. I and II showed the same Ca-dependecy with respect to the inhibition by Ca deficiency and to the time course of recovery from Ca-free state. Refractoriness to caffeine after preceding caffeine-contraction also showed little difference between I and II. Sustained tension by caffeine was dependent on Ca in the same manner as tonic K-contracture. Increase in 45Ca uptake with 40 mM K was completely inhibited by 10 mM caffeine while cellular Ca content in the presence of high K markedly increased with caffeine indicating the decrease in Ca exchangeability. The above results indicate that caffeine induced contraction consists of two phasic contractions of which EC-coupling Ca is released from two different cellular sites, and that the phasic contractions are followed by a sustained low tension caused by an increased Ca influx. In the presence of high K, caffeine abolishes the increase in Ca influx by high K and sequesters the sarcoplasmic free Ca resulting in the relaxation of K-contracture. PMID:640536

  4. The immunological response of the rat to infection with Taenia taeniaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Ayuya, J. M.; Williams, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rats immunized with in vitro products and saline-soluble antigens derived from Taenia taeniaeformis were found to be significantly protected against challenge infection. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of antigen solutions alone were effective in stimulating resistance. Adjuvants, however, were required for successful immunization when the antigens were injected intramuscularly. Bordetella pertussis and aluminium hydroxide were able to improve markedly the protective effects of antigens given parenterally by either route, but Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) was not effective as an adjuvant in this system. Reaginic antibodies to parasite antigens were detected in the sera of rats immunized with parasite antigens and B. pertussis or Al(OH)3, but none were detected in those given antigens incorporated in FCA. The possible role of reaginic antibodies in immunity to T. taeniaeformis is discussed. A single dose of antigen given orally produced significant protection. Increasing the number of daily doses of antigen administered orally enhanced the degree of protection to a limited but significant extent. There did not appear, however, to be any advantage to giving large doses (> 1 mg protein) of antigen, or extending the immunizing schedule over several weeks. Reaginic antibodies were not detected in the sera of rats immunized orally, but these animals were resistant to both oral and intravenous challenge infection with parasites. These observations are discussed in relation to the phenomena of immune exclusion of antigen by the gut, and gastrointestinally induced systemic tolerance with respect to IgE production. Sera from rats immunized by all routes were found to be ineffective in conferring resistance upon recipients when given at the dose of 1 ml/rat. Furthermore, sera from donors vaccinated intramuscularly with saline soluble antigens and B. pertussis increased the susceptibility of recipient rats to infection with T. taeniaeformis. This is in sharp

  5. The immunological response of the rat to infection with Taenia taeniaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Leid, R. W.; Williams, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Skin sensitizing antibody or reagin was detected in rats 19 days after infection with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Peak titres were reached on day 32 and thereafter declined. A second dose of eggs was capable of increasing the levels of circulating reagin, even though it was highly unlikely that the embryos had survived more than a transient period of time in the intestinal mucosa. The physicochemical and biological characteristics of this reagin are consistent with those of the rat immunoglobulin designated γE. In no instance was it possible to demonstrate short-term skin sensitization by the rat 7Sγ2a immunoglobulin class, even though previous work had shown that antibodies of this type are produced during infection. All short-term reactivity at 2-6 hours appeared to be a result of reaginic antibody fixation. Reagins were not observed to cross the placenta or be transferred by the colostrum from highly immune females to their offspring. The role of reagin in passive and specific acquired resistance to T. taeniaeformis is discussed and the mechanisms whereby it might be contributing to immunological events in this infection are outlined. An allergen was isolated from cysticerci of T. taeniaeformis which was capable of provoking passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions in sensitized rats in approximately 5 μg quantities. A single band was obtained in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which stained for protein and carbohydrate but not for lipid. Chromatographic and electrophoretic studies indicated that the allergen was very negatively charged at slightly alkaline pH. Activity was completely removed from larval extracts by absorption with a monospecific antiserum prepared against the allergen. The possibility of more than one allergen being associated with cysticerci and adult worms of T. taeniaeformis is discussed. Cross-reactions with other taeniid parasitic extracts were observed but no positive PCA reactions were elicited with extracts prepared from two

  6. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. I. Surgical treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: a 23 years experience in the Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto Medical School.

    PubMed

    Colli, B O; Martelli, N; Assirati Júnior, J A; Machado, H R; Salvarani, C P; Sassoli, V P; Forjaz, S V

    1994-06-01

    Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitosis of the nervous system and nowadays it is widespread through the world. Despite the development of anticysticercal drugs (praziquantel and albendazole), their efficacy is more marked in cases with parenchymal active cysts and they do not prevent complications such as hydrocephalus. Thus, many patients with neurocysticercosis require surgical intervention, generally of palliative nature, but that may occasionally produce a cure. The clinical outcome of 180 patients with cerebral cysticercosis who underwent surgical treatment form 1970 to 1993 was analyzed. Surgical treatment was performed to control increased ICP in 177 patients and due to local compression of cranial nerves or brainstem in five. Some patients had more than one surgical procedure, totalizing 287 interventions. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) was caused by hydrocephalus in 91%, by intracranial mass lesion (tumoral form) in 6.2% and by pseudotumor cerebri (pseudotumoral form) in 2.8% of the case. Based on the pathophysiological mechanisms of intracranial hypertension identified through conventional CT-scan, ventriculography, cysternotomography, ventriculotomography and MRI, different surgical approaches were indicated. Patients with tumoral form were submitted to direct approach and cyst removal and generally they had benefits from this procedure. Patients with pseudotumoral form whose clinical treatment failure underwent decompressive craniectomies and had a poor outcome (40% of good results). Direct removal of ventricular/cisternal cysts and/or ventriculoatrial/peritoneal shunting (VA/VPS) was performed in patients with hydrocephalus. Removal of free ventricular cysts in patients who had no ependimitis/arachnoiditis generally allowed a good outcome. Patients with adherent cysts and inflammatory process needed a VA/VPS posteriorly and the outcome was not so good. One hundred thirty-two patients were submitted to VA/VPS (109 as the first procedure

  7. [Cysticercus bovis in Turkey and its importance from the public health aspect].

    PubMed

    Kuş, Fatma Selcan; Sevimli, Feride Kırcalı; Miman, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the different regions according to the literature on the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and T. saginata in Turkey. Bovine cysticercosis and T. saginata status were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of the data obtained according to provinces and regions were showed in the Table and the minumum / maximum values of this data in different regions in the Figure. The data obtained through the literature showed that the prevalence of C. bovis and T. saginata infections are parallel in the same region. The higher prevalence of both C. bovis and T. saginata infections was determined in the Southeastern Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Central Anatolia regions respectively. PMID:24659701

  8. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  9. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  10. Inhibition of antigen- and lectin-induced proliferation of rat spleen cells by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Leid, R W; Suquet, C M; Perryman, L E

    1984-01-01

    Rat splenic lymphocytes, cultured in vitro for 3 days in the presence of a larval cestode proteinase inhibitor, exhibited a marked suppression of proliferation when stimulated with Con A, PHA, PWM and ovalbumin. Reduced responsiveness was observed over a full range of concentrations of Con A (16-fold), PHA (50-fold), PWM (four-fold) and ovalbumin (16-fold). These results indicated that the inhibitory action could not be overcome by increasing the mitogen or antigen doses beyond optimal levels. This suppressive effect disappeared when the Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor was added 20 h after the initiation of culture, suggesting that the inhibitor affects lymphocyte blastogenesis during the early stages of lymphocyte activation. PMID:6744668

  11. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits carbachol-induced contractile responses in β-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum.

    PubMed

    Denizalti, Merve; Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Bozkurt, T Emrah; Sahin-Erdemli, Inci

    2011-05-11

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is an endogenous mediator producing a potent relaxation response in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles. While ATP-sensitive potassium channels are mainly involved in this relaxant effect in vascular smooth muscle, the mechanism in other smooth muscles has not been revealed yet. In the present study, we investigated how H(2)S relaxes non-vascular smooth muscle by using intact and β-escin permeabilized guinea-pig taenia caecum. In intact tissues, concentration-dependent relaxation response to H(2)S donor NaHS in carbachol-precontracted preparations did not change in the presence of a K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ, protein kinase A inhibitor KT-5720, protein kinase C inhibitor H-7, tetrodotoxin, apamin/charybdotoxin, NOS inhibitor L-NAME and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. We then studied how H(2)S affected carbachol- or Ca(2+)-induced contractions in permeabilized tissues. When Ca(2+) was clamped to a constant value (pCa6), a further contraction could be elicited by carbachol that was decreased by NaHS. This decrease in contraction was reversed by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase or N-acetyl cysteine. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid, also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction that was further inhibited by NaHS. Mitochondrial proton pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide p-trifluromethoxyphenylhydrazone also decreased the carbachol-induced contraction but this was not additionally changed by NaHS. The carbachol-induced Ca(2+) sensitization, calcium concentration-response curves, IP(3)- and caffeine-induced contractions were not affected by NaHS. In conclusion, we propose that hydrogen peroxide and mitochondria may have a role in H(2)S-induced relaxation response in taenia caecum. PMID:21371473

  12. Taenia taeniaeformis: effectiveness of staining oncospheres is related to both temperature of treatment and molecular weight of dyes utilized.

    PubMed

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Busboom, Jan R; Nelson, Mark L; Hancock, Dale D; Tang, Juming; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2008-02-14

    Methods to determine viability of taeniid oncospheres following treatments with potential lethality have practical application in efforts to control transmission. Here we investigated several methods, in lieu of infectivity studies, to assess oncosphere viability and determine lethal temperature treatment regimens. In the first experiment, a standard treatment to exshell oncospheres with 0.5% hypochlorite was assessed for influence on oncosphere recovery of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Recovery of eggs and exshelled oncospheres decreased with increasing time in hypochlorite, which indicated that hypochlorite can damage eggs and oncospheres, translating into potential overestimation of lethality of experimental treatments. Losses in hypochlorite were accentuated when eggs were pretreated at 75 degrees C, but not lower temperatures, including 65 degrees C, indicating a sharp threshhold between 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C where eggs and oncospheres became hypersensitive to subsequent hypochlorite treatment. To further investigate this change in relation to temperature, non-vital (acridine orange, AO) and vital (propidium iodide, PI; trypan blue, TB) dyes were used to assess staining of oncospheres (exshelled or not) under conditions ranging from room temperature up to 95 degrees C. The behaviors of dyes as related to internal staining of oncospheres were described using non-linear regression and a sigmoid four-parametric model to determine the inflection point (T50). Each of the dyes differed significantly in T50 estimates, e.g. AO (69.22+/-0.53), PI (73.89+/-0.52) and TB (79.43+/-0.45). For these dyes, the T50 increased in relation to the increasing molecular weight of the dyes. Collectively, the results suggested that barriers to chemical permeability exist in eggs that breakdown incrementally with increasing temperatures above 65 degrees C. This staining behavior and the likelihood that the temperatures involved are above a lethal threshhold clarify a basic

  13. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  14. Retrospective and spatial analysis tools for integrated surveillance of cystic echinococcosis and bovine cysticercosis in hypo-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Mulatti, Paolo; Zanardello, Claudia; Simonato, Giulia; Signorini, Manuela; Cazzin, Stefania; Tambalo, PierGiorgio; Cobianchi, Mario; Pietrobelli, Mario; Capelli, Gioia

    2014-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and bovine cysticercosis (BC) are two important parasitic zoonoses, whose prevalence varies among European countries. Few data are available on prevalence and geographic distribution of these two diseases in Veneto region in North-Eastern Italy, where they are generally perceived as minor public health problems. Available data from regional farms on cattle positive to CE and BC and slaughtered in the period 2006-2010 were analysed by spatial scan statistic using a Bernoulli probablility model. Out of 576 bovines testing positive to CE, 467 were found to be autochthonous cases. Three significant CE clusters were identified, the most likely one (P < 0.0001) located in the eastern part of the Veneto region. As for BC, two clusters were identified from 148 animals resting positive, 91 which were autochthonous. An epidemiological survey was conducted and the most likely CE cluster was centered, collecting faecal samples from 28 dogs living in the farms of the area. Out of five animals (all shepherd dogs) found positive for taenid eggs by copromicroscopy, one was confirmed positive for Echinoccus granulosus by means of polymerase chain reaction. The study demonstrates the usefulness of integration of slaughterhouse data and geographical coordinates of farms involved for effective surveillance of CE and BC. The reliability of the spatial analysis in the identification of clusters of EC cases was confirmed by the finding of one dog positive for E. granulosus. PMID:24893028

  15. Management of a Chest-Wall Soft-Tissue Tumor Caused by an Infection with the Larval Tapeworm Pathogen Taenia crassiceps

    PubMed Central

    Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

  16. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  17. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ≥5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and

  18. A change in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Israel between 1973 and 2008 due to import of live cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E

    2013-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle. PMID:22620676

  19. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  20. An ELISA using recombinant TmHSP70 for the diagnosis of Taenia multiceps infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Nie, Huaming; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-09-15

    Infections with the tapeworm Taenia multiceps are problematic for ruminant farming worldwide. Here we develop a novel and rapid method for serodiagnosis of T. multiceps infections via an indirect ELISA (iELISA) that uses a heat shock protein, namely, TmHSP70. We extracted the total RNA of T. multiceps from the protoscoleces of cysts dissected from the brains of infected goats. Subsequently, we successfully amplified, cloned and expressed the TmHSP70 gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein (∼34 kDa molecular weight) was recognized by the coenurosis positive serum. Given these initial, robust immunogenic properties for recombinant TmHSP protein, we assessed the ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of this gene. The indirect ELISA was then optimized to 2.70 μg/well dilution for antigen and 1:80 dilution for serum,while the cut-off value is 0.446. We report that our novel TmHSP ELISA detected T. multiceps sera with a sensitivity of 1:10240 and a specificity of 83.3% (5/6). In a preliminary application, this assay correctly confirmed T. multiceps infection in 30 infected goats, consistent with the clinical examination. This study has revealed that our novel iELISA, which uses the rTmHSP protein, provides a rapid test for diagnosing coenurosis. PMID:26129973

  1. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  2. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (−)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  4. A dual PCR-based sequencing approach for the identification and discrimination of Echinococcus and Taenia taxa.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Marinova, Irina; Gori, Francesca; Hizem, Amani; Müller, Norbert; Casulli, Adriano; Jerez Puebla, Luis Enrique; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and rapid molecular tools for the genetic identification and differentiation of Echinococcus species and/or genotypes are crucial for studying spatial and temporal transmission dynamics. Here, we describe a novel dual PCR targeting regions in the small (rrnS) and large (rrnL) subunits of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which enables (i) the specific identification of species and genotypes of Echinococcus (rrnS + L-PCR) and/or (ii) the identification of a range of taeniid cestodes, including different species of Echinococcus, Taenia and some others (17 species of diphyllidean helminths). This dual PCR approach was highly sensitive, with an analytical detection limit of 1 pg for genomic DNA of Echinococcus. Using concatenated sequence data derived from the two gene markers (1225 bp), we identified five unique and geographically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that allowed genotypes (G1 and G3) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto to be distinguished, and 25 SNPs that allowed differentiation within Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7/8/10). In conclusion, we propose that this dual PCR-based sequencing approach can be used for molecular epidemiological studies of Echinococcus and other taeniid cestodes. PMID:27242008

  5. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity▿

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  6. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

  7. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17β-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

  8. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Ortega-Hernando, Alejandra; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC's), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL), DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:25243144

  9. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; McAuley, J

    1991-12-01

    Although not a major public health problem, food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the United States are the cause of numerous diseases that occur widely in the population. The most common food-borne parasitic diseases in the United States are trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis/cysticercosis, diphyllobothriasis, and anisakiasis. Since 1947, when the US Public Health Service began to record statistics on trichinosis cases in humans, the numbers of reported cases in the United States have declined markedly, from an average of about 400 with 10-15 deaths reported each year in the late 1940s, to an average of 57 per year with three deaths overall in the 5 years 1982-1986. Each year throughout the world, Toxoplasma gondii infects millions of persons, who contract it either by eating raw or poorly cooked meat from infected animals such as hogs or sheep or by ingesting soil contaminated with cat feces. In the United States between 400 and 10,000 infants are born each year with congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis, marked by dementia and seizures, has become the most commonly recognized cause of central nervous system opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. Intestinal taeniid tapeworm infection acquired in the United States is almost entirely caused by Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. Neurocysticercosis, caused by larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is diagnosed in hundreds of persons in the United States every year. Nearly all patients are immigrants or travelers from Mexico and other disease-endemic areas. Diphyllobothriasis and anisakiasis both have increased in recent years in association with increasing popularity of raw fish dishes. Adequate prevention and control of food-borne parasitic zoonoses require continued and improved programs to educate consumers, producers and medical practitioners. PMID:1822940

  10. Effects of magnesium pyrophosphate on mechanical properties of skinned smooth muscle from the guinea pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Arheden, H; Arner, A

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the non-hydrolyzable nucleotide analogue magnesium pyrophosphate (MgPPi) on cross-bridge properties were investigated in skinned smooth muscle of the guinea pig Taenia coli. A "high" rigor state was obtained by removing MgATP at the plateau of an active contraction. Rigor force decayed slowly towards an apparent plateau of approximately 25-35% of maximal active force. MgPPi markedly increased the rate of force decay. The initial rate of the force decay depended on [MgPPi] and could be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation with a dissociation constant of 1.6 mM. The decay was irreversible amounting to approximately 50% of the rigor force. Stiffness decreased by 20%, suggesting that the major part of the cross-bridges were still attached. The results can be interpreted as "slippage" of PPi-cross-bridges to positions of lower strain. The initial rate of MgPPi-induced force decay decreased with decreasing ionic strength in the range 45-150 mM and was approximately 25% lower in thiophosphorylated fibers. MgADP inhibited the MgPPi-induced force decay with an apparent Ki of 2 microM. The apparent Km of MgATP for the maximal shortening velocity in thiophosphorylated fibers was 32 microM. This low Km of MgATP suggests that steps other than MgATP-induced detachment are responsible for the low shortening velocity in smooth muscle. No effects were observed of 4 mM MgPPi on the force-velocity relation, suggesting that cross-bridges with bound MgPPi do not constitute an internal load or that binding of MgPPi is weaker in negatively strained cross-bridges during shortening. PMID:1319761

  11. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  12. Geographical widespread of two lineages of Taenia solium due to human migrations: can population genetic analysis strengthen this hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Chenillo, Paola; Alonso-Fernandez, Cristina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we discuss, with a new analysis of published data, the phylogenetic hypothesis of two genotypes of Taenia solium previously suggested. Sequences of mitochondrial (co1, cob, nad) and nuclear (18S+ITS1+5.8S, LMWA1 and LMWA2) T. solium DNA from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania deposited in GenBank international databases were analyzed for diversity and genetic structure. Overall, we found that percentages of polymorphic and informative sites were comparatively less in mitochondrial genes, and minimum or null values of nucleotide diversity and nucleotide polymorphism were also observed. Analysis of co1 populations showed two associations of particular interest: Asia/Latin America and Africa/Latin America; with minimal differentiation between them and a constant genetic flow. Bayesian phylogenetic trees built with the available sequences for co1+cob showed two clusters, one for Asia and another one for Africa/Latin America while with ribosomal sequences only one cluster was obtained that grouped Asian and Latin American populations. The haplotype network tree built using co1+cob showed two major clades, one clustering African and Latin American parasite populations and the other grouping Asian populations, hallmarking Mexican/Peruvian and the Indian populations as dispersion centers, respectively. The haplotype network tree built with ribosomal sequences exhibited Philippines and Peru/Mexico/Colombia as the two major dispersion centers, with several Latin American haplotypes diverging from the latter. Our results suggest that the gene flow within the different T. solium populations has the same dispersion pattern than the main maritime trade routes used between the XV and XIX centuries. PMID:19778639

  13. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  14. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a

  15. Force response to rapid length change during contraction and rigor in skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Arheden, H; Hellstrand, P

    1991-01-01

    1. Mechanical transients in fibre bundles of skinned smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli at 21-22 degrees C were investigated by recording tension responses to length changes of up to 9%, complete within 0.3 ms. 2. The length-force relationship, recorded continuously during rapid stretch of a Ca(2+)-activated contracted muscle, was linear up to at least 2.5 times the isometric force, corresponding to a stretch of about 1%. The slope of the relationship (stiffness) increased with the velocity of stretch. 3. During rapid release (about 120 muscle lengths s-1) the length-force relationship was linear down to about 50% of the initial isometric force, reached at about 80 microseconds after the beginning of the release. At lower force the length-force relationship was concave upwards. The linear portion extrapolated to zero force at about -0.008 muscle lengths. In large releases the length-force plot approached the force baseline under an acute angle, and negative force was transiently exerted. 4. When the muscle was stretched back to the initial length after a shortening step, force transiently rose above the isometric force, but decayed back within a few milliseconds. Stiffness at the time of restretch was compared with that in the initial shortening step by plotting force vs. length, and was found to be decreased to 63% within 0.3 ms of a step to zero force. Stiffness decreased further with time at zero force, and after 256 ms was about 29% of the isometric value. 5. In rigor, caused by the introduction of ATP-free solution during the plateau of isometric contraction, fibre tension decreased to about 30% of the active tension, whereas stiffness relative to force increased; 82% of the initial stiffness in rigor was detected in a restretch immediately after a shortening step, decreasing to 59% at 256 ms. When the fibre was activated at suboptimal [Ca2+] to cause the same force as in rigor, stiffness was lower than in rigor and decreased more after a release. 6

  16. Budding of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci In Vitro Is Promoted by Crowding in Addition to Hormonal, Stress, and Energy-Related Signals

    PubMed Central

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Bazúa, Silvana; Larralde, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps cysticerci (cysts) reproduce by budding. The cysts' production of buds was measured in vitro to explore parasite and environmental-related factors involved in the extreme individual variation in parasite loads of inbred mice. Cysts were placed in in vitro culture for 10 days at initial parasite densities of 1, 5, 10 cysts/well in 1 ml of RPMI Medium 1640 without serum. Results showed that there is considerable intrinsic initial variation among inoculated cysts in their production of buds and that increasing parasite density (crowding) stimulates the overall production of buds and recruit into budding most of the cysts. Identical cultures were then subjected to various treatments such as heating and exposure to peroxide to induce stress, or to 17ß-estradiol, insulin, glucose, or insulin+glucose to supplement putatively limiting hormonal and energy resources. All treatments increased budding but the parasites' strong budding response to crowding alone overshadows the other treatments. PMID:20168999

  17. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. PMID:26412140

  18. Effects of sodium gradient manipulation upon cellular calcium 45Ca fluxes and cellular sodium in the guinea-pig taenia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, P.; van Breemen, C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Sucrose and choline were utilized as NaCl substitutes in order to investigate Na—Ca interactions in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. Progressive substitution of NaCl by sucrose caused a progressive increase in cellular exchangeable Ca. This uptake, which amounted to about 300 μmole Ca/kg tissue upon total Na replacement, reached a plateau within 20 min. Complete substitution of NaCl by choline chloride caused cellular Ca to increase rapidly to an initial peak, and then decrease to a stable plateau which was also about 300 μmole/kg above control. 3. Replacement of NaCl by either sucrose or choline chloride caused a transient increase in the Ca influx rate, which was measured using a 3 min pulse labelling with 45Ca. This increase was more pronounced in choline chloride. 4. NaCl substitution by either sucrose or choline chloride caused a decrease in the 45Ca efflux rate. Two exponential components of transmembrane 45Ca efflux were found in control and Na-free media. 5. Treatment of tissues with 3 × 10-5 m-ouabain did not significantly affect the cellular Ca content after 80 min, at which time the Na and K gradients were largely dissipated. 6. Removal of medium K caused a slower dissipation of the Na and K gradients. This treatment decreased cellular Ca, did not affect the Ca influx rate, and increased the 45Ca efflux rate. 7. Tissues were incubated in depolarizing media containing 10-4 m-ouabain in order to remove the Na gradient. Subsequent measurement of cellular Na indicated the absence of a significant fraction of bound Na. 8. The ratio [Na]o/[Na]i had a value of 6.3 in control medium, and decreased as [Na]o was progressively lowered by sucrose substitution, reaching a value of < 1 in a medium containing 5 mm-Na. 9. These experiments provide evidence that a Na—Ca exchange carrier does not play an important role in regulation of tension in this muscle, and also indicate that the Ca gradient is not solely dependent on the Na gradient in

  19. Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ≥5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are

  20. Diagnosis and surgical management of non-cerebral coenurosis (Taenia gaigeri) in local Black Bengal goat of Tripura: report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Monsang, Shongsir Warson; Singh, Mangsatabam Norjit; Kumar, Mritunjay; Roy, Joyabrata; Pal, Saumen Kanti; Singh, Wangkheirakpam Ramdas

    2016-09-01

    Six cases of coenurosis were reported in a local Black Bengal goat within the age group of 6 months to 1 and half years with the complaint of swelling present on the body surfaces at different anatomical sites. On palpation, the swelling was non-painful and fluctuating uniformly under the skin. All the animals exhibited almost similar signs and symptoms except for three animals which had mild gastro-intestinal problems. All the clinical parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature) and blood haemoglobin levels (range 10-12 g %) were within the normal physiological limits. After sedation and restraint with Sequil (Triflupromazine HCl 1 mg/kg, IM), the cysts were removed carefully to avoid breakage. Identification was done on the basis of morphology and microscopic studies of scolices, suckers, pattern of rostellum and hooks present which gives confirmation of the cysts under discussion as Taenia gaigeri. All the animals recovered uneventfully from surgery after one week without any complications and on record there was no reoccurrence of the condition within 1 and half months of observation. PMID:27605809

  1. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen.

    PubMed

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases. PMID:26543392

  2. Comparative Study of Paired Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Neurocysticercosis Patients for the Detection of Specific Antibody to Taenia solium Immunodiagnostic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Odashima, Newton S; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases. PMID:26543392

  3. Influence of geographical scale on the detection of density dependence in the host-parasite system, Arvicola terrestris and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Deter, J; Berthier, K; Chaval, Y; Cosson, J F; Morand, S; Charbonnel, N

    2006-04-01

    Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (<0.1 km2); (3) mean density at a larger scale (>10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles. PMID:16329763

  4. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

  5. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  6. Partial protection and abomasal cytokine expression in sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and pre-treated with Taenia hydatigena vesicular concentrate.

    PubMed

    Buendía-Jiménez, J A; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Vega-López, M A; Cuenca-Verde, C; Martínez-Labat, J P; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2015-06-30

    The abomasal expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFNγ in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and its relationship to protection induced by a Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate (ThLVC) were evaluated. The lambs that were only infected with H. contortus larvae showed a worm burden greater (p<0.05) than the lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection. Moreover, the lambs that received ThLVC showed a greater (p<0.05) number of blood eosinophils than the lambs that did not receive the ThLVC. In general, the lambs that received ThLVC prior to infection had a greater amount of eosinophils and mast cells and higher in situ expression of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the abomasal wall than the lambs that were infected with H. contortus only or that received ThLVC (p<0.05) only. A higher expression of IL-2 and IFNγ in the submucosa compared to the abomasal mucosa and a higher expression of IL-4 in the abomasal mucosa compared to the submucosa was observed (p<0.05). These results suggest that there is a Th1 type response in the abomasal submucosa and a Th2 type response in in the abomasal mucosa. The amount of eosinophils and mast cells and the in situ expression of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 in the abomasal walls were negatively correlated with the worm burden (p<0.05). These results suggest that ThLVC is a non-specific immune stimulator for the abomasal immune response, and it is likely that the protection observed is the result of this effect. PMID:25959643

  7. A Common Worm in a Rare Place.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Mohammed Reza

    2013-11-01

    A case of a 40-year-old female, in whom a 6-meter long worm (Taenia saginata) was found in stomach, is reported here. In this patient, T. saginata upward migration of the worm to the stomach, its rare phenomenon, worm mostly seen in the small intestine. This is mainly because of the high gastric acidity. In this patient, we believe proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use caused hypochlorhydria and coexistence H. pylori infection caused chronic atrophic gastritis, which resulted in the retrograde migration of the tapeworm to the stomach in our patient. PMID:26171346

  8. Depletion of intracellular free Mg2+ in Mg2(+)- and Ca2(+)-free solution in the taenia isolated from guinea-pig caecum.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, S; Tomita, T

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated strips of the taenia of guinea-pig caecum removal of Mg2+ alone from the external solution had no clear effects on contractions produced by carbachol. However, after treatment with Mg2(+)- and Ca2(+)-free solution, readmission of 2.4 mM-Ca2+ caused only limited recovery, and addition of Mg2+ was necessary for full recovery. 2. When Mg2+ was removed in the absence of Ca2+, oxygen consumption increased, but gradually decreased again in the prolonged absence of the divalent cations. The increase in O2 consumption was blocked by ouabain or by decreasing the external sodium concentration to 20 mM. 3. Under normal conditions, the intracellular free Mg2+ concentration [( Mg2+]i) was estimated to be 310 +/- 30 microM (n = 17) from the chemical shift of the ATP peaks obtained with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), assuming the dissociation constant of MgATP to be 41 microM. 4. Removal of external Mg2+ did not alter [Mg2+]i within 100 min. However, when both Mg2+ and Ca2+ were omitted, [Mg2+]i decreased to 8.3 +/- 3.6 microM (n = 12) in 100 min. The [Mg2+]i recovered completely on readmission of 1.2 mM-Mg2+. 5. When Mg2+ and Ca2+ were omitted, the phosphocreatine (PCr) content of the tissue slowly decreased to about 90% and the ATP concentration was reduced to about 60% of the control in 100 min. On Mg2+ readmission the ATP levels recovered partially, whereas PCr decreased further. 6. It is concluded that free [Mg2+]i slowly decreases when both Mg2+ and Ca2+ are removed from the external solution, due to an increased permeability of the plasma membrane, and that when [Mg2+]i is reduced to less than about 10% of the normal internal concentration, energy metabolism, membrane transport, and contraction are impaired. PMID:2348397

  9. Isolated intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Agale, Shubhangi V.; Bhavsar, Shweta; Choudhury, Barnik; Manohar, Vidhya

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of intradural, intramedullary, spinal cord neurocysticercosis at dorsal 10-11 (D10-11) level in a mentally retarded male. A 38-year-old, mentally retarded male presented with weakness and stiffness in both the lower limbs and waist since one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a D10-D11 intradural space occupying lesion with cord compression. Intraoperatively, the tumor was grayish white, soft, cystic, and intramedullary with a well-defined plane with surrounding cord tissue. Gross examination revealed a cystic lesion of 1.5×1×0.8 cm, with a whitish nodule of 0.3 cm in diameter. The cyst wall was thin, shiny, and translucent. Microscopic examination revealed cysticercous cyst. Spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesion in patients residing in endemic area such as India. PMID:22870160

  10. Effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Lang, R J; Paul, R J

    1991-02-01

    1. The inhibitory actions of cadmium (Cd2+), nifedipine and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were investigated using a single-electrode whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. 2. Calcium channel currents were isolated using pipette solutions containing Cs+, tetraethylammonium and ATP (3 mM). Ca2+ or Ba2+ (7.5 mM) in the bathing solution acted as the charge carrier during inward current flow. Ca2+ channel currents in 7.5 mM-Ba2+ (IBa) were recorded at potentials positive to -40 mV, were maximal near 0 mV and reversed near +60 mV. Ca2+ channel activation showed a sigmoidal relationship with potential, which was half-maximal at -13 mV. 3. Both the inward and outward flow of current was depressed and eventually blocked by 0.3-100 microM-Cd2+, 0.1-10 microM-nifedipine and 2-20 mM-BDM. Half-maximal blockade of IBa at 0 mV was achieved with approximately 3 microM-Cd2+, 1 microM-nifedipine and 10 microM-BDM. Steady-state activation curves were not affected by Cd2+ or BDM, but were shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction by nifedipine at concentrations > 1 microM. 4. Calcium channel currents in single cells and K+ contractures in intact strips were both blocked in a voltage-dependent manner. Steady-state inactivation curves (f infinity (V)) for IBa were shifted 20 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 0.3 microM-nifedipine and 4 mV by 10 mM-BDM. From these shifts a dissociation binding constant to inactivated Ca2+ channels for nifedipine was estimated as 78 nM, and for BDM, 5 mM. 5. At 10 microM Cd2+ produced a 43 +/- 6% (n = 3) block of the inward current at 0 mV when Ca2+ (7.5 mM) was the charge carrier (ICa), compared with the 36 +/- 3% block of IBa induced by 1 microM-Cd2+, consistent with the suggestion that Ca2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ compete for the same binding site. In contrast, nifedipine (1 microM) and BDM (10 mM) blocked ICa more effectively than IBa. 6. Bay K 8644 (1.0 microM) increased Ca2

  11. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  12. Immunopathology in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A; Cardenas, G; Adalid-Peralta, L; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to a severe, potentially fatal clinical picture. The intensity and extension of the parasite-elicited inflammatory reaction is a key factor for such variability. The main features of the inflammatory process found in the brain and in the peripheral blood of neurocysticercosis patients will be discussed in this review, and the factors involved in its modulation will be herein presented. PMID:26667781

  13. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  14. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  15. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  16. Synthetic peptide-targeted selection of phage display mimotopes highlights immunogenic features of α-helical vs non-helical epitopes of Taenia solium paramyosin: implications for parasite- and host-protective roles of the protein.

    PubMed

    Gazarian, Karlen G; Solis, Carlos F; Gazarian, Tatiana G; Rowley, Merrill; Laclette, Juan P

    2012-03-01

    Paramyosin of the pig-human parasite Taenia solium (TPmy) is a α-helical protein located on the worm surface that is suggested to fulfill an immunomodulatory role protecting the parasite against host immune system. Besides, in challenging experiments the protein shows a vaccine potential. These observations imply that TPmy harbors antigenic determinants for each of these contrasting actions. However the suggestion was not given a support from experimental data because respective epitopes have not been described thus far. To circumvent this difficulty, we use synthetic peptides with sequences of regions composed of α-helical or linear structure to induce rabbit antibody responses for phage-display mapping of epitope core amino-acid sets. Antibodies to α-helical regions were weak binders and M13 phage-displayed peptides selected by them from two different libraries exhibited no amino-acid similarities with the original protein site. In contrast, the antibodies produced in response to non-helical segment within α-helical structure were better binders and selectors of perfect structural mimics of the protein site. This first phage display epitope analysis of TPmy supports the notion that the rod-like α-helix, which encompasses over 90% of the total amino acids, may serve as an immunomodulatory shield that protects the parasite. Further, the seven non-helical segments of the TPmy molecule may represent the only anti-parasite discrete immunogenic epitopes whose representative mimotopes can be utilized in development of pure epitope vaccines. PMID:22015270

  17. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Marta; Canova, Sergio; Rosenzvit, Mara; Guarnera, Eduardo

    2002-09-01

    The eggs from Echinococcus granulosus contaminate the environment spreading out the disease among the herbivorous. The differential diagnosis of the embriophores recovered from the soil is very difficult by morphologic and immunologic methods. In this paper we evaluate the EgO/DNA-IM1 for identification of E. granulosus oncosphere DNA and differentiation of eggs from other Taeniid. The positive result of the PCR technique shows an amplification fragment of the expected size (285 bp) corresponding to the partial sequence of the mitochondrial gene of the cytochrome oxidase CO1 from E. granulosus (391 bp). The fragment is not present in the DNA from Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Diphyll-obothrium latum, and Hymenolepis nana. It could be useful to rule out Taenia taeniformis, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia crassiceps, which sequences do not belong to the primer. We concluded that the PCR amplification employing the EgO/DNA-IM1 primer set showed high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. PMID:12376028

  18. Neurocysticercosis in the infant of a pregnant mother with a tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Asnis, Deborah; Kazakov, Jordan; Toronjadze, Tamar; Bern, Caryn; Garcia, Hector H; McAuliffe, Isabel; Bishop, Henry; Lee, Lillian; Grossmann, Rami; Garcia, Minerva A; Di John, David

    2009-09-01

    Taeniasis occurs after ingestion of undercooked pork infected with cysticerci. Most Taenia solium infections are mild; proglottids are rarely noticed in the feces. Cysticercosis develops with ingestion of eggs from a tapeworm carrier. Cysticercosis affects approximately 50 million people worldwide, and is seen mostly in Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Asia. We present a case of an 18-month-old child living in New York, who presented with seizures caused by neurocysticercosis. A family study found a 22-year-old mother, 7 months pregnant, positive for T. solium, which presented a management dilemma. PMID:19706913

  19. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  20. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  1. Cysticercosis and cerebrovascular disease: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O H

    1992-01-01

    Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is a relatively common but under-recognised complication of neurocysticercosis. It is usually caused by inflammatory occlusion of the arteries at the base of the brain secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. In most cases, the involved vessels are of small diameter and the neurological picture is limited to a lacunar syndrome secondary to a small cerebral infarct. However, large infarcts related to the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or even the internal carotid artery have also been reported in this setting. CT and CSF examination usually support the cause-and-effect relationship between neurocysticercosis and the cerebral infarct by showing abnormalities compatible with cysticercotic arachnoiditis. An accurate diagnosis of this condition is important since early treatment with steroids is advised to ameliorate the subarachnoid inflammatory reaction which may cause recurrent cerebral infarcts. PMID:1583508

  2. Asymptomatic Giant Intraventricular Cysticercosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Teerasukjinda, Ornusa; Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Tongma, Chawat; Chung, Heath

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a growing health problem in the United States and worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment is challenging especially if the physician is not familiar with this condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that neurocysticercosis affects 50 million people worldwide, especially in developing countries and causes approximately 50,000 deaths annually.1 Neurocysticercosis is of emerging importance in the United States especially in Hawai'i because of immigration from disease-endemic regions.2 We present a case of a young Chinese immigrant male who presented with impressive imaging studies of a giant intraventricular neurocysticercosis. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing neurocysticercosis, especially in the immigrant population. PMID:27437162

  3. Asymptomatic Giant Intraventricular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Tongma, Chawat; Chung, Heath

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a growing health problem in the United States and worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment is challenging especially if the physician is not familiar with this condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that neurocysticercosis affects 50 million people worldwide, especially in developing countries and causes approximately 50,000 deaths annually.1 Neurocysticercosis is of emerging importance in the United States especially in Hawai‘i because of immigration from disease-endemic regions.2 We present a case of a young Chinese immigrant male who presented with impressive imaging studies of a giant intraventricular neurocysticercosis. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing neurocysticercosis, especially in the immigrant population. PMID:27437162

  4. [Investigation of intestinal parasites in residents of the Kayseri Karpuzsekisi basin].

    PubMed

    Sahin, Izzet; Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we collected stool and cellophane tape samples from residents in four villages located in the Kayseri-Karpuzsekisi basin in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites. A total of 240 samples collected from Hanyeri (40), Sariküklü (20), Dokuzpinar (80) and Karpuzsekisi (120) were investigated. The parasites detected were as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 82 (34.16%); Enterobius vermicularis, 37 (15.41%); Entamoeba coli 26, (10.83%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 10 (4.16%); Giardia intestinalis, 7 (2.91%); Endolimax nana, 5 (2.08%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 4 (1.66%); and Taenia saginata, 1 (0.41%). PMID:17160846

  5. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  6. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  7. [Distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the environmental-food and medicine analysis laboratory of Sivas municipality during the years 1993-2006].

    PubMed

    Ataş, Ahmet Duran; Alim, Ahmet; Ataş, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the distribution and prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients who presented at the environmental-food and medicine analysis laboratory of the Sivas municipality, Sivas, from January 1993-December 2006. A total of 732 stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using native-Lugol and formol ethyl ether methods. Also, 186 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Out of a total of 918 total specimens, intestinal parasites were found in 85 (9.3%) females and 178 (19.4%) males. Parasites were found in 188 (25.7%) of the stool specimens, coming from 54 (7.4%) females and 134 (18.3%) males. Of the 75 positive cellophane tape specimens, 31 (16.7%) were females and 44 (23.7%), male. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated according to years, sex and ages in which cases were seen. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 101 (13.8%) Entamoeba coli, 27 (3.7%) Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 91 (12.4%) Giardia intestinalis, 30 (4.1%) Taenia saginata, 13 (1.8%) Hymenolepis nana, 7 (1%) Ascaris lumbricoides, 2 (0.3%) Trichuris trichiura and 1 (0.1%) Dicrocoelium dentriticum. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 64 (34.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and 11 (5.9%) Taenia saginata. PMID:18351554

  8. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  9. Novel PCRs for differential diagnosis of cestodes.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Jeroen H; Nozari, Nahid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Laetitia M

    2016-02-01

    Cestodes or tapeworms belong to a diverse group of helminths. The adult Taenia saginata and Taenia solium tapeworm can infest the human gut and the larval stage of Echinococcus spp. and T. solium can infect tissues of the human body, causing serious disease. Molecular diagnostics can be performed on proglottids, eggs and on cyst fluids taken by biopsy. Detection of cestodes when a helminthic infection is suspected is of vital importance and species determination is required for appropriate patient care. For routine diagnostics a single test that is able to detect and type a range of cestodes is preferable. We sought to improve our diagnostic procedure that used to rely on PCR and subsequent sequencing of the Cox1 and Nad1 genes. We have compared these PCRs with novel PCRs on the 12S rRNA and Nad5 gene and established the sensitivity and specificity. A single PCR on the 12S gene proved to be very suitable for detection and specification of Taenia sp. and Echinococcus sp. Both targets harbour enough polymorphic sites to determine the various Echinococcus species. The 12S PCR was most sensitive of all tested. PMID:26704662

  10. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

  11. [Dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Basso, W; Deplazes, P

    2015-08-01

    The contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, over one year. A total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from Robidog® units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. The degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. Dog faeces from Robidog® units and grasslands contained stages of the following parasites, respectively (sedimentation/flotation method): Toxocara sp. (2.5%; 1.2%), Taenia crassiceps (with molecular confirmation; 0.8%; 0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.4%; 0.7%), Trichuris sp. (0.8%; 1%), Isospora sp. (2.1%; 2%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%; 0.5%). In fox faeces parasite stages were more frequently detected: 19% Toxocara sp., 8.6% Taenia crassiceps, 6.9% Echinococcus multilocularis, 60.3% Capillaria sp., 29.3% Trichuris sp. In two fecal samples from foxes, Taenia saginata eggs or Toxoplasmagondii oocysts were confirmed by molecular analyses, these findings may be explained as an intestinal passage after coprophagy of human or cat feces, respectively. Therefore, foxes can also indirectly play a role in parasite transmission to livestock. PMID:26753365

  12. Utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing species of the family Taeniidae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaotian; Chen, Jue; Yang, Yingyuan; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Weibin; Gu, Sunlong; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhenghuan

    2014-08-01

    The family Taeniidae comprises many parasitic species, which cause serious zoonoses. However, effective identification of Taeniidae species is a long-standing problem, especially in samples from wild hosts with mixed infections of different Taeniidae species. DNA barcoding analysis of small fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been confirmed as an effective and useful method for identifying Taenia species. We therefore performed DNA barcoding analysis using a 351-bp region of the COI gene to identify 27 taeniid species including 9 in the genus Echinococcus, 2 in Hydatigera, 15 in Taenia, and 1 in Versteria. A total of 484 COI sequences were used to calculate genetic divergence expressed by the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance. The mean intra-specific K2P distance in the family Taeniidae was 0.71 ± 0.17% (±SE), while inter-specific divergences were considerably higher. We found that, generally, a 2.0% optimal barcoding threshold could be set to distinguish taeniid species. Taenia polyacantha and Hydatigera taeniaeformis were the only 2 false-positive species identification cases in this study for their intra-specific divergences above the 2.0% optimal threshold. Their high intra-specific divergences coincided with fact that cryptic divergences exist in these 2 species, to which new taxa were recommended. On the other hand, sister species T. asiatica and T. saginata showed a 2.48 ± 0.83% inter-specific divergence, which was the smallest among all the taeniid species. Although fitting the 2.0% optimal species barcoding threshold, the close genetic relationship between T. asiatica and T. saginata implies that longer mitochondrial DNA sequences like the complete COI sequence are needed to strictly distinguish them. Therefore, we concluded that the barcoding technique based on a 351-bp region of the COI gene is able to distinguish taeniid species except for cryptic T. polyacantha and H. taeniaeformis and should be carefully used in

  13. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  14. Update on Cysticercosis Epileptogenesis: the Role of the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Engel, Jerome; Eliashiv, Dawn S; García, Hector H

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system and a frequent cause of reactive seizures and epilepsy worldwide. In many cases, multiple episodes of focal seizures related to an identifiable parenchymal brain cyst (and likely attributable to local damage) continue for years after the cyst resolves. However, cases where seizure semiology, interictal EEG abnormalities, and parasites location do not correlate raise concerns about the causal relationship between NCC and either reactive seizures or epilepsy, as well as the epileptogenic potential of parasites. Neurosurgical series of patients with intractable epilepsy and cross-sectional population-based studies have shown a robust association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which might contribute to the above-referred inconsistencies. Current information does not allow to define whether in patients with NCC, HS could result from recurrent seizure activity from a local or distant focus or from chronic recurrent inflammation. In either case, HS may become the pathological substrate of subsequent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Longitudinal clinical- and population-based cohort studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationship between NCC and HS and to characterize this association with the occurrence of MTLE. If a cause-and-effect relationship between NCC and HS is demonstrated, NCC patients could be assessed to examine neuronal mechanisms of hippocampal epileptogenesis in comparison with animal models, to identify biomarkers of hippocampal epileptogenesis, and to develop novel interventions to prevent epilepsy in NCC and perhaps in other forms of acquired epilepsy. PMID:26659841

  15. [Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers in food sector in Van region].

    PubMed

    Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Körkoca, Hanifi; Ciçek, Mutalip; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2007-01-01

    Stool and cellophane tape specimens were taken for parasitological examination from 739 people who work in food sector and applied to the public health lab of the Van Health Administration for porter examination. Parasites were determined at 131 people (17.71%) of 739 worker whom samples were investigated. Ninety-five people had one, 30 people had two, 5 people had three and one person had four parasite species. Parasites determined in the study were 19.08% helminthes and 80.91% protozoon. In this study, 1.21% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.81% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.67% Hymenolepis nana, 0.40% Trichuris trichiura, 0.27% Taenia saginata, 4.87% Blastocystis hominis, 3.24% Entamoeba coli, 2.84% Giardia intestinalis, 2.02% Iodamoeba bütschlii, 0.67% Endolimax nana, 0.27% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.27% Chilomastix mesnili, 0.13% Entamoeba hartmanni were found. PMID:18224624

  16. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  17. [Distribution of intestinal parasites among patients who presented at the Department of Parasitology of the Erciyes University Medical School.].

    PubMed

    Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Sahın, Izzet

    2005-01-01

    In this study carried out from 2000-2004, a total of 34,883 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 9,879 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 9,704 (27.8%) of the specimens. The parasites that were found and their prevalence is as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 6,723 (19.3%); Entamoeba coli, 1,007 (2.9%); Giardia intestinalis, 892 (2.6%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 798 (2.3%); Endolimax nana, 486 (1.4%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 252 (0.7%); Enterobius vermicularis, 242 (0.7%); Iodamoeba bütschlii, 109 (0.3%); Taenia saginata, 92 (0.3%); Chilomastix mesnili, 67 (0.2%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 55 (0.2%); and Hymenolepis nana, 40 (0.1%). PMID:17124684

  18. The current status of neurocysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mafojane, N A; Appleton, C C; Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Willingham, A L

    2003-06-01

    Some information has been documented on the epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa through the monitoring of hospital-based patients with neurocysticercosis, community-based serological surveys of particular socio-economic groups of people and surveys of porcine cysticercosis. Studies have revealed that non-pork eaters have as great a chance of infection as a pork eater, the Xhosa-speaking people of the Eastern Cape Province have the highest prevalence of cysticercosis/taeniosis in South Africa probably due to the common practice of free-range pig farming and the lack of sanitation in these areas. Several studies have revealed high prevalence rates in children and interestingly, patients with active cysts suffering from epilepsy. A startling mode of transmission is where self-trained healers use Taenia segments either for benevolent (e.g. in the treatment of severe intestinal tapeworm infections) or malevolent (evil) purposes (e.g. women "poisoning" an unfaithful husband or lover by adding the contents of Taenia solium segments to beer). PMID:12781375

  19. Foodborne and waterborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2003-01-01

    More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

  20. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holt, Hannah R; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Blaszak, Kate; Keokamphe, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Phongmany, Anousone; Durr, Peter A; Graham, Kerryne; Allen, John; Donnelly, Blánaid; Blacksell, Stuart D; Unger, Fred; Grace, Delia; Alonso, Silvia; Gilbert, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7%) and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%), and lower for JEV (around 5%), Taenia spp. (around 3%) and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%). Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%), handled raw meat or offal (99.4%) and consumed raw pigs' blood (76.4%). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned) and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91) and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34) times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village. PMID:27070428

  1. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hannah R.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Blaszak, Kate; Keokamphe, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Phongmany, Anousone; Durr, Peter A.; Graham, Kerryne; Allen, John; Donnelly, Blánaid; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Unger, Fred; Grace, Delia; Alonso, Silvia; Gilbert, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In Lao People’s Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7%) and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%), and lower for JEV (around 5%), Taenia spp. (around 3%) and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%). Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%), handled raw meat or offal (99.4%) and consumed raw pigs’ blood (76.4%). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned) and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91) and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34) times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village. PMID:27070428

  2. PARASITES TRANSMITTED TO HUMAN BY INGESTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEAT, EL-MINIA CITY, EL-MINIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Kamal, Amany Mohamed; Abdelgelil, Noha Hamed; Abdel-Fatah, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Meat-borne parasites are Sarcocystis species, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis. A total of 300 animals including 100 cattle, 100 goat, and 100 pigs, slaughtered in El-Minia governmental slaughterhouses. From each animal, five samples were taken from different muscles (esophageal, tongue and cardiac) and different organs (liver and brain). Meat samples were examined macroscopic and microscopic (direct, homogenization and H&E staining) for detection of the above-mentioned parasites. Serum samples were subjected to IHA for detection of T gondii specific antibodies. This study revealed that Sarcocystis species were the highest parasites that could be detected, with overall prevalence of 80%, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.001). The digestion method was more sensitive than direct method for detection of Sarcocystis species. On the other hand, T. gondii was only diagnosed by using IHA test as 50.9% serum samples were positive, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.004). Besides, 20% of examined battle were infected by Cysticercus bovis, and 12% of pigs were infected with C. cellulosae, but without statistical significant (P < or = 0.5). PMID:26939246

  3. Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  4. [Case of polyparasitism with long-term abdominal pain in a patient].

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nihal; Koçman, Nazmiye Ulkü

    2013-01-01

    It is known that infections caused by intestinal protozoa and helminths affect over 3.5 million people worldwide. In this case report, a patient with complaints of stomach ache for a long time who received thermal treatment is presented. During this thermal treatment, diarrhoea occurred and multiparasitism was diagnosed with two helminths; pseudoparasitism and multiprotozoa, simultaneously. Stool samples were collected from the patient on three consecutive days and one day after the treatment. All of the samples were prepared with formalin-ether sedimentation techniques after macroscopic and direct microscopic investigation. Cellophane-tape method for Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. and Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining method for coccidian parasites were used. At least four preparations were performed for each sample and serum physiologic, lugol' solution and trichrome stain were used for microscopic investigations.The motile segment she brought was investigated microscopically with Indian ink and identified as Taenia saginata. Under direct microscopy, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Fasciola hepatica were seen. By formalin-ether sedimentation techniques, Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola hepatica, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli were identified. In recent years, intestinal parasitism is rarely seen in our city; therefore, multiparasitism in an adult and immunocompetent patient is interesting. PMID:23955918

  5. Unusual clinical case: extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm from the eviscerated midline incision in a post-surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Dural, Ahmet Cem; Celik, Muhammet Ferhat; Temizgonul, Baha; Unsal, Mustafa Gokhan; Akarsu, Cevher; Gonenc, Murat; Kalayci, Mustafa Uygar; Alis, Halil

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestations in humans, that may cause gastrointestinal tract related complications as a result of obstruction, perforation or anastomotic leakage. A 55-year-old male patient who was receiving palliative chemotherapy for stage IV gastric cancer was admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain. A hollow viscus organ perforation was diagnosed and an emergency surgery was performed. On postoperative day 5, the patient's midline incision eviscerated and a moving taenia emerged, with abundant particulated fluid from the incision line. The patient was admitted for abdominal surgery due to suspected bowel perforation. During the abdominal exploration, a relaxed purse stitch of the feeding tube was observed and no other bowel perforations were seen. The patient underwent two planned surgery for abdominal cavity lavage after the removal of cestode. Unfortunately, the patient died sixteen days after his admission to the intensive care unit. This is the first case describing an extraluminal manifestation of a tapeworm in a midline incision from evisceration without intestinal perforation. PMID:25881535

  6. Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

  7. Cysticercotic encephalitis: a life threatening form of neurocysicercosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajendra Singh; Handa, Rahul; Vyas, Arvind; Prakash, Swayam; Nagpal, Kadam; Bhana, Indu; Sisodiya, Mahendra S; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent neuroparasitosis and is caused by Taenia solium larvae (cysticerci). Its most common presenting feature is seizure, although it may present as headache,focal deficits, hydrocephalous, or as features of raised intracranial pressure. We herein report a case of 40-year-old male who presented with features of acute encephalitis and raised intracranial pressure with magnetic resonance imaging suggestive of multiple neurocysticerci with diffuse cerebral edema. A diagnosis of cysticercotic encephalitis was made, which is a syndrome of encephalitis with clinical and radiologic evidences of diffuse cerebral edema caused by parenchymal cysticercosis. It is important for the clinicians to be aware of this medical emergency requiring urgent attention as delay may lead to fatal outcome. PMID:24908443

  8. Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites in pigs slaughtered in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pruvot, Mathieu; Joshi, Durga Datt; De Craeye, Stéphane; Jennes, Malgorzata; Ale, Anita; Welinski, Alma; Lama, Sanjyoti; Aryal, Arjun; Victor, Bjorn; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    For several years, the demand for pork has been on the rise in Nepal. To assess the importance of pork as a carrier of zoonotic agents, we performed a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, in which we serologically determined the infection status of slaughtered pigs with regard to three of the most important parasites transmitted through pork consumption: Trichinella spp., Taenia solium cysticerci, and Toxoplasma gondii. From 2007 to 2010, 742 pigs were sampled at slaughter, of which 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.7%) were found positive for Trichinella infection, 13.8% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0.8-28.5%) for T. solium cysticercosis, and 11.7% (95% CI 5.2-17.5%) for Toxoplasma infection. Further monitoring of the related animal and human disease burden and strengthening of food safety protocols throughout the pork production chain are strongly recommended. PMID:24107212

  9. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma. PMID:20713953

  10. When things go wrong: Cysticercus longicollis in an adult wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Konjević, Dean; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Sindičić, Magda; Martinković, Franjo; Jan, Dagny Stojčević

    2016-03-01

    First case of Cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of Taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was killed by dogs at Nature Park Medvednica and presented to the University of Zagreb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. Necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the leg muscles, and numerous of spherical cysts in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Cysticerci were identified as C. longicollis based on their size, number and size of the rostellar hooks, mode of proliferation and DNA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. crassiceps cysticercosis in a wild carnivore. PMID:26746845

  11. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

  12. Cysticercus Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n = 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried out with the anti-Tso, anti-Tcra, and anti-Tcra <30 kDa showed sensitivities of 81.2, 90, and 95.8% and specificities of 82, 98, and 100%, respectively. The 14- and 18-kDa low-molecular-weight peptides were only detected in CSF samples from patients with NC by immunoblotting with anti-Tso and anti-Tcra sera. Because of the importance of the diagnosis and prognosis of cysticercosis, the detection of antigens may contribute as an additional marker to the study and clarification of the parasite-host relationship. PMID:11526181

  13. Performance of Tsol-p27 antigen for the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Nhancupe, N; Noormahomed, E V; Afonso, S; Falk, K I; Lindh, J

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires expensive neuroimaging techniques that are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Accordingly, there is a need for new low-cost diagnostic methods that offer high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we evaluated Western blot analysis of the previously described recombinant antigen Tsol-p27 in relation to a commercial or in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NCC, and compared the results with those provided by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which was regarded as the reference standard method. The analysed serum samples were obtained from 165 people, 18 of whom were confirmed to be NCC positive by EITB. Comparing our Western blot analysis of Tsol-p27 with a previous evaluation performed in Central America showed similar specificity (96.69% versus 97.8%) and sensitivity (85.71% versus 86.7%). The present results indicate that the recombinant Tsol-p27 antigen provides good sensitivity and specificity, and might be preferable as a diagnostic antigen in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries. PMID:26292608

  14. Quantitative Serial T2 Relaxometry: A Prospective Evaluation in Solitary Cerebral Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; de Souza, Aaron; Saini, Jitender; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the evolution of quantitative T2 relaxometry values on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (SCCL), and determine whether albendazole therapy affects T2 relaxation (T2R) values. Patients with new-onset seizures and MRI-confirmed SCCL were randomized to treatment with albendazole and antiepileptics (“treatment group”) or antiepileptics only (“controls”). Serial MRI including T2 relaxometry was performed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Of 123 patients recruited, 81 had more than three MRI scans (treatment group: 37; controls: 44; 58 patients had five scans). The lesion wall at baseline showed a mean T2R value of 152.3 ms, centre 474.9 and perilesional parenchyma 338.5 ms. These were significantly higher than those from normal parenchyma (114 ms). Over time, most sharply in the initial three months, T2R values fell but even at 24 months, they remained above those from normal parenchyma. A slight increase in T2R values from the lesion centre at six months was thought to represent the initiation of gliosis. In the treatment group, T2R values approached normal at 24 months, while controls had persistently higher T2R values. The decline in T2R values at six months was more prominent in the treatment group. T2R values at baseline and at three months differed significantly depending on the stage of the lesion, being higher in stage 2 SCCL. T2R values from SCCL declined over 24 months, being significantly higher in earlier stages of degeneration. A mild increase after six months may be due to the initiation of gliosis. T2R values appear to decline faster in patients who receive albendazole. PMID:24976202

  15. Quantitative serial T2 relaxometry: a prospective evaluation in solitary cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; de Souza, Aaron; Saini, Jitender; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2014-06-01

    We describe the evolution of quantitative T2 relaxometry values on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (SCCL), and determine whether albendazole therapy affects T2 relaxation (T2R) values. Patients with new-onset seizures and MRI-confirmed SCCL were randomized to treatment with albendazole and antiepileptics ("treatment group") or antiepileptics only ("controls"). Serial MRI including T2 relaxometry was performed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Of 123 patients recruited, 81 had more than three MRI scans (treatment group: 37; controls: 44; 58 patients had five scans). The lesion wall at baseline showed a mean T2R value of 152.3 ms, centre 474.9 and perilesional parenchyma 338.5 ms. These were significantly higher than those from normal parenchyma (114 ms). Over time, most sharply in the initial three months, T2R values fell but even at 24 months, they remained above those from normal parenchyma. A slight increase in T2R values from the lesion centre at six months was thought to represent the initiation of gliosis. In the treatment group, T2R values approached normal at 24 months, while controls had persistently higher T2R values. The decline in T2R values at six months was more prominent in the treatment group. T2R values at baseline and at three months differed significantly depending on the stage of the lesion, being higher in stage 2 SCCL. T2R values from SCCL declined over 24 months, being significantly higher in earlier stages of degeneration. A mild increase after six months may be due to the initiation of gliosis. T2R values appear to decline faster in patients who receive albendazole. PMID:24976202

  16. Elucidating the influence of praziquantel nanosuspensions on the in vivo metabolism of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Damacena; Arrúa, Eva Carolina; Pereira, Dayanne Amaral; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza da; Hemphill, Andrew; Salomon, Claudio Javier; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop nanosuspensions of praziquantel (PZQ) and to evaluate their influence on the energetic metabolism of cysticerci inoculated in BALB/c mice. We analyzed metabolic alterations of glycolytic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the parasite. The nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poloxamer 188 (P188) and poloxamer 407 (P407) were used as stabilizers. Nanosuspension prepared with PVA had a particle size of 100nm, while P188- and P407-based nanosuspensions had particle sizes of 74nm and 285nm, respectively. The zeta potential was -8.1, -8.6, and -13.2 for the formulations stabilized with PVA, P188 and P407, respectively. Treatments of T. crassiceps cysticerci-infected mice resulted in an increase in glycolysis organic acids, and enhanced the partial reversion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the urea cycle and the production of ketonic bodies in the parasites when compared to the groups treated with conventional PZQ. These data suggest that PZQ nanosuspensions greatly modified the energetic metabolism of cysticerci in vivo. Moreover, the remarkable metabolic alterations produced by the stabilizers indicate that further studies on nanoformulations are required to find potentially suitable nanomedicines. PMID:27269203

  17. Two novel ternary albendazole-cyclodextrin-polymer systems: dissolution, bioavailability and efficacy against Taenia crassiceps cysts.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; González, Cesar Rivas; Bernad-Bernad, Ma Josefa; Montiel, María Dolores Castillo; Hernández, Guadalupe Palencia; González-Hernández, Iliana; Castro-Torres, Nelly; Estrada, Enrique Pinzón; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two water-soluble polymers: pectin and polyvinylpyrrolidone in combination with beta-cyclodextrin, on the dissolution, bioavailability and cysticidal efficacy of albendazole was evaluated using a commercial suspension as reference product. The dissolution of the albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-pectin formulation was slow and incomplete (44.7%). No statistical differences in C(max) and AUC were found between this formulation and the reference. Also its cysticidal efficacy (33%) was similar to the reference (38%). The albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-polyvinylpyrrolidone formulation exhibited the highest dissolution rate (78.5%) and its bioavailability was also significantly increased (2.3-fold). In addition, the cysticidal activity of this formulation (83%) was greater than a commercial suspension. Our results suggest that the ternary system of albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-polyvinylpyrrolidone could be a potential alternative for the treatment of systemic helmintic diseases and it is worth to continue its preclinical evaluation. PMID:19769931

  18. The Styx Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A 13-year assessment has been made of the effectiveness of a monthly drug treatment programme for the control of tapeworms in dogs in order to prevent hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) and cysticercosis (Taenia hydatigena and T. ovis) in sheep. The age-specific prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs was used as the principal indicator. The trial was carried out in the Styx Valley of the Maniototo Plain in the South Island of New Zealand. Over an 8-year period dogs were treated monthly with bunamidine hydrochloride at about 25 mg/kg with little effect on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in lambs. The addition of niclosamide at 50 mg/kg for 1 year also had little effect. Eggs appeared to survive from one season to the next. Those shed prior to the lamb-rearing season gave rise to endemic-type patterns; whereas patent infections occurring during this period rapidly gave rise to an epidemic-type pattern or a ”cysticercosis storm”. In this 9-year period there were 16 ”cysticercosis storms” and all susceptible lambs were infected. These storms did not necessarily give rise to a similar prevalence on neighbouring farms, but may have contributed to the overall infective pattern. A similar situation occurred in the first year that nitroscanate at 100 mg/kg was introduced. During this 10-year period, arecoline surveillance of the dog population was undertaken in the remainder of the county and many dogs were found to harbour tapeworms. Both resident and introduced dogs may have contributed to the infective patterns in the Styx Valley. Treatment with nitroscanate was continued monthly in the Styx Valley and niclosamide was used in the remainder of the County for a further 3 years. There was a marked reduction in the age-specific prevalence and lambs on many farms were free from T. hydatigena at slaughter. However, one ”breakdown” occurred and this was almost certainly autochthonous. Comparisons with an earlier period when arecoline surveillance was used in the

  19. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  20. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  1. [Intestinal parasites in inhabitants of Wrocław and Wałbrzych].

    PubMed

    Lonc, E; Okulewicz, A; Kopczyńska-Maślej, J; Zaródzka, Z

    1999-01-01

    In the period 1990-1997 several thousand patients from Wrocław and Wałbrzych hospitals as well as inhabitants of Wrocław city were examined for intestinal parasites. The presence of parasites was noted in 12.3% of 2173 patients from the District Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław, 3.2% of 599 from Wałbrzych Hospital and 39.3% (mostly Enterobius vermicularis) of 746 ambulatory examined persons in the Private Analytical Laboratory in Wrocław. Among the intestinal protozoa the most frequent was Giardia intestinalis (from 5.7 to 18.1%) and Entamoeba coli (0.5-0.6%); the remaining amoebas (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, E. polecki and Endolimax nana) as well as Chilomonas mesnili was present only in single cases. Enterobiosis was observed in nearly half of the total number of examined children (1808); the most rarely found helminths were Opisorchis felineus (! Adult patient), Strongyloides stercoralis (2) and Trichuris trichiura (8); Taenia saginata was found in 56 patients, which constituted 1.6% of the total number of examined cases and Ascaris lumbricoides in 40 (1.2%). PMID:16883717

  2. The pattern of parasitic infection in human gut at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiamiwe, B A

    1977-03-01

    In a survey of 6213 persons conducted between January 1973 to December 1974, at the Specialist Hospital, Benin City, the most common helminths were Necator americanus (16.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (19l5%) and Trichuris trichiur (5-9%). Dicrocoelium hospes (0-06%) was also recorded and this may become an important liver parasite of man in Nigeria. Its snail vectors are believed to be species of Limicolaria and Achatina which are widely dispersed in Nigeria. Entamoeba coli and E. histolytica showed peaks during the "fly seasons", indicating that the housefly, as well as water, may be an important source of contamination. Trichomonas hominis showed peaks in the rainy seasons, and this suggests that in Benin City transmission is chiefly via contaminated domestic water-supply. The incidence of A. lumbricoides and N. americanus was high throughout the rainy and dry seasons, indicating poor disposal of human excreta and a continuous pattern of infection. The type of food and method of cooking prevented or reduced the incidence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, Diphyllobothrium latum and Fasciola gigantica. PMID:849017

  3. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of parasitic infections among under-five Sudanese children: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Karrar, Z A; Rahim, F A

    1995-02-01

    A community based prospective study was conducted among randomly selected 300 children aged less than five years selected from three camps of the police force in Khartoum from 534 households representing a total population of 4962 individuals. The study was planned to determine the prevalence and type of parasitic infestations and the related risk factors in that community. From the 300 children, 298 stools specimens were examined: 116 were positive for a single parasite, while samples from 15 children showed ova and cysts for two types of parasites giving a prevalence rate of 44%. The commonest infestations were Giardiasis (21.1%), Taeniasis (10.4%) and Enterobiasis (7.4%). Non pathogenic E. coli, E. histolytica and Taenia saginata were detected in 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.7% of stools specimen respectively. Children aged between 3 years and above were the most affected group and the infection rate was highest among the illiterate, overcrowded and large sized families. Malnourished children comprised 9.4% of the study group but there was no significant association between undernutrition and the overall prevalence of intestinal infestations, although Giardia lamblia significantly affected the undernourished group. PMID:7796747

  5. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  6. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P < 0.05) liveweight gains (136 g/day) compared to pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more

  7. Helminth infections and risk factor analysis among residents in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Li, Yuan-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Weng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Li, Lan-Hua; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-10-01

    Whilst infections with soil-transmitted helminths are common across China, the public-health significance of Schistosoma japonicum and food-borne helminths is more focalized. Only few studies have investigated the local epidemiology of helminth infections in rural China, including risk factor analysis. We collected stool and blood samples from 3220 individuals, aged 5-88 years, from 35 randomly selected villages in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique and examined for helminth eggs. Blood samples were tested for Trichinella spp., S. japonicum and cysticerci-specific antibodies. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura and hookworms was 15.4%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. was 58.8% and that of cysticercosis 18.5%. The egg positivity rate of S. japonicum in the 13 known endemic villages was 2.7%, and the corresponding seroprevalence was 49.5%. We observed a strong spatial heterogeneity in the families' economic status. S. japonicum infections were more prevalent among the Han than Bai nationality (odds ratio (OR)=3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.97-7.23) and tobacco growers (OR=3.66, 95% CI=1.77-7.60) and was only found at elevations below 2150 m above sea level. A. lumbricoides and Taenia spp. infections were more prevalent at altitudes above 2150 m when compared to lower settings (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.24-1.84 and OR=5.32, 95% CI=3.42-8.28, respectively). The opposite was found for T. trichiura (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.14-0.70). Our findings can guide the design and spatial targeting of control interventions against helminth infections in Eryuan county. PMID:17719553

  8. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  9. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  10. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia... transfuga, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei)....

  11. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  12. An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. Talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taeniid tapeworms are characteristic parasites in both domesticated and wild carnivores and life cycles are completed through predator-prey associations with rodent, lagomorph or ungulate intermediate hosts that harbor infective larvae. Globally these tapeworms contribute to morbidity and mortality ...

  13. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  14. Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages

    PubMed Central

    Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmané; Kompaoré, C; Millogo, Athanase

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

  15. A rare case of racemose neurocysticercosis and its complications. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Braz, Ana; Conceição, Carla; Rios, Cristina; Reis, João

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system infection caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The disease is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space and is characterized by proliferative lobulated cysts without a scolex. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with an eight-month history of headaches, ataxia and loss of vision. CT and MRI showed an intraventricular cyst, causing entrapment of Monro foramina and hydrocephalus, smaller cysts at subarachnoid space in temporal lobes, Sylvian fissures, supra-selar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and an intra-orbital cyst. Additionally, there were acute ischemic vascular lesions on the left thalamus and corpus callosum splenium and subacute ischemic lesions of both occipital lobes. The diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis was made after biopsy and drainage of the intraventricular cyst. It is important to recognize neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in intra-cranial cysts, not only intraparenchymal cysts. PMID:26416817

  16. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K. L.; Chahal, Rupinder

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1 month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2–S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2–S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  17. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Savadogo, Abdoul Aziz; Camara, Massaman; Toffa, Dènahin Hinnoutondji; Basse, Anna; Sow, Adjaratou Djeynabou; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline). Accurate patients’ categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. PMID:26527895

  18. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Savadogo, Abdoul Aziz; Camara, Massaman; Toffa, Dènahin Hinnoutondji; Basse, Anna; Sow, Adjaratou Djeynabou; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline). Accurate patients' categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. PMID:26527895

  19. A rare case of racemose neurocysticercosis and its complications. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Jaime; Braz, Ana; Conceição, Carla; Rios, Cristina; Reis, João

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system infection caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The disease is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space and is characterized by proliferative lobulated cysts without a scolex. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with an eight-month history of headaches, ataxia and loss of vision. CT and MRI showed an intraventricular cyst, causing entrapment of Monro foramina and hydrocephalus, smaller cysts at subarachnoid space in temporal lobes, Sylvian fissures, supra-selar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and an intra-orbital cyst. Additionally, there were acute ischemic vascular lesions on the left thalamus and corpus callosum splenium and subacute ischemic lesions of both occipital lobes. The diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis was made after biopsy and drainage of the intraventricular cyst. It is important to recognize neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in intra-cranial cysts, not only intraparenchymal cysts. PMID:26416817

  20. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. PMID:26072200

  1. Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

  2. Intradural Neurocysticercosis of Lumbar Spine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Shankar; Kalra, K L; Chahal, Rupinder

    2015-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Cysticercosis (parasitic infection caused by Taenia solium) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. However, spinal neurocysticercosis is rare. It can present as an extraspinal or intraspinal lesion, with intramedullary being the rarest location. The symptoms can vary from vague backache and radiculopathy to cauda equine syndrome. Methods We report a 32-year-old man who presented with neurocysticercosis in the lumbar spine and cauda equine syndrome. He had low backache for 1 month, hesitancy in micturition, and decreased perianal sensation for the previous 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from L2-S1 that was hyperintense in T2- and hypointense in T1-weighted images. Results Because the patient presented with cauda equine syndrome, urgent decompressive laminectomy was done from L2-S1, and the thin-walled cysts with clear fluid were removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed neurocysticercosis. The perianal sensation and the bladder control recovered completely. Conclusion Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a similar picture, and urgent surgical decompression should be attempted to prevent further worsening of the neurologic symptoms. PMID:26225286

  3. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Seth E; Flecker, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003-2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20-44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  4. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

  5. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  6. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui Infection among Riparian People in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city. PMID:27605766

  8. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  9. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui infection among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  10. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  11. Identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs using a digital image system.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Velásquez, G; Torner, F; Arambula, F; Barrios, J A; Velasco, M

    2016-07-01

    A system was developed to identify and quantify up to seven species of helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides -fertile and unfertile eggs-, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Schistosoma mansoni) in wastewater using different image processing tools and pattern recognition algorithms. The system was developed in three stages. Version one was used to explore the viability of the concept of identifying helminth eggs through an image processing system, while versions 2 and 3 were used to improve its efficiency. The system development was based on the analysis of different properties of helminth eggs in order to discriminate them from other objects in samples processed using the conventional United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) technique to quantify helminth eggs. The system was tested, in its three stages, considering two parameters: specificity (capacity to discriminate between species of helminth eggs and other objects) and sensitivity (capacity to correctly classify and identify the different species of helminth eggs). The final version showed a specificity of 99% while the sensitivity varied between 80 and 90%, depending on the total suspended solids content of the wastewater samples. To achieve such values in samples with total suspended solids (TSS) above 150 mg/L, it is recommended to dilute the concentrated sediment just before taking the images under the microscope. The system allows the helminth eggs most commonly found in wastewater to be reliably and uniformly detected and quantified. In addition, it provides the total number of eggs as well as the individual number by species, and for Ascaris lumbricoides it differentiates whether or not the egg is fertile. The system only requires basically trained technicians to prepare the samples, as for visual identification there is no need for highly trained personnel. The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute. This

  12. Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui among humans and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-08-01

    This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui. PMID:24754919

  13. Routine histopathologic examination of appendectomy specimens: retrospective analysis of 1255 patients.

    PubMed

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  14. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  15. The effect of different chemical and physical agents on the viability of Cysticercus bovis: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ghebrekidan, H

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro comparative effect of 23 chemicals and 5 physical agents on the viability of Cysticerci of Taenia saginata was investigated. Accordingly the effects of Vinegar, "Kosso-Araki", "Senafitch", "Dagim-Araki", "Datta", Gin, Lemon-juice, Cognac, Fernet Whisky, Bitter, Brandy, Kilikil, "Feto", ArakiUzo, Araki-Double Uzo, Vermouth, Metta Beer, Pilsner Beer, "Awazie", "Tella", "Tej", and Sarris Wine Red and White; was assessed on the basis of minimum exposure time (in minutes) required to render viable cysticerci nonevaginable, and was found to be 5, 20, 20, 25, 40, 40, 45, 50, 55, 75, 80, 90, 90, 90, 105, 105, 110 respectively with the remaining showing no deleterious effects on the cysts up to 180 minutes of exposure. Similarly, viable bovine cysticerci were subjected to the physical forces of x-ray radiation, electricity, UV light radiation, centrifugation and vibration, and the effect of the individual agent on the cysts was assessed on the basis of minimum applicable force required to render bovine cysticerci non-evaginable. And it was found that, whereas 500 grays (Gy) of absorbed xray radiation dose and electric current measuring 0.1 mA applied for 1/2 a minute were required to render cysts nonviable. A relative decrease in evagination time and increased viger and motility of the evaginated cysticerci was observed with the other physical forces. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that an attempt to understand the mechanism of action and may be elucidation of the active principle of the more potent agents will be a step forward towards a successful break in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:1563360

  16. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    PubMed

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  17. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due

  18. Risk factors for prevalence of pig parasitoses in Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabululu, Mwemezi Lutakyawa; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Lekule, Faustin Paul; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbozi and Mbeya (Rural) districts of Mbeya Region, in Tanzania. A total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on Ag-ELISA, McMaster technique and full body searches/ear scrapings, respectively. Nematode eggs identified were strongyles (Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.), Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Strongyloides ransomi with prevalence of 57.4%, 17.5%, 5.3% and 1.1%, respectively. Four groups of ectoparasites were identified, i.e. lice (Haematopinus suis), ticks (Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Haemaphysalis spp. and Boophilus spp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) and mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis and Demodex phylloides), with prevalence of 19.1%, 2.1%, 0.4%, and 1.2%, respectively. Pigs in Mbeya (Rural) District had higher odds for porcine cysticercosis (OR=2.63, 95% CI: [1.22-5.55]). Poor pen hygiene and infrequent antiparasitic treatment were identified to be risk factors for prevalence of nematode infections (OR=1.95 [1.09-3.52] and OR=1.78 [1.06-2.94], respectively). The odds for high nematode burdens increased in cases of poor pen hygiene (OR=4.20 [2.54-6.62]) and poor feed quality (OR=3.7 [1.66-8.33]). Pigs not treated with antiparasitic drugs within the last three months had higher odds for ectoparasite (OR=4.0 [1.78-9.09]) and lice infestations (OR=8.33 [1.96-14.28]) than treated pigs. This study has shown that parasitoses constitute a major burden for smallholder pigs in Mbeya Region and major risk factors included infrequent antiparasitic treatment, poor pen hygiene and poor feed quality. Cost-effective intervention strategies are needed to improve pork production, secure pig welfare and ensure

  19. Towards the implementation of the "basket of options" approach to helminth parasite control of livestock: emphasis on the tropics/subtropics.

    PubMed

    Krecek, Rosina C; Waller, Peter J

    2006-07-31

    The virtual reliance on anthelmintic drugs alone to control internal parasites of livestock is inappropriate and ultimately unsustainable. In the tropics and subtropics, widespread and high levels of anthelmintic resistance, particularly in nematode parasites of small ruminants, is rife. But more to the point, many farmers in these regions of the world are resource poor and cannot afford, or are reluctant to purchase drugs that may also be of dubious quality. As it is with any intervention, the benefits must outweigh the costs. This is not only in terms of conventional parameters such as reduced mortality and increasing productivity (meat, milk, fibre and traction power) of livestock, but also within the broad framework of helminths of veterinary/human importance, the aim should be a positive impact on reducing the threat of helminth zoonoses. However, understanding the issues involved and education of the end-users (farmers) is of fundamental importance, before any internal parasite control program should be promoted. Within the above context, we provide examples of how the "basket of options" approach could be adopted for the control of three quite disparate helminth problems in the tropics and subtropics, viz.: strongyle nematode infections of donkeys, the Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis problem of pig and man and Haemonchus contortus infections in small ruminants. The "best practice" approaches can be defined as those "basket of options" that are practical, affordable, available and appropriate, whether to the commercial producer, or to the resource-poor farmer. Constraints that may restrict applying such options are accessibility to, and affordability of, suitable remedies and above all, the availability of information needed to make informed decisions in this regard. PMID:16764993

  20. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. PMID:25000963

  1. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Blocher, Joachim; Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K; Winkler, Andrea S; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium. PMID:26285031

  2. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium. PMID:26285031

  3. Crosstalk among Taenia crassiceps (ORF Strain) Cysts Regulates Their Rates of Budding by Ways of Soluble and Contact Signals Exchanged between Them

    PubMed Central

    Marcela, Esquivel-Velázquez; Ricardo, Hernández; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density. PMID:24982903

  4. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A.; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  5. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chianura, Leonardo; Sberna, Maurizio; Moioli, Cristina; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Orcese, Carloandrea; Causarano, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Ecuador is considered a holoendemic high-risk area for the transmission of cysticercosis. Moreover, the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs worldwide. We present a case of simultaneous diagnosis of cysticercosis and HIV infection in a 22-year-old Ecuadorian immigrant. We would postulate that with the increasing HIV incidence in endemic areas of cysticercosis, the simultaneous diagnosis of both diseases is an event to be expected. PMID:17107432

  6. Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

  7. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the

  8. [Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in cyst samples using a novel single tube multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; İnceboz, Tonay; Caner, Ayşe; Atalay Şahar, Esra; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Döşkaya, Mert; Çelebi, Fehmi; Değirmenci Döşkaya, Aysu; Gülçe İz, Sultan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, are important helminthic diseases worldwide as well as in our country. Epidemiological studies conducted in Turkey showed that the prevalence of CE is 291-585/100.000. It has also been showed that the seroprevalence of AE is 3.5%. For the diagnosis of CE and AE, radiological (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and serological methods, in addition to clinical findings, are being used. The definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination When the hydatid cysts are sterile or does not contain protoscolex, problems may occur during pathological discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis species. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis using Echi S (5'-TTTATGAATATTGTGACCCTGAGAT-3') and Echi A (5'-GGTCTTAACTCAACTCATGGAG-3') primers and three different probes; Anchor Ech (5'-GTTTGCCACCTCGATGTTGACTTAG-fluoroscein-3'), Granulosus (5'-LC640-CTAAGGTTTTGGTGTAGTAATTGATATTTT-phosphate-3') and Multilocularis (5'-LC705-CTGTGATCTTGGTGTAGTAGTTGAGATT-phosphate-3') that will enable the diagnosis of CE and AE in same assay. During M-RTR-PCR, plasmids containing E.granulosus (GenBank: AF297617.1) and E.multilocularis (GenBank: NC_000928.2) mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions were used as positive controls. Cysts samples of patients which were pathologically confirmed to be CE (n: 10) and AE (n: 15) and healthy human DNA samples (n: 25) as negative control as well as DNA samples of 12 different parasites (Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola hepatica, Enterobius vermicularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) were used to develop M

  9. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  10. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  11. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  12. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  13. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  16. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  17. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  20. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  1. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  3. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reinfection occurs, treatment may be repeated. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium... stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies....

  6. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  9. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus, and to cats for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum...

  10. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  11. Praziquantel

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat certain other worm infestations, including tapeworm (a type of worm that may attach to ... have ocular cysticercosis (infestation with a type of tapeworm that forms cysts in the eyes)Your doctor ...

  12. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  13. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taenia infection fascioliasis Vector-borne Transmission More Common malaria leishmaniasis Less Common Chagas disease lymphatic filariasis African ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and...

  15. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus) from dogs and cats....

  16. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus) from dogs and cats....

  17. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.580, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and...

  18. Seroprevalence of Cysticercus Antibodies in Japanese Encephalitis Patients in Upper Assam, India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Himangshu; Saikia, Lahari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Co-infection of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Cysticercosis is attributed mainly to the common epidemiological features between the two diseases. Not much is known about the clinical implications of one infection over the other. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether JE-Cysticercosis co-infection is prevalent in the Upper Assam districts and to explore additional details about such co-infections both clinically and epidemiologically. Materials and Methods The present study was a retrospective cross-sectional hospital based study conducted between July 2013 and June 2014 and included 272 Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) patients. Out of this, 137 JE positive and 135 non-JE Acute encephalitis patients were taken as cases and controls respectively. The diagnosis of JE and Cysticercosis was established by ELISA. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo ver. 7 was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square was used and p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The association of Cysticercosis with JE was found to be statistically significant (14.6%, p = 0.0019) in the cases with reference to the controls (3.7%). Moreover, the co-infections were found to be more common in case of adults (19.32%, p = 0.0360); with males having a greater odds (5.25, p = 0.0008) of harbouring the parasite as compared to females. Conclusion The study proves that the association of Cysticercosis and JE holds true in this region. PMID:27437215

  19. Interaction between titanium and cadmium in various guinea pig organs.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takashi; Kaneda, Takeharu; Kaneshige, Masaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Shimizu, Kazumasa; Hondo, Ryo; Mochizuki, Mariko; Ueda, Fukiko

    2013-02-01

    Titanium (Ti) is used in many fields, while cadmium (Cd) is known to cause the itai-itai disease. In the present study, possible interactions between titanium and cadmium were investigated. Aorta, taenia coli, and liver were removed from male guinea pigs. Muscle tension was measured using intact aorta and taenia coli and using β-escin-permeabilized taenia coli in a physiological salt solution and a hyperpotassium solution containing Cd and/or Ti. Cellular Cd contents were determined using all tissues after washout with EDTA solution. Cadmium-induced relaxation in the hyperpotassium solution recovered significantly (P < 0.01) following Ti treatment in taenia coli, but not in the aorta. In β-escin-permeabilized taenia coli, the percentage recoveries after Cd treatment and after Ti plus Cd treatment were 67.3 ± 8.7 % (n = 4) and 87.7 ± 3.8 % (n = 4), respectively, compared with Ca-induced control contraction. Cellular Cd contents in taenia coli decreased significantly following treatment with Ti 10(-4) M. Although similar results were obtained using the aorta and the liver, there were no significant differences between the control and Ti 10(-5) M. High concentrations of Ti may reduce cellular Cd content. PMID:23238609

  20. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  1. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  2. Neurocysticercosis among resettled refugees from Burma.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Seth E; Robbins, Nathaniel M; Townes, John M

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and a leading cause of epilepsy in developing nations. Little is known about neurocysticercosis in refugees from Southeast Asia which is endemic for T solium. We present two cases in a single household of refugees from Burma. PMID:22414037

  3. Genetic variation in native and introduced populations of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic analysis of both native and introduced populations of invasive species can be used to examine population origins and spread. Accurate delineation of an invasive species’ source populations can contribute to the search for specific and effective biological control agents. Medusahead, Taenia...

  4. Taeniid species of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in Portugal with special focus on Echinococcus spp.☆

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Diogo; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Silva, Marta; Bravo, Inês; Santos, Nuno; Deplazes, Peter; Carvalho, Luís Manuel Madeira de

    2012-01-01

    Taeniid species represent relevant pathogens in human and animals, circulating between carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts. In Portugal, however, little is known about their occurrence and life cycles, especially in wild hosts. An epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify the role of the Iberian wolf as a definitive host for taeniid species, including Echinococcus spp. Wolf fecal samples (n = 68) were collected from two regions in Northern Portugal. Taeniid eggs were isolated through a sieving-flotation technique, and species identification was performed using multiplex-PCR followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Taenia hydatigena (in 11.8% of the samples), Taenia serialis (5.9%), Taenia pisiformis (2.9%), Taenia polyacantha (1.5%) and Echinococcus intermedius (Echinococcus granulosus ‘pig strain’, G7) (1.5%) were detected. This is the first study to characterize the taeniid species infecting the Portuguese Iberian wolf, with the first records of T. polyacantha and E. intermedius in this species in the Iberian Peninsula. Iberian wolves can be regarded as relevant hosts for the maintenance of the wild and synanthropic cycles of taeniids in Portugal. PMID:24533315

  5. Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E

    2008-04-01

    High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes. PMID:18325554

  6. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland.

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Samorek-Pierog, Malgorzata; Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Sroka, Jacek; Golab, Elzbieta; Umhang, Gerald; Cencek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to estimate the epizootic situation concerning infection by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus) from a Polish region where this parasite is highly prevalent in red foxes. Faecal samples (n = 148) were collected from rural dogs in Podkarpackie Province. Samples were examined through nested PCR (for E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, species of Taenia Linnaeus, 1758) and PCR [E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786)]. Specific products were sequenced. Faeces were also examined coproscopically. In samples from two dogs (1.4%), there were positive PCR results for E. multilocularis. Taenia-specific PCR products were found in nine dogs (6.1%). Sequencing identified Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847), T. hydatigena Pallas, 1766, T. pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786). One sample (0.7%) was identified as Mesocestoides litteratus (Batsch, 1786). All samples were negative for E. granulosus with PCR. Taking into account coproscopic and PCR results, 28% of dogs were infected with helminths (8% with tapeworms). It should be stressed that one of the infected with E. multilocularis dogs shed eggs of the Taenia type and had a habit of preying on rodents. This investigation revealed the presence of E. multilocularis in dogs for the first time in Poland. PMID:27311792

  7. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx). PMID:25830103

  8. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx). PMID:25830103

  9. [Mitotic index and kinetics of lymphocyte proliferation in biologic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Ostrosky Wegman, P

    1994-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure generates concern, mostly because the effects on DNA and cancer generation are not well known. Identification of dangerous agents are difficult due to the large latency period between exposure and clinic manifestations (from years to several generations). Biomarkers are proposed for human biomonitoring of individuals that due to natural, occupational, medical or accidental exposure are considered of "high risk". The present work evaluates the use of biomarkers of cell proliferation in lymphocyte cultures of individuals exposed to hydro-arsenicism, dangerous industrial products (DIP), neuro-cysticercosis patients under treatment with praziquantel and individuals treated with metronidazole. The slowing of cell proliferation in arsenic exposed individuals and in neuro-cysticercosis patients, in which higher cancer frequencies han been reported, evidence the usefulness of these parameters. We did not find lymphocyte proliferation changes due to DIP exposure although we did find an increased proliferation due to metronidazole treatment. The biological meaning of these data opens new research interests. PMID:7557056

  10. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China. PMID:24024457

  11. Magnitude of the Disease Burden from Neurocysticercosis in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis contributes to higher epilepsy rates in developing countries than in industrialized ones, yet no estimate exists for the associated burden of disease. We used epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis in Peru to calculate the burden of disease and applied our model to the other countries of Latin America where neurocysticercosis is endemic to determine a regional estimate. Analysis of 12 population-based community studies demonstrated that neurocysticercosis was endemic in highland areas and high jungles, with seroprevalences from 6% to 24%. In one community, the adult seizure disorder rate was 9.1% among seropositive persons versus 4.6% among seronegative persons; we used this difference for estimates. On the basis of average prevalence rates in areas of endemicity of 6%–10%, we estimated that there are 23,512–39,186 symptomatic neurocysticercosis cases in Peru. In Latin America, an estimated 75 million persons live in areas where cysticercosis is endemic, and ~400,000 have symptomatic disease. Cysticercosis contributes substantially to neurological disease in Peru and in all of Latin America. PMID:10524964

  12. A Pipeline for Differential Proteomics in Unsequenced Species.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şule; Victor, Bjorn; Hulstaert, Niels; Vandermarliere, Elien; Barsnes, Harald; Degroeve, Sven; Gupta, Surya; Sticker, Adriaan; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Palmblad, Magnus; Martens, Lennart

    2016-06-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments often take the form of a differential analysis, where two or more samples are compared against each other. The objective is to identify proteins that are either unique to a specific sample or a set of samples (qualitative differential proteomics), or that are significantly differentially expressed in one or more samples (quantitative differential proteomics). However, the success depends on the availability of a reliable protein sequence database for each sample. To perform such an analysis in the absence of a database, we here propose a novel, generic pipeline comprising an adapted spectral similarity score derived from database search algorithms that compares samples at the spectrum level to detect unique spectra. We applied our pipeline to compare two parasitic tapeworms: Taenia solium and Taenia hydatigena, of which only the former poses a threat to humans. Furthermore, because the genome of T. solium recently became available, we were able to prove the effectiveness and reliability of our pipeline a posteriori. PMID:27089233

  13. Determinants of helminth infection in a subterranean rodent, the Cape dune mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ).

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Bennett, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the largest bathyergid, the Cape mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ) was studied throughout an entire calendar year. The species richness encountered was low, with only 3 species of nematodes ( Longistriata bathyergi , Mammalakis macrospiculum, and Trichostrongylus sp.) and 2 species of cestodes ( Taenia sp. and Rodentolepis sp.). At less than 10%, the prevalence for all helminths species was similarly low and may be a result of the solitary lifestyle and the subterranean habitat exploited by this rodent. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent for the most common nematode ( L. bathyergi ), and prevalence and abundance were highest among non-pregnant females compared to males and pregnant females. Dispersal patterns associated with the mating system of the host could explain this pattern. In contrast, the prevalence of the most common cestode ( Taenia sp.) was neither determined by season nor host sex, suggesting that foraging habits may constantly expose B. suillus to this parasite. PMID:22263622

  14. Host specificity, pathogenicity, and mixed infections of trypanoplasms from freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Losev, Alexander; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the results of the 8-year study focused on Trypanoplasma sp. parasitizing freshwater fishes in the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine. Out of 570 fish specimens of 2 different species analyzed, 440 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24 % in Abramis brama Linnaeus (freshwater bream) to 100 % in Cobitis taenia Linnaeus (spined loach). The level of parasitemia also varied between moderate in freshwater bream and very high in spined loach. Interestingly, no clinical manifestations of trypanoplasmosis were observed even in extremely heavily infected C. taenia. We hypothesize that different species may differ in evolutionary timing allowing for reciprocal adaptation of the members of the "host-parasite" system. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences revealed that several specimens were simultaneously infected with at least two different trypanoplasm species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the mixed infection with fish trypanoplasms. PMID:25544706

  15. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  16. Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

    2013-10-18

    Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

  17. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  18. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  19. Prevalence of echinococcosis in street dogs in Tripole District, Libya.

    PubMed

    Ben Musa, Najla A; Sadek, Gehan S

    2007-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis due to E. granulosus is a serious public health and livestock economy problem in Libya. Kato thick smear examination of 50 street dogs stools showed that they had Echinococcus granulosus (58%), Taenia spp. (14%), Diplydium caninum (16%), Toxocara canis (121%) and 20% were parasite-free. The stool examination using Kato thick smear was more sensitive and more specific that the indirect haemaggutination test. The results were discussed with general review of the disease in Libya. PMID:18383781

  20. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

  1. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:26064015

  2. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  3. Functional and molecular evidence for β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors in human colon

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation of carbachol pre-contracted human colonic muscle to (–)-isoprenaline was examined in circular, longitudinal and taenia coli preparations to determine the β-adrenoceptor subtypes involved. β1-, β2- and β3-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were also measured in colonic muscle and mucosa.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of longitudinal smooth muscle preparations with pEC50=7.39±0.12, and this response was inhibited by both propranolol (0.1 μM, pKB 8.55±0.12) and the selective β1-antagonist, CGP 20712A (0.1 μM, pKB 8.80±0.20), while the selective β2-antagonist, ICI 118551 (0.1 μM) failed to inhibit isoprenaline relaxation consistently.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of taenia coli with a pEC50 of 6.70±0.17. Propranolol (0.1 μM), CGP 20712A (0.1 μM) and ICI 118551 (0.1 μM) inhibited the isoprenaline response with similar low affinities (pKB values 7.93, 7.71 and 7.54, respectively). Carbachol pre-contracted circular smooth muscle preparations failed to relax consistently to isoprenaline and these responses were not characterized.β1- and β2-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were present in circular/longitudinal muscle samples and taenia coli samples, and lower levels were detected in mucosa. β3-mRNA was also present in both muscle preparations but was not detected in human colonic mucosa.In summary, β1-adrenoceptors are the predominant subtype mediating isoprenaline-induced relaxation of the thin longitudinal smooth muscle of human colon, while β3-receptors do not appear to be involved in these responses. However, β3-adrenoceptors may play a role in relaxation of the taenia coli as conventional antagonist affinities are low. β3-Adrenoceptor mRNA was present in taenia coli and circular/longitudinal smooth muscle but absent from human colonic mucosa. PMID:9113375

  4. [New anthelmintic drugs].

    PubMed

    Apt, W

    1990-09-01

    New anti-helminthic drugs have appeared lately: benzimidazoles (mebendazole, flubendazol, and abendazole), praziquantel and ivermectin. Mebendazol and flubendazol are poorly absorbed and are effective for ascaris, oxyuriasis and trycocephalus both in adults and children. Abendazole is well absorbed and may be considered the drug of choice for ascaris and oxyuriasis at a single 400 mg dose. This drug may also be used for hydatid cyst when surgery is not possible and for cysticercosis of the nervous system. Praziquantel is useful for treatment of tenia infections and ivermectin is useful for strongyloides and trichostrongyloides. Detailed dose schedules for different parasitic diseases are given in the text. PMID:2152732

  5. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela N.; Cress, Marshall C.; Gabor, Oroszi; Ding, Qing-Qing; Miller, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100). The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship. PMID:24151568

  6. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  7. [Neurocysticercosis in a hospital of the city of Buenos Aires: study of 11 cases].

    PubMed

    Villa, A M; Monteverde, D A; Rodriguez, W; Boero, A; Sica, R E

    1993-09-01

    Eleven patients with diagnosis of possible neurocistycercosis were studied in our Department since 1986. All of them were adults. Eight were Bolivian citizens. The commonest neurological clinical manifestation were seizures and/or headache. Brain CT scans showed cystic lesions and calcifications in 5 patients, only calcifications in 3, enlarged ventricles in 2 and an isolated frontal cystic lesion in 1. Six out of 7 patients who were submitted to spinal fluid ELISA test showed positive response for cysticercosis. Patients were put on praziquantel (50 mg/Kg/d) or albendazol (15 mg/Kg/d) with good outcome for all them. Surgery was carried on for treatment of enlarged ventricles (2 patients) and for a like-expansive lesion (1 patient). The aim of this work is to underscore the fact that in Buenos Aires city, which previously was not within the endemic latin american area for cysticercosis, is now possible to find patients with the neurological manifestations of this parasitosis, most probably due to migration of people coming from the north provinces or from countries situated at its border where the disease is endemic. PMID:8297236

  8. Endoscopic transaqueductal removal of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Xiao, Qing; Zheng, Jiaping; Wu, Jinting; Ao, Qiang; Liu, Yunsheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we try to present our experience of transaqueductal removal of the fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis (FVNCC) with a flexible neuroendoscope. Three cases of the fourth ventricular cysticercosis were transaqueductally removed with FUJINON EB-270P flexible neuroendoscope through a frontal precoronal burr hole. The diagnosis was established on imaging and confirmed on histology in all of the cases. Complete excision of cysts in the fourth ventricle was performed in all cases with no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. The shunt and the string-of-beads multiple cysts in the basal cistern were removed simultaneously through the orificium fistulae of the third ventricle floor with the flexible neuroendoscope. Satisfactory postoperative CSF flow around foramen magnum was detected by cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients were asymptomatic, with an average follow-up of 6 months. The whole ventricular system can be explored easily with electrical flexible neuroendoscope. Endoscopic transaqueductal removal of the fourth ventricular cysticercosis with a flexible neuroendoscope should be recommended as the optimal choice of the disease due to its minimal invasion, fewer complications, shorter length of stay and cheaper treatment costs. PMID:26037193

  9. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  10. A Serological Survey About Zoonoses in the Verkhoyansk Area, Northeastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Russian Federation).

    PubMed

    Magnaval, Jean-François; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gibert, Morgane; Gurieva, Alla; Outreville, Jonathan; Dyachkovskaya, Praskovia; Fabre, Richard; Fedorova, Sardana; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Dubois, Damien; Melnitchuk, Olga; Daviaud-Fabre, Pascale; Marty, Marie; Alekseev, Anatoly; Crubezy, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic. PMID:26807914

  11. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  12. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice. PMID:2080830

  13. A study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, A; Sattari, A; Motamedi, Gh

    2006-11-30

    Human infection especially with helminth parasites is an emerging health issue, as the human environment is increasingly shared with infected animals, either pets or wild life. In this survey, the intestinal content of 83 stray dogs, 22 red foxes and 10 golden Jackals collected from the West Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Kermanshah provinces in the west of Iran, were studied for the presence of helminth parasites. The percentage of different species recovered from these animals is listed as follows: From stray dogs: Toxocara canis (6.02%), Toxascaris leonina (32.53%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.61%), Oxynema sp. (1.35%), Rictularia affinis (12.05%), Taenia hydatigena (53.01%), Taenia ovis (7.23%), Taenia multiceps (4.82%), Echinococcus granulosus (13.25%), Dipylidium caninum (38.55%), Mesocestoides lineatus (26.50%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (4.82%). From red foxes: T. canis (4.54%), T. leonina (31.82%), A. caninum (4.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (13.64%), Oxynema sp. (9.09%), R. affinis (54.54%), Strongyloides sp. (4.54%), Physaloptera sp. (4.54%), T. hydatigena (9.09%), E. granulosus (4.54%), D. caninum (9.09%), M. lineatus (81.82%), Joyeuxiella pasqalei (27.27%), Diplopylidium nolleri (4.54%), M. hirudinaceus (22.72%) and Macracanthorhynchus sp. (9.09%). From golden jackals: T. canis (10%), T. leonina (30%), R. affinis (50%), T. hydatigena (10%), D. caninum (20%), M. lineatus (70%), J. pasqalei (30%.), Alaria canis (10%), M. hirudinaceus (30%) and Macracanthomynchus sp. (10%). PMID:16899340

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christina M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments. PMID:19727409

  15. [Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study. PMID:17471412

  16. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia☆

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  17. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Tejado, Laura de Anta; Pozo, Kazuhiro Tajima; Palomino, Camila Bayón; de Dios de Vega, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, in which the human being becomes the parasite’s intermediary host. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with a marked prevalence in underdeveloped or developing. However, this disease is rare in children, which is attributed to the long incubation period of the disease, ranging from several months up to 30 years. For this reason, very few cases are found in infants at the age of preschoolers, while most frequently cases are found in children between the ages of 6 and 16. PMID:22892232

  18. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  19. Neurocysticercosis with Diplopia Responds Well to Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akihiro; Nakamura, Itaru; Fujita, Hiroaki; Fukushima, Shinji; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Fujii, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of neurocysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a headache and diplopia. Oculomotor disturbances with a left adduction deficit were observed. Fundoscopy revealed papilledema. Additionally, computed tomography of the brain revealed more than 20 small cysts within the parenchyma, most of which were associated with ring enhancement. Moreover, serum antibody testing (Western blotting) for Taenia solium-cysticerci was positive. The patient received albendazole and corticosteroids, and progressive resolution of the neurological symptoms and papilledema was observed starting approximately three days after administration. This patient has been asymptomatic for more than one year. PMID:27150884

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in the residents of an emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Huh, S; Ahn, C; Chai, J Y

    1995-03-01

    We examined stool specimens of the residents in the emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico for helminth eggs or protozoan cysts with formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method in February and July 1992. Out of 92 examined samples, number of positive was 49 (53.3%). While number of cumulative positive was 66 (71.7%). Cysts of Entamoeba coli (29.3%) Giardia lamblia (9.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.6%), and eggs of Taenia spp. (6.5) were most frequently observed. Filtered water supply and chemotherapy were required in this camp. PMID:7735788