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1

Taenia saginata and Taenia solium: reciprocal models.  

PubMed

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are of such close taxonomic relationship that each can be regarded as a model for the other. In these particular species the only available hosts are either humans or large domesticated animals. This has imposed severe safety and/or economic restrictions on the extent of the experimental work which could be attempted. Furthermore, there is a limit to the relevance of work with less closely related species such as Taenia ovis, Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia pisiformis with their differing host species, larval forms and locations within the intermediate host tissue. However, the application of both monoclonal antibody based and modern molecular biological techniques to the T. solium and T. saginata systems does much to overcome or circumvent some of the problems. Thus advances made in the analysis, diagnosis or immuno-prophylaxis of one of these species are at least potentially both of direct and immediate or indirect benefit to the work on the other species. PMID:2488993

Harrison, L J; Parkhouse, R M

1989-01-01

2

Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

2013-01-01

3

Unusual colonoscopy finding: Taenia saginata proglottid  

PubMed Central

Infection with tapeworms is a major problem in many parts of the world. Patients may be asymptomatic or have a significant morbidity depending on the species. Infection with Taenia species is sometimes found by expulsion of eggs or proglottids in stool. Species specific diagnosis of Taenia is difficult, but possible. We present a case of Taenia saginata incidentally discovered, and risk factors for transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. PMID:17907306

Patel, Nayan M; Tatar, Eric L

2007-01-01

4

Redescription of Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously

Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER

1967-01-01

5

Ag-ELISA and PCR for Monitoring the Vaccination of Cattle against Taenia saginata Cysticercosis Using an Oncospheral Adhesion Protein (HP6) with Surface and Secreted Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATaenia saginata oncosphere-derived adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization was used to successfully vaccinate calves against oral challenge withT. saginata eggs. In contrast, vaccination using a combination ofT. saginata oncosphere-derived peptides, selected on the basis of their antigenic index, and including three derived from the HP6 molecule (HP6-1, HP6-2 and HP6-3), was unsuccessful. This either indicated that the

L. J. S. Harrison; T. Garate; D. M. Bryce; L. M. Gonzalez; M. Foster-Cuevas; L. W. Wamae; J. A. Onyango-Abuje; R. M. E. Parkhouse

2005-01-01

6

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

1995-01-01

7

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium with DNA probes.  

PubMed

A size selected genomic DNA library was constructed using DNA extracted from Taenia saginata. The DNA was digested using the restriction enzyme EcoR1 under star conditions and the 2-4 kbase fraction, selected following sucrose density-gradient separation, was cloned in the bacteriophage lambda gt 10. A panel of cestode DNAs including Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia crassiceps, Echinococcus granulosus and DNAs of bovine, porcine and human origin were used in conjunction with hybridization analysis to identify two recombinant bacteriophages. The first probe, designated HDP1, reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA. The second, designated HDP2, reacted with DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium but not the other DNA samples and thus provided a general reagent for positive identification of fragments of Taenia spp. proglottides of human faecal origin. If used in conjunction the two DNA probes allow positive identification of T. saginata. In the clinical situation it is important to be able to distinguish T. saginata and T. solium infections and DNA probes such as these may be useful in such differentiation. PMID:2141926

Harrison, L J; Delgado, J; Parkhouse, R M

1990-06-01

8

Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

PubMed Central

Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

2000-01-01

9

Avaliação de frações antigênicas da forma metacestódea de Taenia saginata no imunodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana.  

E-print Network

??A utilização de metacestódeos de Taenia saginata como antígeno alternativo constitui uma importante ferramenta no sorodiagnóstico da neurocisticercose humana (NC). A reatividade cruzada com indivíduos… (more)

Heliana Batista de Oliveira

2008-01-01

10

Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections: from DNA probes to polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was the rapid and easy differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and T. solium. First, a T. saginata size-selected genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (gDNA) library was constructed in the vector lambda gt10 using the 2-4 kb fraction from the parasite DNA digested with EcoR1, under 'star' conditions. After differential screening of the library and hybridization analysis with DNA from T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and Echinococcus granulosus (bovine, porcine, and human), 2 recombinant phages were selected. They were designated HDP1 and HDP2. HDP1 reacted specifically with T. saginata DNA, and HDP2 recognized DNA from both T. saginata and T. solium. The 2 DNA probes were then sequenced and further characterized. HDP1 was a repetitive sequence with a 53 bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1272 bp fragment, while the 3954 bp HDP2 was not a repetitive sequence. Using the sequencing data, oligonucleotides were designed and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 2 selected oligonucleotides from probe HDP1 (PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified gDNA from T. saginata, but not T. solium or other related cestodes, with a sensitivity of < 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA, about the quantity of DNA in one taeniid egg. The 3 oligonucleotides selected from the HDP2 sequence (PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) allowed the differential amplification of gDNA from T. saginata, T. solium and E. granulosus in a multiplex PCR, again with a sensitivity of < 10 pg. These diagnostic tools have immediate application in the differential diagnosis of T. solium and T. saginata in humans and in the diagnosis of dubious cysts in the slaughterhouse. We also hope to apply them to epidemiological surveys of, for example, soil and water in endemic areas. PMID:12055846

González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

2002-04-01

11

Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:25081558

Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

2014-11-01

12

Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms.  

PubMed

The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. PMID:21130574

McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P

2011-03-10

13

Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.  

PubMed

Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887

Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-02-01

14

Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

2013-01-01

15

Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica  

PubMed Central

A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

2010-01-01

16

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

2012-01-01

17

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnostic detection of Taenia saginata copro-antigens in humans.  

PubMed

An immunodiagnostic sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of soluble Taenia saginata antigens in stool samples (copro-antigens) of infected humans, using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbits hyperimmunized with excretory/secretory antigens derived from T. saginata maintained in vitro. Investigation of operating characteristics showed very low cross-reactivity with crude antigens from helminths other than Taenia, including Dipylidium caninum and Diphyllobothrium latum. The specificity of the assay was 95% when testing stool samples from 100 persons who were either infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis or Hymenolepis nana, or who had no intestinal helminthosis detected. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity demonstrated that in 85% of 34 samples from 23 untreated persons with intestinal T. saginata infection (selected by previous proglottid and/or egg detection) copro-antigens were detected by the T. saginata ELISA. In the same samples, Taenia eggs were detected in 62%. Only 41% of the samples reacted positively in a heterologous T. hydatigena ELISA. Post-treatment control revealed a high concentration of T. saginata copro-antigens for 1-4 d after administration of niclosamide or praziquantel, and negative values 9-17 d after treatment. The Taenia copro-antigens remained detectable by ELISA even after storage of untreated faeces at 25 degrees C for at least 5 d. PMID:1719664

Deplazes, P; Eckert, J; Pawlowski, Z S; Machowska, L; Gottstein, B

1991-01-01

18

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

19

Failure to protect calves against Taenia saginata using antigens prepared from in vitro cultivation of the larval stage.  

PubMed

Calves were vaccinated intramuscularly against the tapeworm Taenia saginata using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens from short and long term periods of in vitro cultivation of the larval stage of the parasite, four weeks before challenge with 5000 T saginata onchospheres. Neither immunisation regime employed afforded significant protection against challenge. It was considered that this may have been due to a reduction in concentration of, or detrimental effects to, potential immunogens during vaccine production. Elucidation of the nature of the protective ES antigens necessary for standardization of the technique has yet to be achieved in helminths. PMID:7255898

Mitchell, G B; Armour, J

1980-11-01

20

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 11 August 2003\\/Returned for modification 19 September 2003\\/Accepted 26 November 2003 Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their caus- ative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yield- ed evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American\\/African and Asian genotypes

Hiroshi Yamasaki; James C. Allan; Marcello Otake Sato; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Dongchuan Qiu; Wulamu Mamuti; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito

2004-01-01

21

[Fine structure of the bladder tegument of Taenia saginata metacercaria with reference to establishment in the final host].  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the bladder tegument of the metacestode of Taenia saginata, with considerations on the establishment in the definitive host. The tegument surface of invaginated Taenia saginata metacestodes was demonstrated by scanning electron micrograph. The tegument is folded irregularly and its surface is amplified by the presence of microtriches, 44-45 microtriches/micron 2. The microtriches are about 500 nm long and have an absorptive function. Likely, form and sensity of microtriches turn out a capillary attraction that plays an important role in contact with surface (finger, tongue and duodenum of man, instrumentarium , glass, plastics). This opinion is supported by scanning electron micrograph of the surface of finger-tips, of the tongue and the duodenum of man. PMID:6721245

Engelbrecht, H

1984-03-01

22

[Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium)].  

PubMed

Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium) based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p<0.01) and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program's effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventions to achieve eradication. PMID:25272177

de Aluja, Aline S; Suárez-Marín, Raúl; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Morales-Soto, Julio; Martínez-Maya, José Juan; Villalobos, Nelly

2014-06-01

23

Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany  

PubMed Central

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing. PMID:24274258

Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela

2013-01-01

24

Epidemiology and Management of Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in Europe, Systematic Review 1990-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is caused by the invasion of human or pig tissues by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium. In Europe, the disease was endemic in the past but the autochthonous natural life cycle of the parasite is currently completed very rarely. Recently, imported cases have increased in parallel to the increased number of migrations and international travels. The lack of specific surveillance systems for cysticercosis leads to underestimation of the epidemiological and clinical impacts. Objectives To review the available data on epidemiology and management of cysticercosis in Europe. Methods A review of literature on human cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe published between 1990–2011 was conducted. Results Out of 846 cysticercosis cases described in the literature, 522 cases were autochthonous and 324 cases were imported. The majority (70.1%) of the autochthonous cases were diagnosed in Portugal from 1983 and 1994. Imported cases of which 242 (74.7%) diagnosed in migrants and 57 (17.6%) in European travellers, showed an increasing trend. Most of imported cases were acquired in Latin America (69.8% of migrants and 44.0% of travellers). The majority of imported cases were diagnosed in Spain (47.5%), France (16.7%) and Italy (8.3%). One third of neurosurgical procedures were performed because the suspected diagnosis was cerebral neoplasm. Sixty eight autochthonous and 5 imported T. solium taeniasis cases were reported. Conclusions Cysticercosis remains a challenge for European care providers, since they are often poorly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. Cysticercosis should be included among mandatory reportable diseases, in order to improve the accuracy of epidemiological information. European health care providers might benefit from a transfer of knowledge from colleagues working in endemic areas and the development of shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes would have impact on the quality of the European health systems. Key words: cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, taeniasis, Europe, travellers, migrants. PMID:23922733

Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bruno, Elisa; Munoz, Jose; Buonfrate, Dora; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Pozio, Edoardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

2013-01-01

25

Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p?=?0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p?=?0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p?=?0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear that other wide-ranging biological, physical, and cultural factors determine the geographic spread of the disease. Extensive geographic dispersal of the risk of cysticercosis makes it imperative that control measures be applied indiscriminately to all pigs and humans living in this endemic area. PMID:18846230

Morales, Julio; Martinez, Jose Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2008-01-01

26

Efficacy and Safety of Anthelmintics Tested against Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

27

Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-01-01

28

Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica  

PubMed Central

Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.

2000-01-01

29

[Scanning electron microscopic representation of the tegument of the cysticercus of Taenia saginata].  

PubMed

By scanning electron microscopy we found heteromorph microtriches in the tegumental surface of the praeadult and its bladder. But this polymorphism is caused by three unimorph parts, namely the head region, the midbody and the bladder. The types of microtriches are heterogeneous in regard to the shape (from conical to cylindrical), the size (from 0.37 to 4.5 micron in length and 0.055 to 0.092 micron in diameter) and the density (from 6.3 to 25 microtriches/micron 2). An attempt was made to determine the relative increase in the tegumental surface of the cysticercus of T. saginata. The relation of actual surface area to a corresponding area without microtriches is OF = nA + 1/1 - nB. In this study, the factor of the increase in the tegumental surface (OF) ranged from the head region (6.3x) to the midbody (1.4x -1.7x) and the bladder (21x). By transmission electron microscopy fine threads were demonstrated in the apical surface of the microtriches. These fine threads raised the adhesive function of the microtriches in the course of the infection of the final host as well as in the migration in the digestive tract. A relation between shape, size and density of the microtriches and the body volume is postulated. PMID:3177940

Engelbrecht, H; Zokpé, I

1988-06-01

30

Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:11179354

Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernandez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Hernandez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

2001-01-01

31

Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

2010-06-01

32

Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis continues to be a major health burden on humans living in many regions of the world, despite the availability of highly effective taeniacides and identification of the cause, Taenia solium, as being potentially eradicable. Several T. solium control trials have been undertaken, generally achieving limited success and none that has been fully documented has achieved what was demonstrated to be a sustainable level of disease control. Pigs act as intermediate hosts for T. solium and two new control tools have become available for application in pigs - single-dose oxfendazole treatment of porcine cysticercosis and the TSOL18 vaccine. Three potential intervention scenarios for pigs are compared for control of cysticercosis, using either oxfendazole or vaccination. A control scenario involving vaccination plus oxfendazole treatment delivered at 4 monthly intervals was predicted to achieve the best outcome, with no pigs slaughtered at 12 months of age having viable T. solium cysticerci. Now that new control tools are available, there are opportunities to concentrate research attention on evaluation of novel control scenarios leading to the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes and a reduction in the global burden of neurocysticercosis. PMID:23947762

Lightowlers, Marshall W

2013-11-01

33

Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.  

PubMed

Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569

Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

2013-10-01

34

Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis.  

PubMed

A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out in an antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3) using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica, Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Metastrongylus apri, Trypanosoma congolense and Sarcoptes scabiei, and with serum samples of rabbits hyper-immunised with metacestode cyst fluid of T. hydatigena and T. solium. Antibody titres of lightly or heavily infected pigs differed in their kinetics. However, the increase in F3-specific antibodies could not be related to the infection level. Analysis of the specificity of the F3 showed that serum samples of pigs infected with other parasites did not recognise this antigen. Cross-reaction with T. hydatigena occurred in ELISA using cyst fluid as antigen, but the F3 antigen fraction was not recognized by rabbit hyper-immune serum samples to T. hydatigena. Evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA-F3 was done by a non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using 66 serum samples from Zambian village pigs. The total number of cysticerci of these pigs was determined by dissection (28 pigs harboured T. solium cysticerci and 38 were negative at dissection). In addition, 58 serum samples from Cameroonian pigs (28 pigs from cysticercosis-free farms and 30 pigs with cysticerci at tongue inspection) were used in a separate ROC analysis. The results from the ROC analysis yielded a low diagnostic value (area under ROC curve=0.48) with the sera from the Zambian pigs while a relatively high diagnostic value was obtained with the sera from Cameroonian pigs (area under ROC curve=0.78). The main factor contributing to a low diagnostic value based on the Zambian serum samples seemed to be the false-positive reactions that were likely caused by the occurrence of transient antibodies in the non-infected animals. PMID:17101161

Assana, E; Kanobana, K; Tume, C B; Zoli, P A; Nguekam; Geerts, S; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P

2007-06-01

35

Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD?=?4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a critical role in early protective inflammatory response to infection with T. crassiceps. PMID:22206032

Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-Gonzalez, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

2011-01-01

36

Ultrasonographic and serologic studies of experimental cysticercosis in rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Rats experimentally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis were followed-up until 14 weeks post inoculation with eggs (PIE) by hepatic ultrasonographic (US) image and serum antibody response analyses. Parasitic cysts could be imaged as small (2 mm in diameter) anechoic areas with or without a parenthesis-like echogenic small line from two weeks PIE. Immunoblot analysis using antigens from oncospheres (TtO), 30-day-old (TtM-30) and 300-day-old metacestodes (TtM-300) revealed that: (1) these three different developmental stages showed their own unique patterns suggesting the presence of stage-specific antigens; (2) faint IgM antibody responses to some components of TtO and TtM-30 or TtM-300 could be detected from one and two weeks PIE, respectively, and (3) IgG responses to some major components of both TtO and TtM-300, and TtM-30 were easily detected from four and five weeks PIE onwards, respectively. Both TtO and TtM (especially TtM-300) appeared to be highly useful for detection of antibody responses in experimentally infected rats. Due to the easiness in preparation of antigens, fully developed metacestodes may be the best candidate antigens for serodiagnosis. These results strongly suggest that both US image and antibody analyses using antigens from fully developed metacestodes are useful for detection of the early stage of cysticercosis in laboratory animal model. PMID:9568613

Ito, A; Sakakibara, Y; Ma, L; Asano, K; Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Hashimoto, A

1998-03-01

37

Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.  

PubMed

Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2012-06-01

38

Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205) and 14.40% (n = 118), respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p<0.05) association between sex and infectivity for meat inspection and a positive non-significant (p>0.05) relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50) was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables) samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100) allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed. PMID:20391368

Gweba, Moses; Faleke, Olufemi O; Junaidu, Abdulkadir; Fabiyi, Joseph P; Fajinmi, Akinyemi O

2010-01-01

39

Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481

Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

2013-06-01

40

Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2013-01-01

41

Serologic Diagnosis of Human Taenia solium Cysticercosis by Using Recombinant and Synthetic Antigens in QuickELISA(TM)  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infections, and 114 serum samples from persons with no documented illnesses. The sensitivities and specificities of T24H QuickELISA™, GP50 QuickELISA™, and Ts18var1 QuickELISA™ were 96.3% and 99.2%, 93.5% and 98.6%, and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, for detecting cases with multiple, viable cysts. T24H QuickELISA™ performs best among the three assays, and has sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of the LLGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent blot. The QuickELISA™ are simple, rapid quantitative methods for detecting antibodies specific for T. solium cysticerci antigens. PMID:21460015

Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

2011-01-01

42

Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis. PMID:24470994

Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent

2013-01-01

43

Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870

McManus, D P

1995-12-01

44

Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

2013-01-01

45

Serodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis by Using Antigens from Vesicular Fluid of Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is a severe para- sitic infection of the central nervous system with universal distribution. To determine the efficiency of enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot with antigens of T. crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra) compared to standard techniques (indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and complement fixation test (CFT)) using

EDNEIA C. BUENO; MIRIAM SNEGE; ADELAIDE J. VAZ; PAULO G. LESER

2001-01-01

46

Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.  

PubMed

Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people. PMID:16338166

Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

2006-01-01

47

Immunolocalization of TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, the successful protective peptides against porcine cysticercosis, in Taenia solium oncospheres  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium life cycle includes humans as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. One of the measures to stop the life cycle of this parasite is by vaccination of pigs. In experiments performed in pigs with TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, two recombinant T. solium proteins, 99.5% and 97.0% protection was induced, respectively. The purpose of this paper was to localize these antigens in all stages of the parasite (adult worms, oncospheres and cysticerci) by immunofluorescence, with the use of antibodies against TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A that were obtained from the pigs used in the vaccination experiment. Results show that TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A are expressed on the surface of T. solium oncospheres and not in tapeworms or cysticerci, indicating that they are stage-specific antigens. This, therefore, might explain the high level of protection these antigens induce against pig cysticercosis. PMID:21211050

2011-01-01

48

Cysticercosis of deltoid muscle.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by tapeworm Taenia solium. It is commonly found in developing countries, but reports of its frequent occurrences even in developed countries due to immigrants from infected areas are widely reported. When cysticercosis affects the brain, the condition is commonly called neurocysticercosis however, sporadic cases of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis have been reported in the literature. We present a case of solitary cysticercosis in the right deltoid muscle in a 25-year-old woman who presented with a painful swelling on the right shoulder. The diagnosis was established by MRI and targetedultrasonography. Surgical removal of a cyst followed by 2?weeks of albendazole treatment resolved the symptoms. PMID:25312891

Chaudhary, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

49

[Ocular cysticercosis].  

PubMed

Ocular cysticercosis results from development of Taenia solium larvae, Cysticercus cellulosae, in the eye. This condition is observed all over the world but is particularly common in developing countries. The eye, like nervous system and muscle tissue, is a prime location for parasitic development because of its rich vascularization. Intraorbital cysticercosis accounts for 75 to 85% of cases and if untreated leads to blindness. Intravitreal involvement is the most common followed by subretinal involvement. Involvement of other structures such as the camera aqueosa, iris, and crystalline lens is rare. Diagnosis of intraocular cysticercosis is straightforward when cysticerci are visible. Immunologic testing of aqueous humor using ELISA, western-blot, or immunodetection of circulating antigens can be useful diagnostic techniques in patients with opacification of the eye. Involvement of the orbit, palpebra, conjunctiva, and lacrimal glands is observed in 20 to 25% of cases. Diagnosis of adnexal involvement is facilitated by ultrasonography and CT-scan. Drug therapy for ocular manifestations of cysticercosis is ineffective and hastens progression of the disease by exacerbating the inflammatory response. Surgical treatment is the only alternative. Significant progress has been made thanks to new microsurgical vitreal and retinal procedures but these techniques are often unavailable in developing countries. The severity of ocular cysticercosis and poor management facilities in developing countries underlines the need for prevention by sanitary measures and health education. PMID:10906978

Auzemery, A; Andriantsimahavandy, A; Esterre, P; Bouat, C; Boitte, J P; Huguet, P

1995-01-01

50

A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2012-01-01

51

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

52

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.  

PubMed

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

2014-10-01

53

High prevalence of Taenia solium cysticerosis in a village community of Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis results from tissue infection with the larval stage of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium. Infection of the brain may cause neurocysticercosis, the most frequent cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Information on human cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is scarce and outdated. We believe this is the first reported study on human cysticercosis and epilepsy

Kirezi Kanobana; Nicolas Praet; Constantin Kabwe; Pierre Dorny; Philippe Lukanu; Joule Madinga; Patrick Mitashi; Mirjam Verwijs; Pascal Lutumba; Katja Polman

2011-01-01

54

Immunological and molecular diagnosis of cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests. PMID:23265553

Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre

2012-01-01

55

Control of echinococcosis and cysticercosis: a public health challenge to international cooperation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinococcosis, both cystic and alveolar, and Taenia solium cysticercosis are the most serious zoonotic cestodoses worldwide. Because of the emerging importance of these diseases in China, several international workshops and meetings were held in this country from 1998 to 2001. Based on round table discussions in Chengdu 2000, the proposal of a strategy to control echinococcosis and cysticercosis has been

Akira Ito; Carlo Urbani; Qiu Jiamin; Dominique A Vuitton; Qiu Dongchuan; David D Heath; Philip S Craig; Feng Zheng; Peter M Schantz

2003-01-01

56

NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda).  

PubMed

Nine members of the genus Taenia (Taenia taeniaeformis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia multiceps, Taenia serialis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and the Asian Taenia) were characterised by their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene sequences and their genetic relationships were compared with those derived from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data. The extent of inter-taxon sequence difference in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (approximately 5.9-30.8%) was usually greater than in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (approximately 2.5-18%). Although topology of the phenograms derived from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data differed, there was concordance in that T. multiceps, T. serialis (of canids), T. saginata and the Asian Taenia (of humans) were genetically most similar, and those four members were genetically more similar to T. ovis and T. solium than they were to T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis (of canids) or T. taeniaeformis (of cats). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structure of the Taeniidae. PMID:10961852

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X; McManus, D P

1999-12-01

57

Pathogenesis and Neuropsychological Sequelae in Cysticercosis: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticercosis is a disease that occurs via the dissemination of the larvae form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium to various organ systems, including the central nervous system. Sequelae may include seizures and neuropsychological impairment. The present case study involves a 45-year-old Caucasian female executive diagnosed with neurocysticercosis. Evaluation methods consisted of neuropsychological and electrophysiological assessment. Both neuropsychological evaluation and

Patricia A. Pimental; Rhonda Siegel; Mia M. Gregor

2009-01-01

58

Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Circulating Antigens to Porcine Cysticercosis in Three Villages of Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned

Rasmané Ganaba; Nicolas Praet; Hélène Carabin; Athanase Millogo; Zékiba Tarnagda; Pierre Dorny; Sennen Hounton; Adama Sow; Pascal Nitiéma; Linda D. Cowan

2011-01-01

59

Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

2008-01-01

60

Granuloma cytokines in murine cysticercosis.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To characterize the cytokine response in cysticercosis, granulomas were removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysts and examined for cytokine message by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. The granulomas were staged based on histologic appearance of the degenerating parasite. Message for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was identified by light microscopy in 11 of the 12 granulomas, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) message was identified in 9 of the 12. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significantly increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 pixel intensity was identified in nearly all of the granulomas from early histologic stages. Message for IL-4 was seen in 6 of the 12 granulomas. Only granulomas with complete destruction of the parasite architecture displayed more than minimal amounts of IL-4 message by light microscopy, and only 2 of 12 granulomas had IL-4 pixel intensity significantly above background. Only minimal amounts of IL-10 message were detected in 4 of 11 granulomas. Thus, early granulomas in cysticercosis are predominantly associated with a Th1 response, whereas later granulomas, in which parasite destruction is complete, have a mixture of Th1 and IL-4. The Th1 response appears to play an important role both in the pathogenesis of disease as well as in the clearing of the parasites, with IL-4 involved in downregulation of the initial response. PMID:9199468

Robinson, P; Atmar, R L; Lewis, D E; White, A C

1997-01-01

61

Soft Tissue Cysticercosis: Study of 21 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the clinico – pathological profile of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae. Materials and Methods The clinico – pathological data of patients with cysticercosis cellulosae who were reviewed during the last 5 years, were retrospectively analysed. Results Of the total 6805 biopsies analysed , 21 cases of cysticercosis in the soft tissues were observed. Excisional biopsy was performed to diagnose the lesion. The pattern of distribution was striated muscles in 11(52.4%), eye in 6 (28.6%), subcutaneous tissues in 2(9.5%), tongue in 1(4.8%) and breast in 1(4.8%) patient. Anterior abdominal wall was the most involved site. Conclusion Cysticercosis, a parasitic infestation caused by Taenia solium is a major health problem in the developing countries. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for the clinicians. Steps towards control and possible eradication of the disease are needed, as the disease causes not only chronic morbidity, but also contributes to economic losses in an already impoverished population. PMID:23373024

Agrawal, Ranjan

2012-01-01

62

TLR2 Mediates Immunity to Experimental Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Information concerning TLR-mediated antigen recognition and regulation of immune responses during helminth infections is scarce. TLR2 is a key molecule required for innate immunity and is involved in the recognition of a wide range of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Here, we evaluated the role of TLR2 in a Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis model. We compared the course of T. crassiceps infection in C57BL/6 TLR2 knockout mice (TLR2-/-) with that in wild type C57BL/6 (TLR2+/+) mice. In addition, we assessed serum antibody and cytokine profiles, splenic cellular responses and cytokine profiles and the recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?s) to the site of the infection. Unlike wild type mice, TLR2-/- mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines in either the serum or the spleen during the first two weeks of Taenia infection. TLR2-/- mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response, whereas TLR2+/+ mice developed a Th1-dominant immune response after Taenia infection. The insufficient production of inflammatory cytokines at early time points and the lack of Th1-dominant adaptive immunity in TLR2-/- mice were associated with significantly elevated parasite burdens; in contrast, TLR2+/+ mice were resistant to infection. Furthermore, increased recruitment of AAM?s expressing PD-L1, PD-L2, OX40L and mannose receptor was observed in TLR2-/- mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that TLR2-dependent signaling pathways are involved in the recognition of T. crassiceps and in the subsequent activation of the innate immune system and production of inflammatory cytokines, which appear to be essential to limit infection during experimental cysticercosis. PMID:22110384

Reyes, Jose L.; Gonzalez, Marisol I.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

2011-01-01

63

DNA Differential Diagnosis of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Base Excision Sequence Scanning Thymine-Base Reader Analysis with Mitochondrial Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are well-known parasites of medical and economic importance, causing cysticercosis in pigs and cattle and taeniasis in humans. T. solium is also an organism severely pathogenic to humans, causing fatal neuro- cysticercosis when cysticerci, the larval stage of T. solium, de- velop in the central nervous system. In recent years, this dis- ease has been

Hiroshi Yamasaki; Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Marcello Otake Sato; Wulamu Mamuti; Munehiro Okamoto; Akira Ito

2002-01-01

64

Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

2011-01-01

65

Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts.  

PubMed

Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E

2013-11-01

66

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in Ang?nia District, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and incurs sizeable economic losses to pig production. Because data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique are scarce, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 11 villages in Angónia district, Tete province in northwestern Mozambique. Between September and November, 2007, a total of 661 pigs were tested serologically and examined by tongue inspection. Serum samples were tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). In addition, a questionnaire survey to collect information on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in the selected households from which pigs were sampled. Two hundred thirty-one samples (34.9%) were found positive by the Ag-ELISA, while by tongue inspection on the same animals cysticerci were detected in 84 pigs (12.7%). Increasing age (OR?=?1.63; 95% CI?=?1.13–2.37) and free-range pig husbandry system (OR?=?3.81; 95% CI?=?2.08–7.06) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in the district. The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in the region, and that increasing pig age and pig husbandry practices contribute significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission. Further epidemiological studies on the prevalence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis in rural communities in Mozambique are needed to enable collection of more baseline data and implementation of effective control strategies within the country. PMID:20126403

Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sonia; Fafetine, Jose; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

2010-01-01

67

A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

68

A new parasiticidal compound in T. solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2013-01-01

69

Recent advances in vaccination against cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Progress in recent research towards vaccination against cysticercosis is reviewed briefly. An antigen of Taenia ovis has recently been cloned using recombinant DNA techniques and this single defined recombinant molecule has been shown to induce high-level protection against challenge infection in sheep. Prospects for the application of this discovery in T. ovis for development of effective vaccines against infection with the metacestodes of other taeniid parasites are discussed. The extent and level of cross protection between different taeniid species is reviewed. Recent research results defining stage-specific immune responses against T. taeniaeformis in mice following immunization with oncosphere and metacestode antigens is discussed in relation to the potential development of cocktail vaccines. Such vaccines may be capable of protecting against initial infection and the killing of those parasites which might evade the early-phase immune responses. Recent advances in the development of a practical vaccine against Taenia ovis infection in sheep raise the realistic prospect of the development of a similar vaccine against other taeniid parasites including T. solium. Advances in the understanding of vaccination - induced immune responses against T. taeniaeformis infection in mice also indicate that effective immunization may be capable of eliminating the establishment of any viable metacestodes. PMID:2488992

Lightowlers, M W

1989-01-01

70

Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

2012-08-01

71

Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?  

PubMed Central

Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

2010-01-01

72

Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.  

PubMed

A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts. PMID:10386436

Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

1999-06-01

73

Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

2014-01-01

74

Intrasellar cysticercosis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to review patients with intrasellar cysticercosis to outline the features of this form of neurocysticercosis. A MEDLINE and manual search of patients with intrasellar cysticercosis were done. Abstracted data included clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, therapy, and outcome. Twenty-three patients were reviewed. Ophthalmological disturbances, including diminution of visual acuity and visual field defects following a chiasmatic pattern, were recorded in 67 % of cases. Endocrine abnormalities were found in 56 % of patients (panhypopituitarism, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes insipidus, and isolated hypothyroidism). In addition, some patients complained of seizures or chronic headaches. Neuroimaging studies showed lesions confined to the sellar region in 47 % of cases. The remaining patients also had subarachnoid cysts associated or not with hydrocephalus, parenchymal brain cysts, or parenchymal brain calcifications. Thirteen patients underwent surgical resection of the sellar cyst through a craniotomy in nine cases and by the transsphenoidal approach in four. Visual acuity or visual field defects improved in only two of these patients. Five patients were treated with cysticidal drugs without improvement. Intrasellar cysticercosis is rare and probably under-recognized. Clinical manifestations resemble those caused by pituitary tumors, cysts, or other granulomatous lesions. Neuroimaging findings are of more value when intrasellar cysts are associated with other forms of neurocysticercosis, such as basal subarachnoid cysts or hydrocephalus. Prompt surgical resection is mandatory to reduce the risk of permanent loss of visual function. There seems to be no role for cysticidal drug therapy in these cases. PMID:23605125

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J

2013-09-01

75

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors in Murine Cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

We explored the prophylactic efficacies of two novel protease inhibitors in murine cysticercosis. Our results demonstrated a 95% and 80% reduction in parasite burden for mice injected with Z-LLL-FMK and Z-LLY-FMK, respectively. Further studies are merited on the role of cysteine proteinase inhibitors in treatment of cysticercosis. PMID:16870795

Baig, Salman; Damian, Raymond T.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Thazhath, Rupal; Ghaleb, Amr; Welch, Meredith; Talhouk, Jamil; White, A. Clinton

2006-01-01

76

Parasites associated with exotic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short description of parasites associated with “exotic food” is by no means inclusive. Many others, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Spirometa spp. (sparganosis), Taenia saginata (cysticercosis), and Echinostoma malayanum, are transmitted via food. Raw sheep liver “sowda” is commonly consumed in Lebanon. Many people developed human toxocariasis after eating this dish (19). The economic loss associated with food-borne parasitic zoonoses

Susan M. Novak

1996-01-01

77

The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms  

PubMed Central

Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24?kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

Ochoa-Sanchez, Alicia; Jimenez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

2011-01-01

78

Infection with versus Exposure to Taenia solium: What Do Serological Test Results Tell Us?  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium cysticercosis is an endemic zoonosis in many developing countries. Serological tests are the most appropriate diagnostic tools to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite, but the performances of these methods in such a setting are not known. A south Ecuadorian human population living in an endemic area was tested using three common serological tests. Because none of them is a gold standard, a Bayesian Latent Class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics. Two definitions of a case were considered to differentiate between prevalence of current infection and prior exposure to the parasite. Differences between the performances of the same test in function of the definition of a case were observed. This study shows that test results and prior information should be interpreted carefully in a Bayesian analysis framework, particularly when the latter is based on clinical studies. PMID:20682891

Praet, Nicolas; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Speybroeck, Niko; Ahounou, Serge; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Berkvens, Dirk; Hul, Anke Van; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, Margoth; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre

2010-01-01

79

[A case of cysticercosis with multiple lesions in the brain and femoral muscles].  

PubMed

A 37-year-old Nepalese man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a loss of consciousness and seizures. He had lived in Nepal, Qatar, Singapore, and India before the age of 34 years. He had no history of having eaten raw pork. His physical findings were normal excluding an abnormal visual field, and a positive serum antibody test result for Taenia solium, CT and MRI examinations showed multiple nodular lesions in his brain and thigh. We resected a cyst from his left thigh and diagnosed him as having cysticercosis based on the presence of characteristic hooklets and suckers on a pathological examination. Later, the Asian type of Cysticercus cellulosa was identified using a mitochondrial DNA test. Albendazole (800 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were administered for 14 days. All cysticercus were smaller on Day7 and had almost disappeared on Day 14. No adverse effects from the treatment occurred. Cysticercosis is rare in Japan, and cases requiring treatment for a large number of cysticercus in the brain and thigh are rare. We report a case of neurocysticercosis that had a good clinical course. PMID:24195171

Shoji, Hisashi; Hirai, Takahito; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Takuma, Takahiro; Okino, Tetsuya; Wakatsuki, Yasushi; Okino, Teruhiko; Niki, Yoshihito

2013-09-01

80

Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. PMID:24793221

Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

2014-09-01

81

Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

1995-01-01

82

Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control  

PubMed Central

Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

2014-01-01

83

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

2013-01-01

84

The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Monica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garcia, Hector H.; Sheen, Patricia

2011-01-01

85

Proteomic study of activated Taenia solium oncospheres.  

PubMed

Taenia solium cysticerci are a major cause of human seizures and epilepsy in the world. In the gastrointestinal tract of infected individuals, taeniid eggs release the oncospheres, which are then activated by intestinal stimuli, getting ready to penetrate the gut wall and reach distant locations where they transform in cysticerci. Information about oncospheral molecules is scarce, and elucidation of the oncosphere proteome could help understanding the host-parasite relationship during the first steps of infection. In this study, using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we could identify a set of oncospheral proteins involved in adhesion, protein folding, detoxification and proteolysis, among others. In addition, we have characterized one of the identified molecules, the parasite 14-3-3, by immunoblot and immunolocalization. The identification of these oncospheral proteins represents the first step to elucidate their specific roles in the biology of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:20144663

Santivañez, S J; Hernández-González, A; Chile, N; Oleaga, A; Arana, Y; Palma, S; Verastegui, M; Gonzalez, A E; Gilman, R; Garcia, H H; Siles-Lucas, M

2010-05-01

86

Sex reversal of Cobitis taenia L. ( Osteichthyes , fam. Cobitidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Una popolazione diCobitis taenia, specie considerata sinora gonocorica, é risultata essere ermafrodita non bilanciato cioé con alta variabilità sessuale, comprendente ermafroditi successivi proterandrici e femmine. La presenza di maschi puri non é stata ancora dimostrata.

E. Lodi

1967-01-01

87

[Establishment of mouse model for Cysticercosis cellulosae].  

PubMed

Sixty mice were inoculated intravenously with 200-400 Taenia solium eggs collected from the gravid proglottides of the adult worm expelled from a taeniasis patient after pumpkin seed and areca treatment. The mice were killed and dissected 2 months after inoculation, and were found infected with Cysticercus cellulosae. These living cysticerci in muscles and lungs were elliptic in shape with diameters of 0.3-0.6 cm. The scolex was equipped with two rows of hooks and four typical suckers. When the cysticerci were hatched in gastric juice and bile for two hours at 37 degrees C the scoleces evaginated voluntarily. The results of this study suggest that the mouse can be used as an animal model for Cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:7720207

Yang, X; Xu, H; Cao, Z; Wang, W

1994-01-01

88

Evaluation of an immunodot blot technique for the detection of antibodies against Taenia solium larval antigens.  

PubMed

Immunodiagnostic tests represent an important tool for diagnosis of cysticercosis, the disease caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) requires costly neuroimaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which are seldom affordable for people in endemic countries. Hence, new low-cost diagnostic methods offering good sensitivity and specificity are needed. Here, we studied four immunodiagnostic tests immunodot blot Tsol-p27, a commercial ELISA, and Western blot Tsol-p27/TsolHSP36, and compared them with a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) that we regarded as the gold standard method. The analyzed serum samples were obtained from 160 patients: 94 epileptics suspected of NCC, six individuals confirmed NCC-positive, and 60 with positive (30) or negative (30) serology for Chagas diseases. Of the 100 serum samples from epileptic patients, 13 were positive and 87 negative by EITB. Compared to Western blot Tsol-p27, immunodot blot Tsol-p27 offered similar specificity (97.8% vs. 95.6%) but better sensitivity (86.7% vs. 76.4%). The ELISA was similar to the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Western blot TsolHSP36 provided the lowest sensitivity (61.9%) and specificity (86.1%). None of the antibodies in the serum samples from the Chagas control groups were recognized by immunodot blot Tsol-p27. Our results indicate that the immunodot blot Tsol-p27 provides good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and low cost of this test, it might be preferable as a diagnostic method in poorly equipped laboratories in endemic countries. PMID:22215187

Salazar-Anton, Fernando; Tellez, Aleyda; Lindh, Johan

2012-06-01

89

Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens  

PubMed Central

Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

Peon, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jimenez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

90

Intraspecific variation of isoenzymes in Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats. PMID:7622329

Okamoto, M; Ito, A; Kurosawa, T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Agatsuma, T

1995-02-01

91

Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?  

PubMed Central

History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

2013-01-01

92

Porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis: evidence-based research trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research indicates that roughly 50 000 humans die annually due to veterinary public health- food safety related issues of Taenia solium of pigs. However the exact socio-economic impact of T. solium is not fully understood and often appears to be conjecture due to conflicting and competing opinions among the policy makers and scientists. The aim of the study was

T. Songabe; E. K. Thobejane

93

Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.  

PubMed

An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat. PMID:19258422

Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

2009-01-01

94

Detailed Transcriptome Description of the Neglected Cestode Taenia multiceps  

PubMed Central

Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies. PMID:23049872

Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

95

Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

2003-01-01

96

Cysticerci of Taenia mustelae in the fox squirrel.  

PubMed

The liver of a fox squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) contained many clear, spherical cysts approximately 1 mm in diameter throughout the parenchyma. On dissection, most of these exhibited a dense, white area with four muscular suckers at a single point on the bladder. Based on the size of the organisms, the characteristically tiny hooks on the scolex and the location of the cysts in this host, the parasites were identified as cysticerci of Taenia mustelae. This is the first report in this host. The parasites were surrounded by an intense inflammatory response consisting primarily of lymphocytes mixed with some eosinophils, and early deposition of fibrous connective tissue. PMID:2338737

Langham, R F; Rausch, R L; Williams, J F

1990-04-01

97

Taenia taeniaeformis: inactivation of metacestodes by gossypol in vitro.  

PubMed

Gossypol, a natural biphenyl compound inhibits Taenia taeniaeformis metacestode development in vivo. In this paper, the direct effect of gossypol on metacestodes was examined. Within 24 hr of incubation at 37 degrees C in greater than or equal to 10(-5) M gossypol, shedding of the tegument from the surface of the metacestodes was observed. There was a significant decrease in [3H]thymidine uptake by T. taeniaeformis in greater than or equal to 10(-5)M gossypol. In addition, NADH lactate dehydrogenase activity of metacestodes was significantly inhibited in greater than or equal to 10(-5) M gossypol. Thus, gossypol has a direct inhibitory effect on T. taeniaeformis metacestodes in vitro. PMID:2373186

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Garber, P L; Gu, Y

1990-08-01

98

Giant cerebral cysticercosis in an infant confused with a thalamic glioma.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Intraparenchymal giant cysticercosis has been described in literature, but this is a rare report of a thalamic giant cysticercosis in a young child where the diagnosis could be made on follow-up. A 1½-year-old male child presented with seizures, hemiparesis, and features of raised intracranial pressure. Initial neuroimaging findings of thalamic swelling with minimal edema and contrast enhancement with choline peak on magnetic resonance spectroscopy were attributed to thalamic glioma. Subsequent imaging revealed a ring enhancing lesion with an eccentric nodule suggestive of neurocysticercosis. It later resolved with residual gliosis. The presence of a pathognomic scolex and the resolution of size and symptoms without definitive treatment helped in making the diagnosis. This report reinforces the importance of considering cysticercosis in diagnosis of acute presentations of large cerebral masses in infants, particularly in prevalent regions, and emphasizes the follow-up of these patients. PMID:24453150

Mittal, Aliza; Sehgal, Rachna; Sureka, Binit; Kumar, Atin; Aggarwal, Kailash Chandra

2014-11-01

99

Impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increased Th2-biasing ability of dendritic cells exposed to Taenia excreted/secreted antigens: A critical role for carbohydrates but not for STAT6 signaling.  

PubMed

In cysticercosis, a parasitic disease caused by cestodes, the details of early interactions between parasite antigens and innate cells from the host are not well understood. In this study, the role of cestode-conditioned dendritic cells (DCs) in priming Th1 versus Th2 responses to bystander antigen was examined by using CD11c(+) DCs as antigen-presenting cells and naive CD4(+) DO11.10 lymphocytes specific to ovalbumin (OVA) as responding cells. No conventional maturation was induced in DCs exposed to Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted antigens (TcES). The ability of TcES to affect Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated maturation and the pro-inflammatory response was analyzed by co-pulsing DCs with TcES and TLR ligands. DCs exposed to TcES blocked TLR4, TLR9 and Toxoplasma soluble antigen-induced phenotypic maturation. TcES-exposed DCs also blocked secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alloreactive T cell proliferation, while preserving IL-10 production. DCs pulsed with TcES+OVA suppressed IFN-gamma, whereas they induced greater IL-4 production by CD4(+) DO11.10 cells. TcES with chemically-altered glycans failed to modulate TLR-mediated activation of DCs and their Th1-inhibitng ability, which was STAT6-independent. Our results reflect the capacity of TcES glyco-antigens to modulate Th1-type and inflammatory responses mediated through DC activation. PMID:20361966

Terrazas, César A; Gómez-García, Lorena; Terrazas, Luis I

2010-08-01

100

Intraspecific variation of Taenia taeniaeformis as determined by various criteria.  

PubMed

The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates. PMID:7731915

Azuma, H; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1995-01-01

101

Substituted methyl benzimidazole carbamate: efficacy against experimental cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Methyl [5-([4-(2-pyridinyl)-1-piprazinyl] carbonyl)-1H benzimidazole-2-yl] carbamate, a broad spectrum anthelmintic, was tested against Cysticercus fasciolaris in rats and the cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana in beetles. A dose of 50 mg kg-1, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to infected rats on 10 alternate days, was found most effective, killing all mature cysticerci. The same dose, given on each of five days, either from the fifth day prior to infection or the sixth day following infection, fully arrested the establishment of cysticerci. A single prophylatic dose of 500 mg kg-1, given intramuscularly (i.m.), protected rats against challenge with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs for 10 days. The test compound, mebendazole and praziquantel were all totally ineffective against mature cysticercoids in grain beetles but, of the beetles fed the drugs in flour, 66.3%, 50% and 83.8%, respectively, failed to support the development of immature cysticercoids. The effective cysticidal action of the compound makes it a candidate medical anthelmintic. PMID:1616395

Gupta, S; Jain, M K; Katiyar, J C; Maitra, S C

1992-02-01

102

Brain parenchymal, subarachnoid racemose, and intraventricular cysticercosis in an Indian man  

PubMed Central

The coexistence of brain parenchymal cysts at various stages of evolution, both intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose, is reported in a patient with neurocysticercosis. The condition has a variety of presentations, depending on the location of the cyst. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of this condition in India.???Keywords: brain parenchymal cyst; cysticercosis; albendazole PMID:10448497

Ghosh, D; Dubey, T; Prabhakar, S

1999-01-01

103

A superoxide dismutase of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase was purified from Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose, gel filtration chromatography on ACA 44 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, followed by chromatofocusing on polybuffer exchanger 94. This isolation procedure resulted in the detection of a single protein-staining band on alkaline gels, coincident with enzyme activity. We have, however, detected what appear to be two peaks of enzyme activity within this single protein-staining band. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using gradient slab gels and analysis under reducing conditions, resulted in the detection of only one protein at an apparent Mr of 16,600, while analysis under non-reducing conditions, gave a single protein of an apparent Mr of 64,000. The isoelectric point of the purified protein is 6.6. Boiling for 3 min completely destroyed the enzyme, whereas incubation for 2 h at 37 degrees C resulted in the loss of 56% of the enzymic activity. Incubation with 10 mM KCN resulted in 83% inhibition of the enzyme. We have detected up to 168 U ml-1 of enzyme activity in the cyst fluid surrounding the parasite in situ. This is the first instance in which any parasite superoxide dismutase has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Parasite-mediated enzymic destruction of superoxide anion can not only protect against oxygen toxicity as a result of normal parasite respiratory processes but also may serve as yet another mechanism used by tissue-dwelling parasites to evade host immunologic attack. PMID:3960056

Leid, R W; Suquet, C M

1986-03-01

104

Immune Destruction of Larval Taenia crassiceps in Mice  

PubMed Central

Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps was examined by first injecting BALB/cJ mice subcutaneously with larval buds and 30 to 60 days later challenging the mice with larvae injected into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) secondarily are killed by host cells that completely encase the larvae in a thick sheath. The peritoneal exudate cells and the cytokines they produced were characterized by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). No changes in percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B1 cells, or macrophages were detected in the peritoneal cavities of mice that were killing larvae compared to mice with a primary 7-day infection i.p. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated a decrease in cytokines including gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in mice that were killing the larvae compared to control mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, although there was little difference compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Serum cytokine levels in mice that were killing the larvae showed a decrease in IFN-? and IL-4, an increase in IL-10 when compared to mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, and increases in all cytokines compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Inhibition of nitric oxide production did not significantly affect the number or the viability of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mice that were killing larvae during secondary infection. PMID:10768922

Mooney, K. A.; Spolski, R. J.; See, E. J.; Kuhn, R. E.

2000-01-01

105

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.  

PubMed

The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. PMID:23428901

Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2013-05-01

106

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.  

PubMed

Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and T aenia hydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T. ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

Jenkins, David J; Urwin, Nigel A R; Williams, Thomas M; Mitchell, Kate L; Lievaart, Jan J; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

2014-08-01

107

First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.  

PubMed

A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

2012-03-23

108

A case of submacular cysticercosis treated by pars plana vitrectomy in Kuwait.  

PubMed

We report a case of submacular cysticercosis in the left eye of an Indian patient living in Kuwait. Though he was systemically asymptomatic, his magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cysts in the brain. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and the cyst was removed in total through a retinotomy over the cyst. He had another small cyst in the periphery that was also removed. He was treated with oral albendazole and systemic steroids after the surgery to treat his neurocysticercosis. He developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after the surgery, and the retina was successfully reattached with scleral buckling and PPV procedure. His final best corrected visual acuity improved from counting fingers at 1/2 m at presentation to 20/400. This case report shows that the ocular cysticercosis may be seen among expatriates working in the Middle East. It is important to rule out the presence of neurocysticercosis in such patients as well as multiple cysts in the affected eye. However, the functional outcome of surgical treatment of submacular cysticercosis can be disappointing. PMID:25378881

Wani, Vivek B; Kumar, Niranjan; Uboweja, Anil K; Kazem, Mahmood A

2014-09-01

109

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.  

PubMed

Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts. PMID:21571090

Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

2011-09-01

110

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris.  

E-print Network

??Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence… (more)

Burlet, Pierre Edouard

2011-01-01

111

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

112

Sperm ultrastructure of Taenia mustelae (Cestoda, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of the weasel, Mustela nivalis (Carnivora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Taenia mustelae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The mature spermatozoon of this tenid is filiform, tapered at both ends, and lacks mitochondrion. It is capped by an apical cone of electron-dense material and presents a single helical crest-like body 75-nm thick. The axoneme is of the 9+‘1’ pattern of trepaxonematan

JORDI MIQUEL; CONSOL HIDALGO; CARLOS FELIU; BERNARD MARCHAND

2000-01-01

113

Taenia taeniaeformis: immunoperoxidase localization of metacestode culture product(s) in hyperplastic gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Rats infected with the hepatic metacestode Taenia taeniaeformis develop an extraordinary gastric hyperplasia. Indirect immunoperoxidase staining localized larval in vitro excretory secretory product specifically in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the epithelial cells lining the pits and glands in the hyperplastic gastric mucosa. The accumulation of this substance in the stomach epithelial cells may be relevant to the gastric hyperplasia induced by tapeworm infection. PMID:3082661

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Walton, A

1986-04-01

114

Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Taenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by infection with the larvae of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. In order to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this infection using recombinant proteins, we carried out molecular cloning and identified four candidates as diagnostic antigens (designated Ag1, Ag1V1, Ag2, and Ag2V1). Except for Ag2V1, these clones could encode a

YASUHITO SAKO; MINORU NAKAO; TAKASHI IKEJIMA; XIAN ZHI PIAO; KAZUHIRO NAKAYA; AKIRA ITO

2000-01-01

115

[Investigation on Taenia sp. infection in Midu County of Yunnan Province].  

PubMed

The current status and species of Taenia sp. were investigated in Midu County by sedimentation method to examine eggs of Taenia sp. in stool, questionnairing as well as deworming by areca-pumpkin seeds in October-December, 2010. The infection rate of Taenia sp. was 15.7% (65/414). Among the positives, it was fairly high in the age groups of 40- and 50-, being 24% (21/85) and 26% (15/57), respectively. 26 cases with positive stool examination and 47 cases with a history of discharging proglottids were treated. Adult worms were collected from all 26 egg positive cases and 23 persons discharging proglottids. The highest number of adult worms expelled was 11 in a woman, 2 worms from another villager, but only one worm each from all other cases. 15 tapeworms with scolex and mature proglottids were examined and morphologically identified as T. asiatia. The high prevalence was related to the residents' dietetic habits (eg. eating raw pork and liver) , behaviour (eg. defecating in field) , and the egg-contaminated environment (eg. by untreated feces). PMID:22908811

Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun; Li, Ke-Rong; Luo, Hua; Xu, Xin; Chen, Feng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ji-Bing; Huang, Ming-Hao; Li, Su-Mei

2012-04-30

116

A review on diagnostic and preventive aspects of cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis have recently been included in the list of "neglected tropical diseases" by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both are zoonoses which are prevalent throughout the world and lead to considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic losses as well. This review deals with the disease burden of these two neglected cestode infections. Diagnostic modalities with their specific advantages and disadvantages have also been discussed. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic assays for the two diseases have been dealt with. Various control strategies including the use of veterinary vaccines have been highlighted. PMID:23767016

Giri, Sidhartha; Parija, Subhash Chandra

2012-07-01

117

Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1  

PubMed Central

A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu

2013-01-01

118

The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences provide useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Although Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis are common taeniid tapeworms of ruminants, pigs, dogs, or cats, causing significant economic losses, no published study on their mt genomes is available. The complete mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were amplified in two overlapping fragments and then sequenced. The sizes of the entire mt genome were 13700 bp for T. multiceps, 13489 bp for T. hydatigena, and 13647 bp for T. taeniaeformis. Each of the three genomes contains 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA, which are the same as the mt genomes of all other cestode species studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 71.3% for T. multiceps, 70.8% for T. hydatigena, and 73.0% for T. taeniaeformis. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. T. multiceps and T. hydatigena had two noncoding regions, but T. taeniaeformis had only one. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that T. multiceps, T. hydatigena, and T. taeniaeformis were more closely related to the other members of the Taenia genus, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three Taenia species of animal and human health significance, providing useful markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of these cestode parasites of animals and humans. PMID:20922482

Liu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Kou-Xing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-04-01

119

Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P=0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P=0.023, P=0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease. PMID:18160069

Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T; Craig, Philip S; Anderson, Garry A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

2008-07-01

120

First report of Taenia acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938) in Acinonyx jubatus venaticus from Iran  

PubMed Central

The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other organs no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the cestodes as Taenia acinonyxi. PMID:22347321

Hosseini, SH; Youssefi, MR; Mobedi, I; Hosseini, SM; Zaheri, BA

2011-01-01

121

Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed. PMID:8354864

Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

1993-06-01

122

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves ( Canis lupus), brown bears ( Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were

Antti Lavikainen; Sauli Laaksonen; Kimberlee Beckmen; Antti Oksanen; Marja Isomursu; Seppo Meri

2011-01-01

123

Taenia crassiceps : Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of ?-hydroxybutirate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in

Marina Clare Vinaud; Cirlane Silva Ferreira; Ruy de Souza Lino Junior; José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

2009-01-01

124

Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.  

PubMed

The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512

Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

2012-08-01

125

Retarded gastric acid secretion in rats infected with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The influence of hepatic larval Taenia taeniaeformis infection on gastric acid secretory activity and gastric mucosal integrity was investigated. After 12 weeks of infection with 2,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs, the gastric pH values of control and infected rats were 4.1+/-0.6 (mean +/- SD) and 8.4+/-0.2, respectively. There was no difference in the basal acid secretion between control (1.7+/-0.7 micro Eq.H(+)/15 min) and infected (1.9+/-0.3) rats. However, infected rats failed to respond to histamine stimulation, the maximum acid output level being 2.8+/-0.4 in the infected rats, compared to 12.9+/-3.3 in control rats. Larval T. taeniaeformis infection resulted in the suppression of gastric acid secretion leading to hypergastrinemia. PMID:12172822

Oku, Y; Yamanouchi, T; Matsuda, K; Abella, J A C; Ooi, H K; Ohtsubo, R; Goto, Y; Kamiya, M

2002-09-01

126

Effect of ultraviolet radiation on the infectivity of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.  

PubMed

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the infectivity of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs was observed. The eggs were exposed to various UV doses and orally inoculated to rats. The number of cysts and lesions decreased dose-dependently, and neither cyst nor lesion was observed from rats infected with eggs exposed to a total dose of 2,880 mJ/cm2 or more. For evaluation of protective role of embryophore against UV radiation, the onchospheres with/without embryophore were exposed to UV radiation. Remarkably lower numbers of cyst and lesions were observed in rats inoculated with eggs which were exposed to a total dose of 30 mJ/cm2 or more after removal of embryophore. These results suggested an importance of the protective function of the embryophore in the protection against UV radiation. PMID:9308292

Konno, K; Oku, Y; Sakai, H; Kamiya, M

1997-08-01

127

[The influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larval infection on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)].  

PubMed

An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed. PMID:20707301

Kowal, Jerzy; Nosa?, Pawe?; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Korna?, S?awomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej

2010-01-01

128

Scanning electron microscopic observations of Cysticercus fasciolaris (=Taenia taeniaeformis) after treatment of mice with mebendazole.  

PubMed

The time-related topographical changes in mature cysticerci of Taenia taeniaformis induced after medication of infected mice with 250 ppm of mebendazole are described. The changes included the gradual disappearance of microtriches and progressive degeneration of the tegment resulting in an irregular surface with grooves, holes, and craterlike structures. Host cells adhered to the altered areas and the number of these cells increased when more severe changes became apparent. Finally the necrotized cysticerci, which lost their tegument completely, were almost entirely covered with adhesive host cells. A difference in the time sequence of the reported changes occurred between the scolex, the pseudoproglottids, and the bladder. This difference in susceptibility towards the drug between the three parts of the parasite in relation to the morphology of their microtrichous covering is discussed. PMID:660379

Verheyen, A; Vanparijs, O; Borgers, M; Thienpont, D

1978-06-01

129

Lipid and protein composition of the surface tegument from larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

A tegumental fraction from fully developed larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis was recovered by low speed centrifugation following incubation of the parasites in a 0.1% solution of digitonin. Scanning electron microscopy of the parasite carcass revealed no surface microtrichs, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the subtegumental layer was undamaged. The tegumental fraction, judging from the distribution of 3H-Concanavalin A, was enriched for surface components, exhibited low succinic dehydrogenase activity, and an electron microscopic examination of the pellet showed a slightly expanded but intact distal tegumental layer. The fraction, which made up 3.0% of the dry weight of the parasite, consisted of 52% protein and 32% lipid. Thirty-three proteins, ranging in Mr from 9,000 to 276,000 daltons, were detected after sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seven of these proteins were glycoproteins. Cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and glycosphingolipids were the major lipids. PMID:6470883

Mills, G L; Coley, S C; Williams, J F

1984-04-01

130

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

131

Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.  

PubMed

Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078

Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

2011-03-01

132

Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank. PMID:22569565

Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2012-09-01

133

Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

2013-02-01

134

Scanning electron microscope and histological studies of rare triradiate forms of Taenia pisiformis from dogs in Cairo.  

PubMed

Of 5,404 domestic dogs examined for normal and abnormal Taenia pisiformis in Cairo, Egypt, one dog contained 3 triradiate specimens while 3,569 harboured one or more normal cestodes. The study revealed a ratio of one triradiate to 5,620 normal adult worms in the parasite population and a prevalence of 0.02% for the triradiate forms. Polyradiate forms are far less common in this large survey than has been indicated in previous reports. PMID:1578153

Rashed, R M; Lewis, J W; Whitfield, P J

1992-04-01

135

Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).  

PubMed

Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite. PMID:25017751

Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

2014-07-18

136

Studies on stage-specific immunity against Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in mice.  

PubMed

The possible existence of stage-specific immune responses to Taenia taeniaeformis infection was investigated in C3H/He mice vaccinated with antigens prepared from either the oncosphere or metacestode stages. Mice were immunized twice, 2 weeks apart, with antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Two weeks after the second immunization they were challenged with 250 T. taeniaeformis eggs and killed day 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45 and 60 after infection. Gross examination of the livers revealed marked differences between oncosphere (TtO) and metacestode (TtM) vaccinated mice. Very few metacestodes were found in the first group but most of those that evaded the initial host attack developed like the cysts found in the control group. In contrast, many degenerating metacestodes were found in the TtM vaccinated group. In a subsequent experiment groups of mice were vaccinated with varying doses of either TtO or TtM to determine whether the qualitative differences observed above were due to antigen dose effects. However, varying antigen doses gave the same results. These data show that vaccination with oncospheres generates an immune response capable of killing invading larvae soon after infection whereas vaccination with TtM results in larvae being killed at a later stage, suggesting that there are stage-specific, host-protective antigens. PMID:2970614

Bøgh, H O; Rickard, M D; Lightowlers, M W

1988-05-01

137

Depressed T-cell proliferation associated with susceptibility to experimental Taenia crassiceps infection.  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite. PMID:7768609

Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E

1995-01-01

138

Is the prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis in Microtus arvalis dependent on population density?  

PubMed

Populations of common voles Microtus arvalis were studied as hosts of the tapeworm Taenia taeniaeformis during a 14-yr survey. They were monitored in spring, summer, and autumn in a pastoral ecosystem in eastern France. A total of 7,574 voles were sampled during 2 multiannual population fluctuations. A third fluctuation was sampled during the increase phase only. Overall prevalence was lowest in summer (0.6%), increased by 3 times in autumn (1.5%) and a further 5 times in spring (7.8%). Analysis of prevalence, based on 7,384 voles, by multiple logistic regression revealed that extrinsic factors such as season and intrinsic factors such as host age and host density have a combined effect. In the longer term, host age and host density were positively associated with prevalence in summer. Host density was strongly associated with autumn prevalence. There was no association between the fluctuation phase and prevalence. The study shows that a long timescale (here a multiannual survey) is necessary to demonstrate the positive effect of host density on the prevalence of this indirectly transmitted parasite. The demonstration of this relationship depends on the rodents being intermediate rather than definitive hosts. PMID:14740902

Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Giraudoux, Patrick; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Ashford, Richard William; Delattre, Pierre

2003-12-01

139

Adoptive transfer of protection to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in rats with immune spleen cells.  

PubMed

The effector mechanism of the protection against re-infection with eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis was evaluated in rats by analysing protection dynamics against an ongoing primary infection. Immune spleen cells were prepared from F344 donor rats 10 days after oral inoculation with 200 eggs and used for adoptive transfer experiments. When F344 recipient rats were injected intravenously with immune spleen cells (2 x 10(8)) from 2 to 48 h after a primary egg inoculation, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of metacestodes recovered at day 30 of the infection. The highest protection figures were obtained in rats given immune cells at 12 or 24 h of the primary infection. The maximum reduction induced with immune cells was 92% when they were injected at 12 h of the ongoing infection. It is strongly suggested that the vulnerable stage of the parasite damaged by immune spleen cells is the initial stage of infection (oncosphere and post-oncosphere stages in the liver within 2 days, especially between 12 and 24 h). PMID:8070960

Asano, K; Ito, A; Ikeda, K; Okamoto, K

1994-05-01

140

Phenotypic changes in hepatic mast cells accumulating around the metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

Staining properties, kinetics and degranulation of the hepatic mast cells (HMC) accumulating around the metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis in the liver of rats were studied. Two different types of HMC, designated as Type I and Type II, could be classified according to histochemical properties and response to compound 48/80. Type I cells resembled mucosal mast cells (MMC), whereas Type II did not. HMC, mostly Type I, were observed from day 14 postinfection (PI), while Type II were seen only from day 28 PI. On day 28 PI, Type II represented a transitional staining pattern between MMC and connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). The ratio of Type II to Type I increased gradually with the course of infection and was about 1 to 1 on day 70 PI. At this time, most of the HMC that constituted Type II as well as CTMC could be stained with berberine sulfate. While the phenotypic change of HMC to CTMC was found in the middle and inner capsular layers, most of the HMC in the outer capsular layer maintained the phenotype of MMC. The present results suggest that hepatic mast cells increased as the MMC phenotype, then showed the heterogeneity in which the transitional form of mast cells emerged followed by the appearance of the CTMC type. PMID:1705806

Ishiwata, K; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M; Ohbayashi, M

1991-02-01

141

Gastric hyperplasia and parietal cell loss in Taenia taeniaeformis inoculated immunodeficient mice.  

PubMed

Immunodeficient mice were studied to determine their suitability as models in investigating the role of Taenia taeniaeformis larval products in the development of gastric hyperplasia. Recombinant active gene 2 (RAG2)-deficient and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice were studied as candidate animal models. RAG2-deficient mice inoculated orally with T. taeniaeformis eggs developed gastric hyperplasia with alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell proliferation similar to those of rats. SCID mice inoculated with different doses and routes of T. taeniaeformis in vitro-hatched oncospheres and those orally inoculated with eggs resulted also in different degrees of gastric hyperplasia. Influence of inoculation forms of parasite, doses and routes of inoculation on initiation of hyperplastic gastropathy was suggested to be dependent on number and size of developed larvae. Both RAG2-deficient and SCID mice with hyperplastic mucosa were observed with significant loss of parietal cells. Apparent decrease in parietal cell number was observed in SCID mice at 2 weeks after intraperitoneal inoculation with oncospheres before hyperplastic lesions developed. Earliest occurrence of gastric hyperplasia in SCID mice was observed at 3 weeks after oral inoculation of in vitro-hatched oncospheres, sooner than orally inoculated rats. The results suggested that these immunodeficient mice could be used as animal models to study factors involved in T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric mucous cell hyperplasia. PMID:11880230

Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Konno, Kenjiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Ito, Mamoru; Kamiya, Masao

2002-03-01

142

Inhibition of equine neutrophil chemotaxis and chemokinesis by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor, taeniaestatin.  

PubMed

Taeniaestatin, a recently isolated Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor, was used to inhibit equine neutrophil migration. Taeniaestatin itself was not chemotactic when used as a chemotactic factor but taeniaestatin did inhibit neutrophil chemokinesis when tested in a Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard assay. A dose-dependent inhibition of both chemokinesis and chemotaxis was observed when zymosan activated bovine sera (ZABS) was used as the chemotactic factor. This inhibition was greater than 95% when 5 mu of taeniaestatin was present on both the cell and chemotactic factor side of the chambers. Equine neutrophils gave dose- and time-dependent migration responses to purified bovine C5a with an ED50 of 1.04 X 10(-7)M. Taeniaestatin inhibited the C5a-mediated chemotactic and chemokinetic neutrophil responses (51% using 1 mu and greater than 95% with 5 mu of taeniaestatin). The inhibition of leucocyte motility by taeniaestatin was reversible and without cytotoxicity at the highest doses of taeniaestatin tested. PMID:3574975

Leid, R W; Grant, R F; Suquet, C M

1987-03-01

143

Histopathology and physiopathology of gastric mucous hyperplasia in rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Rats heavily infected with larval Taenia taeniaeformis show hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa accompanied by mucous cell proliferation, increase in the level of intragastric pH and hypergastrinemia. Sixty one rats were divided into 2 groups designed as infected (36 rats) and control (25 rats) group. These rats were examined with time course of the infection histopathologically and physiopathologically, during 14-112 days postinfection (DPI). In the infected rats, gastric mucosal hyperplasia began to be observed at 56 DPI, and the structural disturbance of zymogenic units in the corpus and mucous units in the antrum had increased with time. However, the degree of these changes in the antrum was weaker than those in the corpus. Alcianblue and/or PAS-positive cells increased in their numbers with time, and 4 types of cells other than typical surface mucous cell and mucous neck cell were observed by electron-microscopy. However, zymogenic and parietal cells decreased in their number after 56 DPI. Further, the infected rats showed changes in the serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose and total protein. Some similarities with Menetrier's disease were discussed. PMID:10342279

Konno, K; Abella, J A; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

1999-04-01

144

In vitro uptake and autoradiographic localization of tritiated gossypol in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes.  

PubMed

Gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound, induces growth-inhibitory and antiparasitic effects in Taenia taeniaeformis metacestodes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the uptake and localization of [3H]-gossypol in this parasite. Metacestodes were incubated in 10(-5) M [3H]-gossypol at 37 degrees C. Parasites steadily took up tritium activity over the first 3 h of incubation, after which a plateau was maintained for the duration of the experiment. Tissue: medium radioactivity ratios revealed that intralarval tritium activity matched extralarval activity within 30 min of incubation and continued to increase with time. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis confirmed tissue incorporation of tritium activity that manifested as a single radioactive species. Autoradiography localized [3H]-gossypol to the tegument, calcareous corpuscles, and parenchyma over the first 2 h of incubation. By 6 h, parenchymal radioactivity had disappeared. T. taeniaeformis metacestodes rapidly take up and accumulate [3H]-gossypol in vitro. This accumulation is apparently selective for specific sites, which may have implications for gossypol's metacestocidal action. PMID:8327450

Kulp, S K; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Moh, P P; Li, P K; Gu, Y

1993-01-01

145

Genetic Variation of Taenia Pisiformis Collected from Sichuan, China, Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene  

PubMed Central

Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288

Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong

2013-01-01

146

Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.  

PubMed

Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

2011-08-01

147

Taenia crassiceps Infection Does Not Influence the Development of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA. PMID:23509709

Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juarez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.

2013-01-01

148

Cytokine expression at the anchor site in experimental Taenia solium infection in hamsters.  

PubMed

The establishment of Taenia solium adult parasite in the human intestine causes taeniosis. Importantly, the immunological mechanisms occurring at the interface between the parasite and its host are not fully known. The development of experimental animal models has facilitated the understanding of the host-parasite relationship. In this study we standardized a quantitative RT-PCR method for analyzing hamster messenger RNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukins (IL): IL-4 IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. This method was then used to evaluate the local cytokine response elicited against the adult parasite at the attachment site in the intestine of infected hamsters. The results showed an intense IFN-? response, as well as an up-regulation of IL-4 as early as three days post-infection, permanence of IL-10 until the end of the experiment and down regulation of IL-12. These data are in agreement with a bias toward a Th-2 response as the infection progresses. PMID:24439768

Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Vaughan, Gilberto; Mendlovic, Fela; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Alonso, Monica; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

2014-03-01

149

Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) binding fraction from Taenia solium metacestode improves the neurocysticercosis serodiagnosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most important diseases caused by parasites affecting the central nervous system. We fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose resin the total saline extract (S) from Taenia solium metacestodes and evaluated obtained fractions (DEAE S1 and DEAE S2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, n?=?123) and immunoblotting (IB, n?=?22) to detect human NC in serum. Diagnostic parameters were established by ROC and TG ROC curves for ELISA tests. IB was qualitatively analyzed. S and DEAE S1 presented sensitivity of 87. 5% and DEAE S2 90%. The best specificity was observed for DEAE S2 (90.4%). In IB, using DEAE S2 samples from NC patients presented bands of 20-25, 43-45, 55-50, 60-66, 82, 89, and 140 kDa. The great diagnostic parameters reached by DEAE S2 suggest the potential applicability of this fraction in NC immunodiagnosis. PMID:24777340

Ribeiro, Vanessa da S; Nunes, Daniela da S; Gonzaga, Henrique T; da Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2014-07-01

150

Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †  

PubMed Central

Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2010-01-01

151

Caffeine and excitation-contraction coupling in the guinea pig taenia coli.  

PubMed

The effects of caffeine (0.2-10 mM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig taenia coli were investigated with the double sucrose-gap method. Caffeine evoked a small tension with a latency of 20-30 sec, then phasic contraction developed and finally relaxation. The initial tension development also appeared in the Na-free solution without any marked changes in the membrane potential and membrane resistance. The phasic contraction disappeared in the Na-free solution. The relaxation in the presence of caffeine was accompanied by depolarization block of the spike generation. The minimum concentration of Ca ion needed to evoke the tension development by the caffeine was 10(-7)M. Caffeine also potentiated the twitch tension below a concentration of 5 mM either in the Na-free solution or at low temperature (5 degrees C). NO(3) (-) and Br(-) showed a similar response to caffeine on the potentiation of the twitch tension at low temperature. PMID:5549098

Ito, Y; Kuriyama, H

1971-04-01

152

Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment. PMID:24879953

Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2014-09-01

153

Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and vaccinations against cestode infections. Research can now accelerate into the functional genomics, immunity and gene expression profiles of cestode species. PMID:22514598

Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

2012-01-01

154

Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed (3)H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, (3)H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

2014-07-01

155

Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of metacestode development in the rat by gossypol.  

PubMed

The effect of gossypol, a polyphenolic compound, on developing Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the rat liver was examined. Five groups of rats were used. In group 1, subcutaneous injection of gossypol at 10 mg/kg was started 5 days prior to administration of tapeworm eggs. In group 2, gossypol injections were started 5 days after administration of eggs. Groups 3 and 4 were infected and noninfected rats, respectively, which received the vehicle (10% ethyl alcohol in 0.85% NaCl) only. Group 5 rats were noninfected but received gossypol. From each group, 5 rats were killed on days 7, 12, and 22 of infection, respectively. The number and size of larvae and the size of the livers were much less in rats gossypol injected 5 days before infection than those in the vehicle-treated group. Administration of gossypol 5 days after infection resulted in less inhibition. The size and the thickness of the fibrous capsule around larvae of the gossypol-treated rats were much smaller than those of the control-infected group. The actively developing larvae excrete or secrete a sulfated glycosaminoglycan which is specifically stained with alcian blue. There was much more alcian blue-positive substance around the larvae and the capsule of the control-infected liver compared to the gossypol-treated infected animal. The percentage body weight of the spleen was significantly greater in the gossypol-treated rats in both infected and noninfected groups. These results suggest that gossypol may directly inhibit tapeworm larval development or that elimination of the tapeworm may be resulted from gossypol-induced stimulation of host cell-mediated immunity. PMID:3956677

Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C

1986-04-01

156

Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

2013-01-01

157

Functional model for calcium mobilization in the depolarized isolated guinea-pig taenia coli.  

PubMed

The muscular response to pharmacological agents is directly dependent on intracellular ionic calcium (Ca2+) and is modulated by membrane permeability and cation-binding to subcellular organelles. The isometric contraction of the ventral guinea-pig taenia coli was registered in a bath with a Rich KCl-Ringer in the absence of Ca2+ and sodium (Na+) with or without EDTA or Sammarium (Sm3+). Our experimental sequence was based on alternate succession between the concentration-response-curves or decay-curves procedure to acetylcholine and barium (Ba2+) in the same preparation. It was found that a contracture elicited by barium ion was not significantly affected by inclusion of EDTA (.01 mM) or Sm3+ (.06 mM). Also, prior exposure of the depolarized muscle to acetylcholine did not affect the barium response. However, prior exposure of the muscle to acetylcholine sensitized the barium-induced contracture to the inhibitory actions of EDTA and Sm3+. Prior exposure of the muscle to barium ions strongly reduced the mechanical response to acetylcholine. In addition, tension recorded during an acetylcholine decay curve was observed to be reduced by EDTA and Sm3+, although some degree of tension could be elicited by acetylcholine even after the depolarized muscle had been exposed to EDTA or Sm3+ up to 70 min. The suggestion is put forward that barium ions mobilize intracellular stores of calcium which may be restored from calcium pools that are mobilized by acetylcholine, EDTA and Sm3+. Acetylcholine would be able to mobilize calcium ions from a firmly bound membrane store and additional less firmly bound membrane stores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3129626

Pavan, C G; Turrin, M Q

1987-11-01

158

Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

2011-01-01

159

Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velasquez, Jeanette; Farfan, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

2007-01-01

160

Immune responses to viable and degenerative metacestodes of Taenia solium in naturally infected swine.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common helminth infection of the CNS in humans worldwide. There is no existing animal model of neurocysticercosis that resembles human infection. To overcome this limitation, swine (the natural intermediate host of the parasite) may be a suitable model. The immune response associated with different stages of the parasite larva (metacestode) has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the immune response to various stages of the metacestode (cyst) in the brain and muscles of naturally infected swine. Swine with neurocysticercosis (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10), as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, were included in this study. The animals were sacrificed, and the tissues containing viable or degenerative metacestods in the brain and infected muscles were collected and subjected to reverse transcriptase-PCR and ELISA to determine the expression of different cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). Higher expression of IL-10 was found to be associated with viable cysts. Degenerating cysts displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, whereas calcified cysts had elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-6. The present study indicated a strong regulatory (IL-10) and Th1 cytokine response in viable and degenerating cysts, respectively, whereas calcified cysts had a mixed anti-inflammatory (IL-4), regulatory (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-? and IL-6) response. Thus, Th1 and Th2 immune response operate in the vicinity of metacestodes and the type of immune response may be responsible for disease severity. PMID:24184156

Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

2013-12-01

161

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics. PMID:20649981

2010-01-01

162

First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.  

PubMed

The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

2014-04-01

163

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set

Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai

2010-01-01

164

Anthelmintic efficacy of febantel combined with praziquantel against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Toxocara cati, and Taenia taeniaeformis in cats.  

PubMed

Forty cats, each harboring 2 or 3 parasitic infections (Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Toxocara cati, and/or Taenia taeniaeformis), were used to titrate the anthelmintic efficacy of a paste containing 3.4% febantel and 0.34% praziquantel. The cats were allotted into 4 groups (10 cats/group). For 3 consecutive days, the cats were given febantel/praziquantel at 5/0.5 mg/kg/day, 10/1 mg/kg/day, 15/1.5 mg/kg/day, or a blank paste vehicle (control) at 0.29 g/kg of body weight. The recommended dosage of 10 mg of febantel and 1 mg of praziquantel/kg cleared greater than or equal to 98% of the 3 helminth species. PMID:3767110

Arther, R G; Cox, D D

1986-09-01

165

Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.  

PubMed Central

Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

1987-01-01

166

Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.  

PubMed

A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24914004

Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

2014-09-01

167

Retrospective and spatial analysis tools for integrated surveillance of cystic echinococcosis and bovine cysticercosis in hypo-endemic areas.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and bovine cysticercosis (BC) are two important parasitic zoonoses, whose prevalence varies among European countries. Few data are available on prevalence and geographic distribution of these two diseases in Veneto region in North-Eastern Italy, where they are generally perceived as minor public health problems. Available data from regional farms on cattle positive to CE and BC and slaughtered in the period 2006-2010 were analysed by spatial scan statistic using a Bernoulli probablility model. Out of 576 bovines testing positive to CE, 467 were found to be autochthonous cases. Three significant CE clusters were identified, the most likely one (P < 0.0001) located in the eastern part of the Veneto region. As for BC, two clusters were identified from 148 animals resting positive, 91 which were autochthonous. An epidemiological survey was conducted and the most likely CE cluster was centered, collecting faecal samples from 28 dogs living in the farms of the area. Out of five animals (all shepherd dogs) found positive for taenid eggs by copromicroscopy, one was confirmed positive for Echinoccus granulosus by means of polymerase chain reaction. The study demonstrates the usefulness of integration of slaughterhouse data and geographical coordinates of farms involved for effective surveillance of CE and BC. The reliability of the spatial analysis in the identification of clusters of EC cases was confirmed by the finding of one dog positive for E. granulosus. PMID:24893028

Cassini, Rudi; Mulatti, Paolo; Zanardello, Claudia; Simonato, Giulia; Signorini, Manuela; Cazzin, Stefania; Tambalo, PierGiorgio; Cobianchi, Mario; Pietrobelli, Mario; Capelli, Gioia

2014-05-01

168

Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris  

PubMed Central

Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter. PMID:21247427

2011-01-01

169

Bradykinin B2 receptors and coupling mechanisms in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.  

PubMed Central

1. In the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci, bradykinin produces a relaxation followed by a contraction. In the presence of hexamethonium and guanethidine, both these phases of the response were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (100 nM), omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nM) and ibuprofen (1 microM), suggesting that they are due to a direct action on the smooth muscle. 2. The B1 receptor-selective agonist, [des-Arg9]-BK (1-100 microM), was inactive in the taenia caeci, and the B1 receptor-selective antagonist, [Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1-10 microM), did not inhibit either phase of the bradykinin-induced response. The B2 receptor-selective antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (Hoe 140) (30-300 nM), inhibited both the bradykinin-induced relaxation and contraction with a similar affinity (apparent pKB estimates of 8.5 +/- 0.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.1 respectively). 3. In a depolarizing high-K(+)-solution, bradykinin produced concentration-related contractions, though of diminished magnitude; but no relaxation was observed in such media. In Krebs solution, the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel blocker, apamin (10 nM), abolished relaxant responses. These observations suggest that contraction results both from membrane potential-dependent, and membrane potential-independent, mechanisms; whereas relaxant responses result entirely from membrane potential-dependent mechanisms. Contractile responses obtained in the high K(+)-solution were inhibited by D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK with an apparent pKB value of 8.4 +/- 0.1. 4. In a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium, relatively high concentrations of bradykinin (> 100 nM) produced transient contractions, suggesting that a component of the contractile response results from release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834214

Field, J L; Butt, S K; Morton, I K; Hall, J M

1994-01-01

170

Ultrastructure of smooth muscle, gap junctions and glycogen distribution in Taenia solium tapeworms from experimentally infected hamsters.  

PubMed

Taenia solium adults were grown in hamsters infected by feeding them with cysticerci from pig carcasses. Viable strobilae were collected from the hamster duodenum 20-60 days post-infection, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourteen strobilae were cut into pieces and embedded in individual blocks. Sections, stained with toluidine blue, were then photographed by light microscopy. Over 1,200 TEM images were obtained from selected blocks. Maturing proglottids exhibited a dense myofilament lattice of connecting fibers, each contained in sarcoplamsic extensions of myocytons and emitting cytoplasmic processes loosely attached to other cells, structures characterized as myocyton-myofilament-pseudopod units, which are interpreted as structures involved in the transport of cells and membrane-bound-glycogen from the germinative tissues to mature proglottids. Densely packed membrane-bound glycogen particles were found between the tegumentary cytons of the neck tissue, and as single-stranded particles between the tegumentary cytons of mature proglottids. These were wrapped around cell bodies in the parenchyma of maturing proglottids and as thin cytoplasmic strands between the testicular lobules of mature proglottids. A large number of cell-to-cell adhesions were identified as gap junctions connected to glycogen strands. We suggest that these are involved in the transport of glucose to differentiating tissues. PMID:12632169

Willms, Kaethe; Robert, Lilia; Caro, José Antonio

2003-03-01

171

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch.  

PubMed

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

172

Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).  

PubMed

Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population. PMID:1548801

Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

1992-01-01

173

The role of OX22- helper T cells in protective immunity to reinfection with Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

Spleen cells (SpC) and mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) from F344 donor rats actively immunized by oral inoculation with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were syngeneically transferred into previously uninfected recipient rats by intravenous injection. Recipient rats were challenged with eggs after cell transfer. The degree of immunity was assessed by counting the number of growing metacestodes (MC) in the liver and compared with that in controls. Transfer of 2 x 10(8) SpC, obtained from donors immunized for ten or more (but not for three or five) days before cell transfer inhibited the establishment of most of MC. There were approximately 86-88% reductions in MC recoveries. SpC (2 x 10(8)) obtained from donors immunized for ten days inhibited the establishment of most of MC in recipient rats when transferred nought, two, or 24 h (but not 48 h) before egg challenge. Functional cells in the immune SpC were helper T cells W3/25+, OX8- and OX22-. However, immune MLNC obtained from donors immunized for three to ten days before cell transfer had no effect on transferring immunity. PMID:7877844

Asano, K; Ito, A; Okamoto, K

1993-12-01

174

Developmental and morphological characteristics of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) in Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and Rattus norvegicus from different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species. PMID:8195949

Iwaki, T; Nonaka, N; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1994-06-01

175

Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of mitogen induced proliferation and interleukin-2 production in rat splenocytes by larval in vitro product.  

PubMed

Splenocytes from rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis showed an early decreased proliferative response to the mitogen concanavalin A with larval growth. When larvae culture supernatant (in vitro product) was added to normal rat splenocytes, there was a decrease in the proliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. The ability of infected rat splenocytes to produce interleukin-2 was decreased with larval growth. Addition of in vitro product to culture medium significantly depressed interleukin-2 production by normal as well as infected rat spleen cells. Culturing normal rat splenocytes with in vitro product for 3 days induced a suppressor cell population. When these cultured cells were admixed with fresh normal rat splenocytes plus concanavalin A, the proliferative response of the fresh cells was significantly reduced. The present results suggest that in vitro product secreted by larvae in hepatic cysts causes subversion of the cellular immune response in the host. Induction of a suppressor cell population could suppress interleukin-2 production which may lead to the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. PMID:2943603

Burger, C J; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C

1986-10-01

176

Evaluation of spleen lymphocyte responsiveness to a T-cell mitogen during early infection with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The effect of taeniid infection on the in vitro cellular response of the host was investigated. Infections of Taenia taeniaeformis decreased the ability of spleen cells from susceptible C3H/He mice to respond to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) as early as 2 days postinfection (pi) reaching a suppression peak at day 12 pi. Similar experiments performed with spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, resistant to the infection, revealed little or no suppression of Con A stimulation. The results suggested that susceptibility to the parasite may be due to its ability to induce a partial suppression of the host's immune system. The role of adherent splenocytes from infected C3H/He mice in the production of a deficient response to Con A during early infection was studied by coculturing experiments. These experiments demonstrated that adherent populations from infected mice did not play a direct role in the Con A-suppressor mechanisms. Concomitant with the suppressor activity an increased background proliferation was observed with nonstimulated splenocytes from C3H/He mice infected with T. taeniaeformis. Plasma from infected mice was able to suppress the response of normal spleen cells to Con A and to stimulate a proliferative response in cultured splenocytes from noninfected animals. The results suggest the presence of factors in the plasma of infected mice which may be modulating the immune response to the parasite. PMID:3495795

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C; Schurig, G

1987-01-01

177

Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch  

PubMed Central

Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

2014-01-01

178

Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

2010-01-01

179

Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.  

PubMed

A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170

De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

2014-10-01

180

Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.  

PubMed

Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis. PMID:23474657

Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

2013-05-01

181

A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps  

PubMed Central

MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17?-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17?-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2010-01-01

182

Methyl 5(6)-(alpha-hydroxyphenyl methyl) benzimidazole-2-carbamate and cysticercosis: chemotherapeutic and electron microscopic studies.  

PubMed

Methyl 5(6)-(alpha-hydroxyphenyl methyl) benzimidazole-2-carbamate, a major metabolite of mebendazole was evaluated against Cysticercus fasciolaria (larval form of Taenia taeniaeformis) in rats. The metabolite was assessed in various doses. A regimen of 50 mg/kg x 10 (ip), given one day apart, was found to be most effective and killed all the mature cysticerci. On developing cysts, the treatment was initiated in two schedules; 5 days prior to (d-5 to d-1) and 5 days after (d + 6 to d + 10) administration of T. taeniaeformis eggs to rats. The later protocol with 100 mg/kg x 5 dose (ip) resulted in 95% inhibition in the establishment of cysticerci. Activity of mebendazole against mature cysts was parallel to metabolite whereas against developing cysts, it was inferior. The time related topographical changes that occurred in mature C. fasciolaris after treatment with metabolite (50 mg/kg x 10, ip, one day apart) were observed by scanning electron microscopy. There was loss of contractivity, gradual disappearance of microtriches and progressive degeneration of tegument. Similar changes were noticed with mebendazole. The possession of better efficacy and higher safety range [Indian J Exp. Biol, 25 (1987) 871], suggests that the metabolite can be a potential anthelmintic for man and animals. PMID:2599555

Jain, M K; Gupta, S; Katiyar, J C; Maitra, S C; Singh, J; Bhakuni, D S

1989-05-01

183

Taenia taeniaeformis: early inflammatory response around developing metacestodes in the liver of resistant and susceptible mice II. Histochemistry and cytochemistry.  

PubMed

Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained for the enzymes acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, and peroxidase. Eosinophils present around the parasite were identified by the ethanolic Congo red method. Possible gross changes in lipid metabolism in the hepatocytes surrounding the parasite were investigated with the Sudan black B method. The results of observations made by light microscopy were: (1) beta-glucuronidase activity above background levels was observed only in the hepatocytes around the parasite in BALB/cJ mice at 4, 5, and 6 days postinfection (PI); no reaction was observed in the other 2 strains of mice studied; (2) acid phosphatase activity was very strong at 2, 3, and 4 in the 3 strains of mice while this reactivity was weak at 5 and 6 days PI; (3) the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes around the metacestode stained more heavily with Sudan black B than other hepatocytes; and (4) the presence of eosinophils appearing at 3 days PI around the parasite in all 3 strains of mice was demonstrated by staining with Sudan black B, the substrate of peroxidase, and Congo red. Infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice had higher numbers of liver eosinophils than infected C3H/HeDub mice throughout the observation time. The present results suggest 2 conclusions: (1) a parasite-liver interaction occurs as is evident by hepatocyte changes in beta-glucuronidase activity and Sudan black B staining, and (2) resistance to the early stages of T. taeniaeformis is associated with the appearance of eosinophils. PMID:2443633

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C

1987-10-01

184

Vaccination against Taenia taeniaeformis infection in rats using a recombinant protein and preliminary analysis of the induced antibody response.  

PubMed

Primary screening of a cDNA expression library of Taenia taeniaeformis oncospheres in lambda gt11 bacteriophage was carried out using rabbit anti-T, taeniaeformis oncosphere serum affinity-purified from oncosphere pellets. From approximately 1.6 x 10(5) plaques, 21 single clones that were positive with the affinity-purified antibodies were isolated. Sibling analysis revealed that 17 clones out of the 21 could be assigned to five different antigen families. Only family 1 was strongly recognized by a serum prepared in a rabbit against a partially purified host-protective oncosphere antigen fraction. The fragments of lambda DNA were inserted into a pGEX plasmid vector that encodes glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum. Clones designated TtO-18, -49.53 (family 1), 46 (family 2), 15 (family 3), 40 (family 4) and 66 (family 5) were established as subclones in pGEX-1 plasmid vectors which produced GST fusion proteins. All GST fusion proteins were soluble and recognized by anti-GST and anti-TtO sera. Three vaccination experiments with these fusion proteins using specific-pathogen-free Wistar rats revealed that all three fusion proteins of family 1 were exclusively effective against T. taeniaeformis oncosphere challenge with approximately 95% and 91% reductions in cystic metacestode and total metacestode recoveries, respectively. Rats vaccinated with fusion proteins of family 1 produced antibodies which reacted with a 21-kDa oncosphere antigen component which appeared to be a major oncosphere stage-specific antigen. PMID:1826341

Ito, A; Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Mitchell, G F; Takami, T; Kamiya, M; Onitake, K; Rickard, M D

1991-01-01

185

Modulation by GABA B and delta opioid receptors of neurally induced responses in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GABA-ergic and opioid modulation of neurally induced muscle responses was studied in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle, using identical field stimulation parameters (rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 9 V.cm–1 intensity, trains of 3 pulses at 0.5 Hz, repeated every 1\\/3\\/5 min).The stimulation-induced contractions were inhibited in both preparations by GABA and baclofen; the IC50 values in human colonic circular

Éva Makó; András Z Rónai; György Ádám; Gábor Juhász; László Ritter; Béla Lestár; Vincenzo Crunelli

2000-01-01

186

Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.  

PubMed

Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp. PMID:22002024

Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo

2011-11-01

187

Analysis of immune lesions in neurocysticercosis patients: central nervous system response to helminth appears Th1-like instead of Th2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by the helminth Taenia solium is the most common parasitic infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Because clinical symptoms are associated with localized immunological responses in the brain, characterization of these responses are pivotal for understanding the pathogenesis of cysticercosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain specimens from several patients with cysticercosis revealed at least four

Blanca I Restrepo; Patricia Llaguno; Miguel A Sandoval; Jose A Enciso; Judy M Teale

1998-01-01

188

Nitric oxide formation from glyceryl trinitrate by rabbit aortic strip: detection by rabbit taenia coli concurrent with vasorelaxation.  

PubMed Central

1. The purpose of the present study was to assay NO formation from GTN biotransformation by the rabbit aortic strip (RAS) at times concurrent with its vasorelaxation. Such an assay is an important test of the prodrug hypothesis where it is postulated that glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is biotransformed to nitric oxide (NO), the active species that initiates vascular smooth muscle relaxation. To test such a hypothesis, we propose that a sample of smooth muscle, poorly responsive to GTN, yet sensitive to the effects of NO could be used to detect RAS production of NO from GTN. 2. Muscle strips of rabbit taenia coli (RTCS) and RAS in close apposition, were mounted in tissue baths, and muscle relaxation was recorded with isometric force transducers. Tissues were submaximally precontracted with 30-35 mM K+ depolarizing solution and exposed to increasing concentrations of GTN (0.1 nM-10 microM). 3. EC25 for GTN-induced relaxation of RTCS in the presence of RAS was significantly decreased to that for RTCS in the absence of RAS (5.9 +/- 3.0 x 10(-8) M and 5.5 +/- 3.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively). Mean maximal levels of GTN-induced relaxation of similarly precontracted RTCS also differed in the presence and absence of RAS, viz., 80.8 +/- 2.1% and 29.8 +/- 8.3% respectively. 4. RTCS was found to relax upon administration of NO gas bubbled through the incubation medium. Analysis of tissue bath medium revealed that the NO concentration to which RTCS was exposed attained a maximum of 33 nM. Relaxation of RTCS by NO gas was inhibited by 1 microM reduced haemoglobin. 5. For GTN-incubation with intestinal and vascular smooth muscle preparations, NO formation was greater with RAS compared to RTCS. Thus, in the two-issue bioassay, the RAS was the predominant source of NO formation from GTN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889309

Hussain, A S; Poklewska-Koziell, M; Brien, J F; Marks, G S; Nakatsu, K

1994-01-01

189

Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinococcus multilocularis) infections in cats.  

PubMed

Emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, BayerAG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections. PMID:16228273

Charles, S D; Altreuther, G; Reinemeyer, C R; Buch, J; Settje, T; Cruthers, L; Kok, D J; Bowman, D D; Kazacos, K R; Jenkins, D J; Schein, E

2005-10-01

190

Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.  

PubMed

Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena. PMID:10344534

Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

1999-06-01

191

The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.  

PubMed

This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given. PMID:15158554

Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

2004-06-10

192

Structural and biochemical studies of a recombinant 25.5 kDa glutathione transferase of Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1).  

PubMed

In this work, we studied a recombinant mu-class glutathione transferase of 25.5 kDa from Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1) that follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The kinetic parameters obtained for rTs25GST1-1 with CDNB and GSH were V(max) =12.04 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=1.38 mM, and V(max) =10.20 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=0.90, respectively. The optimal activity was found at pH 8 in the 37-40 °C temperature range. Circular dichroism studies for rTs25GST1-1 at different pH showed that it maintains a typical ?-helix structure between pH 6.5-7.5, but loses it between pH 8 and 8.5. Thermal CD assays showed rTs25GST1-1 barely changed its secondary structure. Unfolding/refolding assays showed that rTs25GST1-1 retained its structure up to 40 °C without loss of its activity. Additionally, exposure of rTs25GST1-1 to cumene hydroperoxide did not produce significant changes in its structure and only affected 50% of its activity. PMID:23959386

Roldan, Aramis; Torres-Rivera, Anayetzin; Landa, Abraham

2013-11-01

193

Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae. PMID:19205741

Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Feliu, Carlos

2009-06-01

194

Stage-specific immunity to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in mice. A histological study of the course of infection in mice vaccinated with either oncosphere or metacestode antigens.  

PubMed

The course of Taenia taeniaeformis infection in mice previously vaccinated with antigens prepared from either oncosphere (TtO) or metacestode (TtM) was followed by histological examination of livers from mice killed at various times post-infection (p.i.). Distinctly different immune responses occurred in the two groups. Very few cysts were seen at any stage of infection in TtO-vaccinated mice and most of those which were present appeared histologically similar to cysts in control mice. In TtM-vaccinated mice many cysts were present from early in infection but histologically it was apparent that most were dying from 15 days p.i. because the tegument had lost its integrity, and degranulated polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present inside the parasites. These findings support earlier suggestions that stage-specific antigens are expressed in oncospheres and metacestodes. Parasites developing normally were surrounded by a halo of alcian blue staining amorphous acellular material. This material appeared to act as a barrier to attack by host inflammatory cells, and disappearance of this layer signalled death of the parasite. The possibility that the gut acted as a barrier to delay migration of oncospheres to the liver in vaccinated mice was investigated, but no evidence for this could be found. PMID:2320379

Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Sullivan, N D; Mitchell, G F; Rickard, M D

1990-03-01

195

Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice. PMID:1869358

Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

1991-04-01

196

Release of Glycoprotein (GP1) from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes  

PubMed Central

In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1. PMID:20130782

Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

197

Influence of geographical scale on the detection of density dependence in the host-parasite system, Arvicola terrestris and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (<0.1 km2); (3) mean density at a larger scale (>10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles. PMID:16329763

Deter, J; Berthier, K; Chaval, Y; Cosson, J F; Morand, S; Charbonnel, N

2006-04-01

198

Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Zuniga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raul Jose; Govezensky, Tzipe; Pinero, Daniel; Texco-Martinez, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Proano, Jefferson; Cardenas, Graciela; Hernandez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

2013-01-01

199

Impairment of the inflammatory reaction on implanted Taenia solium metacestodes in mice by a T. solium RNA-peptide: a scanning electron microscopy study.  

PubMed

Inhibition of inflammation by a Taenia solium RNA-peptide (metacestode factor, MF) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Viable (96%) T. solium metacestodes obtained from a naturally infected pig were dissected and implanted in treated and control mice, removed at 6 and 12 days postimplantation (p.i.), and studied by SEM. At day 6, metacestodes in control mice showed vigorous inflammation, whereas in mice treated with MF they were apparently intact with exiguous inflammation. Mice immunized with T. solium metacestode antigens showed a moderate inflammation; those treated with both MF and T. solium antigens presented scanty inflammation. At day 12, metacestodes presented copious inflammation and severe damage to the sucker tissues in mice immunized with T. solium; in mice treated with either MF or MF and T. solium antigens there was only discrete inflammation. These observations illustrate the central role of MF in the inhibition of the early events leading to the parasite's destruction by means of an inflammatory response. PMID:9521005

Molinari, J L; Tato, P; Rodríguez, D; Solano, S; Rubio, M; Sepúlveda, J

1998-01-01

200

The calcium antagonistic effects of cyproheptadine on contraction, membrane electrical events and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli  

PubMed Central

1 The ability of cyproheptadine (Cph) to inhibit membrane translocation of calcium in smooth muscle was investigated by studying the drug's action on contraction, electrical activity and calcium influx in the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2 Cph ? 10-6M reduced the amplitude of normal spontaneous contractions and concurrently decreased the number of action potentials occurring with each slow-wave of depolarization (sucrose-gap recordings). These inhibitory effects of Cph were antagonized by increasing the medium [Ca] three fold to 7.68 mM. 3 Intracellular recordings showed that Cph ? 2 × 10-6M decreased the amplitude and extended the duration of the action potential. These effects were only partially reversible in normal medium whereas large overshooting action potentials were again seen in 7.68 mM Ca medium. 4 High frequency mechanical activity was produced by inclusion of veratridine 5 × 10-6M in the perfusate. Low concentrations of Cph (? 10-7M) reduced the amplitude of such contractions at a faster rate than they did normal spontaneous contractions. 5 At concentrations between 10-7 and 10-6M, Cph fully reduced the tonic component of contractions elicited in 112 mM isotonic KCl whilst having little or no effect on either (i) the initial phasic KCl contraction or (ii) the `repolarization contracture' normally produced on wash-out of the KCl or (iii) the spontaneous contractions before and after KCl treatment. In contrast, at Cph 2 × 10-6M, the repolarization contracture, as well as the isotonic KCl contraction, was totally blocked whereas spontaneous contractions were still unaffected. Progressively higher Cph concentrations inhibited all components of this contractile cycle. 6 Dose-response curves for the rate of drug-induced relaxation of tonic contractures produced in hypertonic 42.7 mM high-potassium medium, showed the calcium antagonistic potency of Cph to be intermediate between that of chlorpromazine and D600. The minimum Cph concentration for effect lay between 1 and 5 × 10-7M, and the effects of Cph 2 × 10-6M (approximately the ID50) were totally antagonized by 12.8 mM Ca. 7 By means of a lanthanum wash procedure, Cph ? 2 × 10-6M was found to decrease the 45Ca uptake occurring into strips of taenia coli in normal medium, although the maximum effect (at Cph 10-5M) amounted to only 25% inhibition of the uptake occurring into control strips (also found with D600). The increased uptake occurring in hypertonic 44.7 mM high-potassium medium was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by Cph 1 × 10-7M. 8 The results are consistent with an action of Cph in reducing the flow of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane. It is suggested that the interaction of Cph molecules with such sites is dependent upon membrane potential as well as drug concentration. PMID:6271323

Lowe, D.A.; Matthews, E.K.; Richardson, B.P.

1981-01-01

201

Taenia taeniaeformis: early inflammatory response around developing metacestodes in the liver of resistant and susceptible mice I. Identification of leukocyte response with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Female BALB/cJ (resistant), C3H/HeJ (intermediate resistant), and C3H/HeDub (susceptible) inbred mice, 4-5 wk old, were infected with Taenia taeniaeformis. Liver sections were stained by an immunoperoxidase technique (avidin-biotin complex, ABC) for the differentiation antigens Lyt-1, Lyt-2, Mac-1, Mac-2, Mac-3, and B220. Binding of ABC to the cytoplasm of hepatocytes around the developing parasite was observed at 4 days postinfection (PI) in all 3 strains of mice, persisting in BALB/cJ and C3H/HeJ liver sections at 5 and 6 days PI, suggesting the presence of high concentrations of biotin, a fatty acid synthesis mediator. Two cell populations were labeled with B220 monoclonal antibodies: lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. At 4 days PI the number of labeled PMN cells peaked in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice; however a low number of PMN cells were labeled in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Few lymphocytes bound the B220 antibody in either BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, or C3H/HeDub infected mice. The number of Mac-1+ cells detected in infected C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ liver sections were similar whereas fewer Mac-1+ cells were present in infected C3H/HeDub mice. Mac-2+ cells appeared in high numbers around the growing parasite at 5 and 6 days PI in the liver of C3H/HeDub mice, but not in the liver of BALB/cJ mice. Mac-3+ cells followed a similar pattern to that of the cell population defined by Mac-2. Few Lyt-1+ and Lyt-2+ cells were detected around the parasite site in the 3 strains of mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3309243

Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C

1987-10-01

202

Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

2003-11-01

203

Cyanide-resistant respiration in Taenia crassiceps metacestode (cysticerci) is explained by the H2O2-producing side-reaction of respiratory complex I with O2.  

PubMed

The nature of the cyanide-resistant respiration of Taenia crassiceps metacestode was studied. Mitochondrial respiration with NADH as substrate was partially inhibited by rotenone, cyanide and antimycin in decreasing order of effectiveness. In contrast, respiration with succinate or ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was more sensitive to antimycin and cyanide. The saturation kinetics for O2 with NADH as substrate showed two components, which exhibited different oxygen affinities. The high-O2-affinity system (Km app=1.5 microM) was abolished by low cyanide concentration; it corresponded to cytochrome aa3. The low-O2-affinity system (Km app=120 microM) was resistant to cyanide. Similar O2 saturation kinetics, using succinate or ascorbate-TMPD as electron donor, showed only the high-O2-affinity cyanide-sensitive component. Horse cytochrome c increased 2-3 times the rate of electron flow across the cyanide-sensitive pathway and the contribution of the cyanide-resistant route became negligible. Mitochondrial NADH respiration produced significant amounts of H2O2 (at least 10% of the total O2 uptake). Bovine catalase and horse heart cytochrome c prevented the production and/or accumulation of H2O2. Production of H2O2 by endogenous respiration was detected in whole cysticerci using rhodamine as fluorescent sensor. Thus, the CN-resistant and low-O2-affinity respiration results mainly from a spurious reaction of the respiratory complex I with O2, producing H2O2. The meaning of this reaction in the microaerobic habitat of the parasite is discussed. PMID:15958286

del Arenal, I Patricia; Rubio, M Esther; Ramírez, Jorge; Rendón, Juan L; Escamilla, J Edgardo

2005-09-01

204

IgA detection in human neurocysticercosis using different preparations of heterologous antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NC) is the most important neurological disease of parasitic origin in humans. IgA and IgG detection in\\u000a serum from neurocysticercosis patients was tested using some antigenic preparations of total saline extract from Taenia saginata: detergent (D) and aqueous (A) phases extracted with Triton X-114 and the jacalin bound (JBF) and unbound fractions (JUF)\\u000a obtained by affinity chromatography using jacalin

Vanessa da S. Ribeiro; Marianna N. Manhani; Julia M. Costa-Cruz

2010-01-01

205

Effect of some chemical agents on the viability of Cysticercus bovis.  

PubMed

The effect of eight chemicals; vinegar, Allium sativum (crude garlic), Acacia auriculiformis, lemon juice, praziquantel, pumpkin, perosan and yomesan on the viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in vitro was investigated. The minimum exposure time required for cysticerci to be non-evaginable for the eight chemicals were 5, 10, 25, 40, 55, 75, 90 and 105 minutes respectively. The best one was vinegar and the least effective was yomesan. PMID:14964654

Mohamoud, Lily H; El Alfy, Nadia M

2003-08-01

206

Neurocysticercosis: a short review and presentation of a Scandinavian case.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a disease entity caused by the larval form (Cysticercus cellulosae) of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium). When man becomes the intermediate host, cysticercal cysts can develop in various organs. Neurocysticercosis, i.e. cysticercosis of the central nervous system, can lead to a broad range of neurological disturbances. The disease is usually confined to geographical regions where sanitation is poor but can occur among immigrants or travellers from such regions. Due to increased travel and immigration the disease may appear in non-endemic areas. We describe a recent case of neurocysticercosis in a 28-year-old Danish woman, who had been travelling in the Far East. She was successfully treated with praziquantel. A short review of the literature is given as the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease has increased greatly in the last decade. PMID:1509231

Hansen, N J; Hagelskjaer, L H; Christensen, T

1992-01-01

207

Hydrocephalus and Neurocysticercosis: Cases Illustrative of Three Distinct Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the nervous system. Most lesions are intracranial, and spinal involvement is rare. We describe here in two cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the brain and one in the spinal cord that illustrate three distinct mechanisms leading to symptomatic acute hydrocephalus. Case Report Hydrocephalus was related to intracranial NCC in two of them. In the first case the hydrocephalus was due to an extensive arachnoiditis to the craniocervical junction, while in the second it was caused by obstruction of Magendie's foramen in the fourth ventricle by the scolex of Taenia solium. For the third patient, hydrocephalus revealed cysticercosis of the cauda equina due to the scolex. Conclusions NCC should be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients suffering from hydrocephalus when they originate from or have traveled in endemic areas, MRI of the spine is mandatory to search for intraspinal lesions.

Faillot, Thierry

2014-01-01

208

Comparison of biochemical and immunochemical properties of myosin II in taeniid parasites.  

PubMed

Type II myosins are highly conserved proteins, though differences have been observed among organisms, mainly in the filamentous region. Myosin isoforms have been identified in Taenia solium, a helminth parasite of public health importance in many developing countries. These isoforms are probably associated with the physiological requirements of each developmental stage of the parasite. In this paper we extend the characterization of myosin to several other Taenia species. Type II myosins were purified from the larvae (cysticerci) of Taenia solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps and the adult stages of T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. saginata. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against some of these myosins were specific at high dilutions but cross-reacted at low dilutions. ATPase activity was evaluated and kinetic values were calculated for each myosin. Homologous actin-myosin interactions increased both the affinity of myosin for ATP and the hydrolysis rate. The results indicate immunological and biochemical differences among taeniid myosins. This variability suggests that different isoforms are found not only in different taeniid species but also at different developmental stages. Further characterization of myosin isoforms should include determination of their amino acid composition. PMID:16733094

Cruz-Rivera, M; Reyes-Torres, A; Reynoso-Ducoing, O; Flisser, A; Ambrosio, J R

2006-07-01

209

Utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing species of the family Taeniidae.  

PubMed

The family Taeniidae comprises many parasitic species, which cause serious zoonoses. However, effective identification of Taeniidae species is a long-standing problem, especially in samples from wild hosts with mixed infections of different Taeniidae species. DNA barcoding analysis of small fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been confirmed as an effective and useful method for identifying Taenia species. We therefore performed DNA barcoding analysis using a 351-bp region of the COI gene to identify 27 taeniid species including 9 in the genus Echinococcus, 2 in Hydatigera, 15 in Taenia, and 1 in Versteria. A total of 484 COI sequences were used to calculate genetic divergence expressed by the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance. The mean intra-specific K2P distance in the family Taeniidae was 0.71 ± 0.17% (±SE), while inter-specific divergences were considerably higher. We found that, generally, a 2.0% optimal barcoding threshold could be set to distinguish taeniid species. Taenia polyacantha and Hydatigera taeniaeformis were the only 2 false-positive species identification cases in this study for their intra-specific divergences above the 2.0% optimal threshold. Their high intra-specific divergences coincided with fact that cryptic divergences exist in these 2 species, to which new taxa were recommended. On the other hand, sister species T. asiatica and T. saginata showed a 2.48 ± 0.83% inter-specific divergence, which was the smallest among all the taeniid species. Although fitting the 2.0% optimal species barcoding threshold, the close genetic relationship between T. asiatica and T. saginata implies that longer mitochondrial DNA sequences like the complete COI sequence are needed to strictly distinguish them. Therefore, we concluded that the barcoding technique based on a 351-bp region of the COI gene is able to distinguish taeniid species except for cryptic T. polyacantha and H. taeniaeformis and should be carefully used in distinguishing the closely related species T. asiatica and T. saginata . PMID:24611571

Zhang, Gaotian; Chen, Jue; Yang, Yingyuan; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Weibin; Gu, Sunlong; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhenghuan

2014-08-01

210

Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis.  

PubMed

The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube. PMID:7084943

Abraham, J L; Spore, W W; Benirschke, K

1982-07-01

211

Rapid Molecular Identification of Human Taeniid Cestodes by Pyrosequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

212

Rapid molecular identification of human taeniid cestodes by pyrosequencing approach.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse. PMID:24945530

Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-01-01

213

A simple method for collecting eggs of taeniid cestodes from fresh, frozen or ethanol-fixed segments.  

PubMed

A simple method was devised for collecting eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. saginata. All gravid segments, either fresh or frozen or 70% ethanol-fixed, were gently scraped using a pestle on a 150 mesh stainless steel sieve. Eggs and tissue debris were washed out all together with mouse tonicity phosphate buffered saline (MTPBS) through the 150 mesh sieve into a glass beaker. Egg suspension with a huge amount of tissue debris in MTPBS was centrifuged 5 min at 3000 r.p.m. (x 1600 g) and the pellet of eggs and tissue debris was resuspended with 1 vol. of MTPBS and 2 vol. of Percoll (Pharmacia) and centrifuged 60 min at 3000 r.p.m. More than 90% of eggs sedimented in the pellet. The supernatant covered with tissue debris was decanted, and the egg pellet was resuspended and centrifuged several times with MTPBS to remove Percoll. It is suggested that this simple method may prove useful for preparation of eggs of biohazardous taeniid cestodes, such as Taenia solium and Echinococcus spp. PMID:7635631

Takemoto, Y; Negita, T; Ohnishi, K; Suzuki, M; Ito, A

1995-04-01

214

High Prevalence of Haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, Proven by Adult Worm Recovery from Suspected Opisthorchiasis Cases  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

2013-01-01

215

Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)  

PubMed Central

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

2014-01-01

216

Parasitic infections based on 320 clinical samples submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011).  

PubMed

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Ahn, Myoung-Hee

2014-04-01

217

Effects of larval tapeworm (Taenia taeniaeformis) infection on reproductive functions in male and female host rats.  

PubMed

This report examined the effects of larval tapeworm infection on the reproductive functions in both male and female host rats. Female rats were matched by age, then randomly assigned to control and treatment groups (infected with larval tapeworms). Estrous cycles were determined by vaginal smear with 95% of the control group exhibiting 4-day normal cyclicity and only 55% of the treated group exhibiting normal cycles. Female fertility was then evaluated for the normally cycling rats based on the percentage of successful matings on the evening of proestrus, number of implantation sites on Day 8 of pregnancy, and number of pups born at term. The normally cycling rats exhibited 96% successful mating, 12.95 +/- 1.80 implantation sites, and 11.20 +/- 1.80 pups born. Five months after larval tapeworm infection, the fertility parameters were decreased to 79%, 9.10 +/- 1.20, and 7.50 +/- 1.50, respectively. The control females were then used in a study of male fertility after larval tapeworm infection employing the same parameters used to test female fertility. At the onset of the study, control groups exhibited 95% successful mating, 12.50 +/- 1.50 implantation sites, and 11.60 +/- 1.60 pups born at full term. After the 5-month infection period, the parameters were substantially reduced to 29%, 6.20 +/- 0.80 implantation sites, and 5.10 +/- 0.80 pups, respectively. Average testosterone concentrations in serum and testis from control male rats were 8.80 +/- 0.95 ng/ml and 3.88 +/- 0.25 ng/mg protein, respectively. After the 5-month infection period, these levels were reduced to 2.47 +/- 0.31 ng/ml and 1.28 +/- 0.12 ng/mg protein, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2311716

Lin, Y C; Rikihisa, Y; Kono, H; Gu, Y

1990-04-01

218

Increase of Membrane Conductance by Adrenaline in the Smooth Muscle of GuineaPig Taenia Coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The double sucrose-gap method was used to record changes in membrane resistance in intestinal smooth muscle strips. (2) Adrenaline reduced the membrane resistance; it hyperpolarized the membrane and blocked spontaneous and evoked spikes. (3) When the membrane potential was shifted by applying conditioning current, the hyperpolarization produced by adrenaline was larger during depolarization and smaller during hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarization

Edith Bulbring; T. Tomita

1969-01-01

219

Sequencing and characterization of an Echinococcus multilocularis DNA probe and its use in the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the cloned Echinococcus multilocularis DNA probe pAL1 was determined in order to simplify and improve the sensitivity of a diagnostic assay through the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The insert-specific oligonucleotides BG1 and BG2 define a 2.6-kb fragment in the genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, while BG1 and BG3 define a 0.3 kb fragment. A PCR study including 14 independent E. multilocularis isolates in addition to Echinococcus granulosus. Echinococcus vogeli, Taenia spp. and other cestodes revealed that the 2.6-kb fragment was amplified from genomic DNA of all E. multilocularis isolates tested (originating from Switzerland, Alaska, Canada, France, Germany and Japan), but from genomic DNA of none of the other cestode species. PCR with BG1 and BG2 furthermore uniquely resulted in the synthesis of a 0.55-kb fragment specific for Taenia saginata and a 0.6-kb fragment specific for T. taeniaeformis. In contrast to the species specificity of the 2.6-kb BG1/BG2 product, the 0.3 kb (BG1/BG3) product demonstrated genus specificity: the 0.3-kb product was amplified from genomic DNA of all E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. vogeli isolates tested, but from genomic DNA of none of the other cestode species. The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR using both primer sets was determined to be 50 pg parasite DNA, suggesting the practical utility of this simple assay in demonstrating parasite DNA in specimens from a variety of sources. At the basic level, the pAL1-derived oligonucleotides may also prove useful in assessing strain variation, RFLPs or other manifestations of genetic variation in E. multilocularis. PMID:2052020

Gottstein, B; Mowatt, M R

1991-02-01

220

Prevalence and risk factors of parasitic infections among under-five Sudanese children: a community based study.  

PubMed

A community based prospective study was conducted among randomly selected 300 children aged less than five years selected from three camps of the police force in Khartoum from 534 households representing a total population of 4962 individuals. The study was planned to determine the prevalence and type of parasitic infestations and the related risk factors in that community. From the 300 children, 298 stools specimens were examined: 116 were positive for a single parasite, while samples from 15 children showed ova and cysts for two types of parasites giving a prevalence rate of 44%. The commonest infestations were Giardiasis (21.1%), Taeniasis (10.4%) and Enterobiasis (7.4%). Non pathogenic E. coli, E. histolytica and Taenia saginata were detected in 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.7% of stools specimen respectively. Children aged between 3 years and above were the most affected group and the infection rate was highest among the illiterate, overcrowded and large sized families. Malnourished children comprised 9.4% of the study group but there was no significant association between undernutrition and the overall prevalence of intestinal infestations, although Giardia lamblia significantly affected the undernourished group. PMID:7796747

Karrar, Z A; Rahim, F A

1995-02-01

221

Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

2009-01-01

222

Characterization of antigens of Paragonimus miyazakii by ELISA.  

PubMed

The characterization of adult worm and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of P. miyazakii was performed with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG and Fab' fragments were prepared from P. miyazakii-infected rat sera. The former was purified by affinity column chromatography. The latter was prepared from IgG2c by passage through a Protein A affinity column, then conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Cross-reactivity of the ELISA with Fasciola hepatica. Fischoederius elongatus. Taenia saginata. Schistosoma mansoni and S. Japonicum was negligible. With Paragonimus westermani, the same genus as P. miyazakii, cross-reactivity was below 30%. The molecular weight of both antigens was comparable (36,000) as determined by Sephadox G-100 gel filtration. Isoelectric points in both antigens had many peaks in a pH range of 3.9-4.7. In adult worm, pI of the major peaks were 4.6 and 4.7 and minor part of peaks had the common isoelectric points with four ES peaks in a pH range of 4.1-4.6. Antigenicity per protein concentration of both antigens was examined by the ELISA. The ES antigen was about five times as active antigenically as adult worm antigen. These results suggest that ES is one of the major antigens inducing antibody synthesis in rats infected with P. miyazakii, and that other antigens may be present within the adult worm. PMID:2772708

Takemoto, Y; Tsuji, M

1989-03-01

223

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

224

Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania.  

PubMed

Embelia schimperi Vatke, belonging to the family Myrsinaceae, is used among the traditional Masai people of Tanzania and Kenya since it is believed to eliminate adult Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm. In the present study, the anthelmintic effect of an extract of the dried fruits of Embelia schimperi was studied in experimental parasite/rodent models. In two experiments, rats with 10 adult tapeworms of Hymenolepis diminuta were treated with a diammonium salt of embelin (DE), isolated from the fruits. Significant lower numbers and total worm biomass of Hymenolepis diminuta were observed in rats treated with 100 mg DE/kg. Furthermore, clear indications of the occurrence of destrobilation was observed in faeces after treatment and in 16% of the worms found at autopsy. The killing effect shown in vivo was corroborated by in vitro studies, which showed that all adult Hymenolepis diminuta were killed when incubated in a culture medium containing as little as 0.08 mg DE/ml. No significant in vivo effect of DE was observed against Hymenolepis microstoma, the trematode Echinostoma caproni and the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice, although the worms could be killed in vitro. These results indicate that the crushed seeds of Embelia schimperi taken orally by the Masai people indeed have an anthelmintic effect against human intestinal tapeworms. PMID:8778505

Bøgh, H O; Andreassen, J; Lemmich, J

1996-01-01

225

Effect of depletion of L3T4+ cells on resistance to early primary infection of mice with Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

The role of L3T4+ T lymphocytes in early primary infection with the metacestode of T. taeniaeformis was investigated by selective removal of these cells in vivo by parenteral injections with the rat monoclonal antibody (MAb) GK1.5 directed against the L3T4 molecule. Comparisons between treated and non-treated BALB/cByJ mice, normally resistant to infection with T. taeniaeformis, demonstrated that the treated mice had a greater percentage of viable parasites in the livers. Eosinophils were prominent in the region immediately surrounding parasite larvae in control mice, whereas treated mice showed virtually no eosinophil infiltration. Additionally, fewer tissue macrophages were evident near parasite larvae in the treatment group when compared to controls. The more susceptible C3H/HeDub strain mice demonstrated similar responses following treatment with the MAb, including diminished parasite killing and limited inflammatory cell infiltration. When C3H/HeDub mice were injected with the cytotoxic agent vinblastine sulfate, which has been shown to diminish Lyt-2+ suppressor cell activity, these mice remained unable to mount a strong local cellular response to the larval parasite. It is suggested that L3T4+ T lymphocytes play a crucial role in the innate resistance to T. taeniaeformis infection during the first 6 days post-infection. Effects seen following vinblastine treatment may be a result of drug-induced alterations in leukocyte chemotaxis, toxicity to other effector T cell populations, or a specific depletion of a functional Lyt-2+ T cell population that is required in addition to L3T4+ T cells for the expression of resistance to primary infection with T. taeniaeformis. PMID:2146233

Davis, S W; Hammerberg, B

1990-08-01

226

Application of DNA fingerprinting with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5 to analysis of the genetic variation within Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

DNA from T. taeniaeformis digested with the restriction endonuclease was hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Metacestode and adult showed same clear multibanding patterns, which were characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprinting. The fingerprinting patterns were quite different from those of the rodent hosts. Genetic variations in 4 laboratory-reared isolates of T. taeniaeformis, including 3 isolates which have been reported to be indistinguishable by infectivity, morphology and protein composition of metacestode, were investigated using this technique. Each of the 4 isolates exhibited isolate-specific fingerprinting patterns and were easily distinguished from one another, thus it was considered that (CAC)5 was a highly resolvable and informative probe for cestodes. However, it was also indicated that (CAC)5 was so sensitive that applying fingerprinting with (CAC)5 to taxonomical or phylogenetic analysis was limited where habitat of the host was restricted to the small area. In comparison to fingerprinting with 32P-labeled (CAC)5, fingerprinting with digoxigenated (CAC)5 represented more and sharper bands. It was considered that a digoxigenated probe was more useful for genetic analysis of cestodes. PMID:7492644

Okamoto, M; Ueda, H; Hayashi, M; Oku, Y; Kurosawa, T; Kamiya, M

1995-04-01

227

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed towards eradicating this disease through the implementation of control programs for all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:24365429

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-01-01

228

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction HIV patients have reduced immune response which makes them more susceptible to different infections. This cross-sectional study was carried out to document the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo County, Kenya. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect clinical information after obtaining consent from the participants. Stool samples were collected from 285 respondents for intestinal parasitic examination using direct and formol-ether concentration to detect ova and cysts. Chi-square (X2) statistical analysis was used to test level of significance at P = 0.05 using SPSS. Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P < 0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability and diarrheal status. There was no association (P > 0.05) between age groups and gender with parasitic infection. Parasites identified were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (58.3%), Giardia lamblia (16.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), Entamoeba coli (5.9%), Taenia saginata (5.3%), Trichuris trichuria (1.9%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.9%) and hookworm (1.3%). Conclusion There was high prevalence of intestinal parasites, therefore, health education to HIV patients and community health workers on the importance of good environmental sanitation and personal hygiene could curb water, food and individual contamination promoting good management and care of HIV patients, hence improving their health status. PMID:23330028

Kipyegen, Cornelius Kibet; Shivairo, Robert Shavulimo; Odhiambo, Rose Ogwang

2012-01-01

229

Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui among humans and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.  

PubMed

This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui. PMID:24754919

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-08-01

230

Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui Infection among Riparian People in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

2013-01-01

231

Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area. PMID:25183071

Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

2014-01-01

232

Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

2011-08-01

233

Genetics of the Pig Tapeworm in Madagascar Reveal a History of Human Dispersal and Colonization  

PubMed Central

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation. PMID:25329310

Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-Francois; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P.; Ito, Akira

2014-01-01

234

Prevalence case-control study of epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the association between the prevalence of epilepsy and potential risk factors in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected based on local reports of high numbers of epilepsy cases and pig-rearing practices. One person aged 7 or older was selected at random from all households of selected concessions for epilepsy screening and blood sampling. Epilepsy was confirmed by a physician using the ILAE definition. The cross-sectional associations between epilepsy and selected factors and sero-response to the antigens of Taenia solium were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and their 95% Credible Intervals (95%BCI) were estimated. Results Of 888 individuals interviewed, 39 of 70 screened positive were confirmed to have epilepsy for a lifetime prevalence of 4.5% (95%CI: 3.3–6.0). The prevalence of epilepsy was associated with a positive reaction to cysticercosis Ag-ELISA serology (POR=3.1, 95% BCI= 1.0;8.3), past pork consumption (POR=9.7, 95% BCI=2.5;37.9), and being salaried or a trader compared to a farmer or housewife (POR=2.9, 95% BCI= 1.2;6.4). Discussion Several factors were associated with prevalent epilepsy, with Ag-ELISA suggesting the presence of neurocysticercosis. The association of epilepsy and some occupations may reflect differences in local attitudes toward epilepsy and should be further explored. PMID:22289127

Nitiema, Pascal; Carabin, Helene; Hounton, Sennen; Cowan, Linda D; Ganaba, Rasmane; Kompaore, C; Millogo, Athanase

2012-01-01

235

Evaluation of cysticercus fasciolaris antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Cysticercus cellulosae antigen has been frequently used to detect antibodies for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. We have, for the first time, used membrane extract of cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis, in ELISA, with successful results. IgM and IgG antibodies against cysticercus were measured in serum from cases of neurocysticercosis (217), normal and diseased controls (89). 203 sera from cases of neurocysticercosis were positive for either or both IgG and IgM antibodies while 157/217 cases showed IgM and 158/217 showed IgG antibodies. Ten controls showed false postivity in IgG ELISA. Eight of these cases also had IgM antibodies. The test had an overall sensitivity of 93.54% and a specificity of 84.2% with a positive predictive value of 93.54% and a negative predictive value of 84.2%. Cysticercus fasciolaris can be conveniently produced in the experimental laboratory host, Rattus rattus, and would be of practical value in the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in humans. PMID:11799411

Husain, N; Jyotsna; Bagchi, M; Husain, M; Mishra, M K; Gupta, S

2001-12-01

236

A comparative evaluation of hematological, biochemical and pathological changes among infected sheep with Cysticercus tenuicollis and non-infected control group.  

PubMed

Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena are responsible for a high degree of morbidity and mortality in livestocks. This study was performed in order to investigate the variations of blood parameters (hematological and biochemical) and pathological changes in 50 sheep infected with C. tenuicollis in comparison with 50 non-infected control group. The blood samples were taken from the sheep that were slaughtered in the Kerman slaughterhouse. Blood and sera samples were analyzed for hematology and biochemical parameters and infected livers, were transported to the pathology laboratory for further examinations. According to the analyses performed on the animals blood, a significant increase was detected in number of white blood cells, activities of AST, ALT and levels of total bilirubin in animals with cysticercosis (p < 0.05). Also in infected animals, a significant reduction was observed in number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values (p < 0.05). In histopathological examination, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, mucus gland and biliary hyperplasia, mild lymphocytic hepatitis, granuloma and telangiectasis were observed. It seems that the increased and reduction of significant blood parameters, may be due to liver failure and pathological changes following larval migration and stimulating of immune responses. PMID:25320492

Bamorovat, Mehdi; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Molazadeh, Morteza; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani

2014-12-01

237

Usefulness of pumpkin seeds combined with areca nut extract in community-based treatment of human taeniasis in northwest Sichuan Province, China.  

PubMed

Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has the risk of induction of epileptic seizures or convulsions in carriers with asymptomatic concurrent neurocysticercosis. In contrast, niclosamide is safe and effective, but is not readily available in many endemic countries including China. In the current community-based study, we assessed the curative effect of either pumpkin seeds or areca nut extract alone in taeniasis, and also looked at synergistic effects of these two herb drugs on tapeworms. In the study group with the pumpkin seed/areca nut extract treatment, 91 (79.1%) of 115 suspected taeniasis cases (with a history of expulsion of proglottids within the previous one year) released whole tapeworms, four (3.5%) expelled incomplete strobila, and no tapeworms or proglottids were recovered in the remaining 20 cases. In these 115 persons, 45 were confirmed as taeniasis before treatment by microscopy and/or coproPCR. Forty (88.9%) of 45 confirmed cases eliminated intact worms following treatment. The mean time period for complete elimination of tapeworms in 91 taeniasis cases was 2 h (range 20 min to 8 h 30 min), and 89.0% (81) of 91 patients discharged intact worms within 3h after drug administration. In Control Group A with treatment of pumpkin seeds alone, 75.0% (9/12) of confirmed taeniasis cases expelled whole tapeworms, but the mean time period for complete elimination was about 14 h 10 min (range 3 h 20 min to 21 h 20 min), which was much longer than that (2 h) for the study group, whereas in Control Group B treated with areca nut extract alone, only 63.6% (7/11) of taeniasis cases discharged whole tapeworms, and the mean time period was 6 h 27 min (range 1-22 h). Mild side effects included nausea and dizziness in about 46.3% of patients with the pumpkin seeds/areca nut extract treatment, but all discomforts were transient and well tolerated. In conclusion, a synergistic effect of pumpkin seed and areca nut extract on Taenia spp. tapeworms was confirmed in the current study, primarily in producing an increased rate of effect on tapeworm expulsion (average time 2 h for combination vs 6-21 h for individual extracts). The pumpkin seed/areca combined treatment was indicated to be safe and highly effective (89%) for human taeniasis. PMID:22910218

Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Okamoto, Munehiro; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S

2012-11-01

238

Genetic categorization of Echinococcus granulosus from humans and herbivorous hosts in Iran using an integrated mutation scanning-phylogenetic approach.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have extended earlier taxonomic, biochemical and experimental investigations to characterize Echinococcus granulosus from various hosts in Iran utilizing DNA regions (designated pcox1 and pnad1) within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase 1 mitochondrial genes, respectively. An emphasis was placed on the characterization of E. granulosus isolates (cyst material) from humans, sheep, goats, cattle and camels, and on assessing their genetic relationships. PCR-based SSCP analysis of pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from individual isolates (n=148) of E. granulosus revealed five (pc1-pc5) and nine (pn1-pn9) electrophoretic profiles, respectively. Sequencing of pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons representing unique SSCP profiles demonstrated that each profile was linked unequivocally to a particular sequence and that single point mutations were readily detectable by SSCP. Phylogenetic analyses of pcox1 and/or pnad1 nucleotide sequence data were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood tree-building methods. Following the phylogenetic analyses of concatenated pcox1+pnad1 sequence data, including representatives of all presently recognized Echinococcus species/genotypes as well as Taenia saginata (as the outgroup), the majority of cyst isolates (142 of 148; 95.9%) from humans, ruminants (sheep, goats and cattle) and camels were assigned to the G1-G3 complex of E. granulosus (or E. granulosus sensu stricto), whereas some E. granulosus cysts (6 of 19; 31.6%) from camels were assigned to the G6-G10 complex (or E. canadensis). The present study reinforces the advantages of the mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic approach to explore variation in multiple mitochondrial loci within and among Echinococcus populations, which provides a platform for future, detailed studies of the molecular epidemiology of E. granulosus in Iran and other countries. (Note: The sequences determined in the present study have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers: FJ796203-FJ796207 (pcox1) and FJ796208-FJ796216 (pnad1)). PMID:19637222

Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Mirhendi, Hossein; Jex, Aaron R; Pangasa, Aradhana; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Kia, Eshrat B; Eshraghian, Mohammad R; Harandi, Majid F; Gasser, Robin B

2009-08-01

239

Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis. PMID:23230370

Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh

2012-01-01

240

Large Cerebral Intraventricular Neurocysticercosal Tumor in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Treatment Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a growing health problem in the United States and worldwide due to an increasing number of immigrants. Cysticercosis is caused by ingestion of the larval form of Taenia solium. The intraventricular form, NCC is seen in 7%–45% of the cases. We present a case of a young Chinese man who presented with headache and finding of an impressive intraventricular cyst related to NCC. Our case emphasizes the importance of recognition of NCC, especially in immigrant populations. Case Report: A 37 year-old male Chinese immigrant with no significant past medical history presented to our facility after sustaining a head injury from a car accident. He lost consciousness briefly during the incident and had transient headache. He was admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. On physical exam, he had no neurological deficits. Non-contrast Head Computed tomography (CT) was obtained to rule out intracranial hemorrhage and found a large cystic lesion measuring 5x6x7cm in the right lateral ventricle, with partially calcification. Gadolinium- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was obtained and revealed a large solitary, right lateral ventricular cystic lesion containing a partially calcified mural nodule. No surrounding edema or inflammation was observed. The findings were highly suggestive of intraventricular NCC. He was born and raised in China, moved to Mexico and then to Hawai‘i three years ago. He denied previous history of headache, weakness, seizure, or visual impairment. The MRI result prompted neurosurgical evaluation. As the patient was asymptomatic and had no hydrocephalus, no surgical intervention was pursued and close outpatient follow-up was recommended. After 6 months of follow up, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Follow-up MRI after admission showed no changes in size of the cystic lesion or evidence of surrounding inflammation. Discussion: Treatment for NCC should be tailored individually. In our patient who was asymptomatic, the large intraventricular cyst was an incidental finding on neuroimaging. The decision whether or not to perform endoscopic neurosurgery is very complicated; endoscopic surgery is an invasive procedure with multiple possible complications. Removal of the large cyst may decrease the risk of mechanical obstruction but may increase the risk of secondary hydrocephalus due to inflammatory damage. We present an atypically-large intraventricular NCC managed by close observation in an asymptomatic patient. The conservative approach in a seemingly complicated patient implies and emphasizes the importance of managing NCC on an individual basis.

Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Tongma, Chawat; Chung, Heath

2014-01-01

241

[Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes LINNE 1758) in south Sachsen-Anhalt--1: Cestodes].  

PubMed

Between January 1993 and November 1994 a total of 1300 red foxes from the administrative districts Halle and Dessau were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes. Echinococcus multilocularis-infections were detected in only 4 of 1300 (0.3%) foxes. Furthermore the following cestodes were found: Mesocestoides spp. (54.1%), Taenia crassiceps (17.7%), Taenia polyacantha (11.9%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (0.2%), Taenia serialis (0.15%), Taenia pisiformis (0.15%), not determinable taeniids (9.2%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%) and Hymenolepis spp. (0.08%). PMID:9445786

Pfeiffer, F; Kuschfeldt, S; Stoye, M

1997-10-01

242

Helminths of sympatric black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from the high plains of eastern New Mexico.  

PubMed

Thirty-five desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and 35 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus), occurring sympatrically near the Clovis-Portales area of eastern New Mexico were infected with four species of Eucestoda (adults of Raillietina salmoni and Raillietina selfi, larvae of Taenia pisiformis and Taenia serialis). Raillietina salmoni and T. pisiformis more commonly infected S. audubonii. Raillietina selfi was found in near equal prevalence in both host species. Taenia serialis was recovered only from L. californicus. Thus, three of the four helminth species were shared by both lagomorphs (Jaccard's coefficient = 75). Female hosts were most heavily infected with R. selfi and Taenia serialis. PMID:3373649

Pfaffenberger, G S; Valencia, V B

1988-04-01

243

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations....

2014-04-01

244

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2010-04-01

245

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2012-04-01

246

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2013-04-01

247

21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...and for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations...

2011-04-01

248

Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial Avaliação de testes imunológicos para o diagnóstico da neurocisticercose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been made by association of neuroimaging studies and use of sensitive and specific serological assays. Objectives: Evaluating Elisa and Western blot (Wb) tests using a crude extract of Cysticercus cellulosae (Taenia solium) as antigen and a Wb test using a glycoprotein of Cysticercus longicollis (Taenia crassiceps) as antigen for the diagnosis of NCC.

Heloisa Werneck de Macedo; Regina Helena; Saramago Peralta; Armando Cipriano; Maria Rosa Sarmento; Adelaide José Vaz; José Mauro Peralta

249

Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.  

PubMed

Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles. PMID:19138449

Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoli?s, J

2009-03-01

250

Serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis: detection of antibody against EM18 in patients and rodents.  

PubMed

An international collaborative study on echinococcosis has been carried out for the establishment of a simple means for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) from other parasitic diseases including cystic echinococcosis (CE). The main candidate epitope is Em18 (previously undescribed epitope of a low molecular weight protein of 18.5 kDa). Evaluation of the usefulness of Em18 is introduced in this review paper. Serum samples showing antibody response against Em18 are exclusively from AE. The predominant IgG subclass recognizing Em18 is IgG4 or IgG1 or IgG4 + IgG1 but never IgG2. There are good correlations between (1) the antibody response against Em18 and the presence of active lesions and (2) the antibody response against Em18 and the Em2-ELISA values. Em18 is, therefore, expected to be reasonably reliable and useful for differentiation of active AE from inactive AE. A new ELISA system using a partially purified Em18 enriched fraction (PP-Em 18/16-ELISA) has been evaluated for serodiagnosis of AE compared with Em2plus-ELISA. A total of 194 serum samples were examined: 127 sera from AE (79) and CE (48) in China where both AE and CE are endemic, 21 sera from CE in Australia where CE only exists, 28 sera from cysticercosis (21), paragonimiasis (5) or sparganasis (2) in Korea where no indigenous AE nor CE exists and 11 normal sera. Antibody levels by PP-Em18/16-ELISA were much higher in AE than in CE and it was also true for commercially available Em2plus-ELISA. Some of CE from China showed exceptionally higher levels of antibody in comparison with those of CE from Australia. It is suggested that these strongly positive cases of CE from China may have been exposed to both species of Echinococcus. Although most of sera from paragonimiasis showed high antibody levels by Emplus-ELISA, they were negative by PP-Em18/16-ELISA. Therefore, PP-Em18/16-ELISA is expected to be more reliable for differentiation of AE from CE and others especially in Asian countries where paragonimiasis is still not rare. Antibody responses in rodents naturally infected with E. multilocularis: Serum samples from the wild vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, infected with E. multilocularis showed similar antibody responses as in AE patients, whereas those from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, showed almost none. The latter rodents were simultaneously infected with Taenia taeniaeformis but showed no antibody response against T. taeniaeformis either. Therefore, we speculate that Norway rats may only be infected with E. multilocularis under some immunosuppressed conditions or genetic unresponsiveness. It is stressed that Em18 is highly specific to E. multilocularis, and antibody response against Em18 is reasonably reliable for differentiation of AE from other helminthic infections by Western blot and ELISA in humans and may be useful for detection of domestic animals contaminated with E. multilocularis in the endemic area. PMID:9656361

Akira, I

1997-01-01

251

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.  

...Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least 12 hours...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uncinaria stenocephala ); and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus granulosus ) from dogs and cats. (3) Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for at least 12 hours...

2013-04-01

253

[The helminth fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758) in north Hesse and east Westphalia. 1. Cestodes].  

PubMed

Between November 1989 and June 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of cestodes. The animals came from the districts of Arnsberg, Detmold and Kassel. In 16.4% of the foxes infections with Echinococcus multilocularis were found, in 28.5% Taenia crassiceps, in 14.4% Taenia polyacantha, in 4.3% Mesocestoides spp., in 3.3% Multiceps multiceps, in 2.5% Hydatigera taeniaeformis, in 0.8% Taenia hydatigena and in 0.3% Taenia martis. Infections with Echinococcus multilocularis very often showed high worm numbers of more than 1000 per fox. The number of worms for the other cestodes mostly varied between one and ten specimen per animal. PMID:1396164

Ballek, D; Takla, M; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

1992-09-01

254

Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

2004-04-01

255

Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland. PMID:16870858

Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

2006-04-01

256

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... —(1) Dogs —(i) Amount . 2.5 milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use . Removal of canine cestodes Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis . (2) Cats —(i) Amount . 1.25 milligrams per pound of...

2010-04-01

257

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2014-04-01

258

21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2013-04-01

259

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2012-04-01

260

21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.  

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2014-04-01

261

21 CFR 520.1447 - Milbemycin oxime, lufenuron, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus ) infections in dogs and puppies 2 pounds of body weight or greater and 6 weeks...

2013-04-01

262

Helminth parasites of pine marten, Martes americana (Turton), from Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Five species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 139 North American pine marten (Martes americana) from three areas of Manitoba: Alaria taxideae in 75 marten; Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) in 16; Taenia mustelae in nine; Baylisascaris devosi in one; Trichinella sp. larvae in one. Taenia mustelae and Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) were found in two different areas of the province, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) being isolated from the more northerly regions. Alaria taxideae, the most prevalent parasite in the survey, was common to all three areas. The intensity of infection and prevalence level of A. taxideae was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the southern region of this study. Altogether, male marten had a significantly higher intensity of A. taxideae compared to females, although there was no significant difference in prevalence level. When data for A. taxideae was combined for sexes and for regions a significantly higher prevalence level in young-of-the-year marten was noted compared to juveniles or adults, but no significant difference in intensities among the three age classes was found. No significant differences were detected in the prevalence of A. taxideae, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis), or T. mustelae between sexes or among age classes from any of the three areas. PMID:6842730

Poole, B C; Chadee, K; Dick, T A

1983-01-01

263

A real-time multiplex-nested PCR system for coprological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species.  

PubMed

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991

Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

2011-08-01

264

[Genetic diversity, origin and patterns of geographic distribution of polyploid spiny loach (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae, Cobitis) in Ukraine].  

PubMed

Only 16 biotypes from 28 possible ones, which could be generated during hybridization of C. elongatoides, on the one hand, and representatives of superspecies C. taenia s. lato (C. taenia, C. tanaitica, C. species-1), on the other hand, were discovered in water areas of Ukraine. Furthermore. two biotypes, presumably C. aff. melanoleuca-tanaitica, were discovered in the north-western regions. Polyploids have compounded 65% of investigated individuals of Cobitis genus, the average quantity of males has compounded less than 1% and it was equal among triploids and tetraploids. Absence of amphidiploids and also lack of sufficiently large number of individuals with recombined genotype and abnormal electrophoretic spectra should be stressed. Two loci of polyploid biotypes formation are marked out: southern (the Lower Danube) and northern (the Upper Danube, Oder and Rhine). C. taenia and non-specified C. species, typical of the north-western basins of Ukraine, participate in formation of polyploids in the last mentioned river alongside with C. elongatoides and C. tanaitica. It is established that in spite of clearly evident expansion capacity, so-called southern biotypes (C. 2 (3) elongatoides-tanaitica, C. elongatoides--2 (3) tanaitica) in comparison with the northern ones, which genome includes chromosomal complement C. taenia or C. species-1, are sharply limited in their spread to the East. The reason of such a situation is unbalanced gynogenetic crossing between females of the southern biotypes and C. taenia males, accompanied by introgressions, genetic instability and reduced posterity viability. PMID:21061693

Mezhzherin, S V; Pavlenko, L I

2010-01-01

265

Why is the drug praziquantel effective in the treatment of parasitic flatworms? Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug most commonly used in humans and livestock to  

E-print Network

such questions regarding cell differentiation in humans such as stem cell development and tissue regeneration. My addressing the agricultural sources of diseases such as cysticercosis, the infection of the brain and CNS in the manipulation of cell signaling pathways in studies regarding the differentiation of anterior and posterior axes

Minnesota, University of

266

Epsiprantel, a new tapeworm remedy. Preliminary efficacy studies in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic potential of epsiprantel, 2-(cyclohexylcarbonyl)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,8,12b-octahydropyrazin [2,1-a] [2]benzapine, was revealed using the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis in the cat, and Taenia pisiformis and T. hydatigena in the dog. Subsequent controlled tests in cats demonstrated oral efficacy of 100% against D. caninum with a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Although consistently 100% effective against T. taeniaeformis at 5 mg/kg, a single worm was found in one cat treated at 7.5 mg/kg. In experimental infections of Taenia pisiformis in dogs, 100% activity was achieved from a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg. No adverse reaction or drug-associated toxicity were observed at dose levels used. PMID:2775987

Manger, B R; Brewer, M D

1989-01-01

267

Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.  

PubMed

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402

Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

2009-10-01

268

Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of rural and urban red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study of intestinal helminths in 843 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from southern England revealed the presence of 13 parasite species: five nematodes—Toxocara canis (prevalence 55.9%), Toxascaris leonina (1.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.0%), Trichuris vulpis (0.5%) and Capillaria aerophila (0.2%); four cestodes—Taenia pisiformis (13.8%), Taenia hydatigena (2.5%), Echinococcus granulosus (0.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (3.8%); two trematodes—Brachylaima recurva (2.9%) and Cryptocotyle lingua

D. T. Richards; S. Harris; J. W. Lewis

1995-01-01

269

HELMINTH PARASITISM IN MARTENS (MARTES AMERICANA) AND ERMINES (MUSTELA ERMINEA) FROM WASHINGTON, WITH COMMENTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminths are reported for the first time from ermines (Mustela erminea) and martens (Martes americana) in Washington (USA). Among 22 adult ermines, 41% were infected by one or more of five species (Taenia mustelae, Maria mustelae, Molineus patens, M. mustelae and Trichinella spiralis). Among 78 adult martens from three geographic localities, the prevalence was 83%. Nine species were identified (Mesocestoides

Eric P. Hoberg; Keith B. Aubry; J. David Brittell

270

Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

2014-06-01

271

A phylogeny of members of the family Taeniidae based on the mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene data.  

PubMed

The cestode family Taeniidae consists of 2 genera, Taenia and Echinococcus, which both have been the focus of intensive taxonomic and epidemiological studies because of their zoonotic importance. However, a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of this family has yet to be reconstructed. In this study, 54 isolates representing 9 Taenia species were characterized using DNA sequences in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Phylogenetic relationships within the family Taeniidae were inferred by combining cox1 and nad1 sequence data of the present and previous studies. In the phylogenetic analysis, the genus Echinococcus was shown to be monophyletic, but Taenia proved to be paraphyletic due to the position of T. mustelae as a probable sister taxon of Echinococcus. This indicates that T. mustelae should form a genus of its own. Taenia ovis krabbei was placed distant from T. ovis ovis, as a sister taxon of T. multiceps, supporting its recognition as a distinct species, T. krabbei. High intraspecific sequence variation within both T. polyacantha and T. taeniaeformis suggests the existence of cryptic sister species. PMID:18937885

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Lehtinen, M J; Henttonen, H; Oksanen, A; Meri, S

2008-10-01

272

The chromosomes of 11 species of cyprinidae and one cobitidae from Italy, with some remarks on the problem of polyploidy in the cypriniformes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives a detailed description of the morphology of the karyotype of 11 Cyprinidae and 1 Cobitidae indigenous to Italian inland waters. The data relating to Chondrostoma toxostoma, C. soetta, Phoxinus phoxinus, Rutilus rubilio, Barbus meridionalis and Cobitis taenia are new from a karyological point of view; as regards Leuciscus cephalus, L. souffia, Alburnus alburnus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus, Tinca

Stefano Cataudella; Luciana Sola; Rosanna Accame Muratori; Ernesto Capanna

1977-01-01

273

Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.  

PubMed

This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala. PMID:14535350

Segovia, Juan-Matías; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

2003-09-01

274

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

275

PREVALENCE OF HELMINTHS IN A CYCLIC SNOWSHOE HARE POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of helminths were monitored in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus ) near Rochester, Alberta, during 1961-1977. Prevalence of both Obeliscoides cuniculi and Protostrongylus boughtoni among young hares averaged about 50% by age 2 mo, then tended to level off. Prevalence of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Dirofilaria scapiceps rose more slowly, but continued to increase steadily beyond

Lloyd B. Keith; John R. Cary; Thomas M. Yuill; Inge M. Keith

1985-01-01

276

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

277

Electrical Transmission at the Nexus between Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that nexuses between cells are responsible for the core conductor properties of tissues was tested using smooth muscle prepara- tions from the taenia coli of guinea pigs. Action potentials recorded from small diameter preparations across a sucrose gap change from monophasic to diphasic when a shunt resistor is connected across the gap. This indicates that transmis- sion between

L. Barr; W. BERGER; M. M. D EWEY

1968-01-01

278

COMPOSITION AND ADULT ACTIVITY OF SALT-MARSH MOSQUITOES ATTRACTED TO 1-OCTEN-3-OL, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND LIGHT IN TOPSAIL ISLAND, NORTH CAROLINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

By monitoring weekly for 3 months with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) and light, 12 species of mosquitoes were collected from salt-marsh areas in Topsail Island, North Carolina: Aedes vexaris, Anopheles atropos, An. bradleyi, An. crucians, An. ptmctipennis, Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, Ochlerotatus sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. iqfirmatus, and Urano- taenia

LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA; ROBERT C. GARDNER

279

ENDOPARASITES OF SELECTED POPULATIONS OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967,260 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were collectedfrom 13 sites in 8 southeasternstatesand examined for endoparasites. In order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), Raillietina salmoni, Eimeria spp., Longistriata noviberiae, Cittotaenia variabilis, Hasstilesia tricolor, Trichuris leporis, Dermatoxys veligera, Passalurus ambiguus, Dirofilaria scapiceps, Sarcocystis sp.,

CHARLES L. ANDREWS; WILLIAM R DAVIDSON; ERNEST E. PROVOST

280

Specific parasiticidal use of 2-benzamido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The 2-benazmido-5-nitro-thiazole derivatives disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,950,351 are effective against various species of cestodes: Taenia pisiformis, Dypilidium caninum, Echinococus granulosus and Moniezia expansa, and various species of nematodes: roundworms (Ancyslotoma spp.) and whipworms (Trichuris spp.).

1982-02-09

281

The musk rat ( Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Groningen, 526 in Limburg). Larval stages of Taenia taeniaeformis were most frequently

Fred H. M Borgsteede; Joop H Tibben; Joke W. B van der Giessen

2003-01-01

282

Brain Granulomas in Neurocysticercosis Patients Are Associated with a Th1 and Th2 Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. Despite the well-documented importance of the granulomatous response in the pathogenesis of this infection, there is limited information about the types of cells and cytokines involved. In fact, there has been limited characterization of human brain granulomas with any infectious agent. In the present study

BLANCA I. RESTREPO; JORGE I. ALVAREZ; JORGE A. CASTANO; LUIS F. ARIAS; MARGARITA RESTREPO; JUDITH TRUJILLO; CARLOS H. COLEGIAL; JUDY M. TEALE

2001-01-01

283

Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Avila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

2001-01-01

284

Genetic uniformity of Echinococcus multilocularis collected from different intermediate host species in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

DNA from several isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Within the six wild isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis from Norway rats in Hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. In the case of E. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected from Hokkaido, showed the same fingerprinting pattern. These results indicate that there was very little genetic difference among these isolates. Although the fingerprinting pattern of E. multilocularis from St. Lawrence Is. was similar to that of the Hokkaido isolates, some bands were different from those in the Hokkaido isolates. Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido seems to be closely-related genetically to that from St. Lawrence Is. PMID:17339760

Okamoto, Munehiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Masao

2007-02-01

285

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) in treatment of cestode infections in domestic and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Efficacy of praziquantel (Cesocide injection) by intramuscular (I.M.) route against cestode infections was evaluated. Total 93 domestic or laboratory animals such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, goats, deers and chickens were used. Animals were infected with Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra sp., Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis nana, Moniezia expansa, Moniezia sp. or Raillietina sp. A single dose of praziquantel, 6 mg/kg of body weight, was highly effective (97.9%) against cestodes of various kinds disregarding the host species or their intensity of infection. At high dose above 6 mg/kg, the cure rate was 100%. All the cestodes treated were expelled from the host within 48 hours. The discharged proglottids were damaged severely except Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa. Intramuscular injection of this drug evoked a brief pain response in a dog, but no other side reactions were observed. PMID:12811058

Eom, Kee Seon; Kim, Seung Ho; Rim, Han Jong

1988-06-01

286

[The parasite fauna of East Germany. 9. The helminth fauna of Lutra lutra].  

PubMed

Alimentary tract, liver, kidneys and lungs of 25 otters, died of several causes during 1982-1987 in GDR were included in helminthological investigations. Parasites were detected in 8 animals. One cestode: Taenia martis and 3 trematodes: Isthmiophora melis, Opisthorchis felineus and Pseudamphistomum truncatum are regarded to be certain parasites of this host. Other findings like Ligula intestinalis, Azygia luccii and Piscicola geometra and the fragment of a pseudophyllidean enter the alimentary tract with the food and pass through it. PMID:3177936

Schuster, R; Schierhorn, K; Heidecke, D; Stubbe, M

1988-06-01

287

Brain abscess in a recent immigrant.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old boy who has recently immigrated from India presented with two episodes of focal seizure over a 3-month period. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a ring-enhancing lesion in his cerebral cortex. He was diagnosed with a pyogenic brain abscess following resection of the lesion and also had positive serology to Taenia solium (which causes neurocysticercosis). We briefly review these two diseases and discuss the important diagnostic issues. PMID:23252509

Britton, Philip N; Chaseling, Raymond

2013-03-01

288

Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

2011-01-01

289

Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus.  

PubMed

We examined 94 carcasses of and 1,213 faecal samples from red foxes collected between 1981 and 2001 in natural and transformed ecosystems in the southern part of Belarus. A total of 32 helminth species were found. Of these, the most common were Alaria alata, Pearsonema plica, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spp. larvae and Uncinaria stenocephala. All species are significant for medical and veterinary health. PMID:12474048

Shimalov, V V; Shimalov, V T

2003-01-01

290

In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode  

SciTech Connect

/sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

1980-12-01

291

The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in Southwest Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In south-west Germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (Meles meles), 47 stone martens (Martes foina), and 387 cats (Felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. In foxes the extent of infections was:Taenia crassiceps 24%,T. polyacantha 8%,T. taeniaeformis 0.6%,T. serialis 0.5%Mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%,Mesocestoides sp. 0.2%,Toxocara canis 32%,Toxascaris leonina 3%,Uncinaria stenocephala 26%. One to three foxes

B. Loos-Frank; E. Zeyhle

1982-01-01

292

Neurocysticercose de diagnostic tardif : à propos de deux cas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. – Neurocysticercosis is the most frequently encountered cerebral parasitic infection worldwide. It is due to infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium larval form. According to the location of the cysts, parenchymal and extra-parenchymal forms may be identified, with different clinical expressions.Exegesis. – We report two cases of neurocysticercosis, one with typical parenchymal involvement and the second with extra-parenchymal involvement revealed

F Vandenbos; A Boscagli-Melaine; S Roth; V Mondain-Miton; P Paquis; M Gari-Toussaint; M. C Saint-Paul; N Montagne

2002-01-01

293

Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Parasitenfauna des Wildes in Nordrhein-Westfalen. 1. Der Endoparasitenbefall des Rehwildes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Endoparasitenfauna von 64 Rehen (131 Jahr) aus den Jagdjahren 1997\\/98 und 1998\\/99 aus 5 Herkunftsgebieten im südlichen Nordrhein-Westfalen wurde untersucht. Dabei wurden eine Zestodenart (Taenia hydatigena-Zystizerken) und 28 Nematodenarten nachgewiesen. Im Kehlkopf bzw. in der Luftröhre von 2 Rehen sind wenigeCephenemyia stimulator-Larven gefunden worden. Alle Rehe waren mit Magen-Darm-Nematoden befallen und 32,8 % mit Lungenwürmern (14,1 % mitDictyocaulus eckerti

St. Rehbein; Walburga Lutz; M. Visser; Renate Winter

2000-01-01

294

The carriage of larval echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes by the musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) along the Ourthe River and its tributaries (Belgium).  

PubMed

In Belgium, the carriage of Echinococcus multilocularis by the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can be very high in some areas. This study was designed to evaluate the carriage of the larval form of E. multilocularis and other cestodes in a musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) population trapped along the Ourthe River (southeastern Belgium). Six hundred fifty-seven musk rats were necropsied, and the larval cestodes of the abdominal and pleural cavities were identified. For E. multilocularis, the fertility of the cysts was verified in 58 liver samples. The following species were found: Taenia taeniaeformis (65.8%), Taenia martis (22.2%), E. multilocularis (22.1%), Taenia polyacantha (2.6%), and Taenia crassiceps (0.9%). Results were analyzed according to the site of capture (upper, middle, and lower Ourthe). There was a highly significant relationship between the carriage of E. multilocularis and the site of capture (the prevalence being higher in the upper part of the river). This difference could be due to different geoclimatic conditions. All but one hepatic lesion were found to contain protoscoleces of E. multilocularis (98.8%). The musk rat is probably infected through the consumption of plant material contaminated by the fox's feces. The red fox can occasionally prey on musk rats, but the musk rat cadavers that are left on the river banks by the trappers are probably also consumed. This could favor the maintenance of E. multilocularis life cycle. In conclusion, the musk rat seems to be highly susceptible to E. multilocularis and in Belgium could play the role of reservoir; when present this species could represent an inexpensive and sensitive bioindicator for the study and monitoring of the zoonosis. PMID:19395737

Mathy, A; Hanosset, R; Adant, S; Losson, B

2009-04-01

295

Calcium in smooth muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum in situ. Conventional and X-ray analytical electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Numerous electron-opaque deposits appear in the SR of the relaxed smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig Taenia coli that had been treated, before fixation, with a depolarizing medium containing oxalate to precipitate calcium ions in situ. X-ray spectra obtained by spot and line-scanning analyses of these deposits in situ show characteristic calcium signals, thus providing direct evidence for calcium accumulation inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum of smooth muscle. PMID:1202028

1975-01-01

296

Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.  

PubMed

Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

2013-10-18

297

Integrative taxonomy at work: DNA barcoding of taeniids harboured by wild and domestic cats.  

PubMed

In modern taxonomy, DNA barcoding is particularly useful where biometric parameters are difficult to determine or useless owing to the poor quality of samples. These situations are frequent in parasitology. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analysis, on cestodes belonging to the genus Taenia, for which biodiversity is still largely underestimated. In particular, we characterized cestodes from Italian wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), free-ranging domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and hybrids populations. Adult taeniids were collected by post-mortem examinations of the hosts and morphologically identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. We produced cox1 barcode sequences for all the analysed specimens, and we compared them with reference sequences of individuals belonging to the genus Taenia retrieved from GenBank. In order to evaluate the performance of a DNA barcoding approach to discriminate these parasites, the strength of correlation between species identification based on classical morphology and the molecular divergence of cox1 sequences was measured. Our study provides clear evidence that DNA barcoding is highly efficient to reveal the presence of cryptic lineages within already-described taeniid species. Indeed, we detected three well-defined molecular lineages within the whole panel of specimens morphologically identified as T. taeniaeformis. Two of these molecular groups were already identified by other authors and should be ranked at species level. The third molecular group encompasses only samples collected in Italy during this study, and it represents a third candidate species, still morphologically undescribed. PMID:22233209

Galimberti, A; Romano, D F; Genchi, M; Paoloni, D; Vercillo, F; Bizzarri, L; Sassera, D; Bandi, C; Genchi, C; Ragni, B; Casiraghi, M

2012-05-01

298

Helminths in the wolf, Canis lupus, from north-western Spain.  

PubMed

Fifteen helminth species were collected from 47 wolves (Canis lupus ) which were surveyed from 1993 to 1999 in northwestern Spain. These included the trematode Alaria alata (2.1%); the cestodes Taenia hydatigena (44.7%), T. multiceps (29.8%), T. serialis (2.1%), Dipylidium caninum (6.4%) and Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus (4.2%); and the nematodes Pearsonema plica (7.4%), Trichuris vulpis (10.6%), Trichinella britovi (12.8%), Ancylostoma caninum (8.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala (51.1%), Toxocara canis (6.4%) Toxascaris leonina (4.2%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.1%) and Dirofilaria immitis (2.1%). Only two wolves were not infected. A single infection occurred in 28.9% of the cases, but the commonest infracommunity (31.1%) involved three species. The helminths Alaria alata, Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, P. plica, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum parasitizing C. lupus are reported for the first time in Spain. Taenia serialis and D. immitis are reported for the first time in wolves in Europe. Angiostrongylus vasorum represents a new host record for wolves. The helminth fauna of Spanish wolves is compared with that of other European wolf populations. Some epidemiological considerations of the helminth fauna of wolves in Spain and the health risk to humans are also discussed. PMID:11520444

Segovia, J M; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Llaneza, L; Feliu, C

2001-06-01

299

Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.  

PubMed

The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034

Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

2013-10-01

300

Survey on Helminths in the Small Intestine of Wild Foxes in Qinghai, China  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034

LI, Wei; GUO, Zhihong; DUO, Hong; FU, Yong; PENG, Mao; SHEN, Xiuying; TSUKADA, Hideharu; IRIE, Takao; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

2013-01-01

301

Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

2006-06-30

302

Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

2012-01-01

303

A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

2013-08-01

304

Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.  

PubMed

Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3998960

Tiekotter, K L

1985-04-01

305

Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia?  

PubMed Central

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts. These data identify environmental factors affecting transmission and potential distribution of each parasite taxon, and provide important information increasing our understanding of the potential effects of environmental change on parasite ecology. PMID:24533331

Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

2013-01-01

306

Supplement 22, Part 6, Section A. Subject Headings: A-I, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Subject Headings and Treatment  

E-print Network

fresh water crabs: Sarawak Ab S ? ? s s Rosencrans, M.; and Barak, J., 1969, N. York State Dental J., v. 35 (5), 271-273 Taenia solium in human, Cysticercus cellulo- sae with abscess formation excised from le- sion on mucosal surface of man's lip... absorption of 14c L-lysine and water ac- companied by an increase in tissue water content |nd in ^ecretion rate of mineral ions (Na and ? ) Absorption Chappell, L. ?., 1976, Parasitology, v. 73 (2), xxii [Abstract] Schistosoma, Fasciola, relative...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1979-01-01

307

Helminth parasites of wild foxes ( Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes:Taenia spp. 53.3%,Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes:Alaria alata 10.9%,Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%,Euparyphium melis 1.5%,Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes:Toxocara canis 73.7%,Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%,Capillaria aerophila 46.8%,C. plica 23.5%,Molineus patens 5.1%,Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%,Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapewormsMesocestoides spp. andEchinococcus spp. were not

F. H. M. Borgsteede

1984-01-01

308

The prevalence and intensity of infection with helminth parasites in Mus spretus from the Setubal Peninsula of Portugal.  

PubMed

The results of a 5 year study of helminth parasites of Mus spretus, are reported. Six nematode and 5 cestode species were identified but no helminth showed 100% prevalence in M. spretus, the most commonly encountered nematode and cestode species being Syphacia obvelata (46.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (22.4%). Among the more unusual helminth species identified was Eucoleus bacillatus, a capillariid nematode inhabiting the stomach musculature. This species was identified in 3 of the 5 years of the study. The results are discussed in the broader context of previous studies and the epidemiology of rodent helminth infections in general. PMID:8354856

Behnke, J M; Barnard, C; Hurst, J L; McGregor, P K; Gilbert, F; Lewis, J W

1993-06-01

309

Intestinal helminthic infections of cats in Calabar, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study of intestinal helminthic infections of 52 cats (Felis catus) was undertaken in Calabar, Nigeria. Direct smear and zinc sulphate floatation technique were utilized. The following helminths were observed: Toxocara cati (28.85%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.23%), Trichuris felis (5.77%), Dipylidium caninum (23.08%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (9.61%). The worm burdens were generally low, ranging from 2 to 20 per cat. No definite pattern of infection was observed with regard to sex. Trematodes were not seen. The zoonotic and public health aspects of some of these helminths are discussed. PMID:3169644

Umeche, N; Ima, A E

1988-01-01

310

[Investigations on the endoparasitic fauna of domestic cats in eastern Brandenburg].  

PubMed

The internal organs of 155 cats originating from 3 different territories in the eastern part of Brandenburg state were examined for parasites between 1993 and 1995. Parasites were found in 85% of cats. Parasites with the highest prevalence were Toxocara mystax (45%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (22%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (17%) and Opisthorchis felineus (16%). Metorchis bilis, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia pisiformis, Capillaria plica, Capillaria sp., Ollulanus tricuspis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Cystoisospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were diagnosed with a lower frequency. The occurrence of H. taeniaeforme, A. tubaeformis und O. felineus was depending on the origin of the cats. PMID:9139627

Schuster, R; Kaufmann, A; Hering, S

1997-02-01

311

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance.  

PubMed

Intestinal washes, faecal flotations and serological examinations for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were used to assess the prevalence of parasites in carcases of foxes killed on roads or shot in the Dublin area and surrounding counties. The ascarids Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis were prevalent, as was the trematode Alaria alata. Taenia species, eggs of Capillaria species and sporocysts of Sarcocystis species were also found. Only one fox out of 70 examined was seropositive for N. caninum, whereas 24 of 51 were seropositive for T. gondii. PMID:11808662

Wolfe, A; Hogan, S; Maguire, D; Fitzpatrick, C; Vaughan, L; Wall, D; Hayden, T J; Mulcahy, G

312

[Helminth findings in indigenous raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1843)].  

PubMed

Internal organs of 74 racoon dogs originating from the eastern districts of the Federal Land Brandenburg were subjected to a complete helminthological dissection. In addition, samples of diaphragma muscles from 46 further animals were examined for Trichinella larvae. Altogether 3 trematode- (Alaria alata, Isthmiophora melis, Metorchis bilis), 3 cestode- (Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha) and 7 nematode species (Capillaria aerophila, C. plica, Trichinella spiralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Molineus patens, Crenosoma vulpis, Toxocara canis) could be identified. Thereby, the racoon dog has a comparable helminth spectrum as well known in red foxes. Differences in the frequency of the occurrence of helminths in both hosts can be explained by different food preferences. PMID:11505800

Thiess, A; Schuster, R; Nöckler, K; Mix, H

2001-01-01

313

Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1-3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1-39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts. These data identify environmental factors affecting transmission and potential distribution of each parasite taxon, and provide important information increasing our understanding of the potential effects of environmental change on parasite ecology. PMID:24533331

Dybing, Narelle A; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J

2013-12-01

314

Neurocysticercosis presenting as acute psychosis: a rare case report from rural India.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied, non specific and pleomorphic, depending on multiple factors. Seizures are the commonest presentation of neurocysticercosis. In this communication we describe an interesting case of multiple neurocysticercosis in a young presenting with psychiatric manifestations. He responded well to steroid and antipsychotic treatment. This case highlights an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis and significance of early recognizing this reversible cause will avoid delay in treatment. PMID:24309884

Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

2013-12-01

315

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

316

Comparison of preparation techniques of mixed samples (fungi-helminth eggs) for scanning electron microscopy by critical point drying.  

PubMed

We compared three preparation techniques for critical point drying of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson with Toxocara canis (Werner) Johnston and Taenia hydatigena Linneo eggs by scanning electron microscopy. We evaluated filtration (first), centrifugation (second), and phytoplankton network (third) in critical point drying methods. The first and third methods were advantageous for T. canis eggs because they preserved the quantity and quality of samples to obtain better images definition. The best technique for T. hydatigena eggs was the addition of phytoplankton network in critical point drying which preserved these helminth eggs. PMID:16607559

Sarmiento, P L; Ciarmela, María L; Sánchez Thevenet, P; Minvielle, M C; Basualdo, J A

2006-09-01

317

Neurocysticercosis on 18F-FDG PET/MRI: co-registered Images.  

PubMed

This is a case of a 32-year-old female patient who presented with new onset partial complex seizures. MRI of the brain demonstrated a suspicious ring-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe. This finding was felt to be a primary brain malignancy or less likely an infectious process. (18)F-FDG PET of the brain was able to exclude malignancy and provided evidence to support neurocysticercosis in the mesial temporal lobe as the cause for the patient's seizures. Neurocysticercosis is a neurologic infection caused by Taenia solium. It is rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. PMID:23579982

Jolepalem, Prashant; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver

2014-01-01

318

Helminth parasites of fisher Martes pennanti (Erxleben) from Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Seven species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 162 fisher (Martes pennanti) from four areas of Manitoba: Baylisascaris devosi in 52 fisher; Taenia sibirica in 25; Physaloptera sp. in nine; Alaria mustelae in two; Metorchis conjunctus in one; Trichinella spiralis in one of 81; Molineus sp. in one. B. devosi was the most prevalent parasite and differences in its geographical distribution were possibly related to population density of fisher. The prevalence of other parasites did not appear to be related to density of fisher. PMID:574167

Dick, T A; Leonard, R D

1979-07-01

319

The occurrence of zoonotic parasites in rural dog populations from northern Portugal.  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal parasites in dogs was carried out in a rural region around Cantanhede, in northern Portugal, where 301 dog faecal samples were collected from small-ruminant farms. Saturated salt flotation and formol-ether sedimentation techniques were used. An enquiry was conducted in 234 farms and a risk factor evaluation for zoonotic helminths was determined among the 195 farmers who owned dogs. The overall parasite prevalence in faecal samples of dogs was 58.8%, with specific prevalences for Ancylostomidae being 40.9% followed by species of Trichuris (29.9%), Toxocara (8%), Isospora (4%), Capillaria (0.7%) and Spirometra (0.3%). Taeniidae eggs were present in five samples (1.7%) which were analysed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and revealed to be from Taenia sp., and not Echinococcus granulosus. This rural region has a traditional small-farm system, in which farm products are mainly for in-house consumption and home slaughtering is a current practice (57%). Analysis showed home slaughtering to be a statistically significant risk factor for the presence of Ancylostomidae (P= 0.007) and Toxocara sp. (P= 0.049). Owning cattle was found to be a significant risk factor for Taenia sp. (P= 0.031). PMID:23388655

Cardoso, A S; Costa, I M H; Figueiredo, C; Castro, A; Conceição, M A P

2014-06-01

320

A survey of helminths in domestic cats in the Pretoria area of Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. Part 1: The prevalence and comparison of burdens of helminths in adult and juvenile cats.  

PubMed

The helminths found in 1,502 necropsied cats were examined. The findings indicated that 65% of the cats were infested. The most prevalent helminths encountered were Ancylostoma tubaeforme (41%), Ancylostoma braziliense (25%), Dipylidium caninum (23%), Toxocara cati (11%), Taenia taeniaeformis (7.7%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.3%), Joyeuxiella fuhrmanni (2.5%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (1.4%), and Physaloptera praeputialis (1.3%). The following helminths were recorded in fewer than 1% of the cats: Centrorhynchus spp., Pterygodermatites spp., Toxocara canis, Aleurostrongylus abstrusus and Vogeloides spp., This is the first record of the lungworms, A. abstrusus and Vogeloides spp. in cats in the Republic of South Africa. The helminths in adult and juvenile cats are compared. Of the cestodes, Joyeuxiella fuhrmanni (4%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (12%) are more prevalent in adult cats. Dipylidium caninum is marginally more common in adults (24%), and is the most common helminth in juvenile cats, being present in 21% of cases. More adult cats have Ancylostoma tubaeforme (58%), Ancylostoma braziliense (36%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (2.4%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (1.9%) than do juvenile cats. However, juvenile cats were found to harbour more Toxocara cati (41%), Toxocara canis (0.5%) and Ancylostoma caninum (5.2%). Juvenile cats harbour appreciable numbers of both cestodes and nematodes, thus any treatment should be aimed at the elimination of both, with a broad spectrum anthelmintic. PMID:2634770

Baker, M K; Lange, L; Verster, A; van der Plaat, S

1989-09-01

321

The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in southwest Germany.  

PubMed

In south-west Germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (Meles meles), 47 stone martens (Martes foina), and 387 cats (Felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. In foxes the extent of infections was: Taenia crassiceps 24%, T. polyacantha 8%, T. taeniaeformis 0.6%, T. serialis 0.5%, Mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%, Mesocestoides sp. 0.2%, Toxocara canis 32%, Toxascaris leonina 3%, Uncinaria stenocephala 26%. One to three foxes harboured T. hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. martis, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothrium sp., Alaria alata, and Ancylostoma caninum (Echinococcus multilocularis will be dealth with in a separate paper by the second author). Results are compared with those of other European countries. Seasonal dynamics were exhibited by M. leptothylacus (rare in late summer), U. stenocephala (more frequent in summer than in winter), and, to a lesser extent, by T. canis (slightly less in spring and autumn than in winter and summer). Infections in fox cubs were comparable to those of adults in summer. Of the badgers, 2% harboured Taenia martis, 15.5% Atriotaenia incisa, and 4% Uncinaria criniformis; of the stone martens 6% harboured T. crassiceps and 36% T. martis; of the cats 1% were infected with T. crassiceps, 29% with T. Taeniaeformis, 2% with Mesocestoides leptothymacus, 30% with Toxocara Cati and 2% with U. stenocephala. PMID:7072323

Loos-Frank, B; Zeyhle, E

1982-01-01

322

Neurocysticercosis.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

Del Brutto, Oscar H

2014-10-01

323

Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

Bruzinskaite, R; Sark?nas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

2009-03-23

324

Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

2012-11-01

325

Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:25360206

2014-01-01

326

Infections of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has had a major impact on all aspects of clinical neuroscience in the past few years. Thus understanding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its associated complications within the nervous system was a major component of this review of the past year's radiologic literature of infection in the central nervous system. Particular topics discussed include the appearance of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection of the brain as well as toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal infection, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. In addition, the association of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with the appearance of lymphoma, myeloradiculopathy, and vascular disease are considered. The remainder of the literature on central nervous system infection in the past year generally concerned the imaging characteristics of unusual infections such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, viral infection, and nonspecific inflammation of the meninges. The availability of an MR imaging contrast agent (gadolinium) also provided important diagnostic information to the radiologist in the imaging of infection in the central nervous system. PMID:2025502

Rauch, R A; Jinkins, J R

1991-02-01

327

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-01-01

328

[Research priorities for the control and elimination of major helminthiases].  

PubMed

In 2009, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4) was established by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to comprehensively review recent advances, identify gaps and rank priorities in helminthiases research towards control and elimination. Six major human helminthiases are targeted, namely onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiasis and cysticercosis/taeniasis. Systematic reports made by the DRG4 from such aspects as the impact of helminthiases, control and elimination, interventions, diagnostics, social-ecology and health systems, modeling, basic research and capacity building in research was published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases in 2012. Generalized introduction is presented here and further analysis of its influence on the research of the major helminthiases in China is done. PMID:24809202

Qian, Men-Bao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2013-04-01

329

The development of acquired immunity to tapeworms and progress towards active immunization, with special reference to Echinococcus spp  

PubMed Central

An assessment is made of the present state of knowledge on acquired immune responses developed by the intermediate and definitive hosts to tapeworm infections. From this evaluation, some gaps in knowledge and some of the problems associated with the development of practical immunization techniques are described. The principal conclusion reached is that absolute resistance to the larval stage can be acquired and resistance to a number of cestode species can be artificially induced in a number of hosts. Thus, research directed towards isolation and characterization of the functional antigens may lead to the development of vaccines for use in public health programmes, such as for the control of echinococcosis, as well as for improving the present status of meat hygiene in regions where cysticercosis, for example, exists. PMID:4883063

Gemmell, M. A.; Soulsby, E. J. L.

1968-01-01

330

[Main features of helminth parasitism in cattle in Ituri (Haut-Zaire). III. Geographic distribution and prevalence of the main helminths].  

PubMed

A necropsic survey, carried out in eleven slaughterhouses in Ituri (Haut-Zaïre), has permitted to define the geographic distribution and prevalences of the main cattle helminths. Trematodes, except the paramphistomes, had a very heterogeneous distribution. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica ranged from 9 to 72% according to the sites, but these variations were not linked to topographic or climatologic parameters. The infection with Schistosoma bovis was much variable as well (12.5 to 72%) and seemed absent from the central high altitude area. The occurrence of Dicrocoelium hospes was restricted to the northern part of Ituri with a moderate prevalence of about 35%. By contrast, nematodes had a fairly homogeneous distribution in Ituri. Prevalences were high for gastro-intestinal strongyles of the following genera, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Oesophagostomum (over 60%). Cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) occurred in 10 to 14% of cattle in the middle and south areas of Ituri whereas the north areas were nearly free. PMID:1775693

Chartier, C; Bushu, M; Kamwenga, D

1991-01-01

331

[Helminths of domestic pork in Ituri, Upper Zaire].  

PubMed

In Ituri (Upper-Zaïre) pig farming is extensively and traditionally managed, animals wandering about in the villages and neighbouring fields. Helminths of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly encountered are Oesophagostomum sp. Hyostrongylus rubidus, Globocephalus urosubulatus and Ascarops strongylina. Parasitic burdens are low and gross lesions not frequently seen except nodules of oesophagostomiasis. Infections with Metastrongylus salmi and Metastrongylus pudendoctus have a very high prevalence (between 64 and 86%) causing gross lesions of pneumonia on the diaphragmatic lobes. The present socio-economic pattern of pig production in Ituri doesn't allow hardly to plan a rational control of helminth disease by use of drugs. Hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) seeming to be absent in this area of Zaïre, the only serious helminthic zoonosis we have to take into account is cysticercosis due to Cysticercus cellulosae. Its very high endemicity (between 10 and 30%) will have to lead the veterinary service to improve the search and destruction of infected carcasses. PMID:2241308

Chartier, C; Mutesi, U; Ndakala, N O

1990-09-01

332

Infective Causes of Stroke in Tropical Regions  

PubMed Central

Vascular diseases of the brain are the second reason of the death and the first cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. In tropical areas stroke has some particular features related to the nature of torrid zones. There are some special causes of the stroke, mainly infectious, although some of them are non-infectious. The most important etiologies are malaria, tuberculosis, cysticercosis, syphilis, and Chagas’ disease. The mean age of the patients with stroke in tropical areas seems to be less than that in developed countries, and the disease is more prevalent in younger adults. Prevention and/or treatment of the classic risk factors as well as factors related to tropical zones are the mainstays of controlling the disease. It has to be mentioned that lack of human as well as financial resources makes it difficult to control and treat the disease properly. Herein, the etiologies and risk factors of the cerebrovascular diseases in tropical regions will be reviewd. PMID:23115446

Moghtaderi, Ali; Alavi-Naini, Roya

2012-01-01

333

Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

The People's Republic of China has a large number of animal parasites transmitted through the ingestion of food products. Approximately 20 species of parasites in animals and man are reported from most of the provinces and autonomous regions of the country. The major food-borne parasitic zoonoses are reported from pigs, cattle, fish, crabs and crayfish, snails, frogs, snakes, and aquatic plants. The most important diseases are toxoplasmosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, sparganosis, clonorchiasis, fascioliasis, fasciolopsiasis, paragonomiasis, echinostomiasis, trichinosis, gnathostomiasis, and angiostrongyliasis. There is concern that some of these parasitoses may develop into more serious problems because of the increase in free-market commerce and the lack of adequate inspection of food products. Furthermore, many cultures in China enjoy eating raw or inadequately cooked food products. Control programs have been initiated utilizing newer drugs, but there must also be educational programs, as well as an improvement in sanitation. PMID:1822913

Li, X

1991-12-01

334

Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50)from patients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1), were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5), immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques. Serum samples (n18) from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis) or healthy blood donors (n15), were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests) or 96% (EITB test). Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna) besides Lima. PMID:16862333

Romani, Elizabeth Luz Sanchez; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

2006-05-01

335

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-11-01

336

"Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity. PMID:23459816

Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares

2013-02-01

337

Nodding syndrome.  

PubMed

An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5-15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case-control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548

Dowell, Scott F; Sejvar, James J; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A H; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B; Winkler, Andrea S; Mbonye, Anthony K

2013-01-01

338

A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences. PMID:23569835

Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

2012-01-01

339

Parasitism in a declining population of snowshoe hares.  

PubMed

Prevalence and intensity of six endoparasites were determined in 346 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) obtained at Rochester, Alberta, during December-April 1981-1982, the second winter of a cyclic population decline. The data were analyzed for (1) differences among host sex and age classes, and among months and sample sources, and (2) evidence that parasitism was of demographic significance to the hare population. Prevalence and intensity of Obeliscoides cuniculi were consistently highest among adult hares, but rose most sharply from February to March among juveniles. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of Nematodirus triangularis were highest among juveniles; prevalence reached 90-100% by January, whereas intensity continued to rise through April. Prevalence and intensity of both Trichuris leporis and Protostrongylus boughtoni were highest also among juvenile hares; neither parameter exhibited a definite trend over time. Prevalences of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Eimeria spp. were unrelated to sex, age or month; but Taenia intensity was highest among juveniles, and Eimeria intensity tended to decrease from December to April. Intensities of Nematodirus, Protostrongylus and Eimeria were higher in male hares than in females. Prevalence and intensity were correlated directly in Obeliscoides, Nematodirus, Trichuris and Eimeria. Hares that died during trapping and handling, or from natural predation, had greater intensities of Obeliscoides than did animals killed on purpose. There was no indication, however, that risk of death was increased by the other parasitic infections. Age-related immune responses to parasitism (except Obeliscoides) were evidenced by reduced or stabilized prevalence and/or intensity among older hares. A multiple-regression model predicted depressed body weight with increasing intensities of Nematodirus, Trichuris or Protostrongylus. Other body-condition and reproductive indices were unassociated with parasite intensities. Within the hare population, Obeliscoides, Trichuris, Protostrongylus and Taenia had overdispersed distributions (typical of many endoparasites) that did not differ from a negative binomial. The frequency with which each possible combination of helminth species occurred within individual hares was consistent with the assumption that such infections occurred independently. There was no compelling reason to believe parasitism was a significant factor in the overwinter decline of this population of snowshoe hares. PMID:3735581

Keith, I M; Keith, L B; Cary, J R

1986-07-01

340

[Analysis on principle of treatment of cough of yan zhenghua based on apriori and clustering algorithm].  

PubMed

Based on the data mining methods of association rules and clustering algorithm, the 188 prescriptions for cough that built by Yan Zhenghua were collected and analyzed to get the frequency of drug usage and the relationship between drugs. From which we could conclude the experiences of Yan Zhenghua for the treatment of cough. The results of the analysis were that 20 core combinations were dig out, such as Bambusae Caulis in Taenias-Almond-Sactmarsh Aster. And there were 10 new prescriptions were found out, such as Sactmarsh Aster-Scutellariae Radix-Album Viscum-Bambusae Caulis in Taenian-Eriobotryae Folium. The results of the analysis were proved that Yan Zhenghua was good at curing cough by using the traditional Chinese medicine that can dispel wind and heat from the body, and remove heat from the lung to relieve cough. PMID:25204134

Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

2014-02-01

341

Helminth parasitism in martens (Martes americana) and ermines (Mustela erminea) from Washington, with comments on the distribution of Trichinella spiralis.  

PubMed

Helminths are reported for the first time from ermines (Mustela erminea) and martens (Martes americana) in Washington (USA). Among 22 adult ermines, 41% were infected by one or more of five species (Taenia mustelae, Alaria mustelae, Molineus patens, M. mustelae and Trichinella spiralis). Among 78 adult martens from three geographic localities, the prevalence was 83%. Nine species were identified (Mesocestoides sp., T. mustelae and T. martis americana, Euryhelmis squamula, M. patens, Baylisascaris devosi, Physaloptera sp., Soboliphyme baturini and T. spiralis). Trichinella spiralis occurred with a maximum prevalence of 50% in martens, but only occurred in 9% of ermines. Compression and digestion techniques provided a similar estimate of prevalence of T. spiralis, yet neither was entirely accurate in identifying all infected hosts. The species richness of the helminth community of martens in Washington was greater than that reported from other regions of North America. PMID:2250320

Hoberg, E P; Aubry, K B; Brittell, J D

1990-10-01

342

It isn't always caviar.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old HIV-positive woman presented with fever and a painful swollen right forearm. Clinical presentation and MRI were suggestive for a necrotising fasciitis. Surgical exploration revealed small transparent cystic bodies resembling white caviar, which were identified by their typical morphological features as larval stages (cysticerci) of Taenia crassiceps. Molecular methods, using sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, definitively confirmed T crassiceps. T crassiceps (Cestodea: Taeniidae) is a tapeworm found in the intestines of red foxes and dogs in the Northern Hemisphere. Human infections are rare and appear to depend on the host's immunocompetence. The eight published cases could not clarify the mode of infection but discuss ingestion of teniid eggs or penetration through a cutaneous wound. The optimal treatment remains unclear. We describe a detailed and successful treatment strategy including extensive surgical interventions, prolonged anthelmintic and antiretroviral treatment. PMID:24692370

Flammer Anikpeh, Yvonne; Grimm, Felix; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Zinkernagel, Annelies

2014-01-01

343

Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. PMID:10535507

Sato, H; Inaba, T; Ihama, Y; Kamiya, H

1999-09-01

344

Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. They influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. Currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host microRNAs expression. The aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of Taenia crassiceps regulate LPS-induced miRNAs expression in human Dendritic Cells. We found that these antigens repressed LPS-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 and this correlates with a diminished inflammatory response. This let-7i downregulation in Dendritic Cells constitutes a novel feature of the modulatory activity that helminth-derived antigens exert on their host. PMID:23509825

Terrazas, Luis I.; Sanchez-Munoz, Fausto; Perez-Miranda, Magaly; Mejia-Dominguez, Ana M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Bojalil, Rafael; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena

2013-01-01

345

Comparative cytogenetics of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Nannacara, Ivanacara and Cleithracara) indicates evolutionary reduction of diploid chromosome numbers  

PubMed Central

Abstract A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in five species of a monophyletic clade of neotropical Cichlasomatine cichlids, namely Cleithracara maronii Steindachner, 1881, Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros, 1993), Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905, N. aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 and N. taenia Regan, 1912. Karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics were revealed by CDD banding and mapped onto the phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular analyses of four genes, namely cyt b, 16S rRNA, S7 and RAG1. The diploid numbers of chromosomes ranged from 44 to 50, karyotypes were composed predominantly of monoarmed chromosomes and one to three pairs of CMA3 signal were observed. The results showed evolutionary reduction in this monophyletic clade and the cytogenetic mechanisms (fissions/fusions) were hypothesized and discussed.

Hodanova, Lucie; Kalous, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana

2014-01-01

346

A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt  

PubMed Central

A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

Khalafalla, Reda E.

2011-01-01

347

Primary axillary hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (or Taenia echinococcus). The adult form of the parasite lives in the gut of the dog, while the intermediate hosts, where the tapeworm develops to larval stage are cats, cattle, pigs and humans(considered to be accidental intermediate hosts). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, but the endemic areas are Canada and Alaska, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the Mediterranean region. Hydatid cyst can grow many years before the symptoms and clinical signs appear. The liver and the lungs are the most affected organs, but primary location of the hydatid disease in the axilla is extremely rare. In our country we did not find any records of axillary hydatid disease, while the literature contains only 12 cases of axillary location. We present the case of a woman, 60 years old, with a primary axillary location of hydatid cyst, who underwent a total cystectomy. PMID:25149625

Mercu?, D; Andri?oiu, A; Tra?c?, Et; Silo?i, C; Resceanu, A; Mercu?, R

2014-01-01

348

Gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats (Felis catus) from Aizawl, Mizoram, India.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 27 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus) in Aizawl, Mizoram, India from January 2005 to April, 2009. The examined cats showed mixed helminthic infections, with an overall prevalence of 85.2%. Five nematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 trematode were identified. The most common helminthes were Taenia taeniaeformis (70.4%), Toxocara cati (59.3%), Physaloptera praeputalis (44.4%), Dipylidium caninum (40.7%), Spirocerca felineus (18.5%), Gnathostoma spinigerum (11.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (7.4%) and Opisthorchis sp (3.7%). Co-infection with T. taeniaeformis and T. cati was seen in 48.1% (13/27), indicating the possibility of these cats were paratenic hosts for toxocariasis in cats. PMID:21710844

Borthakur, S K; Mukharjee, S N

2011-03-01

349

Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other intestinal helminths in stray cats in Shiraz, Iran.  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution that affects both cats and dogs. Necropsy of 114 stray cats from Shiraz revealed that 106 (92.9%) stray cats were infected at least with one of the intestinal helminth species. The overall infection rates in stray cats infected with cestoda and nematoda were 105(99.1%) and 101(95.3%) respectively. The detected cestodes were Joyeuxiella pasqualei (34.3%), Dipylidium caninum (49.5%), Taenia taeniaeformis (12.3%), Spirometra sp. (3.8%) and the detected nematodes were Physaloptera sp. (44.6%), Toxocara cati (42.6%) and Toxascaris leonina (12.9%). The study revealed that T. cati was one of the most frequently detected intestinal helminths, which is an important source of zoonotic helminths. PMID:18209706

Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Sarkari, Bahador

2007-12-01

350

A Coprological Survey of Intestinal Helminthes in Stray Dogs Captured in Osaka Prefecture, Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

KIMURA, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; EDAGAWA, Akiko; KAWABUCHI-KURATA, Takako; SUGIYAMA, Hiromu; YAMASAKI, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

351

[Contributions to the parasite fauna of local hosts. 10. On the endoparasitic fauna of Felis silvestris].  

PubMed

The investigations based on examination of the internal organs of 25 wild cats of the Harz population died from different causes in the period from 1982 to 1989. 22 animals (= 88%) were positive for parasites. The following species were found: Hydatigera taeniaeformis, Taenia crassiceps, T. martis larv. (spurious parasite), Mesocestoides litteratus, Capillaria plica, Capillaria sp. (aerophila?), Toxocara mystax, Cystoisopora felis. Toxocara mystax and Hydatigera taeniaeformis were the most often diagnosed helminths. Their number ranged up to 247 and 30 specimen respectively. The stated parasite fauna is comparable with findings in run wild domestic cats in rural areas. Voles contained in the stomach content of most of the cats play a role in the epizootiology of wild cat endoparasites. PMID:8334454

Schuster, R; Heidecke, D; Schierhorn, K

1993-05-01

352

Interleukin inhibition by a parasite proteinase inhibitor, taeniaestatin.  

PubMed

A proteinase inhibitor, taeniaestatin, isolated from the larval stage of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis inhibits endogenous IL 2 generation in murine lymphocytes and IL 1 induced proliferation of murine thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner. However, taeniaestatin does not inhibit exogenous IL 2-induced proliferation of an IL 2-dependent cell line at any dose tested. These data indicate that the lack of IL 2 generation may be due in part to inhibition of a crucial cell-associated proteinase subsequent to cellular activation, or the lack of an effective IL 2 signal for differentiation. Our results are novel findings concerning molecular pathways for parasite inhibition of host immune responses, and suggest that selected proteinase inhibitors may be useful in clinical situations in which IL 1 or IL 2 are elevated. PMID:3489773

Leid, R W; Suquet, C M; Bouwer, H G; Hinrichs, D J

1986-10-15

353

Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin. PMID:6741217

Borgsteede, F H

1984-01-01

354

[Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].  

PubMed

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes. PMID:16838621

Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

2005-01-01

355

Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.  

PubMed

Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

1998-09-01

356

The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism  

PubMed Central

Summary Tapeworms cause debilitating neglected diseases that can be deadly and often require surgery due to ineffective drugs. Here we present the first analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115-141 megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens; specialised detoxification pathways, and metabolism finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts. We identify new potential drug targets, including those on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control. PMID:23485966

Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L.; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raul J.; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernandez, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W. H.; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S.; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberon, Xavier; Olson, Peter D.; Laclette, Juan P.; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

2014-01-01

357

[The sanitary parasitological characteristics of different sources of drinking water supply].  

PubMed

In some CIS areas (Khabarovsk Territory, Moscow, Grodno, Odessa, Astrakhan, and Kzyl-Orda provinces), sewage, animal sewage, and sewage from the populated areas (82.3% of the samples tested), water in the surface reservoirs, sources of potable water supply (54.0%), and potable water (6.5%) were shown to contain viable agents of intestinal parasitic diseases, such as cysts of Lamblia and Balandia, eggs of ascarides, Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium, oncospheres of Taenia, etc.). This should be borne in mind in planning and implementing measures for sanitary protection of surface and underground potable water supply sources, recreational [correction of recreative] areas, for prevention of helminthiases and intestinal protozoan [correction of Proteus] infections. PMID:8127274

Romanenko, N A; Novosil'tsev, G I; Skripova, L V; Muratov, I V; Glazyrina, G F; Pogorel'chuk, T Ia

1993-01-01

358

Endoparasites of selected populations of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

During the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967, 260 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were collected from 13 sites in 8 southeastern states and examined for endoparasites. In order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), Raillietina salmoni, Eimeria spp., Longistriata noviberiae, Cittotaenia variabilis, Hasstilesia tricolor, Trichuris leporis, Dermatoxys veligera, Passalurus ambiguus, Dirofilaria scapiceps, Sarcocystis sp., Linguatula serrata, Nematodirus leporis, and Gongylonema pulchrum. Data are presented on prevalance and intensity of infection with each parasite along with information on geographic distribution. Cottontail rabbits in the southeastern United States show a higher level of parasitism than has been reported from other regions, although these higher parasite burdens were not necessarily associated with increased host morbidity. PMID:7411746

Andrews, C L; Davidson, W R

1980-07-01

359

Metazoan parasites of the eastern cottontail rabbit in western Kentucky.  

PubMed

Forty-five eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus Allen), collected over a 15 mo period from two areas of western Kentucky, were examined for disease conditions, helminth and arthropod parasites. A single lymphosarcoma, two cutaneous papillomas and the following parasites were identified: Hasstilesia tricolor, Taenia pisiformis, Cittotaenia variabilis, Raillietina stilesiella, Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichuris leporis, Longistriata noviberiae, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Dermatoxys veligera, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cediopsylla simplex, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, and Dermacentor variabilis. Simpson's Indices indicated that parasite communities were fairly diverse, with some degree of dominance exhibited by O. cuniculi, T. pisiformis and H. leporispalustris. The parasite faunas of rabbits from the two areas were similar. Hasstilesia tricolor was associated with the absence of kidney fat. PMID:6842731

Strohlein, D A; Christensen, B M

1983-01-01

360

Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Singapore.  

PubMed

Parasitic infections adopt a rather low profile in the highly urbanized setting in Singapore. Very few food-borne parasitic infections are encountered. Apart from a few reports of infections with Clonorchis/Opisthorchis, Taenia spp. and hydatid disease, there are no other citations of such helminthic infections. Seroprevalence surveys have shown the presence of toxoplasmosis in local meat animals (sheep, pigs and cattle) and Toxoplasma strains have been isolated from the pig, tree shrew (Tupaia glis), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and guinea pigs. Human toxoplasmosis is prevalent in Singapore. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are found in the normal population as well as in clinical cases (cervical lymphadenopathy, ocular disease and congenital toxoplasmosis). Carcasses/organs from meat animals (sheep, pigs, cattle) slaughtered at local abattoirs were examined for parasites. The main parasites found were Ascaris suum, Dictyocaulus, Metastrongylus, Cysticercus ovis, Fasciola hepatica and Sarcocystis spp. Pigs were also examined for trichinosis and, thus far, these have all been negative. PMID:1822903

Singh, M; Hian, Y E; Lay-Hoon, C

1991-12-01

361

The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate.  

PubMed

Neurocysticercosis (NC), or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures). Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC. PMID:24863516

Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L

2014-05-01

362

Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

2014-01-01

363

A coprological survey of intestinal helminthes in stray dogs captured in osaka prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006-2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

Kimura, Akio; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Nagahama, Shinya; Horikoshi, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

2013-10-01

364

A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.  

PubMed

We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

2013-01-01

365

A Vertical Wall Dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, Part of an Undersampled Group of Deep-Sea Habitats  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland’s continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

Johnson, Mark P.; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Wurzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A. Louise

2013-01-01

366

Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.  

PubMed

Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

2014-08-29

367

Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania. PMID:21996514

Bružinskait?-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šark?nas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

2012-01-01

368

Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations. PMID:22740537

Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

2012-07-01

369

Effect of short-term coyote removal on populations of coyote helminths.  

PubMed

Coyote (Canis latrans) removal programs often are initiated despite the potential population regulatory mechanism of parasitism with increased coyote density. We investigated the effect of intensive, short-term coyote removal on population levels of helminths in juvenile and adult coyotes from western Texas. Coyotes were killed by aerial gunning every 3 mo for 2 yr on two 5,000 ha areas, which reduced the overall coyote density of these areas by about 50%. Two other 5,000 ha areas were used as comparison sites where a limited number of coyotes were killed each season. Densities on comparison sites remained stable throughout the study at a mean +/- 1 SE of 0.14 +/- 0.01 coyotes/km2. Twelve helminth species consisting of seven nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Physaloptera rara, Toxascaris leonina, Dirofilaria immitis, Spirocerca lupi, Oslerus osleri, and Capillaria aerophila), three cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia multiceps, and Mesocestoides sp.), one acanthocephalan (Oncicola canis), and one trematode (Alaria marcianae) were found in 252 coyotes. Of these, A. caninum, P. rara, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. leonina, and S. lupi were common species. Rank-transformed values for the mean abundances of A. caninum and T. multiceps and A. caninum, T. multiceps, and S. lupi were reduced in juvenile and adult coyotes, respectively, from the removal sites compared to respective helminth abundances in similar age class coyotes from comparison sites. Because A. caninum has been suggested as a population regulator of coyotes, a coyote removal program that results in a reduced density of coyotes and at the same time causes a reduced abundance of A. caninum, may in fact negate the regulatory effect that A. caninum has on coyote populations. PMID:11838229

Henke, Scott E; Pence, Danny B; Bryant, Fred C

2002-01-01

370

A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

Roman, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-Franca, A.

2000-01-01

371

Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in Carnivores in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Using Mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST) and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%). Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8%) dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8%) jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. Conclusions/Significance The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts. PMID:22132245

Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Motevalian, Abbas; Razmjou, Elham

2011-01-01

372

A case of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts  

PubMed Central

Triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts (LCC) is a recently reported rare disease named ‘Labrune syndrome’ after the first case was reported in 1996 by Labrune et al. Herein, we report a case of a 36-year-old man with mild right-sided weakness and seizures for 5 years. CT of brain revealed extensive calcification involving bilateral basal ganglia, right thalamus and bilateral deep cerebellar nuclei. A supratentorial cystic lesion with blood fluid level was seen in left occipitotemporal region. MRI examination revealed diffuse symmetric white matter hyperintensity suggesting leukoencephalopathy. On follow-up, patient reported improvement in the weakness and no further seizure episodes. However, follow-up of MRI revealed persistence of lesions. Differential diagnosis considered were parasitic infections (hydatid, cysticercosis), Coat's plus disease and causes of diffuse cerebral calcification like Fahr's disease and post-radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Serology for parasitic infections was negative. No history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the past could be elicited in the history. Another close differential is Coat's plus disease which can mimic LCC pathologically. PMID:22346026

Gulati, Ajay; Singh, Paramjeet; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Khandelwal, N.

2011-01-01

373

A case of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts.  

PubMed

Triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts (LCC) is a recently reported rare disease named 'Labrune syndrome' after the first case was reported in 1996 by Labrune et al. Herein, we report a case of a 36-year-old man with mild right-sided weakness and seizures for 5 years. CT of brain revealed extensive calcification involving bilateral basal ganglia, right thalamus and bilateral deep cerebellar nuclei. A supratentorial cystic lesion with blood fluid level was seen in left occipitotemporal region. MRI examination revealed diffuse symmetric white matter hyperintensity suggesting leukoencephalopathy. On follow-up, patient reported improvement in the weakness and no further seizure episodes. However, follow-up of MRI revealed persistence of lesions. Differential diagnosis considered were parasitic infections (hydatid, cysticercosis), Coat's plus disease and causes of diffuse cerebral calcification like Fahr's disease and post-radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Serology for parasitic infections was negative. No history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the past could be elicited in the history. Another close differential is Coat's plus disease which can mimic LCC pathologically. PMID:22346026

Gulati, Ajay; Singh, Paramjeet; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Khandelwal, N

2011-10-01

374

Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America  

PubMed Central

In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US–Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening) to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:18575621

Hotez, Peter J.

2008-01-01

375

Dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) for the rapid detection of specific antibodies against the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) using purified 31-kDa antigen.  

PubMed

A rapid dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was adopted for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis, using purified 31-kDa glycoprotein specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis as diagnostic antigen and protein A colloidal gold conjugate as antigen-antibody detector. A total of 59 serum samples were assayed - 11 samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable A. cantonensis-specific antibody in immunoblotting; 23 samples from patients with other related parasitic diseases, i.e. gnathostomiasis (n= 8), cysticercosis (n= 5), toxocariasis (n= 2), filariasis (n= 4), paragonimiasis (n= 2) and malaria (n= 2); and 25 samples from normal healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of DIGFA to detect anti-A. cantonensis specific antibodies in serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases, were both 100%. No positive DIGFA was observed in cases with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy control subjects. The 3-min DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as the 3-h immunoblot test in angiostrongyliasis confirmed cases that revealed a 31-kDa reactive band. The gold-based DIGFA is more rapid and easier to perform than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The test utilizing purified A. cantonensis antigen is reliable and reproducible for specific immunodiagnosis of human infection with A. cantonensis - thus can be applied as an additional routine test for clinical diagnostic support. Large-scale sero-epidemiological studies in endemic communities in north-east Thailand are under way to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions. PMID:23710755

Eamsobhana, P; Gan, X X; Ma, A; Wang, Y; Wanachiwanawin, D; Yong, H S

2014-12-01

376

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae  

PubMed Central

Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

2013-01-01

377

Serodiagnosis of Echinococcosis by ELISA Using Cystic Fluid from Uzbekistan Sheep  

PubMed Central

According to increase of travel, the cases of imported echinococcosis have been increasing in Korea. The present study was undertaken to develop a serodiagnostic system for echinococcosis in Korea. For diagnosis of echinococcosis, the fluid of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts was collected from naturally infected sheep in Uzbekistan. Also serum samples of infected patients who were surgically confirmed were collected in a hospital in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. According to the absorbance of 59 echinococcosis positive and 39 negative control serum samples, the cut-off value was determined as 0.27. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with hydatid fluid antigen were 91.5% and 96%, respectively. The antigen cross-reacted with the serum of some cysticercosis or clonorchiasis patients. However, immunoblot analysis on the cystic fluid recognized antigenic proteins of 7-, 16-, and 24-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. In conclusion, the present ELISA system using hydatid cyst fluid antigen from Uzbekistan sheep is sensitive and specific for diagnosis of echinococcosis cases. PMID:23864742

Jin, Yan; Anvarov, Khikmat; Khajibaev, Abdukhakim; Hong, Samin

2013-01-01

378

Lumbar Intradural Neurocysticercosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease affecting the central nervous system. Spinal involvement is rare in neurocysticercosis, and isolated spinal involvement without evidence of cranial involvement is even rarer. We report an unusual case of neurocysticercosis with isolated spinal involvement. A 59 year-old male presented with radiating pain in the left leg. He complained of aggravating weakness and numbness in the left leg since his previous visit one month ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple peripheral wall-enhanced intradural cystic masses from L1 to L5. The patient underwent a total laminectomy of L4. Dissection revealed abnormal cystic masses compressing the nerve roots. The cyst was punctured, spilling clear mucoid fluid into the surgical field. The exposed cysticerci, white and mucoid, was easily removed. Patient received course of steroids and oral albendazole. The patient experienced symptomatic improvement without further neurologic deficits except for mild sensory impairment. Clinicians should include spinal neurocysticercosis in differential diagnosis of radiculopathies. Although isolated spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, it can be satisfactorily managed with surgery and medication.

Han, Sang-Beom; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Choi, Seung-Won; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Song, Shi-Hun

2014-01-01

379

Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

2012-01-01

380

[Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].  

PubMed

Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept. PMID:21384639

Flores Castro, Ricardo

2010-01-01

381

The Neglected Tropical Diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of Disease Burden and Distribution and a Roadmap for Control and Elimination  

PubMed Central

The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC). Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions. PMID:18820747

Hotez, Peter J.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Ault, Steven K.; Periago, Mirta Roses

2008-01-01

382

Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health  

PubMed Central

Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

2013-01-01

383

Pathology of CNS parasitic infections.  

PubMed

Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include two broad categories of infectious organisms: single-celled protozoa and multicellular metazoa. The protozoal infections include malaria, American trypanosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, microsporidiasis, and leishmaniasis. The metazoal infections are grouped into flatworms, which include trematoda and cestoda, and roundworms or nematoda. Trematoda infections include schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis. Cestoda infections include cysticercosis, coenurosis, hydatidosis, and sparganosis. Nematoda infections include gnathostomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, baylisascariasis, dracunculiasis, micronemiasis, and lagochilascariasis. The most common route of CNS invasion is through the blood. In some cases, the parasite invades the olfactory neuroepithelium in the nasal mucosa and penetrates the brain via the subarachnoid space or reaches the CNS through neural foramina of the skull base around the cranial nerves or vessels. The neuropathological changes vary greatly, depending on the type and size of the parasite, geographical strain variations in parasitic virulence, immune evasion by the parasite, and differences in host immune response. Congestion of the leptomeninges, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis, vasculitis, necrosis, calcification, abscesses, meningeal and perivascular polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, microglial nodules, gliosis, granulomas, and fibrosis can be found affecting isolated or multiple regions of the CNS, or even diffusely spread. Some infections may be present as an expanding mass lesion. The parasites can be identified by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. PMID:23829901

Pittella, José Eymard Homem

2013-01-01

384

Lumbar intradural neurocysticercosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease affecting the central nervous system. Spinal involvement is rare in neurocysticercosis, and isolated spinal involvement without evidence of cranial involvement is even rarer. We report an unusual case of neurocysticercosis with isolated spinal involvement. A 59 year-old male presented with radiating pain in the left leg. He complained of aggravating weakness and numbness in the left leg since his previous visit one month ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple peripheral wall-enhanced intradural cystic masses from L1 to L5. The patient underwent a total laminectomy of L4. Dissection revealed abnormal cystic masses compressing the nerve roots. The cyst was punctured, spilling clear mucoid fluid into the surgical field. The exposed cysticerci, white and mucoid, was easily removed. Patient received course of steroids and oral albendazole. The patient experienced symptomatic improvement without further neurologic deficits except for mild sensory impairment. Clinicians should include spinal neurocysticercosis in differential diagnosis of radiculopathies. Although isolated spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, it can be satisfactorily managed with surgery and medication. PMID:25346771

Han, Sang-Beom; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Choi, Seung-Won; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Song, Shi-Hun; Youm, Jin-Young

2014-09-01

385

China's sustained drive to eliminate neglected tropical diseases.  

PubMed

Non-communicable diseases dominate the public health arena in China, yet neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are still widespread and create a substantial burden. We review the geographical distribution, prevalence, and epidemic characteristics of NTDs identified in China caused by helminths, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Lymphatic filariasis was eliminated in 2007, but schistosomiasis still affects up to 5% of local village residents in some endemic counties with around 300?000 people infected. China harbours more than 90% of the world's burden of alveolar echinococcosis and food-borne zoonoses are emerging. In 2010, the overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was 11·4%, with 6·8% of these infections caused by A lumbricoides. Corresponding figures for food-borne trematodiasis, echinococcosis, and cysticercosis are more than 5%. Dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, rabies, and trachoma exist in many areas and should not be overlooked. Transmission of vector-borne diseases can be interrupted; nevertheless, epidemics occur in remote areas, creating a challenge for surveillance and control. Rigorous surveillance, followed by immediate and integrated response packages tailored to specific social and ecological systems, is essential for progress towards the elimination of NTDs in China. PMID:24875936

Yang, Guo-Jing; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Griffiths, Sian M; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2014-09-01

386

Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, several neglected parasite species are now fast-becoming recognized as important zoonotic diseases of humans, e.g. anasakiasis, several fish-borne trematodiasis and fasciolosis. In the present review, we discuss the current disease status of these primary helminth zoonotic infections with particular emphasis on their diagnosis and control. Advances in molecular biology, proteomics and the release of helminth genome-sequencing project data are revolutionizing parasitology research. The use of these powerful experimental approaches, and their potential benefits to helminth biology are also discussed in relation to the future control of helminth infections of animals and humans. PMID:19687044

Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.

2009-01-01

387

Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update  

PubMed Central

Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. PMID:24265948

2013-01-01

388

Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient. PMID:24015022

Kurup, Seema; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Jose, Renju; Puthalath, Ushass

2013-01-01

389

Threats from emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)  

PubMed Central

Background Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. Methods We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (‘‘EReNTDs’’). We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Results Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Discussion Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public–private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally. PMID:22957134

Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

2012-01-01

390

Prevalence of helminths in a cyclic snowshoe hare population.  

PubMed

Five species of helminths were monitored in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) near Rochester, Alberta, during 1961-1977. Prevalence of both Obeliscoides cuniculi and Protostrongylus boughtoni among young hares averaged about 50% by age 2 mo, then tended to level off. Prevalence of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Dirofilaria scapiceps rose more slowly, but continued to increase steadily beyond their mean levels of 8% and 1% at age 2 mo. There were well defined seasonal (within-year) cycles in prevalence of O. cuniculi and P. boughtoni that were generated evidently to a major degree by arrested development of larvae in fall and renewed development in late winter. It was hypothesized that renewed larval development was triggered (in February) in O. cuniculi by the seasonal rise of circulating pituitary gonadotrophins, and (in April) in P. boughtoni by the seasonal rise of gonadal androgens and estrogens. Indices to gonadal hormone levels in hares indicated that these increased most rapidly among males, and may have accounted for the higher prevalences of P. boughtoni in males during April-May. Neither T. pisiformis nor D. scapiceps exhibited conspicuous seasonal changes in prevalence. Maximum prevalence of T. pisiformis was attained at about 1 yr of age, whereas D. scapiceps increased among adult snowshoes through age 2 yr before stabilizing. Long-term (between-year) changes in prevalence of O. cuniculi, T. pisiformis, and D. scapiceps were correlated significantly with the cyclic hare population which declined from a peak in fall 1961 to a low in 1965-1966, rose to another peak by fall 1970, and declined again to a low in 1975. There was no detectable time lage between this "10-yr" cycle in hare density and the cycles of parasite prevalence among juveniles (less than 1 yr of age). Among adult hares, the cycle of O. cuniculi prevalence was likewise synchronous with that of the hare population, but the cycles of D. scapiceps and T. pisiformis lagged by approximately 1 and 2 yr, respectively. This lag in T. pisiformis prevalence was largely inexplicable to us. Our data on P. boughtoni were not suitable for analyses of between-year trends; nor were those for the fifth helminth, Taenia serialis (coenuri), because mean prevalence was less than 1% among both juveniles and adults. An apparent decline in T. serialis after the early 1950's, and its continued scarcity thereafter, paralleled a major change in numbers of one important definitive host--the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4032622

Keith, L B; Cary, J R; Yuill, T M; Keith, I M

1985-07-01

391

[Diagnostic features of Microsomacanthus microsoma (Creplin, 1829), type species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942, as the base for the revision of the genus].  

PubMed

The genus Microsomacanthus was created by Lopez-Neyra (1942). Its type species, Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829, was described from the common eider Somateria mollissima and remained a collective species until Fuhrmann (1913) revealed its diagnostic features on the original material. Simultaneously he described two new species of "microsoma-Gruppe", Microsomacanthus jaegerskioeldi (Fuhrmann, 1913) and M. diorchis (Fuhrmann, 1913). Fuhrmann stressed that under the name of Hymenolepis microsoma Cohn (1901) gave a description of quite different species (a parasite of the freshwater duck Anas penelope). Much earlier Leuckart (1879) used the same name for the denomination of a certain larval form from freshwater snails, without any experimental verification. Fuhrmann (1932), in conflict with himself, synonymized Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829 and Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 and thus caused new inadequacy. Spassky et Spasskaja (1954) confirmed the validity of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 and supplemented its diagnosis with such significant criteria as the number of rostellar hooks (10) and the absence of any accessory structures in the copulatory apparatus. Intermediate hosts of M. microsoma proved to be gammarids (Belopolskaya, 1952). Nevertheless Yamaguti (1959) synonymized a larval form from pond snails (Monocercus lymnaei Villot, 1883) with Microsomacanthus microsoma, meanwhile Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 was shown to be a synonym of Microsomacanthus compressa (Linton, 1892). The life cycle of the latter species includes copepods as intermediate hosts and freshwater gastropods as storage (reservoir) ones. Schmidt (1986) and Czaplinski and Vaucher (1994) chose M. compressa as an illustrative example of the genus Microsomacanthus instead of its type species. The diagnostic features of the genus remain vague, so the list of its synonyms attained as much as 17. Fuhrmann's material on M. microsoma, as well as on the two other species of "microsoma-Gruppe", deposited in the Museum of Natural History (Geneva) was reinvestigated. The diagnostic features of the group formulated by Fuhrmann (1913) were confirmed and enlarged. Large assemblage of species corresponding to M. microsoma by morphology (small gonads, early resorption of testes, formation of eggpacket in the uterus) and biology (gammarids as intermediate hosts) is established. This group is taken as the nominotypical subgenus Microsomacanthus (Microsomacanthus). For the antithetic group which life cycle corresponds to that of M. compressa (a species with comparatively large gonads, with testes persisting till the maturation of female gonads and eggs disseminating one by one from the uterus) we erect a new taxon, Microsomacanthus (Leucartcohnacanthus subgen. nov. Microsomacanthus paracompressa (Czaplinski, 1956) is selected as its type species. Representatives of both subgenera of the genus Microsomacanthus may have rostellar hooks of the same length. Literary data on their larval forms were often based on misidentification. PMID:21309145

Galkin, A K; Regel', K V

2010-01-01

392

The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

2013-01-01

393

Distribution of, and risk factors associated with, sheep carcass condemnations due to Cysticercus ovis infection on Canadian sheep farms.  

PubMed

Cysticercus ovis, the intermediate stage of a canine tapeworm, Taenia ovis, produces cystic lesions in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of sheep which, if numerous, will result in the condemnation of an entire carcass. In 2007 and 2008, the number of carcass condemnations due to C. ovis rose dramatically across Canada, suggesting that the prevalence of this infection on sheep farms was increasing. Trace-back of 237 carcasses condemned at Ontario provincially inspected abattoirs, between March 2009 and March 2011, revealed they originated from 133 farms across Canada. A case-control study was performed (n=40 cases, 56 controls) to identify farm-level risk factors associated with carcass condemnations due to C. ovis. Participating farms, located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario, were asked to answer a short questionnaire which collected information about each farm's geographic location and management practices. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that farm dogs scavenging deadstock (OR=4.04; 95% CI: 1.16-14.04) and failing to dispose of deadstock (OR=11.78; 95% CI: 2.93-47.40) were significantly associated with condemnations (p ? 0.05). PMID:22877826

DeWolf, Bradley D; Peregrine, Andrew S; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Mactavish, Jennifer; Menzies, Paula I

2012-12-21

394

Human Neurocysticercosis: Comparison of Different Diagnostic Tests Using Cerebrospinal Fluid ?  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NC), caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of NC is mostly based on costly brain neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance), which is rarely accessible in most affected areas. The most sensitive and specific tools for NC diagnosis are imagery techniques. The identification of specific antibodies and antigens is currently used only to support NC diagnosis due to their limited specificity and sensitivity. This study was performed to compare immunodiagnostic assays (antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blotting [EITB] and HP10 antigen detection by ELISA) with the detection of parasite DNA by PCR amplification of a repetitive element of the parasite genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 121 radiologically and clinically characterized NC patients. Patients were divided into six groups according to the stage of the parasites and their localization. The CSF cellularity of each patient was also recorded. When all patients were considered, PCR exhibited the highest sensitivity (95.9%) and variable specificity (80% or 100%) depending on the controls used. The sensitivities of antibody detection by ELISA and EITB were not significantly different, and ELISA identified HP10 antigen mostly when vesicular cysticerci were located in the subarachnoideal basal cisterns. These results can help in the selection of different individual assays or combinations of assays to be used in NC diagnosis according to different requirements. PMID:21068283

Michelet, Lorraine; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Kendjo, Eric; Fragoso, Gladis; Paris, Luc; Bouteille, Bernard

2011-01-01

395

Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.  

PubMed

A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

2014-01-01

396

Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.  

PubMed

In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

2003-07-01

397

Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.  

PubMed

Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ?14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ?1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change. PMID:22309976

Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

2012-05-01

398

[Intestinal parasitosis prevalence in outpatients and inpatients of Cã Granda IRCCS Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan: data comparison between 1984-1985 and 2007-2009].  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a specific population over three years (2007-2009). The results were compared with published data collected from the same population in 1984-1985. During a survey from January 1st 2007 to December 31(st) 2009 a total of 2962 inpatients and outpatients were evaluated in our facility (IRCCS Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico) for ova and protozoa stool examination (OPE) over three specimens collected alternatively for three days. 614 inpatients and outpatients were evaluated for the Graham Test (GT) over three slides collected for three days (day by day). Sixty inpatients and outpatients were also sampled for agar culture for detecting Strongyloides larvae in faeces. OPE revealed 13.26% of the patients positive for parasites; TG revealed 8.14% were positive. Overall, 16.66% of the patients were positive for Strongyloides larvae agar culture. Of the OPE trial group, only 4.2% were positive for real pathogen parasites. 1.78% of the total was affected by several parasites. Apart from the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Taenia spp, which was unchanged, all other levels fell compared with the 1984 - 1985 results. New pathogens, namely Hymenolepis nana and Schistosoma mansoni, were detected during 2007-2009 period. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most frequently diagnosed helminth in 2007-2009 as in the previous time period. PMID:21471744

Grande, Romualdo; Ranzi, Maria Luisa; Restelli, Antonella; Maraschini, Anna; Perego, Luisa; Torresani, Erminio

2011-03-01

399

Parasites of Dogs from Indian Settlements in Northwestern Canada: A Survey with Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

A total of 959 faecal samples were obtained from dogs in 12 native communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Central and Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories. All samples were examined using a flotation technique. Samples from an area of endemic human amoebic infections were also examined by a formol-ether sedimentation method. Eighteen necropsies were performed. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were recovered from dog faeces at Loon Lake, Saskatchewan. Toxocara canis had low incidence in Saskatchewan and Central Alberta, and appeared to be almost non-existent further North. Toxascaris leonina was found in all areas surveyed. Canine hookworm infections were plentiful in all areas, the highest incidence being recorded from Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories. Many Taenia (or Echinococcus) infections were found consistently in all areas. Only one infection with Dipylidium caninum was discovered. Metorchis conjunctus infections were found to be common in the Saskatchewan reserves. Infections with Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in all communities with access to good fishing. One specimen of Dioctophyma renale was recovered at necropsy. Infections with parasites of no known zoonotic importance such as Trichuris, Alaria and Isospora species were also recorded. PMID:4265550

Unruh, D. H. A.; King, J. E.; Allen, J. R.; Eaton, R. D. P.

1973-01-01

400

Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; p<0.001). The median age of diarrheal patients with Taenia species, S. stercoralis, and E. histolytica/dispar was significantly higher (24 y., 24 y., and 20 y., respectively; p<0.01). In conclusion, Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent intestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age. PMID:25134911

Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

2014-06-01