A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of Kenya. Serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. Cattle origin and the presence of T. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such
Jael A. Onyango-Abuje; Joseph M. Nginyi; Moses K. Rugutt; Steven H. Wright; Patrick Lumumba; Gwenda Hughes; Leslie J. S. Harrison
Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724
Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre
A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using
P Dorny; F Vercammen; J Brandt; W Vansteenkiste; D Berkvens; S Geerts
An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (P<0.01); consumption of beef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01). PMID:16199069
Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A
Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection. PMID:23571031
Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H
Lipids of Taenia saginata were analyzed by means of thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. Total lipids comprised about 3.3% of the fresh weight and consisted mainly of triglycerides (65.62%), sterols (19.58%), phospholipids (10.16%). The fatty acids of the triglycerides were mainly unsaturated and differed from those of phospholipids. The parasite has practically no "de novo" fatty acid biosynthesis, although this cestode did synthetize complex lipids from single lipids provided by the diet. PMID:973747
Cicchini, T; Belli, M; Messeri, E; Passi, S
Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis–cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control
Ana Karina Kerche Dias; Sérgio Moraes Aoki; José Fernando Garcia; Cáris Maroni Nunes
A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and
S. Abuseir; C. Epe; T. Schnieder; G. Klein; M. Kühne
The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures.
Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H
Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea. PMID:24623887
Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil
The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8(+) and to a lower extent CD4(+) T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide's capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916
Toledo, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández, M; Acero, G; Rosas, G; López-Casillas, F; Garfias, C K; Vázquez, R; Terrazas, I; Sciutto, E
The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.
Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernandez, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vazquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda
The distribution of Taenia saginata cysts among organs and muscle groups was determined by slicing the heart, masseters, liver and muscles of the half carcass of 21 naturally infected Zebu cattle from Morogoro abattoir, Tanzania. The carcasses harboured from 1 to 310 cysts. In the muscle groups, normally considered predilection sites, the heart and Musculus triceps brachii harboured the highest
Godfrey E. Maeda; Niels Chr. Kyvsgaard; Peter Nansen; Henrik O. Bøgh
The ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4), Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34) on Taenia saginata eggs was evaluated under laboratory conditions. T. saginata eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with fungal isolates and controls without fungus and examined after 5, 10 and 15 days. At the end of the experiment P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity against T. saginata eggs (p<0.05), mainly for internal egg colonization with results of 12.8% (VC1) and 2.2% (VC4); 18.1% (VC1) and 7.0% (VC4); 9.76% (VC1) and 8.0% (VC4) at 5, 10 and 15 days, respectively. The other fungi showed only lytic effect without morphological damage to the eggshell. Results demonstrated that P. chlamydosporia was effective in vitro against T. saginata eggs unlike the other fungi. PMID:19141298
Araújo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Campos, Artur K
Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.
The in vitro effect of Praziquantel (PZQ) onTaenia solium cysticerci was analyzed. The oxygen consumption rate of the parasites was inhibited and the release of proteins was enhanced, but no statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the experimental groups. The drug had a significant, dose-dependent negative effect on the evagination ability of the larvae; 50% effect
C. Garcia-Dominguez; D. Correa; M. T. Rabiela; A. Flisser
Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis
Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong
Several reports of patients with cysticercosis from many countries in Asia such as India, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Korea, Taiwan and Nepal are a clear indicator of the wide prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniosis in these and other Asian countries. However, epidemiological data from community based studies are sparse and available only for a few countries in Asia. Cysticercosis
Vedantam Rajshekhar; Durga Dutt Joshi; Nguyen Quoc Doanh; Nguyen van De; Zhou Xiaonong
Fifty-six (56) pigs were immunized against Taenia solium cysticercosis with antigens from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, in a variety of protocols, and then challenged orally with Taenia solium proglottids or eggs. Results of immunization (expressed as individual parasite loads) ranged from significant reduction of parasite loads (host protection) to clear increase (parasite facilitation) in apparent relation to the immunogen dose, adjuvant
E. Sciutto; A. Aluja; G. Fragoso; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; M. N. Villalobos; A. Padilla; N. Keilbach; M. Baca; T. Govezensky; S. Díaz; C. Larralde
A clone (R-Tso18) was isolated from a Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library by screening with sera from rabbits immunised with oncosphere extract. It contained a full-length\\u000a cDNA sequence of 1893?bp with an open reading frame of 1680?bp, corresponding to 559 amino acids with a deduced molecular\\u000a mass of 65.173?kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.08. The R-Tso18 protein showed 80–84%
Laura Benitez; Leslie J. S. Harrison; R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Luis M. Gonzalez; Bruno Gottstein; Teresa Garate
The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica. PMID:22203522
Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X
In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and
André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts
In spite of the statutory meat inspection at abattoirs, Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle remains an economically important parasitic disease for the livestock industry by affecting food safety. The routinely performed standard meat inspection protocol has a low diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of T. saginata cysticerci infections. Therefore, an abattoir trial aiming to increase the detection level was
Ramon Marc Eichenberger; Roger Stephan; Peter Deplazes
Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice. PMID:12041572
Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J
SUMMARY Taenia saginata cysticercosis causes financial losses to the beef industry and farmers, and represents a significant source for human infection in many countries. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland. The case group (n=119) consisted of farms with infected cattle identified at slaughter in 2005 and 2006. Infections were confirmed
F. FLÜTSCH; D. HEINZMANN; A. MATHIS; H. HERTZBERG; R. STEPHAN; P. DEPLAZES
The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium frequently affects human health and rustic porciculture. Cysticerci may localize in the central nervous system of humans causing neurocysticercosis, a major health problem in undeveloped countries. Prevalence and intensity of this disease in pigs and humans are related to social factors (poor personal hygiene, low sanitary conditions, rustic rearing of pigs, open fecalism) and possibly
Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Karen Manoutcharian; Goar Gevorkian; Gabriela Rosas-Salgado; Marisela Hernández-Gonzalez; Luis Herrera-Estrella; José Luis Cabrera-Ponce; Fernando López-Casillas; César González-Bonilla; Araceli Santiago-Machuca; Fernando Ru??z-Pérez; Joaqu??n Sánchez; Fernando Goldbaum; Aline Aluja; Carlos Larralde
The aim of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic procedures for porcine cysticercosis. Sera were obtained from 32 pigs reared in commercial farms, 47 pigs before and after experimental infection, 42 carefully necropsied rural pigs and 191 slaughtered pigs from rural communities in which the presence of the Taenia solium metacestode was assessed by tongue dissection. Sera were analyzed
E. Sciutto; J. J. Mart??nez; N. M. Villalobos; M. Hernández; M. V. José; C. Beltrán; F. Rodarte; I. Flores; J. R. Bobadilla; G. Fragoso; M. E. Parkhouse; L. J. S. Harrison; A. S. de Aluja
SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries. PMID:23790268
Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira
Taenia solium cysticercosis seriously affects human health when localised in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes great economic loss in pig husbandry in rural areas of endemic countries. Increasing the resistance to the parasite in the obligatory host pig may help in curbing transmission. Three synthetic peptides based on protein sequences of the murine parasite Taenia crassiceps, which had
M Huerta; A. S de Aluja; G Fragoso; A Toledo; N Villalobos; M Hernández; G Gevorkian; G Acero; A D??az; I Alvarez; R Avila; C Beltrán; G Garcia; J. J Martinez; C Larralde; E Sciutto
Paramyosin has been proposed as a vaccine candidate in schistosomiasis and filariasis. However, limited information is available about its protective potential against cysticercosis and the immune response it induces. Immunization of mice with recombinant full-length paramyosin of Taenia solium (TPmy) results in about a 52% reduction in parasite burden after a subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.
J. Vazquez-Talavera; C. F. Solis; L. I. Terrazas; J. P. Laclette
The third and final diagnostic antigen of the lentil lectin purified glycoproteins (LLGP) extracted from the larval stage of Taenia solium has been characterized, cloned, and expressed. T24 is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. It migrates at a position corresponding to 24-kDa and as a homodimer at 42-kDa. Antibodies from cysticercosis patients recognize secondary structure
Kathy Hancock; Sowmya Pattabhi; Fatima W. Whitfield; Melinda L. Yushak; Hector H. Garcia; Armando E. Gonzalez; Robert H. Gilman; Victor C. W. Tsang
Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558
Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang
A Taenia solium metacestode cDNA expression library in the lambda ZAPII vector was screened with pooled sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. Sixty primary clones were identified and shown to belong to two classes. The clones NC-3 and NC-9 did not reveal any significant homologies to sequences deposited in the databases and were further characterized. Both recombinant antigens were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and applied for serological diagnosis of human cysticercosis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and evaluated with 27 serum samples of La Réunion and Madagascar patients with cysticercosis. Diagnosis in these patients was established with radiological and serological procedures. For antigen NC-3 a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 91.5% for the serodiagnosis were achieved. In contrast, the sensitivity of antigen NC-9 was only 33.3%.
Hubert, Kerstin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Michault, Alain; Frosch, Matthias; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A.
Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.
Oliveira, Heliana B.; Machado, Gleyce A.; Mineo, Jose R.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.
Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immunization with KETc12 induced 52.7 to 88.1% protection. The elicited immune response indicated that both peptides contain at least one B-cell epitope (as demonstrated by their ability to induce specific antibodies) and one T-cell epitope that strongly stimulated the proliferation of T cells primed with either the free peptide or total cysticercal T. crassiceps antigens. The high percentage of spleen cells expressing inflammatory cytokines points to the likelihood of a T1 response being involved in protection. The protective capacity of the peptides and their presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to these two epitopes as strong candidates for inclusion in a polyepitopic synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis.
Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernandez, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; Lopez-Casillas, Fernando; Hernandez, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227
Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco
Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.
Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881
Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J
The immune mechanisms that underlie resistance and susceptibility to cysticercosis are not completely understood. In this paper, using susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant STAT6-/-BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in determining the outcome of murine cysticercosis caused by the cestode Taenia crassiceps. After T. crassiceps infection, wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, IL-5, IL-4, and discrete levels of NO, and remained susceptible to T. crassiceps infection. In contrast, similarly infected BALB/c mice treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase) mounted a similar immune response but with lower levels of NO and harbored nearly 100% more parasites than N(omega)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, inactive enantiomer)-treated mice. To further analyze the role of NO in murine cysticercosis, we treated STAT6-/-male mice (known to be highly resistant to T. crassiceps) with L-NAME during 8 weeks of infection. As expected, STAT6-/-mice mounted a strong Th1-like response, produced high levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-17, whereas their macrophages displayed increased transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and efficiently controlled T. crassiceps infection. However, STAT6-/-male mice receiving L-NAME mounted a similar immune response but with lower iNOS transcripts concomitantly with decreased levels of NO in sera and displayed significantly higher parasite burdens. These findings suggest that macrophage activation and NO production are effector mechanisms that importantly contribute in host resistance to T. crassiceps infection. The immune mechanisms that underlie resistance and susceptibility to cysticercosis are not completely understood. In this paper, using susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant STAT6-/-BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in determining the outcome of murine cysticercosis caused by the cestode Taenia crassiceps. After T. crassiceps infection, wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, IL-5, IL-4, and discrete levels of NO, and remained susceptible to T. crassiceps infection. In contrast, similarly infected BALB/c mice treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase) mounted a similar immune response but with lower levels of NO and harbored nearly 100% more parasites than N(omega)-nitro-d-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME, inactive enantiomer)-treated mice. To further analyze the role of NO in murine cysticercosis, we treated STAT6-/-male mice (known to be highly resistant to T. crassiceps) with L-NAME during 8 weeks of infection. As expected, STAT6-/-mice mounted a strong Th1-like response, produced high levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-17, whereas their macrophages displayed increased transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and efficiently controlled T. crassiceps infection. However, STAT6-/-male mice receiving L-NAME mounted a similar immune response but with lower iNOS transcripts concomitantly with decreased levels of NO in sera and displayed significantly higher parasite burdens. These findings suggest that macrophage activation and NO production are effector mechanisms that importantly contribute in host resistance to T. crassiceps infection. PMID:17206501
Alonso-Trujillo, Javier; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I
Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389
Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William
Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.
Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.
Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954
Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S
Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of Sarcoptes scabiei. In conclusion, IVM at a single dose of 0.3mg/kg was efficacious against ectoparasites but did not effectively cure pigs from T. solium cysticercosis or nematodes. Oxfendazole, on the other hand, killed all nematodes and muscle cysts, but did not have any effect on ectoparasites. A combination of the two drugs would be a most useful treatment option for control of pig parasitoses in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23806569
Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang
The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. PMID:24309372
Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.
A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481
Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S
The study conducted in the Cocal dos Alves municipality, located in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, Brazil in November of 2003 was based on both a socio-behavioral survey and analysis of serum antibodies and parasitic materials. Pig raising is the main economic activity with 91.4% using extensive farming. On the studied population, 54.3% of people did not apply any sanitary measures to wastewater, 45.7% used septic tanks, and 69.1% consumed water without treatment. The data collected indicated the occurrence and active transmission of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in the region. One of seven voluntary persons was positive in antibody-ELISA tests using both native and recombinant antigens. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of cyst samples obtained from a pig revealed the presence of the Afro-American genotype of Taenia solium. This study revealed the occurrence of human and porcine cysticercosis in the Piracuruca region of Piauí State, middle-north of Brazil. PMID:17123990
Sato, Marcello Otake; Cavalcante, Tânia Vasconcelos; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira
Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important component in the control and elimination of cysticercosis and taeniasis. New detection assays using recombinant and synthetic antigens originating from the lentil lectin-purified glycoproteins (LLGPs) of T. solium cysticerci were developed in a QuickELISA™ format. We analyzed a panel of 474 serum samples composed of 108 serum samples from donors with two or more viable cysts, 252 serum samples from persons with other parasitic infections, and 114 serum samples from persons with no documented illnesses. The sensitivities and specificities of T24H QuickELISA™, GP50 QuickELISA™, and Ts18var1 QuickELISA™ were 96.3% and 99.2%, 93.5% and 98.6%, and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, for detecting cases with multiple, viable cysts. T24H QuickELISA™ performs best among the three assays, and has sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of the LLGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent blot. The QuickELISA™ are simple, rapid quantitative methods for detecting antibodies specific for T. solium cysticerci antigens.
Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Handali, Sukwan; Hancock, Kathy; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Kovalenko, Victor A.; Levin, Andrew; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lin, Sehching; Scheel, Christina M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.
Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis.
Galan-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Marius Vicent
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic disease frequently affecting human health and the pig industry in many developing countries. A synthetic peptide vaccine (designated S3Pvac) against porcine cysticercosis has been developed previously as an aid to interrupt transmission and has been shown to be effective. The results of the present study support the effectiveness of the vaccine under endemic field conditions. However, given the time-frame of the vaccination trial, no changes in the local levels of transmission were detectable before and after vaccination using sentinel pigs. Thus, this investigation shows the limited usefulness of single vaccination as the sole means of interrupting Taenia solium transmission in an endemic region. PMID:16948875
Sciutto, E; Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Toledo, A; Villalobos, M N; Cruz-Revilla, C; Meneses, G; Hernández, M; Díaz, A; Rodarte, L F; Acero, G; Gevorkian, G; Manoutcharian, K; Paniagua, J; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Larralde, R; De Aluja, A S; Larralde, C
Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and identification of T. solium species is the possible co-existence of two other human Taenia tapeworms (T. saginata and T. asiatica, which do not cause cysticercosis in humans). Several key issues for taeniasis/cysticercosis (T/C) evidence-based epidemiology and control are reviewed: (1) advances in immunological and molecular tools for screening of human and animals hosts and identification of Taenia species, with a focus on real-time detection of taeniasis carriers and infected animals in field community screenings, and (2) spatial ecological approaches that have been used to detect geospatial patterns of case distributions and to monitor pig activity and behaviour. Most recent eco-epidemiological studies undertaken in Sichuan province, China, are introduced and reviewed. PMID:23985371
Raoul, Francis; Li, Tiaoying; Sako, Yasuhito; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wu, Yunfei; Nakao, Minoru; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick; Ito, Akira
Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.
Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem. PMID:9522870
McManus, D P
Pigs were infected with taeniid eggs to study the susceptibility to infection and reinfection of the animals of mixed breeds and of different ages, the viability and death of the metacestodes in the host tissue, and the antibody response which accompanies these events. Sixteen pigs were infected with Taenia solium eggs for this purpose. At necropsy metacestodes were counted in
A. S. de Aluja; A. N. M. Villalobos; A. Plancarte; L. F. Rodarte; M. Hernández; E. Sciutto
In spite of the vast knowledge that exists in the fields of immunology, biochemistry, diagnosis and treatment, the basic facts about the dynamics of the transmission of Taenia solium are incomplete. The present study determines the age at which piglets become infected in a rural community of Mexico, where the climate is divided into the dry and rainy seasons. It
Aline S de Aluja; J. J Martinez M; A. N. M Villalobos
Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade
Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H
Vaccination of pigs may curtail Taenia solium transmission by reducing the number of cysticerci, the precursors of adult intestinal tapeworms in humans. Several antigen preparations induce protection against porcine cysticercosis in experimental settings but only one subunit vaccine (S3Pvac) has been tested and proved effective in the field against naturally acquired disease. Besides improving of the vaccine's effectiveness, significant reductions in production costs and in the logistics of its administration are necessary for the feasibility of nationwide control programs. This review highlights the development of several versions of S3Pvac aimed to increase effectiveness, reduce costs and increase feasibility by novel delivery systems and alternative routes of administration. PMID:17188784
Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Morales, Julio; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Blancas, Abel; Acero, Gonzalo; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Bobes, Raul J; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Huerta, Mirna; Diaz-Orea, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; de Aluja, Aline S; Cabrera-Ponce, Jose Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos
In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci. PMID:18440675
Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540
Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in
Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III
Frequent in developing countries, cysticercosis is a parasitic infection that rarely involves the mouth. This study reports a case of oral cysticercosis in a 13-year-old female patient who had an asymptomatic nodule in the right labial mucosa. An excisional biopsy was carried out and the histopathologic examination revealed a cystic space containing a Taenia solium larva. PMID:17706437
Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Prado; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires; de Castro, Alvimar Lima
Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and public education to ensure effective prevention of T. saginata taeniosis in humans were recommended. PMID:24833237
Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026
Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B
We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.
Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew
Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668
Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A
Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%.
Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Monica; Rueda, Daniel; Lopez, Cesar; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderon, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.
Background The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic “hotspot” of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Findings Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. Conclusion This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other “hotspots” of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.
Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tapeworm. The larvae infestation sites frequently include cerebral tissue, ocular organs, and muscles. The present case report describes a rare incidence of cysticercosis in the oral region.
Prapas Pinswasdi; Darunee Jintakanon Charoensiri
Taenia saginata is a zoonotic cestode causing taeniasis. Taeniasis refers to the intestinal infection with the adult stage of this tapeworm. An association between teaniasis and acute appendicitis is uncommon. We present the case of a 37 year old male who presented with abdominal pain for one day. He was diagnosed with having appendicitis and an appendectomy was performed. Pathology of the appendix showed Taenia saginata with eggs in the lumen. Histological analysis showed acute inflammation consistent with acute appendicitis caused by T. saginata. PMID:24450232
Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Eksi, Saliha
There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810
Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of Taenia solium have fully been analyzed. Analysis of the full length of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (1620 bp) and cytochrome b (1068 bp) genes of T. solium, isolated from Asia (China, Thailand, Indonesia and India), from Latin America (Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil) and from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon), has revealed that the two phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia formed a single cluster, whereas those from Latin America combined with those from Africa to form an additional cluster. It was estimated that these two genotypes emerged approximately 4-8 x 10(5) years ago. These results together with recent study of the ancient of human taeniid cestodes emerged several MYA in Africa, historical data on swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization patterns suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that T. solium of another origin independently spread in Asian countries, perhaps from China. Why did not T. solium of European origin invade or spread into Asia during the colonial age? Analysis of T. solium distribution must include other Taenia species, especially T. saginata and T. asiatica, which can not be differentiated from each other morphologically. BESS T-base analysis for differentiation of all human Taenia species including the two genotypes of T. solium, and T. saginata and T. asiatica has also been characterized. BESS T-base analysis differentiates African isolates from Latin American isolates as well but more samples should be analyzed for obtaining conclusive evidence for the latter. Serological analysis of cyst fluid of T. solium cysticerci obtained in China and Indonesia and from Mozambique and Ecuador indicates geographical differences in their banding patterns. These differences are discussed in the light of possible differences in pathology of T. solium worldwide. As it has been speculated that the ancient T. solium emerged several million years ago in Africa, it is necessary to analyze more isolates from Africa. Such working hypothesis may be evaluated combined with symptomatology and serology when we get additional DNA data from such areas, since there are some varieties of manifestation of neurocysticercosis with or without subcutaneous cysticercosis and of antigens of cyst fluid of T. solium from Asia and from Africa and/or America. Transfer of techniques of molecular identification and sero- and immuno-diagnoses between researchers and technicians from endemic countries using their own materials should be promoted with the aim of better international cooperation for the control of cysticercosis. PMID:12781383
Ito, Akira; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Ikejima, Takashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Afonso, Sonia M S; Ortiz, Washington Benitez; Plancarte, Agustin; Zoli, Andre; Geerts, Stanny; Craig, Philip S
Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium.
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in several areas of the world. While the disease has a recognized etiologic agent, its definitive histological diagnosis is not possible in most cases because this parasite tends to lodge in cerebral tissues where routine biopsy is not feasible. Therefore, the diagnosis of human cysticercosis (and neurocysticercosis) should rest on the
Oscar H Del Brutto; Noshir H Wadia; Michel Dumas; Marcelo Cruz; Victor C. W Tsang; Peter M Schantz
Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. It is common in regions where humans and animals live in close contact, with poor sanitation, and due to consumption of infected meat. The tissues affected are the subcutaneous layers, brain, muscle, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral manifestations are very rare. The most common intra-oral site is the tongue. Here, we present a case in a who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule in the upper lip. A gross specimen revealed a cystic cavity containing clear watery fluid and white membranous flecks. The histopathology showed features of cysticercosis.
Deshmukh, Atul; Avadhani, Avadhoot; Tupkari, JV; Sardar, Manisha
Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium which occurs in neural and extraneural forms. Latter commonly involves subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscles, and eyes. Head and neck sites commonly involved are buccal mucosa, tongue, and lips. It presents as single or multiple submucosal/cutaneous firm nodules. We report a case of cysticercosis of the supraclavicular region of the neck where it presented as a large soft cystic swelling. The diagnosis was made by sonography and confirmed by gross and microscopic examination to be racemose cysticercosis. This is a very rare cause of a neck swelling not reported previously in the literature.
Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Joshi, Deepti; Kaushal, Amit
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is endemic in many parts of the world. We present a case of one such lesion which presented itself as an asymptomatic buccal swelling. We present the life cycle of T. solium, the endemic nature of this infection, and the relevance of histological examination to arrive at a diagnosis.
Thambiah, Lalita J.; Pugazhendi, Satish Kumaran; Thangaswamy, Vinod
Asian Taenia is a human tapeworm which was first recognized in Taiwan aborigines and subsequently from Asian countries: Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. It was originally described as T. asiatica Eom and Rim, 1993 based on the morphology in its adult and larval stage. A taxonomic disagreement on whether it is species or subspecies level is mainly due to the morphological similarity of this tapeworm with T. saginata, but a sympatric distribution of these two tapeworms is also known in China. The life cycle is quite distinct from T. saginata in using the pig as intermediate host and parasitizing visceral organs such as liver, lung and omentum. A long unresolved question in Asian countries concerns the inconsistency between worm ratio and the food preferences was clarified with this viscerotropic tapeworm. Molecular biological differentiation is possible with DNA techniques and a complete genome of mtDNA was sequenced recently which may provide a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of parasitic cestodes. This is a young parasite discovered most recently with many research questions yet to be clarified. PMID:16387528
Eom, Keeseon S
Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests.
Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia; Dorny, Pierre
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a public endoscopy clinic and 1 (1%) of 88 patients attending a private endoscopy clinic were seropositive. 1 (1%) of 98 pregnant women living in a Lima shanty town was EITB-positive. 15 (58%) of 26 neurology patients diagnosed clinically as having cysticercosis were seronegative. Routine screening by EITB of all patients with neurological symptoms from areas of endemic cysticercosis would avoid misdiagnosis of this common and treatable disease.
Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.
Echinococcosis, both cystic and alveolar, and Taenia solium cysticercosis are the most serious zoonotic cestodoses worldwide. Because of the emerging importance of these diseases in China, several international workshops and meetings were held in this country from 1998 to 2001. Based on round table discussions in Chengdu 2000, the proposal of a strategy to control echinococcosis and cysticercosis has been
Akira Ito; Carlo Urbani; Qiu Jiamin; Dominique A Vuitton; Qiu Dongchuan; David D Heath; Philip S Craig; Feng Zheng; Peter M Schantz
This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.
In countries where cysticercosis is endemic, the proportion of epilepsy due to cysticercosis is not well documented. To investigate the association between cysticercosis and epilepsy, we used the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to detect serum antibodies to Taenia solium in 498 consecutive outpatients at a neurology clinic in Lima, Peru. Every patient was classified as epileptic (n = 189) or non-epileptic (n = 309) after neurological, and where possible electroencephalographic, examination. A substantially higher proportion of epileptic than non-epileptic patients was seropositive in the EITB (22 [12%] vs 8 [3%], p < 0·00l). 19% of epileptic patients born outside Lima, 20% of those with late-onset epilepsy, and 29% of patients with both these characteristics were seropositive. Thus, in Peru, cysticercosis is an important aetiological factor for epilepsy.
Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R.; Martinez, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Herrera, G.; Diaz, F.; Alvarado, M.; Miranda, E.
Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic\\u000a parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such\\u000a cases have been reported worldwide, and
Atin Kumar; Ajit Harishkumar Goenka; Anita Choudhary; Jitendra Kumar Sahu; Sheffali Gulati
Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the most common causes of seizures worldwide. The symptoms result from granulomatous inflammation associated with dying cyst forms of the parasite. Although the invasive larvae can be killed by immune serum plus complement, immunity to the cyst stage depends on a cellular response. This dichotomous immune response is reminiscent of the extremes of the immune response associated with T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine profiles. To characterize the cytokine response in cysticercosis, granulomas were removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps cysts and examined for cytokine message by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. The granulomas were staged based on histologic appearance of the degenerating parasite. Message for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was identified by light microscopy in 11 of the 12 granulomas, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) message was identified in 9 of the 12. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significantly increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 pixel intensity was identified in nearly all of the granulomas from early histologic stages. Message for IL-4 was seen in 6 of the 12 granulomas. Only granulomas with complete destruction of the parasite architecture displayed more than minimal amounts of IL-4 message by light microscopy, and only 2 of 12 granulomas had IL-4 pixel intensity significantly above background. Only minimal amounts of IL-10 message were detected in 4 of 11 granulomas. Thus, early granulomas in cysticercosis are predominantly associated with a Th1 response, whereas later granulomas, in which parasite destruction is complete, have a mixture of Th1 and IL-4. The Th1 response appears to play an important role both in the pathogenesis of disease as well as in the clearing of the parasites, with IL-4 involved in downregulation of the initial response.
Robinson, P; Atmar, R L; Lewis, D E; White, A C
Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands. PMID:19017531
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S
Many examples of reciprocal endocrine interactions between parasites and hosts have been found in insects, arthropods and mammals. Cysticercosis produced by Taenia solium metacestodes is a widely distributed parasite infection that affects the human and the pig. Taenia crassiceps experimental murine cysticercosis has been used to explore the role of biological factors involved in host-parasite interactions. We had shown that T. crassiceps cysticercosis affects the serum concentration of steroid hormones and the reproduction behavior of the male mice host. In an effort to understand the biology of the parasite, we had investigated the parasite capacity to produce sex steroids. For this purpose, T. crassiceps cysticerci were incubated in the presence of different steroid precursors. TLC and recrystallization procedures showed that testosterone is produced from 3H-androstenedione in cysticerci. The conversion of 3H-testosterone to androstenedione, although present is much less significant. In addition, we had studied the production of testosterone by T. solium cysticerci. For this purpose, cysticerci were dissected from pork meat and incubated as above described. The results showed that T. solium cysticerci also produce testosterone. We have speculated about the importance of androgens in the growth of T. crassiceps cysticerci and found that the addition of the antiandrogen flutamide to the culture media of the parasites significantly decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation. We therefore hypothesized, that the ability of cysticerci to produce testosterone from steroid precursors might be important for the parasite growth and development. PMID:12943707
Romano, M C; Valdéz, R A; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Larralde, C
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a very common disease in developing countries that seriously affects human health. Diagnosis can only be confirmed with the aid of computerized tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) creating obvious difficulties for epidemiological studies. Reliable immunoassays employing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been developed, based on the use of cysticercal antigens. However, the reliance on
Marisela Hernández; Constantino Beltrán; Esperanza Garc??a; Gladis Fragoso; Goar Gevorkian; Agnès Fleury; Michael Parkhouse; Leslie Harrison; Julio Sotelo; Edda Sciutto
From 1960 through 1965, 39 cases with epileptic seizure caused by the Cystricercus cellulosae were experienced at Kaejong Mental Hospital, Okku-Gun, Chollapukdo province. The present study was carried on at the area of Chollapukdo province where Cysticercus cellulosae cases were frequently reported. 1. 39 Cystricercus cellulosae cases(35 male and 4 female) with epileptic seizure visited Kaejong Mental Hospital. Okku-Gun, Chollapukdo during the years of 1960~1965 from various Gun(county): Okku-Gun 13, Kimje-Gun 7, and Soonchang-Gun 6. The high incidence was found at the age group of 20~49 years and the distribution of 214 subcutaneous nodules were as follows: Trunk 56.6 %, upper extremities 26.6 %, head and neck 9.3 %, lower extremities 7.5 %. 2. According to the address of above 39 cases, taenia infestation of the inhabitants in the area was examined by questionaire form. Plain rural area (Maryong-Ri, Okku-Gun); Among 803 persons interviewed, 4.0 percent or 32 complained the output of Taenia segments. The male group showed higher incidence (6.4 percent) than the female(1.5 percent). The highest incidence was observed at the age group of 30~39 years. Most of the inhabitants of the area had the eating habit of raw beef and pork. Mountainous rural area(Bok-Heung-Myun, Soonchang-Gun); Among 542 persons interviewed, 33 or 6.1 percent complained Taenia infection. The higher incidence was observed in the male group(8.7 percent) than in the female group(3.1 percent), and also at the age group of 20~49 years. They had eating habit of raw beef and pork. The species of adult worm were identified by morphological examination. Totally 36 adult worms(Taenia saginata 21, T. solium 15) were obtained from 26 cases, and it was experienced that 5 T. solium were eliminated from one person. PMID:12913576
Lee, Keun Tae; Kim, Chong Hwan; Park, Chong Tae; Lee, Man Yong
Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327
Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong
We studied the occurrence of human cysticercosis in 4993 individuals from three rural communities of Menoua Division, West Province of Cameroon. Circulating antigens of Taenia solium metacestodes were detected in 0.4%, 1.0% and 3.0% of the serum samples taken in Bafou, Bamendou and Fonakekeu, respectively, and examined using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This test detects only carriers of living cysticerci and gives thus a good idea of the presence of active cysticercosis. The percentage of persons infected with cysticercosis increased with age. Twenty-two of the 34 seropositives underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Thirteen of them were CT-scan positive, which shows that neurocysticercosis was present in 59.1% of the tested seropositive persons. No living cysticerci were detected among 20 seronegative people. About 20.6% of the seropositives had a history of or current taeniasis against only 1.9% of the seronegatives. Based on these figures and on the data on porcine cysticercosis (prevalence: 11%) and human taeniasis (prevalence: 0.13%) collected in the same region, we conclude that T. solium cysticercosis is an endemic, but overlooked public health problem in West Cameroon. PMID:12581440
Nguekam, J P; Zoli, A P; Zogo, P O; Kamga, A C T; Speybroeck, N; Dorny, P; Brandt, J; Losson, B; Geerts, S
Cysticercosis is a significant public health problem in countries where pigs are raised for consumption and remains an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. The Philippines is considered an endemic area for cysticercosis because cases in both humans and pigs have been reported; however, epidemiologic information stays limited. We conducted a pilot survey of the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in a village in Leyte, the Philippines, by measuring antibody specific for Taenia solium cyst-fluid antigen. There were 497 subjects aged 7–30 years in our study and most subjects were infected with one or more helminths. The overall cysticercosis seroprevalence in this population was 24.6% (95% CI: 20.82% ~ 28.58%) with no significant difference based on age, sex, or other helminth coinfection status. Although the sample may not be representative of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant, but underrecognized public health concern in the Philippines.
Xu, Jin-Mei; Acosta, Luz P.; Hou, Min; Manalo, Daria L.; Jiz, Mario; Jarilla, Blanca; Pablo, Archie O.; Ovleda, Remigio M.; Langdon, Gretchen; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Wu, Hai-Wei
Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system. The disease occurs when humans become the intermediate host in the life cycle of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food. The most common sites of involvement of cysticerci are soft tissue, eye and central nervous system. Unusual location of the cysts may result in uncommon manifestations.
Bharati Taksande; Ulhas Jajoo; Samir Yelwatkar; Jaikishan Ashish
Epidemiological studies of porcine cysticercosis require identification of pigs harbouring viable Taenia solium cysticerci and estimates of the degree of exposure to the parasite in the pig population destined for human consumption. Identification of infected pigs with viable larvae is achieved through detection of their secretory products. However, detectable levels of circulating antibody may also be present in the absence
E Sciutto; M Hernández; G Garc??a; A. S de Aluja; A. N. M Villalobos; L. F Rodarte; M Parkhouse; L Harrison
Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. Spinal cysticercosis is an uncommon site of cysticercal infection, and isolated intramedullary involvement is even rarer. We present a case of 10-year-old girl who presented with gradual onset paraparesis with sensory loss and bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine revealed a cystic lesion with mural nodule (scolex) which was diagnostic for cysticercosis. Patient was treated with antihelminthic, which led to marked clinico-radiological improvement.
Azfar, Shah F.; Kirmani, Sanna; Badar, Farheen; Ahmad, Ibne
This study aimed to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of intraocular cysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestode infection. Total 8 patients diagnosed with intraocular cysticercosis at the Red Cross Hospital of Yunnan Province, China were examined retrospectively. Patients with clear dioptic media had undergone fundus chromophotography. All patients underwent B ultrasonography of the ocular region (CT) successive scanning of the orbit and cerebral tissues. Parasites were extracted surgically and then examined pathologically. The fundus chromophotography showed a white and condensing scolex package in the vesicle. The B ultrasonic examination showed a vesicle-like echogenic mass in the vitreous chamber, in which the high-level echo spot was the cysticercus scolex. The pathological examinations showed that the vesicle wall exhibited hyaline degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, neuroglial fiber, and glial cell proliferation layers from the inside to the outside. The scolex is round and is composed of the outer tissue (the body wall) and the inner furrow tissue; these tissues migrated together. Primordially differentiated sucking discs were found in one case, but no hooklets were found. The inner scolex tissue was folded like a paper flower. The severity of intraocular disease is closely correlated with the pathophysiological processes of the cysticercus worm. Pathological examination of the intraocular lesions can help to evaluate the course of the disease as well as to provide a scientific basis for effective antiparasitic medication.
Zhang, Li-Wei; Li, Hua; Hu, Zhu-Lin
Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement.
Sacchidanand, S.; Namitha, P.; Mallikarjuna, M.; Nataraj, H. V.
The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.
Hernandez-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge
Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which was diagnosed with the help of high resolution ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed conservatively using oral antiparasitic medication. Here, in this case report, we are emphasizing the importance of imaging modalities in diagnosing space infection and cysticercosis.
Rastogi, Sameer; Arora, Pallak; Devi, Parvathi; Wazir, Sartaj Singh; Kapoor, Shalini
Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.
Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti
Two recombinant Taenia solium oncosphere antigens, designated TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, were investigated as vaccines to prevent transmission of the zoonotic disease cysticercosis through pigs. Both antigens were effective in inducing very high levels of protection (up to 100%) in three independent vaccine trials in pigs against experimental challenge infection with T. solium eggs, which were undertaken in Mexico and Cameroon.
Ana Flisser; Charles G. Gauci; A. Zoli; J. Martinez-Ocana; A. Garza-Rodriguez; J. L. Dominguez-Alpizar; P. Maravilla; R. Rodriguez-Canul; G. Avila; L. Aguilar-Vega; C. Kyngdon; S. Geerts; M. W. Lightowlers
Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760
Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H
We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period.
Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji
Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis.
Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.
This article reviews current knowledge on human and porcine cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium. It highlights the conditions favorable for its prevalence and transmission, as well as current trends in research on its natural history, epidemiology, immunopathology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Our opinions on the most urgent needs for further research are also presented.
Edda Sciutto; Gladis Fragoso; Agnes Fleury; Juan Pedro Laclette; Julio Sotelo; Aline Aluja; Laura Vargas; Carlos Larralde
Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766
Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N; Dong, X Fan; Laborde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Wilkins, Patricia P
Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis.
Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.
• Background: Cysticercosis is one of the parasitic diseases that most frequently affects the eye. The most common and severe manifestations of ocular infection are secondary to posterior segment involvement, which often leads to blindness and atrophy of the eye. The pathogenesis of ocular injury in this disease is poorly understood. The authors have developed an experimental animal model for
Arturo Santos; José A. Paczka; Juan M. Jiménez-Sierra; Patricia Chévez; Cecilio Velasco; Ana Flisser; Hugo Quiroz-Mercado
Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482
Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J
Isolated orbital cysticercosis is rare. A 54-year-old woman had unilateral, painful, axial, and downward proptosis; palpable,\\u000a superomedial mass; blepharoptosis; and painful ocular movements. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography corroborated\\u000a the clinical diagnosis of pseudotumor. However, failure of medical therapy prompted us to order magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI), which outlined a cyst with cysticercus features. Death of the parasite was
Usha Yadava; Punita Kumari Sodhi
A Western blot assay for identification of 26kDa and\\/or 8kDa antigens in a crude saline extract (CSE) of Taenia solium metacestodes, previously developed for human cysticercosis, was evaluated for use with pigs. The test population used for assay standardisation consisted of 45 cysticercotic pigs (5 pigs positive by necropsy and 40 selected by tongue palpation and LL-Gp immunoblot but not
R Rodriguez-Canul; J. C Allan; J. L Dominguez; S Villegas; L Cob; R. I Rodriguez; A. J Cook; J Williams; F Argaez; P. S Craig
Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report.
Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.
Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis.
Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H.; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P.; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Sterling, Charles R.
Infections due to Taenia solium in humans (taeniasis/cysticercosis) remain a complex health problem, particularly in developing countries. We identified two oncosphere proteins that might protect the porcine intermediate host against cysticercosis and therefore help prevent disease in humans. One of these proteins was further identified by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and micro-sequencing. The gene encoding this protective protein was also identified, cloned and characterized. The native 31.5 KD protein Tso31 has four variants at the cDNA level. The longest sequence from which the others seem to derive, encodes a 253 amino acid peptide. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 25.1 KD, one putative N-glycosylation site, two fibronectin type III domains, and one C terminal transmembrane domain. The gene structure of the protein consists of four exons and three introns. The finding of one gene and four different cDNAs for Tso31 suggests the existence of a possible mechanism of differential splicing in this parasite. The Tso31 protein is exclusive to T. solium oncospheres with a putative protein structure of an extra-cellular receptor-like protein. The Tso31 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein fused to GST and tested in a vaccine to determine its effectiveness in protecting pigs against cysticercosis. Only two pigs out of eight vaccinated were protected and although the total median number of cyst decreased in vaccinated pigs compared to controls this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.09).
Mayta, Holger; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Farfan, Marilu J.; Verastegui, Manuela; Lane, William S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C. W.
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is associated with immunodepression of T and B lymphocytes. In order to ascertain if this parasite affects lymphocyte activity, a factor isolated from the parasite was tested on (3H) thymidine uptake by cultured human lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. This dialysable factor had a molecular weight of less than 3500 Da, and was isolated from an extract of Cysticercus cellulosae. It decreased phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated uptake of (3H) thymidine. After the material was treated with RNase 'A', the suppressive activity was destroyed. It thus appears that the factor could correspond to an RNA fraction. PMID:2222021
Molinari, J L; Tato, P; Reynoso, O A; Cázares, J M
Summary: We present the imaging findings of retrobulbar optic nerve cysticercosis in a 50-year-old woman with a 6- month history of vision loss. Contrast-enhanced CT re- vealed an approximately 7-mm ring-enhancing cyst with a mural nodule located in the anterior portion of the left op- tic nerve. A contrast-enhanced MR imaging study revealed a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement of
Satish Chandra; Sushma Vashisht; Vimla Menon; Manorama Berry; Suresh K. Mukherji
We report on a case of subconjunctival cysticercosis in a patient who presented with redness on the medial side, fever, and\\u000a pain and swelling on the inside of the right eye. There was no diplopia, restriction of ocular movements in any gaze or diminution\\u000a of vision. Cyst excision was scheduled and oral albendazole was administered. However, the cyst extruded spontaneously
Bhaskar Reddy; Amit Raj; Om Prakash Singh Maurya
We carried out a serosurvey for cysticercosis among people visiting the Central Hospital of Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, between January and June 1993. A standardized questionnaire was designed to obtain information on demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral characteristics related to the transmission of the infection. Four hundred eighty-nine individuals were tested for anti-cysticercosis antibodies: 222 blood donors and patients
MANUELA VILHENA; MANUELA SANTOS; JORGE TORGAL
A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05-0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis. PMID:22666509
Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luís; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sónia; Fafetine, José; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang
A randomized controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment for control of porcine cysticercosis was conducted in 4 rural villages of Angónia district, north-western Mozambique. Two hundred and sixteen piglets aged 4 months were selected and assigned randomly to OFZ treatment or control groups. Fifty-four piglets were treated at 4 months of age (T1), while another 54 piglets were treated at 9 months of age (T2) and these were matched with 108 control pigs from the same litters and raised under the same conditions. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis using antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA), as well as knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission based on questionnaire interviews and observations. All animals were followed and re-tested for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA at 9 and 12 months of age when the study was terminated. Overall prevalence at baseline was 5.1% with no significant difference between groups. At the end of the study, 66.7% of the controls were found positive, whereas 21.4% of the T1 and 9.1% of the T2 pigs were positive, respectively. Incidence rates of porcine cysticercosis were lower in treated pigs as compared to controls. Necropsy of 30 randomly selected animals revealed that viable cysts were present in none (0/8) of T2 pigs, 12.5% (1/8) of T1 pigs and 42.8% (6/14) of control pigs. There was a significant reduction in the risk of T. solium cysticercosis if pigs were treated with OFZ either at 4 months (OR?=?0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36) or at 9 months of age (OR?=?0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.16). Strategic treatment of pigs in endemic areas should be further explored as a means to control T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis.
Pondja, Alberto; Neves, Luis; Mlangwa, James; Afonso, Sonia; Fafetine, Jose; Willingham, Arve Lee; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang
A 22 years old male presented to us with a history of lid swelling and chemosis of conjunctiva since 2 days. The patient had a history of convulsions 4 days back and 2 months back. The patient had undergone a CT scan which showed granulomas in temporal and parietal lobes. The patient was started on Anti tuberculosis treatment by the Physician. The Patient underwent USG B scan which revealed cysticercosis cyst in the anterior orbit inferiorly .The patient was treated with albendazole and wysolone for a month. The patient was reviewed after 1 month .The lesion resolved with the treatment both clinically and on USG.
Damani, Mehul; Mehta, Vinod C.; Baile, Rahul B.; Nakwa, Bhalachandra
A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.
Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth
Human cysticercosis and tuberculosis are endemic diseases in developing countries. Both these diseases have certain common\\u000a factors of origin. We would like to present the co-existence of these infections in a 20-year-old female. She was a known\\u000a case of pulmonary and ocular tuberculosis and she acquired cysticercosis of the eye and brain.
A. Rani; N. Pushker; A. Kulkarni; Rajpal; R. Balasubramanya; M. S. Bajaj
We report a case of hepatic cysticercosis in a 62-year-old man who had been diagnosed with a colonic adenocarcinoma 9 years previously. Additional clinical studies failed to show disease in the soft tissues, brain, orbit and heart. The patient was successfully treated with a course of praziquantel and prednisone and is alive and well 28 months after diagnosis. This is the first reported case of hepatic cysticercosis that has resulted in significant morbidity. PMID:7769202
Sickel, J Z; Fultz, P J; Penwarden, B; Laczin, J
A 37-year-old Nepalese man was admitted to Showa University Hospital because of a loss of consciousness and seizures. He had lived in Nepal, Qatar, Singapore, and India before the age of 34 years. He had no history of having eaten raw pork. His physical findings were normal excluding an abnormal visual field, and a positive serum antibody test result for Taenia solium, CT and MRI examinations showed multiple nodular lesions in his brain and thigh. We resected a cyst from his left thigh and diagnosed him as having cysticercosis based on the presence of characteristic hooklets and suckers on a pathological examination. Later, the Asian type of Cysticercus cellulosa was identified using a mitochondrial DNA test. Albendazole (800 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were administered for 14 days. All cysticercus were smaller on Day7 and had almost disappeared on Day 14. No adverse effects from the treatment occurred. Cysticercosis is rare in Japan, and cases requiring treatment for a large number of cysticercus in the brain and thigh are rare. We report a case of neurocysticercosis that had a good clinical course. PMID:24195171
Shoji, Hisashi; Hirai, Takahito; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Takuma, Takahiro; Okino, Tetsuya; Wakatsuki, Yasushi; Okino, Teruhiko; Niki, Yoshihito
There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the ??=?0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p?=?0.003), breed (p?=?0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p?=?0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR?=?1.89; 95% CI?=?1.07, 3.35) (p?=?0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065
Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee
There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the ??=?0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p?=?0.003), breed (p?=?0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p?=?0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR?=?1.89; 95% CI?=?1.07, 3.35) (p?=?0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area.
Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee
Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a very common disease in developing countries that seriously affects human health. Diagnosis can only be confirmed with the aid of computerized tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) creating obvious difficulties for epidemiological studies. Reliable immunoassays employing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been developed, based on the use of cysticercal antigens. However, the reliance on parasite material is restrictive. Herein, we report the advances in the design of a diagnostic kit based on immunodominant synthetic peptides, targeting four candidate epitopes KETc1, KETc12, 410 and 413 which were identified from three different clones (KETc1, 12 and 4) selected from a cDNA library of Taenia crassiceps. CSF antibodies against T. solium cysticercal antigens (TCA) as well as the four peptides were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) using two panels of CSF from patients with confirmed neurocysticercosis and other neurological diseases. In the first CSF panel which included patients with high level of antibodies against TCA, KETc12 exhibited almost the same sensitivity (87.5%) as TCA (93.7%) and 100% specificity. In the second panel of 110 CSF collected at random, two peptides (KETc1 and KETc12) exhibited sensitivities of 40 and 36% respectively, and were 100% specific. PMID:10709780
Hernández, M; Beltrán, C; García, E; Fragoso, G; Gevorkian, G; Fleury, A; Parkhouse, M; Harrison, L; Sotelo, J; Sciutto, E
Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P ?=? 0.02) and those with ?US$300 monthly income (P ?=? 0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil.
Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide
From 1980 to 1985, 3550 pigs, 530 cattle, 370 buffalo, 1850 sheep and 2100 goat of different breeds, age and sex from different parts of Uttar Pradesh State (India) were screened for the presence of cysticerci. Economic losses due to condemnation of affected meat were calculated. The overall incidence in pigs was 9.3%. Indigenous breeds brought from rural areas had the highest infection rate (8.9%). Cysticerci were commonly observed in the muscles of fore and hind limbs, tongue, neck and brain but a few cyst were also seen in other organs including heart, kidney and spleen. No statistical difference in the rate of infection with regards to age and sex was recorded. Sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo were found negative for this infection. Also 600 human faecal samples screened for the presence of adult T. solium revealed 2% infection. PMID:2488998
Pathak, K M; Gaur, S N
Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb\\/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection
Ana María Fernández Presas; Lilia Robert; José Agustín Jiménez; Kaethe Willms
A 6-year-old girl presented with signs of severe anterior uveitis. After initiating treatment, a cyst like lesion was observed in the anterior chamber that led to the diagnosis of ocular cysticercosis that was ultimately confirmed with histopathologic analysis. Ocular cysticercosis usually affects the extraocular muscle. Infection of the anterior chamber has been described, although to a lesser extent. Because of the usually poor visual prognosis and the controversy in treatment, physicians should be aware of this disease and its different variants of presentation. PMID:17920320
Cortez, Maria A; Giuliari, Gian P; Escaf, Luis; Escaf, Sonia; Vidal, Claudia
We report two cases of intraocular cysticercosis which showed a peculiar presentation of neovascular glaucoma which is hitherto unreported. Two young adults presented with symptoms of raised intraocular pressure due to neovascular glaucoma. On dilated fundus examination both were found to have dead intravitreal cysticercosis. The cysts were removed by a three-port vitrectomy and intracameral injection of bevacizumab was given to help in the regression of rubeosis. Trabeculectomy had to be combined in one case. The intraocular pressure returned to normal. No recurrence of rubeosis was seen even after one year.
Ratra, Dhanashree; Phogat, Chekitaan; Singh, Maneesh; Choudhari, Nikhil S
Although a well-known disease worldwide, cerebral cysticercosis in European countries is a rare event. Due to increased travel to East-Asian and Latin American countries it is possible that the occurrence of brain cysticercosis will become more frequent. These facts should remind us of the possibility of cysticercosis of the nervous system. A case of cerebral and spinal cord cysticercosis is presented, causing symptoms of progressive dementia with ventricular occlusion and hydrocephalus. Differential diagnosis causes a major problem. It is shown that myelography may demonstrate characteristic features of the disease. PMID:7115053
Popper, H; Bertha, G; Walter, G F; Schneider, G
Background Little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré) and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo). Methods/Principal Findings A clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals) and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4–40.3), 39.6% (31.9–47.8), and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.
Ganaba, Rasmane; Praet, Nicolas; Carabin, Helene; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Dorny, Pierre; Hounton, Sennen; Sow, Adama; Nitiema, Pascal; Cowan, Linda D.
Background Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies better knowledge of the proteins secreted and excreted by the parasite. In a previous study, we used a custom protein database containing protein sequences from related helminths to identify T. solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins. An alternative or complementary approach would be to use expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and protein mapping to supercontigs of Echinococcus granulosus, a closely related cestode. In this study, we evaluate this approach and compare the results to those obtained in the previous study. Findings We report 297 proteins organized in 106 protein groups based on homology. Additional classification was done using Gene Ontology information on biological process and molecular function. Of the 106 protein groups, 58 groups were newly identified, while 48 groups confirmed previous findings. Blast2GO analysis revealed that the majority of the proteins were involved in catalytic activities and binding. Conclusions In this study, we used translated expressed sequence tags combined with BLAST and mapping strategies to both confirm and complement previous research. Our findings are comparable to recent studies on other helminth genera like Echinococcus, Schistosoma and Clonorchis, indicating similarities between helminth excretion/secretion proteomes.
Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis.
Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas
Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania.
Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee
We characterised a population of macrophages potentially involved in the immunoregulation induced by experimental cysticercosis. Following Taenia crassiceps infection, macrophages recruited in the peritoneal cavity were isolated and co-cultured at different ratios with T cells from naïve mice previously stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies; these macrophages inhibited naïve T cell proliferation. This suppressive effect was Interleukin (IL)-10, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and nitric oxide (NO) independent. In contrast, macrophage-T cell contact was necessary to maintain anergy of T cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of these macrophages showed higher transcripts of IL-10, chitinases Fizz1 and Ym1, and arginase-1 compared with naïve macrophages; by contrast, IL-12p40, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcripts were undetected, whereas C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) was unchanged. Analysis of the membrane molecules expressed on Taenia-induced macrophages showed an up-regulation of several markers, mainly programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2. Blockade of PD-L1, PD-L2 or their receptor PD-1, but not of another marker, eliminated their ability to inhibit T-cell proliferation. Parallel experiments using ovalbumin (OVA)-peptide as a model antigen displayed similar results. Additionally, the same mechanism appears to be functional in splenocytes of T. crassiceps-infected mice given that blockade of PD-1, PD-L1 or PD-L2 re-established their ability to proliferate in response to parasite antigens. Moreover, Taenia-induced macrophages were able to suppress a mixed lymphocyte reaction in a PD-1-dependent manner. Thus, cestode infections induce macrophages alternatively activated with strong suppressive activity involving the PD-1/PD-L's pathway. PMID:16126211
Terrazas, Luis I; Montero, Daniel; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, José L; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam
A 30-year-old female presented with a painless solitary swelling at right lateral border of tongue of 2-month duration. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was nonconclusive. Excision biopsy was done. Histopathology revealed cysticercosis cellulosae and parasite visualized in the slide with tongue muscles. Lingual cysticercosis is rare and therefore its literature is reviewed and discussed.
Kinger, Arvind; Kawatra, Mallika; Chaudhary, Tej Singh
Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval form of Taenia hydatigena, was observed in a 5-year-old male cynomolgus monkey used in a toxicity study for a safety assessment of a pharmaceutical. The animal was born and raised in a primate colony in China. A pale yellow cyst filled with more than 100ml of pale yellow fluid was found in the abdominal cavity in the autopsy. The cyst was found attached to the greater omentum, and it was double layered. Histopathologically, the outer layer was a part of the greater omentum, and the inner layer was the bladder wall of a cysticercus with a well developed scolex. A partial sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 showed a high homology to the same region of Taenia hydatigena (1.5-3.3%). PMID:19251371
Tsubota, Kenjiro; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Fujihira, Shiro; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Okazaki, Yoshimasa; Murakami, Yuichi; Anagawa, Akiko; Oku, Yuzaburo; Oishi, Yuji
Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 ?g of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans.
Jayashi, Cesar M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ?8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection.
Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.
Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:23196744
Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W
Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed.
Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thais CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maisa M; Maia, Antonio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Davila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel
Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC.
Passive transfer of immunity to Taenia taeniaeformis infection in the rat was achieved with serum taken 14, 21 and 28 days after infection, with maximal activity at 28 days. The protective capacity resided in the globulin fraction, which was further fractionated by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The immunoglobulins present in each passively transferred fraction were detected with specific antisera to 7S?2, 7S?1, ?M and ?A. Protective activity was confined to those fractions containing 7S immunoglobulin. Fractions enriched for ?M were unable to confer protection and it was possible to protect recipient rats against challenge with fractions devoid of ?A and reaginic antibody activity. 7S?2a antibodies were able to confer passive protection when given alone, and probably contributed to the protective capacity of mixtures containing 7S?2 and 7S?1 immunoglobulins. A mechanism for specific acquired resistance to T. taeniaeformis is proposed based upon the recently established biological properties of 7S?2a. Absorption of protective activity from immune rat serum was unsuccessful using a variety of techniques, and an explanation is offered for this finding. The results are discussed in relation to the current understanding of acquired resistance in cysticercosis and hydatid disease in domesticated food animals. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 5FIG. 6
Leid, R. W.; Williams, J. F.
RESUMO A Taenia taeniformis é um parasito gastrointestinal, pertencente à classe Cestoda, ordem Cyclophilidea e família Taenidae. Este parasito, infecta roedores e felinos principalmente, embora em circunstância s anormais possa parasitar seres humanos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar alterações nas enzimas hepáticas decorrentes de um surto por cisticercos de Taenia taeniformis no fígado de roedores. Ratos (Rattus norvergicus) e
Aleksandro S. SILVA; Patrícia WOLKMER; Carolina K. TRAESEL
In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from
Yasushi Ihama; Hiroshi Sato; Youko Makino; Haruo Kamiya
We herein report a case with multifocal cysticercosis – sub-conjunctival cysticercus cyst, sub-retinal cysticercosis, and neurocysticercosis in a child. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of the sub-retinal cysticercus cyst are reported. He was treated with anti-helminthic drugs and oral prednisolone followed by surgical removal of the sub-retinal cyst. He subsequently underwent silicone oil removal with lens aspiration and intraocular lens implantation maintaining stable vision
Agarwal, Manisha; Jha, Vivek; Chaudhary, Somendra P.; Singh, Ashok K.
It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected
Joanna ?uszczak; Marta Ziaja-So?tys; Jolanta Rzymowska
Fluctuating ptosis is usually caused by Myasthenia gravis. There are a few case reports of central causes of fluctuating ptosis. A 58-year-old man presented with fluctuating ptosis of one year duration. He was diagnosed as having ocular myasthenia and investigated. On evaluation, his electrophysiological tests revealed negative decremental response and results of neostigmine test was negative. During follow-up, patient developed headache. Imaging of the brain revealed midbrain cysticercosis granuloma. The focal encephalitis and edema was responsible for fluctuating ptosis. It is therefore essential to be aware of conditions that cause such pseudomyasthenic features. Patients with ptosis need to be evaluated for other rare central cause especially when neostigmine test is negative.
Netravathi, M.; Banuprakash, A. S.; Khamesra, Renu; Singh, N. Hemantakumar
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another. PMID:24745917
Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie
Human neurocysticercosis, due to infestation of the central nervous system with Taenia cysts, is a common cause of neurologic disease in endemic areas and is being increasingly recognized in the United States. Previous studies have suggested that Taenia cysts bind host IgG via Fc-like receptors and that bound IgG is degraded by the parasite, perhaps as a source of nutrients
A. Clinton White; Salman Baig; Cynthia L. Chappell
Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.
Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.
Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287
Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H
Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 ?g each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). PMID:23116696
Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W
Disseminated cysticercosis is a common endemic tropical infection. We report a 24-year-old man who presented with a single episode of focal seizure and transient depression. Imaging studies revealed disseminated vesicular cysticercosis involving almost all the body parts. In spite of severe dissemination and significantly raised immunological inflammatory markers, the patient had negligible symptoms. He was subsequently followed up with oral corticosteroid and antiepileptic drug without further complication. The extensive dissemination, relatively benign nature of the disease and clinicoradiological discordance are interesting to describe. This neglected tropical infection can sometimes be alarming and needs public health awareness. PMID:24717595
Panda, Akhila Kumar; Pati, Binod Kumar
Neurocysticercosis (NC), i.e., the presence of the larval form of Taenia solium in tissues, is the most frequent and severe infection involving the central nervous system. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with NC, CSF and serum samples from a control group, and serum samples from patients with other parasitoses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by immunoblotting with Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid antigen (Tcra) and Taenia solium total saline antigen (Tso) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies. ELISAs carried out with the Tso and Tcra antigens showed 94.1 and 95.6% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 70.6% and 91.2% sensitivities, respectively, for the detection of antibodies in serum, with 100% specificity for the detection of antibodies in CSF and 80% specificity for the detection of antibodies in serum for both antigens. On the basis of the reactivities of the peptides in the samples analyzed, the peptides of ?23, 39, 85 to 77, and 97 kDa were found to be Tso specific by immunoblotting and the peptides of ?62, 74, 109, 121, and 131 kDa were found to be Tcra specific. Tests with Tcra extract had higher sensitivities and more homogeneous results and permitted us to obtain the parasites easily. We suggest the use of Tcra ELISA for the study of serum and confirmation of the results for sera positive by an immunoblotting analysis in which specific peptides (e.g., peptides of 19 to 13 kDa) are detected.
Bueno, Edneia Casagranda; Vaz, Adelaide Jose; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Mielle, Silvia Regina
Presentation of one case of extraocular muscle enlargement caused by cysticercosis, its clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects, and review of the literature on this theme. A female 38-year-old patient with extraocular muscle enlargement and a small cystic lesion at the superior rectus muscle insertion was treated with oral prednisone for almost one year, with a non- specific inflammation of right
Hélio Angotti-Neto; Allan Christian Pieroni Gonçalves; Frederico Castelo Moura; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro
Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)
An epidemiologic survey was carried out by a team of medical doctors working in the Kozah district of North Togo during April 1987. It was designed to evaluate the incidence of epilepsy and cysticercosis, taking a sample population of 5,264 subjects aged over 15 years old. 81.7% of the population feed on pigs which are allowed to roam freely in the vicinity of people's habitations. Cysticercosis (123 cases; incidence 23.3 cases per thousand) was diagnosed when one of the following three tests gave a positive result:--serum sample greater than or equal to 0.400 OD with ELISA test (101 cas),--identification of a cysticercosis cyst on anatomopathological examination of subcutaneous cysts (12 cases),--presence of typical calcification patterns revealed by cranial or muscle X-rays (21 cases in 18 patients). General epilepsy or partial motor fits were entirely clinically diagnosed (88 cases; 16 per thousand of population). Cysticercosis proved to be the cause of 29.5% epileptic sufferers, onset occurring after the age of 50 in 66% of these patients. PMID:2208456
Dumas, M; Grunitzky, K; Belo, M; Dabis, F; Deniau, M; Bouteille, B; Kassankogno, Y; Catanzano, G; Alexandre, M P
Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80hi macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender.
Togno-Peirce, Cristian; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge
Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125
Peón, Alberto N; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I
Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663
Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C
We report an unusual case of disseminated cysticercosis having simultaneous intraocular and extraocular involvement. This\\u000a 21-year-old male presented with recent loss of vision in one eye and history of a single seizure. Examination revealed intravitreal\\u000a cysticercosis with exudative retinal detachment. Computed tomographic scan showed disseminated neurocysticercosis and cysticercosis\\u000a of the medial and inferior recti of both the eyes. The patient
Vikas Chadha; P. K. Pandey; Depender Chauhan; Sima Das
An electrophysiological and anatomical study of the guinea pig taenia coli is reported. Changing the membrane potential of single cells cannot modulate the rate of firing action potentials but does reveal electrical coupling between the cells during propagation. The amplitude of the junction potentials which occur during transmission from inhibitory nerves is unaffected in many cells during alteration of the membrane potential, indicating electrical coupling during transmission. The taenia coli is shown to consist of smooth muscle bundles which anastomose. There are tight junctions between the cells in the bundles, and these probably provide the pathway for the electrical coupling. The smooth muscle cells towards the serosal surface of the taenia coli are shown electrophysiologically to have an extensive intramural inhibitory innervation, but a sparse sympathetic inhibitory and cholinergic excitatory innervation. These results are in accordance with the distribution of these nerves as determined histochemically. As single axons are only rarely observed in the taenia coli, it is suggested that the only muscle cells which undergo permeability changes during transmission are those adjacent to varicosities in the nerve bundles. The remaining muscle cells then undergo potential changes during transmission because of electrical coupling through the tight junctions.
Bennett, M. R.; Rogers, D. C.
The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) is a promising mucosal immunogen and adjuvant that induces protective immunity against Naegleria fowleri and malaria infection models. We determined whether pCry1Ac acted as a protective adjuvant against infection with Taenia crassiceps. BALB/C mice were thrice i.p. immunized with (i) pCry1Ac, (ii) metacestode extract, (iii) extract + pCry1Ac or (iv) vehicle, challenged with metacestodes on day 26 and then sacrificed 35 days later. Cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity were counted, while the serum antibody response and cytokines were analysed after immunization and during infection. Only immunization with pCry1Ac plus extract conferred a significant protection (up to 47%). This group presented fluctuating antibody peaks during infection and the highest IgG1 and IgM titres. Immunization with extract alone elicited high IgG1 and the highest IgG2a responses after 25 days of infection, while nonimmunized mice presented a poor, mixed-Th1/Th2 response during infection. Sharp peaks of TNF? and IFN-? occurred immediately after the first immunization with extract, especially in the presence of pCry1Ac, but not after the challenge, while in the control and pCry1Ac-alone groups, cytokines were only detected after the challenge. The data support the protective-adjuvant effect of co-administration of pCry1Ac in cysticercosis. PMID:24484070
Ibarra-Moreno, S; García-Hernández, A L; Moreno-Fierros, L
Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction. PMID:22465501
Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare
Taenia solium, a causative agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, has evolved a repertoire of lipid uptake mechanisms. Proteome analysis of T. solium excretory-secretory products (TsESP) identified 10 kDa proteins displaying significant sequence identity with cestode hydrophobic-ligand-binding-proteins (HLBPs). Two distinct 362- and 352-bp-long cDNAs encoding 264- and 258-bp-long open reading frames (87 and 85 amino acid polypeptides) were isolated by mining the T. solium expressed sequence tags and a cDNA library screening (TsHLBP1 and TsHLBP2; 94% sequence identity). They clustered into the same clade with those found in Moniezia expansa and Hymenolepis diminuta. Genomic structure analysis revealed that these genes might have originated from a common ancestor. Both the crude TsESP and bacterially expressed recombinant proteins exhibited binding activity toward 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS), which was competitively inhibited by oleic acid. The proteins also bound to cis-parinaric acid (cPnA) and 16-(9-anthroyloxy) palmitic acid (16-AP), but showed no binding activity against 11-[(5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino] undecanoic acid (DAUDA) and dansyl-DL-?-aminocaprylic acid (DACA). Unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) showed greater affinity than saturated FAs. The proteins were specifically expressed in adult worms throughout the strobila. The TsHLBPs might be involved in uptake and/or sequestration of hydrophobic molecules provided by their hosts, thus contributing to host-parasite interface interrelationships. PMID:22657393
Rahman, M; Lee, E-G; Kim, S-H; Bae, Y-A; Wang, H; Yang, Y; Kong, Y
A new type of immunogenic molecule was engineered by replacing all three complementarity-determining-region (CDR) loops of the human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable (VH) domain with the Taenia crassiceps epitope PT1 (PPPVDYLYQT) and by displaying this construct on the surfaces of M13 bacteriophage. When BALB/c mice were immunized with such phage particles (PIgphage), a strong protection against challenge infection in very susceptible female hosts was obtained. When specifically stimulated, the in vivo-primed CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from mice immunized with PT1, both as a free peptide and as the PIgphage construct, proliferated in vitro, indicating efficient epitope presentation by both major histocompatibility complex class II and class I molecules in the specifically antigen-pulsed macrophages used as antigen-presenting cells. These data demonstrate the immunogenic potential of recombinant phage particles displaying CDR epitope-grafted Ig VH domains and establish an alternative approach to the design of an effective subunit vaccine for prevention of cysticercosis. The key advantage of this type of immunogen is that no adjuvant is required for its application. The proposed strategy for immunogen construction is potentially suitable for use in any host-pathogen interaction.
Manoutcharian, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Petrossian, Pavel; Rodriguez, Miriam; Govezensky, Tzipe
Background The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and parasite-host interaction studies.
Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou
An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat. PMID:19258422
Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M
In an epidemiological survey for Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents and insectivores from the northernmost part of the central mainland of Japan (Honshu), two taeniid species, Taenia crassiceps and Taenia polyacantha, were found in Microtus montebelli and Apodemus argenteus, respectively. The latter is the first record of distribution in Japan, and the former is the second after its first recovery from the central part of Japan. Although we have found neither larval nor strobilar stage of E. multilocularis there, discovery of these taeniid species, having overlapping global distribution with E. multilocularis in red foxes Vulpes vulpes as well as multiple occurrences of hydatid patients having no history of visits to the endemic areas shows the possibility that the life-cycle of E. multilocularis might be maintained at least in the northernmost part of Honshu. PMID:10725694
Ihama, Y; Sato, H; Makino, Y; Kamiya, H
We report an atypical case of cysticercosis of the left levator-superior rectus complex, mimicking a painful partial third nerve palsy. The patient presented with painful diplopia, with limitation of elevation, depression and adduction of the left eye, associated with a ptosis of the upper left eyelid. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed two cysts, located within the left levator-superior rectus complex, and nine parenchymal cysts located in both hemispheres of the brain. Antibody titers directed against Cysticercus cellulosae were elevated as confirmed by Elisa and Immunoblot. Diplopia and local inflammation resolved after albendazole and systemic steroid treatment. Surgical resection of the cysts was unnecessary. PMID:23122837
El Hamdaoui, M; Touitou, V; Lehoang, P
The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic.
Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.
We describe a rare case of intradural-extramedullary primary spinal cysticercosis. A 42-year-old man visited our institute for lower back pain. He denied having consumed raw meet. Magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an intradural pure cystic mass at the L3-L4 level. A radiologic diagnosis of spinal arachnoid cyst was established. Three years later, he complained of aggravated back pain, and follow-up MR examination showed a markedly expanded cyst, occupying the subarachnoid space from the T11 to the S1 level. L2 hemilaminectomy was performed, and a yellowish infected cyst bulged out through the dural opening. The cyst was removed en bloc. The histopathological findings of the cyst were consistent with parasitic infection. Serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of spinal cysticercosis. As there was no intracranial lesion, the final diagnosis was primary spinal cysticercosis, which is very rare. MR imaging is a sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting cystic lesions in the spine; however, it is difficult to distinguish cysticercosis from non-infectious cysts such as an arachnoid cyst without using gadolinium enhancement. Clinicians treating spinal cysts with an unusual clinical course should include cysticercosis as a differential diagnosis. We recommend contrast-enhanced MR imaging and serum ELISA in the diagnostic work-up of such cases.
Yoo, Minwook; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jib
Cerebral coenurosis due to Taenia multiceps is a rare infection with no case reports from India. A 55-year-old male patient had presented with progressive symptoms of hemiparesis of 1-year duration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the lesion was performed that showed a septated cystic lesion in left parieto-occipital lobe. Multivoxel MRS through the lesion was performed using repetition time of 1500 ms and time to echo of 144 ms at 3T MRI. MRS showed mildly elevated choline (Cho), depressed creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a large peak of lactate, pyruvate, and acetate peaks. To best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of in vivo proton MRS finding ever reported. We present MRS findings in this operatively proven case of T. multiceps cyst of the brain. PMID:21699611
Ambekar, Sudheer; Prasad, Chandrajit; Dwarakanath, Srinivas; Mahadevan, Anitha
Isolated soft tissue cysticercosis of the trunk in the absence of concurrent central nervous system involvement is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose. We report 4 such cases in the pediatric age group. Preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue cysticercosis was considered only in 1 patient, the rest were diagnosed only after biopsy. Complete excision (without rupture) was done. All of them underwent a CT scan head along with ophthalmic examination to rule out the more common sites of occurrence of cysticercosis. No further treatment was undertaken as the evaluation was negative. In endemic areas like ours we must suspect this entity not only in the limb muscles, but also in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk. If diagnosed accurately, it can be treated medically, eliminating the need for surgery.
Sinha, Shalini; Tiwari, Abhishek; Khurana, Nita
Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.
Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and importance of porcine cysticercosis in rural areas of Zambia. The study involved an abattoir survey of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka and two field surveys in villages in Southern and Eastern provinces. Lingual examination of live pigs and visual inspection of their carcass as well as
I. K. Phiri; P. Dorny; S. Gabriel; A. L. Willingham; N. Speybroeck; J. Vercruysse
Only one study previously mentioned the involvement of colon during Taenia taeniaeformis larvae infection in rats with inconsistent occurrence of lesions. Present study aimed to determine the consistency of histopathologic changes in colonic epithelia, and the proliferation of mucosal cells through BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that crypt hyperplasia of the colon was found in all infected rats, although variable in degree even in a single tissue section. Cystic cavities were frequently seen in severely hyperplastic mucosa. Proliferative zone lengths were significantly increased and PCNA positive cells were observed throughout the colonic crypt lengths at 9 but not at 6 weeks post infection. Cell proliferation involving the major types of cells in the epithelial colon was also increased in infected rats at 9 weeks post infection, with labeling indices significantly greater than the control rats throughout the BrdU time course labeling. Findings suggested that massive increases in epithelial cells and depth of colonic crypts were due to a remarkable increase in cell proliferation. The study concluded that enteropathy in the colon during T. taeniaeformis infection could be consistently observed in heavily infected rats. PMID:18793638
Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao
Cysticerci from Taenia solium develop in the pig muscle and cause severe diseases in humans. Here we report on the capacity of T. solium cysticerci to synthesize sex steroid hormones. T. solium cysticerci were dissected from infected pork meat. Parasites were incubated for different periods in culture media plus antibiotics and tritiated steroid precursors. Blanks and parasite culture media were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in two different solvent systems. In some experiments, the scoleces were incubated separately. Results showed that T. solium cysticerci transform [(3)H]androstenedione to [(3)H]testosterone in a time-dependent manner. The production was confirmed in two different solvent systems. The incubation with [(3)H]testosterone yielded only small amounts of [(3)H]androstenedione. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated that the metabolite identified by TLC was testosterone. The isolated scoleces incubated in the presence of [(3)H]androstenedione yielded [(3)H]testosterone and small quantities of [(3)H]17beta-estradiol. The results reported here demonstrate that T. solium cysticerci have the capacity to synthesize steroid hormones. PMID:16416116
Valdéz, R A; Jiménez, P; Cartas, A L; Gómez, Y; Romano, M C
The objective of this paper is to critically review and summarize available scientific and lay literature, and ongoing studies on human and porcine cysticercosis in Mozambique to identify knowledge gaps and direct immediate and long-term research efforts. Data on the spatial distribution and prevalence of the disease in human and swine populations are scarce and fragmented. Human serological studies have shown that 15-21% of apparently healthy adults were positive for cysticercosis antibodies or antigen, while in neuropsychiatric patients seroprevalence was as high as 51%. Slaughterhouse records indicate a countrywide occurrence of porcine cysticercosis, while studies have shown that 10-35% of pigs tested were seropositive for cysticercosis antibodies or antigen. Current research in Mozambique includes studies on the epidemiology, molecular biology, diagnosis and control of the disease. Future research efforts should be directed at better understanding the epidemiology of the disease in Mozambique, particularly risk factors for its occurrence and spread in human and swine populations, documenting the socio-economic impact of the disease, identifying critical control points and evaluating the feasibility and epidemiological impact of control measures and development of local level diagnostic tools for use in humans and swine. PMID:21676344
Afonso, S M S; Vaz, Y; Neves, L; Pondja, A; Dias, G; Willingham, A L; Vilhena, M; Duarte, P C; Jost, C C; Noormahomed, E V
The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. PMID:23428901
Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
Superoxide dismutase from Taenia solium cysticerci ( Ts SOD) was purified by sequential ion exchange chromatography on quaternary-amino-ethyl-cellulose (QAE) followed by hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sepharose (PS) and chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger 94 (PBE). Ts SOD is a 30 kDa molecular weight dimeric enzyme with 15 kDa monomers. It is partially negative, hydrophilic, with 6.3 isoelectric point and has 2,900 U/mg activity. Bovine erythrocyte SOD antibodies cross react with Ts SOD. This enzyme is 80% inhibited by 10 mM of KCN suggesting that it has a Cu/Zn active site. Furthermore, Ts SOD totally loses its activity at 100 degrees C for 4 min. The first 25 amino acids from the Ts SOD N-terminal are (M K A V X V M R G E E G V K G V V H F T Q A G D A). This sequence is 76% similar to the Schistosoma mansoni Cu/Zn SOD. By chance, myoglobin (Mb) was also found during the purification process. A 16 kDa band was recognized in immunoblotting by horse heart Mb antibodies in QAE, PS and PBE, the last-mentioned being found at pH 7.0. The first 15 amino acids from the amino terminal group (G L S D G E W Q L V L N V W G) in this 16 kDa protein are identical to several other Mbs which have been reported. PMID:12209327
González, R; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Plancarte, A
Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659
Murrell, K D
Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. PMID:22763348
Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are
Werner T. Flueck; Arlene Jones
Trials with oxfendazole carried out on 120 dogs infected with either Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia hydatigena indicated that a single treatment significantly reduced the proportion of dogs infected with tapeworms. Diarrhoea occurred occasionally when the dose rate exceeded 20 mg/kg. PMID:515529
Gemmell, M A; Johnstone, P D; Oudemans, G
1. The inhibitory innervation of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum has been studied, after blocking the responses to stimulation of excitatory cholinergic nerves with atropine.2. Stimulation of the perivascular nerves supplying the taenia caused relaxations. These nerves had properties which were typical of sympathetic post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. The relaxations caused by stimulation were maximal at frequencies of stimulation above 30 pulses/sec and they were abolished by bretylium, guanethidine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP).3. The taenia is also innervated by intramural inhibitory nerves with their cell bodies in Auerbach's plexus. These nerves can be excited by electrical stimulation of the taenia or by the application of ganglion-stimulating drugs.4. The intramural inhibitory nerves have different properties from sympathetic adrenergic nerves. Relaxations in response to stimulation were maximal with frequencies of stimulation of about 5 pulses/sec and they were not blocked by bretylium, guanethidine or DMPP.5. Preganglionic cholinergic fibres in the caecal wall make synaptic connexions with the intramural inhibitory neurones.6. The role of the intramural inhibitory neurones in intestinal activity and their possible connexions with the central nervous system have been discussed. PMID:5942999
Burnstock, G; Campbell, G; Rand, M J
Man is generally considered to be the only definitive host for Taenia solium. The host-parasite relationship for the bladderworm stage is not as specific and several intermediate hosts are known. By chance, it was found that the white-handed gibbon (Hylob...
F. C. Cadigan J. S. Stanton P. Tanticharoenyos V. Chaicumpa
When a small change, either contraction or dilation, of the surface area of a digestive tube coincides with a considerable change in internal volume, this can be considered an effective influence of surface on volume. This study discusses the effects of anatomical differences between those types of digestive tracts where the longitudinal musculature is reduced to small bands, the taeniae, and those where such differentiations are not found. With the help of a geometric model the efficiency of transport (eta = net volume expelled aborally / volume of the tube) from haustra in tubes with two, three, four, and six taeniae was determined. It could be shown that efficiency of transport from haustra decreases when the number of taeniae increases. The second model applies the program "Surface Evolver" (author K.A. Brakke). The program is applied to investigate the relationships between changes in surface area of tubes with different numbers of taeniae (0, 2, 3, 4, and 6) and the respective changes of the internal volumes of tubes. Both haustra formation and formation of semilunar folds between haustra are considered. Tubes with two or three taeniae reduce their internal volume more efficiently than all others, namely, with a relatively small reduction of the surface area and contraction of the Tunica muscularis at a relatively low rate. In addition to chemical and mechanical decomposition of digesta the gastrointestinal tube has three tasks: propagation, storage, and retention of digesta. A tube without taeniae, i.e., with a complete longitudinal muscular layer, propagates contents with peristaltic movements. Storage can take place in areas of the tract with a dilated cross-section. Finally, folds can retain digesta. In many sections of the gastrointestinal tract folds are differentiated as permanent structures. However, folds formed with relatively little contraction of the musculature, i.e., little change in the surface area, represent an effective means of retention and thus of flow regulation. Tubes with taeniae and semilunar folds are adaptations for this effective type of regulation of digesta transit through the tract. PMID:14994329
Langer, Peter; Takács, Aron
Cysticercosis (CC) is a polymorphous disease, which makes its diagnosis difficult. This study had the objective of evaluating\\u000a the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory criteria in human CC. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied, and indirect\\u000a fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and ELISA-IgG were utilized together with computerized tomography and\\/or magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging on 90 patients with clinical signs suggestive of neurocysticercosis (NCC).
Marcela M. F. P. Cavalcante; José E. Cavalcanti; Julia M. Costa-Cruz; Alverne P. Barbosa; Simonne A. Silva; Dulcinéa M. B. Campos
IgG anticysticercus antibody levels were estimated in the aqueous and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in\\u000a 7 patients with ocular cysticercosis and compared with controls with senile cataract. Mean anticystic ercus antibody levels\\u000a in the aqueous and serum were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Evaluation of antibody levels in the serum\\u000a or aqueous can play an important
S. P. Garg; Dinesh Talwar; Nargis F. Jaffey; Tanuj Dada; B. L. Jailkhani
In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis.
We analyzed the DNA content of hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the spined loach Cobitis taenia (diploid) and its allopolyploid forms. Twenty triploid females and one tetraploid were used. At least 20,000 hepatocyte and\\u000a erythrocyte nuclei were acquired and analyzed by flow cytometry. C. taenia erythrocyte nuclei contain 3.15 ± 0.21 pg of DNA and the hepatocyte nuclei 4.45 ± 0.46 pg of DNA. Triploid Cobitis
Dorota Juchno; Bozena Lackowska; Alicja Boron; Wincenty Kilarski
Did you mean: 13. tapeworm list below two full sets reproductive organs percolated? a. Dipylidium caninum b. Echinococcus granulosus c. Spirometra mansonoides d. Taenia pisiformis e. Mesocestoide Cort ?
1. A preparation of the taenia from the caecum of the guinea-pig has been used. Acetylcholine caused contraction and noradrenaline caused relaxation. When the perivascular nerves running to the taenia were stimulated, at low frequencies there was sometimes contraction and sometimes relaxation. At high frequencies there was always relaxation. In the presence of hyoscine there was relaxation at all frequencies, the relaxation increasing as the frequency rose up to 20/sec. The relaxation was not affected by the presence of hexamethonium, but was blocked by bretylium. 2. When stimulation was applied in the presence of hyoscine, the addition of physostigmine, Mipafox or Dyflos increased the relaxation to stimulation of low frequency, the increase becoming smaller as the frequency rose. At high frequencies Mipafox decreased the relaxation.
Ng, K. K. F.
The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey.
Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem
Taenia solium is a great threat not only to human health but also to the pig-raising industry. Oncospheral stage-specific 45W proteins are good candidates for the development of anticysticercosis vaccines. In this study, a recombinant 45W-4B protein was highly produced and used for vaccination. Two animal trials resulted in a significant reduction in parasite burden induced by the definite protein
Xuenong Luo; Yadong Zheng; Junling Hou; Shaohua Zhang; Xuepeng Cai
1.Bay K 8644, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ agonist, (10?6 M), induced strong rhythmic contractions in taenia coli and induced a contracture after about 5.5 hr of the application. Increases in Bay K 8644 concentrations prolonged the period of rhythmic contractions and slowed the onset of the contracture.2.Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, inhibited the delayed contracture to Bay K 8644 more than
T. Nasu; M. Sasaki; H. Shibata
The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953
Rausch, R L; Fay, F H
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic and public health importance. A survey of this disease was carried out in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection, to determine the prevalence of the adult tapeworm in the human definitive host, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use in assessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio-Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of the serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five adakaars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63, 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakuma were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20.9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (k = 0.025; p = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniosis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Adakaar), the deworming history of household members and the distance (>2 km) of grazing fields from the homestead were significant explanatory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.07 (0.02-0.12); p < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area. PMID:19329200
Asaava, Lucas L; Kitala, Phillip M; Gathura, Peter B; Nanyingi, Mark O; Muchemi, Gerald; Schelling, Esther
Cystic echinococcosis and human cysticercosis have recently been included in the list of “neglected tropical diseases” by the World Health Organization (WHO). Both are zoonoses which are prevalent throughout the world and lead to considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic losses as well. This review deals with the disease burden of these two neglected cestode infections. Diagnostic modalities with their specific advantages and disadvantages have also been discussed. Recent developments in immunodiagnostic assays for the two diseases have been dealt with. Various control strategies including the use of veterinary vaccines have been highlighted.
Giri, Sidhartha; Parija, Subhash Chandra
Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic hydatid disease.
Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Oncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
Since morphological identification of a larval Taeniid in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) has produced inconsistent results, genetic information is pivotal for species identification. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a coenurus in a wild gelada were compared to published sequences from multiple Taeniid species, confirming the identification of this parasite as Taenia serialis. A demographic analysis finds age to be a strong predictor of coenuri. Tapeworms rarely employ primates as intermediate hosts, and the presence of T. serialis in a wild gelada population may indicate a substantial ecological shift in this parasite's life cycle. PMID:24050944
Schneider-Crease, India A; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Jarvey, Julie C; Bergman, Thore J
Malakoplakia of the appendix is an unusual condition that has been reported to occur in association with tumors, infections, and immunocompromised states. We describe a case of appendicular malakoplakia associated with eggs of Taenia species. The diagnosis was made on histopathologic examination of surgically resected tissue from an appendicular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that helminths have been documented to be associated with malakoplakia. We also discuss the implications of helminthic infestation in the pathogenesis of the lesion. PMID:11100067
Jain, M; Arora, V K; Singh, N; Bhatia, A
We describe the first detailed histological description of an excised calcified Taenia solium granuloma from a patient who developed recurrent seizures associated with perilesional edema surrounding a calcified cysticercus (PEC). The capsule, around a degenerated cysticercus, contained marked mononuclear infiltrates that extended to adjacent brain, which showed marked astrocytosis, microgliosis, and inflammatory perivascular infiltrates. The presence of large numbers of mononuclear cells supports an inflammatory cause of PEC. Immunosuppression or anti-inflammatory measures may be able to treat and prevent PEC and recurrent seizures.
Ooi, Winnie W.; Wijemanne, Subhashie; Thomas, Christine B.; Quezado, Martha; Brown, Charles R.; Nash, Theodore E.
Malate dehydrogenase (l-malate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52) from the cytoplasm of Taenia solium cysticerci (cMDHTs) was purified 48-fold through a four-step procedure involving salt fractionation, ionic exchange, and dye affinity chromatography.\\u000a cMDHTs had a native M\\u000a r of 64,000, while the corresponding value per subunit, obtained under denaturing conditions, was 32,000. The enzyme is partially\\u000a positive, with an isoelectric point
Agustín Plancarte; Gabriela Nava; Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández
The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern Latin America about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. We report on the possible occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in Patagonia. Hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with Taenia ovis ovis or T. o. krabbei. Although it is not possible to differentiate between T. o. ovis and T. o. krabbei on morphological grounds with certainty, several biological characteristics indicate the cysticercus may belong to T. o. krabbei. Red deer have been reported to be refractory to T. o. ovis infection whereas other potential intermediate hosts like cattle, goats, pigs and sheep have been shown to be refractory to T. o. krabbei. Other native ungulates sympatric with red deer in Patagonia include Lama guanicoe and the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus). Possible or known definitive hosts include native felids like Puma concolor, Felis colocolo, F. guigna and canids like Dusicyon griseus, D. culpaeus, and domestic dogs. PMID:16289565
Flueck, Werner T; Jones, Arlene
Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.
Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; Lopez-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge
The authors report a case of a solitary intramuscular cysticercosis in a 47-year-old female who presented with a mass in the right elbow for five years. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed a cystic mass of 1.5 cm. in size located at the periphery of the pronator teres muscle; the T1-weighted MRI showed hypointensity mass with internal content that was more obviously seen on T2-weighted image and T1-weighted with fat suppression after gadolinium administration. The authors could not recognize perilesional edema in the MRI that corresponded with the histological findings of chronic inflammatory process in combination with foreign body giant cell reaction. The scolex could not be seen in the imaging but could be identified in the histopathological sections. PMID:17624228
Sirikulchayanonta, Vorachai; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan
We report the case of a 32-year-old man suffering from intraocular cysticercosis, with special emphasis on the use of B-scan ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of the condition. An 8000 B-Scan Scanmate was used to obtain the ultrasound images. The patient had worked on a pig farm a few years before presentation. He presented with shadows seen in the right eye. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed that he had a choroidal detachment in the right eye inferotemporally. B-scan ultrasound revealed a subretinal subchoroidal cyst with a thick wall containing well defined intracystic echogenic entities representing scolices, and an associated retinal detachment. These findings appear to be pathognomonic. Excision of the cyst through a trans-scleral approach revealed a yellowish serous fluid, with scolices of cysticercus later confirmed histologically. B-scan ultrasound is extremely useful in the diagnosis of ocular cysticercosis and the findings can be pathognomonic.
Babalola, OE; Adu, A; Akano, AO
The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms. Migrations of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and later of Homo sapiens facilitated the diversification and dispersal of T. solium and T. saginata populations. The development of animal husbandry, making Sus scrofa and Bos taurus preferential intermediate hosts, led to the worldwide distribution of parasites. New molecular data combined with an innovative dating method allow us to explain the ways in which ancient human migrations promoted the emergence and spread of taeniasis and cysticercosis around the world. Another intriguing phenomenon explained better by our approach is the influence of human settlement on the spread of these parasites in recently inhabited areas. The diverse nature of T. solium currently observed in Madagascar may correspond to multiple imports of the parasite during Austronesian migrations, while in Mexico a recent influence of humans during the colonial period is more likely. Human activities, especially food preparation and husbandry methods, remain responsible for the transmission and persistence of these parasites. PMID:22321512
Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine
In 1976 a 28-year-old Ecuadoran male suffered paraparesis after a kick to his back. Iophendylate myelography was followed by thoracic laminectomy with incomplete resolution of the paraparesis. One year later, worsening of the paraparesis was managed by further thoracic laminectomy without improvement. In 1978 a spinal cord stimulator was implanted via low thoracic laminectomy as a measure to counter his spasticity. In 1984 metrizamide myelography and computed tomography scanning were performed for increasing spastic paraparesis that disclosed an intramedullary lesion at the T-4 level. Exploration and myelotomy revealed an intramedullary cysticercal cyst, which was totally removed. PMID:3726745
Holtzman, R N; Hughes, J E; Sachdev, R K; Jarenwattananon, A
Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-(1-27)) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the guinea-pig taenia caeci were studied in the presence of guanethidine and scopolamine. Both peptides (1 nmol\\/1-1 µmol\\/1) concentration-dependently relaxed the smooth muscle of the taenia. PACAP-(1-27) and VIP were nearly equipotent. Apamin (30 nmol\\/1), a selective blocker of calcium-activated potassium channels, abolished the relaxation induced
H. Schwörer; S. Katsoulis; W. Creutzfeldt; W. E. Schmidt
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489
Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.
Madrid, Elise M.; Nash, Theodore E.
Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank. PMID:22569565
Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J
We compared the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with that of a multiplex PCR method for differential detection of human Taenia parasites in fecal specimens from taeniasis patients. The LAMP method, with no false positives, showed a higher sensitivity (88.4%) than the multiplex PCR (37.2%). Thus, it is expected that the LAMP method has a high value for molecular diagnosis of taeniasis.
Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Wandra, Toni; Swastika, I. Kadek; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Ito, Akira
To determine the role of STAT4-dependent Th1 responses in the regulation of immunity to the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we monitored infections with this parasite in resistant mice lacking the STAT4 gene. While T. crassiceps-infected STAT4\\/ mice rapidly resolved the infection, STAT4\\/ mice were highly sus- ceptible to infection and displayed large parasite loads. Moreover, the inability of STAT4\\/ mice
M. Rodriguez-Sosa; Rafael Saavedra; Eda P. Tenorio; Lucia E. Rosas; Abhay R. Satoskar; Luis I. Terrazas
Cysticerci and tapeworms from Taenia crassiceps WFU, ORF and Taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. Corticosteroids increase the 17?-estradiol synthesis by T. crassiceps cysticerci. T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). The aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. For this purpose, T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci were obtained from the abdominal cavity of mice, pre-cultured for 24h in DMEM+antibiotics/antimycotics and cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone ((3)H-P4), androstendione ((3)H-A4), or dehydroepiandrosterone ((3)H-DHEA) plus different doses of the corresponding inhibitors, for different periods. Blanks with the culture media adding the tritiated precursors were simultaneously incubated. At the end of the incubation period, parasites were separated and media extracted with ether. The resulting steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Data were expressed as percent transformation of the tritiated precursors. Results showed that after 2h of exposure of the cysticerci to 100 ?M formestane, the (3)H-17?-estradiol synthesis from tritiated androstenedione was significantly inhibited. The incubation of cysticerci in the presence of (3)H-DHEA and danazol (100 nM) resulted in (3)H-androstenediol accumulation and a significant reduction of the 17?-estradiol synthesis. The cysticerci (3)H-DOC synthesis was significantly inhibited when the parasites were cultured in the presence of different ketoconazole dosis. The drug treatments did not affect parasite's viability. The results of this study showed that corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis in T. crassiceps WFU cysticerci can be modified by steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors. As was shown previously by our laboratory and others, parasite survival and development depends on sex steroids, therefore the inhibition of their synthesis is a good starting point exploited in situations where the inhibition of steroidogenesis could help to control the infection for the development of new treatments, or replacement of the usual therapy in resistant parasite infections. We raise the possibility that these drug actions may be beneficially. PMID:23608546
Aceves-Ramos, A; Valdez, R A; Gaona, B; Willms, K; Romano, M C
1. In the taenia isolated from the guinea-pig caecum, changes in free intracellular magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) were measured based on the separation of the chemical shift of the alpha- and beta-peaks of ATP obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 2. When external Mg2+ was increased from 1.2 to 12 and 40 mM, [Mg2+]i increased from 0.34 +/- 0.05 to 0.39 +/- 0.07 and 0.61 +/- 0.18 mM (n = 3), respectively, in 125-150 min. In the absence of Ca2+, the increase was greater, i.e. [Mg2+]i reached 0.92 +/- 0.05 (n = 3) and 3.37 mM (n = 1), respectively. 3. In Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-free solution, [Mg2+]i decreased to about 10 microM in 100 min. This decrease was not affected by substitution of Na+ with K+, but the recovery of [Mg2+]i on Mg2+ readmission was slower in the absence of Na+. This recovery was prevented by Ca2+ (2.4 mM), but Na+ readmission produced full recovery of [Mg2+]i in the presence of Ca2+. 4. When Na+ was substituted with K+ in the absence of Ca2+, [Mg2+]i increased from 0.38 +/- 0.01 mM to 0.56 +/- 0.04 mM (n = 4) in 100 min. Substitution of Na+ with N-methyl-D-glucamine produced a much greater increase (to 2.1 mM in 100 min). Removal of the external K+ in the absence of Ca2+ also increased [Mg2+]i to 0.66 +/- 0.11 mM (n = 4) in 150 min, but no clear change was observed in the presence of Ca2+. Full recovery of [Mg2+]i could be produced in normal solution even when the intracellular phosphocreatine and ATP concentrations were 70-80% of the control. 5. It is concluded that in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci an Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange process and possibly also an ATP-driven Mg2+ pump are playing important roles in maintaining free [Mg2+]i at about 0.3 mM under the physiological condition. In addition to this, Ca2+ inhibits both Mg2+ efflux and influx, probably by reducing the membrane permeability to Mg2+ and by competing with Mg2+ in the Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange of the plasma membrane.
Nakayama, S; Tomita, T
Purpose of review Taenia solium neurocysticercosis has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent findings Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also revised in this manuscript. Summary Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management to later consider antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropiate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC.
Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.
Most neurocysticercosis (N.C.C.) cases reported occur in undeveloped countries where contaminated food by Taenia solium gives rise to human infection. People of developed countries are exposed by migrations and travels. We report a case of a 36 years old french woman living at La Reunion. Her symptomatology consisted of left unilateral hypoacusis progressing over a two years period accompagnied by intermittent headaches. CT scan showed a hypodense mass with a ring enhancement in the left cerebello pontine angle (C.P.A.). M.R.I. showed multicystic arrangement of vesicles in a racemous fashion that spread out to peduncular and carotid cisterns. Parenchymatous or ventricular involvement was not observed. A lateral suboccipital craniectomy was carried up in the sitting position. After division of a thickened arachnoid in the C.P.A., the vesicles were dissected an pulled out easily because the membranes had not any adhesions. Progressive improvement of hearing was observed in the next week. Primary cisternal involvement of N.C.C. is rare and, in literature, there is not any other reported case in the C.P.A. Different mechanisms of invasion to the C.N.S. are discussed. PMID:1603232
Celis, M A; Mourier, K L; Polivka, M; Boissonnet, H; Kato, T; Lot, G; George, B; Cophignon, J
Peritoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci of naturally resistant (C57BL/10J and C57BL/6J) and susceptible (BALB/cAnN) mice induces a cellular immune depression. T-cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 was significantly depressed in infected mice of all strains tested. However, in resistant mice, the diminished response to ConA was transient and animals recovered normal responsiveness at day 40, whereas susceptible mice remained suppressed throughout the 40 days of the experiment. In contrast, the proliferative response to anti-CD3 was lower in infected mice than in noninfected controls regardless of differences in natural susceptibility of the strains. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with a parasite extract also induced a depression of the response to ConA, although not as strong as that produced by the parasite itself. This depression is not due to direct effects by parasite antigens over host lymphocytes, as proliferation is not affected by the presence of cysticercal antigens added in vitro. Diminished interleukin-2 production during the parasitosis accounts at least in part for the diminished responses to ConA. A primary infection favors parasite establishment after a second challenge, pointing to the relevance of the immunodepression in generating a host environment favorable to the parasite.
Sciutto, E; Fragoso, G; Baca, M; De la Cruz, V; Lemus, L; Lamoyi, E
It was previously reported by our group that infection with Taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this research, we set out to study whether infection with T. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental RA showed similar clinical scores as the noninfected experimental RA group; systemic cytokines were not affected while anti-CII Abs were higher in the infected group. Histological evaluation showed damage in both infected and noninfected experimental RA-induced groups and although some surface molecules such as PDL-2 and MR which are associated with immunomodulatory mechanisms were upregulated in the infected and RA-induced group as compared to the noninfected RA group, they did not exert any changes in the outcome of experimental RA. Thus, we determined that infection with T. crassiceps does not influence the outcome of experimental RA.
Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin M.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Calleja, Elsa A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Juarez, Imelda; Terrazas, Luis I.
Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions. PMID:18226813
Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M
Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.
Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi
Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems. PMID:22862807
Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L
A smooth muscle relaxant (suloctidil) relaxed a contractile response of taenia coli to acetylcholine and noncompetitively depressed a dose response curve of Cacl2 Ca-uptake by the microsomal fraction was inhibited by suloctidil. Its noncompetitive antiacetylcholine activity and inhibitory action on Ca-uptake were not influenced by an increase of external Ca-concentration. Ca-release from the Ca-incorporated microsomal fraction was not significantly influenced by suloctidil. These results suggest that suloctidil inhibit Ca-influx noncompetitively, thus inducing smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:6119359
Takayanagi, I; Koike, K; Yoshida, Y; Kaneko, M
The immunopathogenesis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely remains unknown. We analyzed the immune response to different fractions of Taenia solium cyst fluid antigens in patients with NCC. Lymphocytes were separated from 48 patients with NCC-related active epilepsy and 30 healthy controls. T. solium (isolated from pig muscles) antigens (crude lysate, CL; cyst wall, CW and cyst fluid, CF) at 20 ?g/well concentrations were used to stimulate the cells in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Only CF antigen stimulated cell proliferation significantly greater than control (p<0.001), hence cyst fluid antigens were further studied. The CF antigens were electro-blotted on nitrocellulose membrane (NC), cut at 0.5 cm distance and particulate antigens were prepared. A total of 12 fractions, designated F1 to F12 according to molecular weight were tested in-vitro for LTT. After 72 h of stimulation by the different fractions, Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine responses were determined in culture supernatants by ELISA. Low molecular weight fractions F1 through F4 (Mol. wt.<25 kDa) were found to be potent inducers of cytokines. Fractions F1, F3 and F4 induced the production of Th1 (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-2), whereas F2 induced the production of Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine. The study shows that the low molecular weight fractions of CF antigens are immuno-dominant. Most of these fractions (F1, F3, F4) induce strong Th1 immune response except F2 which induces Th2 response. Further studies are needed to identify the different antigens present in these fractions to determine the molecules responsible for the immune response. PMID:21115005
Amit, Prasad; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Kumar, Gupta Rakesh; Shweta, Tripathi; Sanjeev, Jha; Kumar, Paliwal Vimal; Mukesh, Tripathi
Serial stool examinations were carried out on a sample of 516 persons living in the town of El Salado (1993 inhabitants). In a group of 40 families (198 individuals), selected by random sampling, there were 2 cases of Taenia solium infection (1.2%); an additional group of 67 families (318 individuals), who volunteered for the study, had 4 cases (1.1%). 5 of the 6 T. solium cases were clustered in 4 neighbouring households. Serum antibodies to the larval stage of T. solium were detected by ELISA using bladder fluid as antigen. 22 members of the random sample group were positive (11%); 58 persons of the total sample of 478 were positive (12%). 43% of individuals living in the same household as a T. solium-infected person were positive, compared to 8.6% seropositive individuals among those not known to have been in daily contact with a T. solium carrier. Odds ratio analysis of the random and total samples showed that the risk of being seropositive when living in the same household as a tapeworm carrier was 9.05 and 6.85 respectively. The results showed a significant correlation between T. solium tapeworm clusters and higher seropositivity rates among contacts rather than among non-contacts. The immune response is a sensitive indicator of a tapeworm infection in a household or family, and is easier to determine than the traditional search for taeniid eggs in stool, a method which is difficult to apply in developing countries due to lack of trained personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2091352
Diaz Camacho, S; Candil Ruiz, A; Uribe Beltrán, M; Willms, K
The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes.
Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velasquez, Jeanette; Farfan, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando
Taenia solium infections continue being a health problem in undeveloped countries, and few effective control measures against this parasite are being applied. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belong to the innate immune response and capable of destroying pathogens. We tested the ability of two AMPs, Temporin A (TA) and Iseganan IB-367 (IB-367) to damage T. crassiceps cysticerci in vitro. Doses of 200 and 400 microg/ml of TA and IB-367 caused cysticerci to shrink, lose motility, the formation of macrovesicles in the tegument, as well as decreased evagination properties. These changes were observed as early as 3-6h and became more pronounced over 24h, when the morphological changes of the bladders became evident by both light and electron microscopy. Electron micrographs of cysticerci exposed to peptides showed initial changes as collapsed microvesicles in the tegument, with formation of large vesicles and extrusion of tegumentary tissues into the surrounding media, which led to complete loss of the tegument as well as shrinkage and complete loss of structure of parenchymal tissue after 24h. Peptides administered to cysticercotic mice one month post-infection in a single intraperitoneal dose of 200 or 400 microg, reduced the parasite load by 25% for IB-367, and 50% for TA. The humoral response of infected mice does not appear capable of killing surviving cysticerci. Our studies show that in vitro, AMPs severely damage the tegument and the scolex, and open a new pathway for biological drug design or the development of transgenic animals that over express these peptides capable of killing the cysticerci in vivo. PMID:19146887
Landa, Abraham; Jiménez, Lucía; Willms, Kaethe; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Lara-Martínez, Reyna; Robert, Lilia; Cirioni, Oscar; Bara?ska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kamysz, Wojciech
Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton.
Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.
1. Tracer movements and ionic composition have been observed in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli in vitro at 4, and 35° C. The muscle was quiescent at 4° C, and did not show spontaneous electrical nor mechanical activity for 25 min after re-warming. It was therefore possible to make observations on the quiescent tissue at 35° C. 2. The rate of loss of tracer sodium was sensitive to changes of temperature, with an average Q10 of 3·4 ± 0·4 on warming in the range 4-35° C. Exponential analysis of 24Na efflux at 35° C showed an initial rapid phase, a second phase with t½ = 2 min, and a slowly exchanging phase. The second phase was most sensitive to changes of temperature and contained 15 m-mole Na/kg fresh wt. The corresponding transmembrane flux in spontaneously active muscle at 35° C would then be 30 p-mole cm-2 sec-1, and 20% of the available metabolic energy would be needed to maintain this exchange. 3. The rate of loss of tracer sodium was reduced in potassium-free or sodium-free solutions, but the effects were not impressive. 4. The cell size increased at 4° C, and fell again on warming while Na and Cl left the cell and K was taken up. Cell chloride content was linearly related to cell size. 5. The observations are interpreted on the assumption that the cytoplasm is osmotically isotonic and electrically neutral, and that some Na, K and Cl are sequestered elsewhere in the tissue. It is concluded that the quiescent smooth-muscle cell membrane is rather more permeable to sodium than the skeletal-muscle cell membrane.
Buck, B.; Goodford, P. J.
Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031
Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L
The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene) ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114) partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (Junbound) fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJunbound) and aqueous (AJunbound) fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for Junbound, 92.5% and 93.5% for DJunboundand 82.5% and 82.6% for AJunbound. By immunoblot, the DJunboundfraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJunboundfraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.
Machado, Gleyce Alves; de Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth Leitao; Mineo, Jose Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
In freshly dispersed guinea pig taenia coli myocytes the activity of the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel (maxi-K+ channel) predominates. The open probability (Po) of this channel is increased by micromolar concentrations of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). Low concentrations of cholera toxin (CTX, 1 pM) and guanosine 5'- O-2-thiodiphosphate (GDP beta S, 0.5 mM) suppress the ISO-induced increase of Po. Higher concentrations of CTX (e.g., 0.5 nM) as well as forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP increase the Po. 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, the forskolin analogue, which lacks the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effect, does not. A specific protein kinase A inhibitor (Wiptide), applied intracellularly via diffusion from the patch electrode, suppresses the ISO-induced increase of whole-cell outward K+ current during step depolarization. In contrast, intracellularly applied protein kinase C (19-36), a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, has no effect on the whole-cell current. TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, does not affect either the whole-cell outward K+ current during step depolarization or the Po. These observations show that ISO increases the Po of the maxi-K+ channels in the guinea pig taenia coli myocytes through the G protein-adenylate cyclase-protein kinase A system.
A cross-sectional serological study on cattle less than 2 years old, using an antigen ELISA for the detection of bovine cysticercosis was carried out between November 2009 and February 2010 in 10 slaughterhouses from the Catalonia region (North-Eastern Spain). Circulating antigen was detected in 23 of 2073 animals, i.e. a sero-prevalence of 1.11% (CI95%: 0.76-1.75%). The determined sero-prevalence was about 50 times higher than the prevalence obtained by visual inspection within the same period: 19 positive animals of 90,891 slaughtered animals (0.02%) in the same slaughterhouses. None of the animals with positive result in the Ag-ELISA was detected by meat inspection. PMID:21524428
Allepuz, A; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Napp, S; Jansen, F; Vilar, M J; Vives, L; Picart, L; Ortuño, A; Gutiérrez, J; Casal, J
The numerical distributions of Echinococcus granulosus in an experimental dog population are described. At all dose rates of protoscoleces from 10 to 175000 the distribution of worms was over-dispersed. Host age had no effect. There was a direct proportionality between the infective-stage density and rate of infection, and between the latter and the index of clumping. The worm burdens were significantly higher in the proximal than distal portions of the small intestine. Lengths of the 3- and 4-segmented worms increased from 4 to 10 and 4 to 8 weeks of age, respectively. Thereafter apolysis was asynchronous and could not be determined. Eggs were first detected in the faeces at 6 weeks and the mean age at oogenesis was 7.26 weeks. Retarded growth of the whole population of worms was observed in some dogs. For the first few infections, worm burdens varied widely in the same dog, but by the 6th infection 50% of the dog population had developed a relative insusceptibility to infection. Growth or oogenesis of the worms were not affected. A short-acting immune response was artificially induced in some dogs following the parenteral injection of activated embryos of E. granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis and T. serialis. The response affected either the number of worms established, growth or oogenesis or all three parameters. There was a strong positive correlation between numbers and lengths of worms in dogs with acquired and induced immunity, indicating that no 'crowding' effects were involved. In sheep populations the mean number of cysts which established was directly proportional to the number of eggs given, implying that there was no negative feedback mechanism operating at this stage of the life-cycle. The distribution of the larval population in sheep was over-dispersed and the index of clumping increased with the size of the egg dose from 25 to 2500 eggs. Protoscoleces were first observed in cysts at 2 years and the proportion producing them increased with age, with an estimate of 50% of cysts containing protoscoleces at 6.29 years. No deaths were observed in dogs or sheep even when high parasite burdens were present, implying that E. granulosus does not regulate the population of its hosts. PMID:3737243
Gemmell, M A; Lawson, J R; Roberts, M G
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set
Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai
GSTs are a group of multifunctional enzymes, whose major functions involve catalysis of conjugation of glutathione thiolate anion with a multitude of bi-substrates or transportation of a range of hydrophobic ligands. Helminth GSTs are intimately involved in the scavenging of endogenously/exogenously-derived toxic compounds and xenobiotics. In this study, we identified a novel GST gene of Taenia solium metacestodes (TsMs), which is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis. The 804 bp-long cDNA encoded a 639 bp open reading frame (212 amino acid polypeptide), which exhibited the structural motif and domain organisation characteristic of GST. It formed a strong clade with trematode and insect sigmaGSTs. We designated this cDNA as TsM sigma-like GST (TsMsigmaGST). Native TsMsigmaGST identified through gel filtration combined with compatible immunoproteomics consisted of four isoforms at approximately 25 kDa with different pIs between 8.2 and 8.7. TsMsigmaGST showed an enzyme activity as a homodimer and was specifically expressed in the scolex cytosol. The recombinant TsMsigmaGST expressed in Escherichia coli showed sigma-like activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The Vmax and Km for CDNB and glutathione (GSH) were 1.08 and 0.78 micromol/min/mg, and 0.16 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0 and at 40 degrees C. The enzyme activity was potently inhibited by bromosulfophthalein, and to a lesser extent by rose bengal and triphenyltin chloride. Albendazole and praziquantel non-competitively inhibited both G- and H-sites of the enzyme. To our knowledge this is the first description of the sigma-class GST in cestode parasites. The enzyme might be involved in scavenging of intracellularly generated xenobiotics during homeostatic processes and anthelminthic metabolisms. Revelation of biochemical and biological properties of TsMsigmaGST might allow us to understand pathobiological events inherent to this long-standing parasitic disease, and thus to target therapeutic intervention. PMID:20385139
Nguyen, Hung Anh; Bae, Young-An; Lee, Eung-Goo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon
1. The effect of pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on the relaxant response to adenine nucleotides was examined in the carbachol-contracted guinea-pig taenia coli and rat duodenum, two tissues possessing P2y-purinoceptors. In addition, in the taenia coli PPADS was investigated for its effect on relaxations evoked by adenosine, noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation. In order to assess the selectivity of PPADS between P2-purinoceptor blockade and ectonucleotidase activity, its influence on ATP degradation was studied in guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. The resulting rank order of potency for the adenine nucleotides in guinea-pig taenia coli was: 2-methylthio ATP >> ATP > alpha,beta-methylene ATP with the respective pD2-values 7.96 +/- 0.08 (n = 23), 6.27 +/- 0.12 (n = 21) and 5.88 +/- 0.04 (n = 24). 3. In guinea-pig taenia coli, PPADS (10-100 microM) caused a consistent dextral shift of the concentration-response curve (CRC) of 2-methylthio ATP and ATP resulting in a biphasic Schild plot. A substantial shift was only observed at 100 microM PPADS, the respective pA2-values at this particular concentration were 5.26 +/- 0.16 (n = 5) and 5.15 +/- 0.13 (n = 6). Lower concentrations of PPADS (3-30 microM) antagonized the relaxant effects to alpha,beta-methylene ATP in a surmountable manner. An extensive shift of the CRC was produced only by 30 microM PPADS (pA2 = 5.97 +/- 0.08, n = 6), and the Schild plot was again biphasic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Windscheif, U.; Pfaff, O.; Ziganshin, A. U.; Hoyle, C. H.; Baumert, H. G.; Mutschler, E.; Burnstock, G.; Lambrecht, G.
In the year 2009, 26 intestinal cestode infections were registered in Poland. Among them 20 were caused by Taenia saginata, 4 by Taenia sp., 1 by Diphyllobothrium latum, 1 by Hymenolepis diminuta. Moreover, 23 cases of cystic echinococcosis were reported. PMID:21913477
Tapeworm eggs from the genus Taenia sp. were identified during the study of mummy remains dated to 2,286 ± 28 BP from the Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The presence of tapeworm in this salt mine provides paleopathological information. Moreover, it brings new information on ancient diet, indicating the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Cultural aspects as well as archaeozoological data are discussed in order to try to detail meat consumption. Paleoparasitological data are rare in the Middle East, and this case study presents the first recovery of parasites in ancient Iran. It constitutes the earliest evidence of ancient intestinal parasites in this country and contributes to the knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in the Near East. PMID:23240712
Nezamabadi, M; Mashkour, M; Aali, A; Stöllner, Th; Le Bailly, M
A pilot field trial of the TSOL18 vaccine was undertaken in Cameroon. Two hundred and forty, 2–3 month-old piglets were distributed to 114 individual households in pairs. Vaccinated animals received three immunisations with 200 ?g TSOL18 plus 5 mg Quil A and 30 mg/kg oxfendazole at the time of the second immunisation. Necropsies were undertaken when the pigs were approximately 12 months of age. Viable Taenia solium cysticerci were identified in 20 control pigs (prevalence 19.6%); no cysticerci were found in any of the vaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). Combined application of TSOL18 vaccination and a single oxfendazole treatment in pigs may be a relatively simple and sustainable procedure that has the potential to control T. solium transmission in endemic areas and, indirectly, reduce the number of new cases of neurocysticercosis in humans.
Assana, Emmanuel; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Geerts, Stanny; Dorny, Pierre; De Deken, Redgi; Anderson, Garry A.; Zoli, Andre P.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.
Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909
Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E
The GABA-ergic and opioid modulation of neurally induced muscle responses was studied in isolated guinea-pig taenia coli and human colonic circular muscle, using identical field stimulation parameters (rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 9 V x cm(-1) intensity, trains of 3 pulses at 0.5 Hz, repeated every 1/3/5 min). The stimulation-induced contractions were inhibited in both preparations by GABA and baclofen; the IC50 values in human colonic circular muscle were approximately 100 and 31.0 microM, respectively. In guinea-pig taenia coli, the inhibition by 10(-4) M GABA was dose-dependently reversed by 10(-4)-10(-3) M of GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348; antagonism by phaclofen was less effective in the same concentration range. In human colonic circular muscle, inhibition by 3 x 10(-5) M baclofen was fully reversed by 10(-3) M CGP 35348. With the exception of caecum, the delta 2 opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II was a potent inhibitor in human colonic circular muscle. 10(-8) M Deltorphin caused a 74.4 +/- 9.6% (n = 4) inhibition which was reversed by 10(-6) M of delta receptor selective peptide antagonist BOC-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr(OtBu). Deltorphin II was ineffective in guinea-pig taenia coli even at 10(-6) M; the same concentration caused an 84.3 +/- 7.9 (n = 4) inhibition in human preparations. It is concluded that: 1) GABA-ergic modulatory mechanisms are present both in human colonic circular muscle and guinea-pig taenia coli; 2) the GABA receptors involved are of type B; and 3) delta opioid receptor-mediated modulation functions only in human colonic circular muscle in regions other than the caecum. PMID:10791695
Makó, E; Rónai, A Z; Adám, G; Juhász, G; Ritter, L; Lestár, B; Crunelli, V
Genetically modified Escherichia coli expressing the Taenia ovis fusion protein GST-45W(B\\/X) as inclusion bodies were grown in volumes ranging up to 1000 l. Bacteria were inactivated by heat\\u000a or chemical treatment without affecting immunogenicity. The fusion protein was recovered in a highly immunogenic form from\\u000a washed inclusion bodies and from urea-solubilised inclusion bodies. The fusion protein was found to be
R. P. Dempster; C. M. Robinson; G. B. L. Harrison
This study is concerned with the regulation of intracellular-free Mg 2+ concentration ((Mg~+)i) in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci. To assess an interaction of Ca 2+ on the Na§ Mg2§ mechanism (Na § Mg 2§ exchange), effects of Na + removal (N-methyl-n-glucamine substitution) were examined in Ca~+-containing solutions. As changes in pHi in Na+-free solutions perturb estimation
S. Nakayama; H. NOMURA; T. TOMITA
To evaluate the level of stress induced by the tongue inspection method during cysticercosis diagnosis in pigs at 60 and 90 kg, 27 animals were assigned to one of three experimental groups. In the first group (T1), pigs were held with a snout noose. In addition, animals in T2 were subjected to tongue inspection, while in T0, none of the procedures described above were performed. Resistance to be handled and serum cortisol concentration were higher (P?0.05) than those from T0 in T1 and T2 groups, for 60- and 90-kg pigs. Time to return to the feeder observed the same pattern than previous variables in 60-kg pigs, but T1 and T0 were similar (P?>?0.05) for the heavier animals. T2 did not build up a significant amount of stress with respect to T1, where only more (P?>?0.05) vocalizations were emitted by 90-kg pigs. It was concluded that the use of snout noose induces major changes in some behavioral and physiological measures of stress in swine, while the opening of the mouth including tongue inspection does not contribute significantly to this effect. PMID:21786048
Pérez-Torres, Sandra; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Orihuela, Agustín; Aguirre, Virginio; Bernal, Germán; Nieto, Alejandro; Vázquez, Reyes; Solano, Jaime J
1. The role of Na+, K+, Cl- co-transport, identified in the previous paper (Aickin & Brading, 1990), has been characterized further by investigation of the effects of loop diuretics on Cl- movements in the smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig vas deferens measured by 36Cl fluxes and Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrodes. Some flux experiments were also repeated in the taenia from the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Frusemide (2 mM) reduced the steady-state Cl- content, slowed 36Cl loss into Cl(-)-free solution and both slowed and reduced Cl- accumulation by Cl(-)-depleted cells of the vas deferens. When anion exchange was inhibited by the presence of DIDS, (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), frusemide further slowed the loss of Cl- into Cl(-)-free solution, further reduced Cl- accumulation such that Cl- uptake amounted to a level consistent with a passive distribution and halted the rise in the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) at levels above about 10 mM. 3. Application of the higher-affinity loop diuretics bumetanide and piretanide in vas deferns had no significant effect on 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free solution or on the initial rate of rise of aiCl but reduced the final level attained. In the presence of DIDS, however, both agents further slowed efflux into Cl(-)-free solution, and halted the rise in aiCl at levels above about 10 mM. Measurement of greatly slowed intracellular pH transients on removal and readdition of external Cl- (Clo-) in the presence of frusemide suggests that the larger effects of this drug are mediated by inhibition of anion exchange as well as of co-transport. 4. The relative potency of the loop diuretics, investigated in the presence of DIDS was: bumetanide greater than piretanide greater than frusemide. This sequence was found in both vas deferens, using direct measurement of aiCl, and taenia, using 36Cl uptake. 5. Comparison of data from the vas and taenia showed that 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free, HCO3(-)-free solution was about twice as fast in the taenia, and that bumetanide or piretanide reduced this efflux to about the same rate as that observed in the vas with or without the loop diuretic. DIDS caused a similar absolute reduction of efflux in both preparations. 6. Stimulation of 36Cl efflux on readdition, and inhibition on removal of Nao+ in the presence of DIDS, was much greater in the taenia than in vas and in both preparations was blocked by bumetanide or piretanide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Aickin, C C; Brading, A F
1 The responses of the guinea-pig taenia coli, urinary bladder, and the rabbit portal vein to ultraviolet (u.v.) light were compared to those elicited by purinergic nerve stimulation and exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 2 In the presence of sodium nitrite, u.v. light between 340-380 nm produced a maximum relaxation of the taenia coli. The relaxation was reversible and fast in onset. It was unaffected by atropine, guanethidine or low concentrations of phentolamine or propranolol. When the tone was low, the relaxation was usually followed by a `rebound contraction' upon cessation of stimulation. Thus, the response to u.v. light closely resembles the responses to both purinergic nerve stimulation and exogenously applied ATP. 3 U.v. light did not initiate impulses in purinergic nerves since its action was unaffected by tetrodotoxin; nor did it release ATP from nerve terminals (in contrast to its release during purinergic nerve stimulation). The adenosine-uptake inhibitor, dipyridamole, which potentiates the responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP, did not affect the response to u.v. light. 4 Agents known to alter postjunctional responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP also altered the response to u.v. light. High concentrations of the 2-substituted imidazoline compounds, antazoline and phentolamine, which antagonize the responses to purinergic nerve stimulation and ATP, reduced the responses to u.v. irradiation. The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, which abolishes the `rebound contraction' following stimulation of purinergic nerves, also blocks the `rebound `contraction' following u.v. irradiation. Increases in the K+ concentration produced parallel changes in the inhibitory responses to u.v. light and purinergic nerve stimulation. 5 U.v. light produced relaxation and inhibition of spontaneous activity of the rabbit portal vein (relaxed by ATP), but had no effect on the guinea-pig urinary bladder (contracted by ATP) and ureter (unaffected by ATP). 6 It is suggested that u.v. light is acting on some part of the purinergic receptor complex which is involved in the mediation of inhibitory responses to ATP and purinergic nerve stimulation, and may therefore provide a way of investigating the chemistry of inhibitory purinergic receptors.
Burnstock, G.; Wong, H.
Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (? 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ?5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE). Therefore, interventions against the zoonotic cestode E. multilocularis by deworming foxes may be most efficient if conducted just before and during winter.
A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. PMID:24928170
De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia
Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs. PMID:19348802
Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512
Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence
Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (?)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (?)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.
Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenco, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Garcia, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.
Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle. PMID:22620676
Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E
In guinea pig taenia caeci smooth muscle the muscarinic receptor stimulant carbachol evoked depolarization and contraction, which was followed by hyperpolarization and relaxation on its removal. Both the hyperpolarization and relaxation were inhibited by removal of K+ from the external medium. During Na+-pump blockade (K+-free solution) the depolarizing and contracting actions of carbachol decreased. When the Na+ pump was switched on again by readmission of 5.9 mmol/L K+ to K+-depleted and Na+-enriched preparations, electrogenic hyperpolarization and relaxation developed. During this period carbachol failed to produce depolarization and contraction. PMID:4042004
Török, T L; Vizi, S E; Magyar, K
Changes in the potential and contractility of smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci were measured (22 degrees C) in order to investigate the effect of mebeverine, a derivative of beta-phenylethylamine, on alpha 1-receptor-operated ion channels in particular. Mebeverine (6 X 10(-6) M) showed atropine-like properties by shifting to the right the concentration-response curve obtained with carbachol. Hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity of the muscle cells, accompanied by an increased amplitude of the electrotonic potential were observed in the presence of mebeverine (6 X 10(-5] after block of the alpha 2-, beta- and muscarinic receptors. This effect of mebeverine was not observed in low-sodium solution (23.8 mM), suggesting that mebeverine decreased sodium permeability. The alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline (3 X 10(-6) M) in the presence of mebeverine declined after reaching an initial maximum. The hyperpolarization induced by a second addition of adrenaline to the preparation was decreased and sustained in the presence of mebeverine, while the decrease of the electrotonic potential evoked during the alpha 1 response was less pronounced. The transient hyperpolarization representing the alpha 1 response in the absence of extracellular calcium developed more slowly in the presence of mebeverine, the area of the response being constant. When the experiment was continued in calcium-free solution after a short exposure to calcium-containing Krebs solution still in the presence of mebeverine, the alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization was suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2442008
Den Hertog, A; Van den Akker, J
Ultrastructural observation were made on the host-parasite interface from 1 to 7 days postinfection (DPI) with Taenia taeniaeformis in the rat. Over this period the organism developed from a multicellular oncospheral mass, equivalent in size to a host hepatocyte, into a fluid-filled, grossly visible vesicle, the walls of which showed the arrangement of syncytial tegument, cytoplasmic bridges and subtegumental cell bodies typical of older cestodes. Microvilli, often branched, extended from the free, tegumental surface of the parasite from 1 DPI onwards. Fragments of the microvilli were pinched off distally, and became segmented and distended. Some were seen in intercellular spaces as far as 40 micrometers from the free tegumental surface; others were ingested by nearby host phagocytic cells, and appeared to swell and rupture within phagosomes. Microvillar branching was less frequent after 4 DPI and the microvilli became progressively shorter. By 7 DPI the tegumental surface had become irregular and the microvillar bases were broad and knoblike. Electron-dense deposits were present on the outer membrane of microvilli, the tips of which had become truncated or globular. Although phagocytic host cells were seen in migratory tracks and in contact with some organisms as early as 1 DPI, they caused no detectable damage to the parasites. However, many host cells, including hepatocytes and endothelial cells, were injured or destroyed; their contents contributed to the debris surrounding the parasite at all stages. Inclusions, probably lipid, appeared within the tegument and subtegumental cell bodies from 3 DPI onwards, and similar droplets were seen in adjacent host cells. The great increase in surface area of postoncospheral forms over the first week of infection, augmented by the display of multiple, microvillar projections, may provide not only or the absorption of nutrients required for growth, but also for the enhanced release of factors that affect survival of host cells and stimulate immunological defense mechanisms. PMID:7119990
Engelkirk, P G; Williams, J F
1. In the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia caeci, bradykinin produces a relaxation followed by a contraction. In the presence of hexamethonium and guanethidine, both these phases of the response were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (100 nM), omega-conotoxin GVIA (100 nM) and ibuprofen (1 microM), suggesting that they are due to a direct action on the smooth muscle. 2. The B1 receptor-selective agonist, [des-Arg9]-BK (1-100 microM), was inactive in the taenia caeci, and the B1 receptor-selective antagonist, [Leu8,des-Arg9]-BK (1-10 microM), did not inhibit either phase of the bradykinin-induced response. The B2 receptor-selective antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (Hoe 140) (30-300 nM), inhibited both the bradykinin-induced relaxation and contraction with a similar affinity (apparent pKB estimates of 8.5 +/- 0.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.1 respectively). 3. In a depolarizing high-K(+)-solution, bradykinin produced concentration-related contractions, though of diminished magnitude; but no relaxation was observed in such media. In Krebs solution, the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel blocker, apamin (10 nM), abolished relaxant responses. These observations suggest that contraction results both from membrane potential-dependent, and membrane potential-independent, mechanisms; whereas relaxant responses result entirely from membrane potential-dependent mechanisms. Contractile responses obtained in the high K(+)-solution were inhibited by D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK with an apparent pKB value of 8.4 +/- 0.1. 4. In a Ca(2+)-free, EGTA-containing medium, relatively high concentrations of bradykinin (> 100 nM) produced transient contractions, suggesting that a component of the contractile response results from release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store. This intracellular Ca2+ store could be refilled in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The B, receptor antagonist, [Leu8,des-Argj-BK (10 micro M), did not inhibit this bradykinin-induced contraction, whereas the B2 receptor antagonist, D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK(100 nM) markedly attenuated it (P<0.001; n = 6).5. Bradykinin (10 nM- 100 micro M) significantly elevated tissue levels of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in the presence of Li?, after incubation with myo-[3H]-inositol. The B, receptor-selective agonist, [des-Argl-BK(100IM) did not stimulate [3H]-inositol phosphate formation, and the B, receptor-selective antagonist,[Leu8,des-Argl-BK, did not inhibit the formation of [3H]-inositol phosphates in response to a submaximal concentration of bradykinin (1I0 1M; P> 0.05). Two B2 receptor antagonists, D-Arg-[Hyp3,DPhe7]-BK and D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK, inhibited bradykinin-induced accumulation of total[3H]-inositol phosphates with apparent pKB estimates of 5.4 +/0 0.3 and 8.4 +/- 0.1, respectively.6. These data suggest that in the guinea-pig taenia caeci, the five aspects of the action of bradykinin studied (the relaxant and the contractile elements of the biphasic mechanical response, the contractile response in a depolarizing high-K' solution medium and zero-Ca2+ media, and stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover), all result from activation of B2 receptors. A possible causal relationship is suggested between these B2 receptor-mediated membrane potential-dependent, and -independent events,and their roles in excitation contraction coupling. PMID:7834214
Field, J L; Butt, S K; Morton, I K; Hall, J M
1. The effects of amiloride and ouabain on the regulation of the intracellular, free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) were investigated in the taenia isolated from the guinea-pig caecum, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 2. [Mg2+]i were mainly estimated from the separation of the alpha- and beta-ATP peaks observed in 31P NMR spectra. In normal (physiological) and nominally Ca(2+)-free solutions, [Mg2+]i was approximately 0.3-0.4 mM. Application of either amiloride or ouabain in Ca(2+)-free solutions significantly increased [Mg2+]i, with only a small change in ATP content. Washout of the drugs reversed the changes in [Mg2+]i. 3. Changes in pHi were estimated from: (1) the chemical shift of phosphoethanolamine, and (2) solving two relational equations of pHi and [Mg2+]i obtained from the beta- and gamma-ATP peaks. Both estimations revealed some intracellular alkalosis during application of these two drugs. After correction for pHi, a significant increase in [Mg2+]i was still obtained 150 min after application of either drug. 4. In the presence of amiloride, simultaneous removal of extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ significantly depleted intracellular Mg2+. This result suggests the presence of an amiloride-insensitive (or less sensitive) pathway which passively transports Mg2+ across the plasma membrane. 5. The intracellular Rb+ concentration was monitored as an index of Na(+)-K+ pump activity, using 87Rb NMR. In Ca(2+)-free solutions containing 5 mM Rb+, the intracellular Rb+ concentration was hardly changed by amiloride, but was depleted by additional applications of ouabain. Wash-out of ouabain restored the intracellular Rb+ in the presence of amiloride. 6. These results are consistent with the presence of Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange as an effective Mg(2+)-extruding mechanism in smooth muscle. Although many other factors may cause changes in [Mg2+]i, it seems likely that amiloride directly inhibits the Na(+)-Mg2+ exchanger, whilst ouabain does so indirectly through reduction of the Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane.
Nakayama, S; Nomura, H
1. The activity of adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose), a ribosylated purine nucleotide, was investigated on the carbachol-contracted taenia coli, a tissue possessing P1- (A2) and P2Y-purinoceptors and on the guinea-pig vas deferens which possesses P2X-purinoceptors. 2. In the vas deferens, where ATP (1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractions, ADP-ribose was without effect at concentrations up to 1 mM. 3. In the taenia coli, ADP-ribose (0.1 microM-1 mM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations with a potency similar to that of adenosine, but less than that of ATP. The pD2 values for ADP-ribose, adenosine and ATP were 4.5 +/- 0.07 (27), 4.4 +/- 0.10 (9) and 5.5 +/- 0.14 (21), respectively. The time-course of the relaxations elicited by ADP-ribose was found to be significantly longer than that for ATP and significantly shorter than that for adenosine. 4. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM), produced parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves of the relaxations of the taenia coli elicited by ADP-ribose and adenosine but not ATP. 5. Dipyridamole (0.3 microM), a purine nucleoside uptake inhibitor, potentiated the responses to adenosine and ADP-ribose in the taenia coli. These potentiations were sensitive to 8-phenyltheophylline (5 microM). 6. Reactive blue 2, a P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist, antagonized the inhibitory responses of ADP-ribose and ATP in the taenia coli, without significantly altering the inhibitory responses of either adenosine or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hoyle, C. H.; Edwards, G. A.
Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ?5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are warranted. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN47375023
Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jurg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC). Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43?kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, ?methyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD), suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.
Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; Laclette, Juan Pedro
In this work, we studied a recombinant mu-class glutathione transferase of 25.5 kDa from Taenia solium metacestode (rTs25GST1-1) that follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The kinetic parameters obtained for rTs25GST1-1 with CDNB and GSH were V(max) =12.04 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=1.38 mM, and V(max) =10.20 ?mol/min/mg and K(m)=0.90, respectively. The optimal activity was found at pH 8 in the 37-40 °C temperature range. Circular dichroism studies for rTs25GST1-1 at different pH showed that it maintains a typical ?-helix structure between pH 6.5-7.5, but loses it between pH 8 and 8.5. Thermal CD assays showed rTs25GST1-1 barely changed its secondary structure. Unfolding/refolding assays showed that rTs25GST1-1 retained its structure up to 40 °C without loss of its activity. Additionally, exposure of rTs25GST1-1 to cumene hydroperoxide did not produce significant changes in its structure and only affected 50% of its activity. PMID:23959386
Roldan, Aramis; Torres-Rivera, Anayetzin; Landa, Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.
Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Zuniga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raul Jose; Govezensky, Tzipe; Pinero, Daniel; Texco-Martinez, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Proano, Jefferson; Cardenas, Graciela; Hernandez, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis
We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.
Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan
Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.
Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.
Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a frequent cause of epilepsy worldwide. Compared with the more common parenchymal brain cysts, extraparenchymal infections are difficult to manage and have a poor prognosis. Serological assays are used to detect circulating Taenia solium antigens or anti–T. solium antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. There are no guidelines on whether to use serum or CSF specimens for a particular assay. Methods We obtained paired serum and CSF samples from 91 patients with NCC (48 had intraparenchymal NCC, and 43 had extraparenchymal NCC) for detection of antibodies, using an enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, and antigens, using a monoclonal antibody–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results For the intraparenchymal NCC group, the EITB assay yielded more true-positive results for serum samples, and the ELISA yielded slightly more true-positive results for CSF samples than for serum samples, but none of these differences were statistically significant. Most patients with calcified NCC were antibody positive but antigen negative. For extraparenchymal disease, all samples were antibody positive, and all but 2 were antigen positive, with most samples containing high antigen levels. Conclusions The sensitivity of antibody-detecting EITB assays is not increased through the use of CSF samples rather than serum samples. The antigen-detecting ELISA performed better for CSF samples than for serum samples, but for both specimen types it was less sensitive than the EITB assay. Active and inactive NCC are better differentiated from each other by the antigen-detecting ELISA, for both serum and CSF samples. High antigen levels suggest the presence of subarachnoid NCC.
Rodriguez, Silvia; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pretell, E. Javier; Brandt, Jef; Lescano, Andres G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.
To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment.
Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94.4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74.6%–80.0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29.4%–45.1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99.0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries.
Pina, Ruby; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Rueda, Daniel; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Flores, Myra; Sheen, Patricia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H.; Zimic, Mirko
This study is concerned with the regulation of intracellular-free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) in the smooth muscle of guinea pig taenia caeci. To assess an interaction of Ca2+ on the Na(+)-dependent Mg(2+)- extrusion mechanism (Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange), effects of Na+ removal (N- methyl-D-glucamine substitution) were examined in Ca(2+)-containing solutions. As changes in pHi in Na(+)-free solutions perturb estimation of [Mg2+]i using the single chemical shift only of the beta-ATP peak in 31P NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra, [Mg2+]i and pHi were concomitantly estimated from the chemical shifts of the gamma- and beta- peaks. When extracellular Na+ was substituted with N-methyl-D- glucamine, [Mg2+]i was reversibly increased. This increase in [Mg2+]i was eliminated in Mg(2+)-free solutions and enhanced in excess Mg2+ solutions. ATP content fluctuated little during removal and readmission of Na+, indicating that [Mg2+]i changes were not induced by Mg2+ release from ATP, and that Mg(2+)-extruding system would not be inhibited by fuel restriction. A slow acidification in Na(+)-free solutions and transient alkalosis by a readmission of Na+ were observed regardless of the extracellular Mg2+ concentration. When the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was increased from normal (2.4 mM) to 12 mM, only a marginal increase in [Mg2+]i was caused by Na+ removal, whereas a similar slow acidosis was observed, indicating that extracellular Ca2+ inhibits Mg2+ entry, and that the increase in [Mg2+]i is negligible through competition between Mg2+ and Ca2+ in intracellular sites. These results imply that Na(+)-Mg2+ exchange is the main mechanism to maintain low [Mg2+]i even under physiological conditions.
We report a case of intradural, intramedullary, spinal cord neurocysticercosis at dorsal 10-11 (D10-11) level in a mentally retarded male. A 38-year-old, mentally retarded male presented with weakness and stiffness in both the lower limbs and waist since one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a D10-D11 intradural space occupying lesion with cord compression. Intraoperatively, the tumor was grayish white, soft, cystic, and intramedullary with a well-defined plane with surrounding cord tissue. Gross examination revealed a cystic lesion of 1.5×1×0.8 cm, with a whitish nodule of 0.3 cm in diameter. The cyst wall was thin, shiny, and translucent. Microscopic examination revealed cysticercous cyst. Spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesion in patients residing in endemic area such as India.
Agale, Shubhangi V.; Bhavsar, Shweta; Choudhury, Barnik; Manohar, Vidhya
Through an epidemiological review on the zoonotic tapeworms in Korea, the frequency and severity of the zoonoses have been recognized. Taeniasis and human cysticercosis are of importance to the public health in Korea. The frequency of taeniasis is 0.3% to 12.7% discovered by stool examination and 4.5% to 38.0% discovered by questionaire survey. Taeniasis occurs more frequently in males than in females and, especially, in both sexes in the age-group of 20 to 49. T. saginata is more common that T. solium. No case of human cysticercosis caused by T.saginata has been reported in Korea. To the contrary, human cysticercosis caused by T. solium has been reported frequently during the 1960's. The severity of human cysticercosis is a significant problem of public health in Korea. Old data on bovine cysticercosis in the 1920's and 1930's are not useful for present control measures. Systematic surveys on bovine and swine cysticercosis as well as taeniasis and human cysticercosis are needed in Korea. Cases of sparganosis have been reported frequently during the past 15 years. Most of the 34 cases of sparganosis reported involved the eating of raw snakes and frogs. Most of the cases occurred in older males. Sparganosis in snakes, frogs, chickens, and swine has been reported in Korea. Human infection of Hymenolepis nana ranged from 0.2% to 1.4% discovered by stool examination. A few cases of adult worm collections of Diphyllobothrium latum and Hymenolepis diminuta have been reported in Korea. Two cases of human hydatid disease have been reported in Korea. No study on the disease in domestic animals is available. No case of human infection with dog tapeworm has been reported, even though it is highly prevalent in the indigenous dogs in Korea. I recommend that further study on the zoonotic tapeworms be conducted epidemiologically in Korea to get basic data for the public health programming. PMID:977229
Moon, J R
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of level of the essential elements of copper, magnesium, and zinc status\\u000a in cases of teniasis in children. Copper, magnesium, and zinc levels were measured in 40 children who were positive for intestinal\\u000a parasite of Taenia saginata. Scores were obtained for the positives and their 30 age- and sex-matched T.
Ali Celiksoz; Eser Kilic; Suleyman Yazar; Recep Saraymen
Neurocysticercosis is responsible for increased rates of seizures and epilepsy in endemic regions. The most common form of the disease, chronic calcific neurocysticercosis, is the end result of the host’s inflammatory response to the larval cysticercus of Taenia solium. There is increasing evidence indicating that calcific cysticercosis is not clinically inactive but a cause of seizures or focal symptoms in this population. Perilesional edema is at times also present around implicated calcified foci. A better understanding of the natural history, frequency, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of calcific cysticercosis and associated disease manifestations is needed to define its importance, treatment, and prevention.
Nash, T.E.; Del Brutto, O.H.; Butman, J.A.; Corona, T.; Delgado-Escueta, A.; Duron, R.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Gilman, R.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Loeb, J.A.; Medina, M.T.; Pietsch-Escueta, S.; Pretell, E.J.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Theodore, W.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Garcia, H.H.
Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is a relatively common but under-recognised complication of neurocysticercosis. It is usually caused by inflammatory occlusion of the arteries at the base of the brain secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. In most cases, the involved vessels are of small diameter and the neurological picture is limited to a lacunar syndrome secondary to a small cerebral infarct. However, large infarcts related to the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or even the internal carotid artery have also been reported in this setting. CT and CSF examination usually support the cause-and-effect relationship between neurocysticercosis and the cerebral infarct by showing abnormalities compatible with cysticercotic arachnoiditis. An accurate diagnosis of this condition is important since early treatment with steroids is advised to ameliorate the subarachnoid inflammatory reaction which may cause recurrent cerebral infarcts.
Del Brutto, O H
PURPOSE: Report of a case of acquired Brown syndrome caused by infestation of the superior oblique muscle by Cysticercus cellulosae.METHOD: Case seen in a referral practice. A 20-year-old man presented with recurrent attacks of conjunctivitis and diplopia in upgaze. Clinical examination of ocular motility established a diagnosis of acquired Brown syndrome of the right eye. Computed tomography of the right
Pramod K. Pandey; Zia Chaudhuri; Amit Bhatia
Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five™ and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21\\/168) of the serum samples from
Kathy Hancock; Someet Narang; Sowmya Pattabhi; Melinda L. Yushak; Azra Khan; Seh-ching Lin; Robert Plemons; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Victor C. W. Tsang
In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301
Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L
In this study, the results of 1868 stool samples and 215 cellophane tapes examined in the Tokat Public Health Laboratory between January 2007-December 2009 and the distribution of these parasites were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 1868 stool specimens from 1146 (61.3%) males and 722 (38.7%) females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct examination and the formol-ethyl acetate concentration methods. Intestinal parasites were found in 40 (2.1%) females and 85 (4.6%) males. A total of 215 cellophane tape specimens from 86 (40%) females and 129 (60%) males were examined. Parasites were detected in 6 (2.8%) female and 11 (5.1%) male patients. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 52 (2.8%) Giardia intestinalis, 15 (0.8%) Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 46 (2.5%) Entamoeba coli, 2 (0.1%) Hymenolepis nana, 16 (0.9%) Taenia saginata, 3 (0.2%) Ascaris lumbricoides, and 1 (0.05%) Trichuris trichiura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 17 (7.9%) Enterobius vermicularis and 3 (1.4%) Taenia saginata. Despite being labor-intensive, parasitological examination of stool samples with necessary staining methods by experienced staff will surely help to determine both the diagnosis and exact prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Turkey. PMID:20954116
Ata?, Ahmet Duran; Ku?cuo?lu, Salih
Cysticercosis is a helmenthic infection involving pigs and man. Most cases of cysticercosis occur in developing countries. The disease is very rare in Islamic countries, as moslems are supposed to abstain from eating pork meat. In the last 10 years, reports of cysticercosis among moslems were published. Imigrants from endemic countries, who work as housemaids and food handlers played a role in transmitting the disease. Man becomes a definitive host if he ingests insufficiently cooked pork meat, which contains viable Iarvae of Taenia Solium or cysticerci. Neurocysticercosis denotes presence of a Taenia Solium larva cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) in the brain parenchyma, meninges, or ventricular spaces. Neuroimaging by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the best procedures to diagnose neurocysticercosis. Serological tests (EITB) or ELISA) are not sensitive as more than 50% of patients with neurocysticercosis have negative serology. Alpendazole and praziquentel are the most effective antihelmenthic drugs. Prevention of the disease and its complications as epilepsy is the management corner stone. A single dose of praziquentel for every emigrant from endemic areas will eradicate the adult tapeworm and reduce the incidence of neurocysticercosis. Physicians in moslem countries should be aware about the disease not only among immigrants but among moslems. We reviewed the available information about the disease epidemiologically, clinically, radiologically, laboratory tests, and methods of prevention. PMID:24185216
Hamad, A E; Fawzi, M F
Humans are the only known definitive host of the tapeworm Taenia solium and become a carrier by eating undercooked pork contaminated with "Cysticercus cellulosae" (cysticerci). Pigs act as an intermediate host and acquire cysticercosis by ingestion of eggs or proglottids from human feces, which develop into cysticerci within tissue, mostly without causing clinical symptoms in the host. Cysticercosis occurs in humans in a context of "fecal peril" by ingestion of egg-contaminated soil, water, vegetation, or auto-infestation. It has been reported in the published data that the separation of swine from humans, healthy cooking, and hygienic practices would lead to the eradication of the disease. However, cysticercosis is still a major public health problem in endemic regions, with more than 50 million infected people and is now a re-emerging disease in industrialized countries owing to human migration. It is the second most common cause of seizures in tropical countries. We report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 28-year-old woman who presented with a painless swelling in the ventral portion of the tongue. An excisional biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm. PMID:22364857
Gupta, D S; Goyal, Arun K; Tandon, Padam Narayan; Jurel, Sunit K; Srivastava, Shilpi; Dangi, Uday R; Singh, Sudhansu; Jain, Ravi
A pilot survey was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique to determine the most important health problems facing smallholder pig producers. While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. Results of the pilot survey confirmed that, with the exception of African swine fever, ecto- and endoparasites are probably the most important health risks for producers. Porcine cysticercosis is more prevalent among pigs in traditional, free-ranging systems, while mange becomes a serious factor when pigs are permanently confined. PMID:22332301
Matos, C; Sitoe, C; Afonso, S; Banze, J; Baptista, J; Dias, G; Rodrigues, F; Atanásio, A; Nhamusso, A; Penrith, M L; Willingham, A L
Autopsy of dogs 56 days after infection with either T. pisiformis, T. ovis or T. hydatigena showed that these worms could be found attached at any point along the length of the small intestine, but were most commonly in the anterior half. The mean relaxed lengths of T. pisiformis, T. ovis and T. hydatigena were 107 cm, 156 cm and
Brian J. Coman; Michael D. Rickard
A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843
Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C
Surgical removal of extraocular cysticerci is fraught with complications. The effect of oral albendazole in such cases has been evaluated in a randomised, controlled, clinical trial. Of 24 ultrasonographically diagnosed, and ELISA positive cases of extraocular cysticerci, 12 received oral albendazole 15 mg/kg once daily for 1 month, while the 12 controls received a placebo. Marked clinical improvement was seen in all the cases in the treatment group at 4 weeks, with collapse of the cyst at 6 weeks (75%), and complete disappearance at 3 months (100%). No clinical or ultrasonographical change was noted in the control group. A trial of medical management with oral albendazole merits consideration in cases of extraocular cysticerci. Images
Sihota, R; Honavar, S G
An 8-year-old girl complained of progressive pain, visual loss and photophobia in her right eye for 1 week. Treatment with local steroids for acute iritis had not been successful. Slitlamp examination revealed a marked cellular and fibrinous inflammatory reaction of the anterior chamber and a whitish, fibrin-like structure on the surface of the iris. There was mild serum eosinophilia and
U. Schmidt; V. Klauss; F. H. Stefani
A total of 22,970 stool specimens collected from patients attending the Central Medical Laboratory in the city of Nablus in the period of 1981-1986 were examined for intestinal parasites. Of these 7412 (32.3%) were positive. Entamoeba histolytica (22.9%), Giardia lamblia (7.3%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.7%) were the most prevalent intestinal parasites found. Other intestinal parasites present included Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia saginata, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Seasonal occurrence of intestinal parasites in the West Bank of Jordan was also studied in the period January 1981-August 1987. Lower prevalence rates of intestinal parasites generally occurred during winter and early spring. Peak incidence occurred during summer and early autumn. The reasons for these seasonal variations are discussed. PMID:2596904
Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Hamdan, A H; Shaheen, S F; Abu-Zeid, I; Faidy, Y R
The study area included Mansoura city as an urban area and Gogar village as a rural area. One thousand individuals were randomly selected from each area. Different methods of stool examination, perianal swab and urine examination of all participants revealed that the incidence in Mansoura city was in a descending order Heterophyes heterophyes 6.4%; Enterobius vermicularis 3.9%; Hymenienolepis nana 2.2%; Schistosoma mansoni 0.5%; Trichostrongylus colubriftormis; Strongyloides stercoralis and Fasciola sp. were recorded as 0.2% of each. Taenia saginata, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichocephalus trichiuris were recorded as 0.1% of each. Neither Ancylostoma duodenale nor Hymenolepis dimninuta was recorded. In Gogar, the parasitic infection was H. hetephyes 4.5%; E. vermicularis 4.1%: H. nana 3.3%; S. mansoni 1.6%; T. colubriformis 0.9%; S. stercoralis 0.5%. Fasciola sp. 0.4%; T. saginata, A. lumbricoides, H. diminuta, A. duodenale and T. trichiuris were recorded as 0.1% of each. None S. haematobiumn was detected in both areas. So, the infection rates of H. heterophyes, E. vermicularis, H. nana S. mansoni, Fasciola sp., T. colubriformis and S. stercoralis were relatively high the rural than in urban area. This was not surprising since the socioeconomic, hygienic conditions and medical services were relative high in the city than in the village. No doubt, the identifications of parasitosis pave the way for feasible treatment and control measures. PMID:16927862
el-Shazly, Atef M; el-Nahas, Hala A; Soliman, Mohammad; Sultan, Doaa M; Abedl Tawab, Ahmad H; Morsy, Tosson A
Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas.
O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.
Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica are causative agents of taeniasis in humans. The difficulty of morphological identification of human taeniids can lead to misdiagnosis or confusion. To overcome this problem, several molecular methods have been developed, but use of these tends to be time-consuming. Here, a rapid and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach was developed for the identification of three human taeniids originating from various countries. Primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the three Taenia species were designed. Variations in a 26-nucleotide target region were used for identification. The reproducibility and accuracy of the pyrosequencing technology was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This technique will be a valuable tool to distinguish between sympatric human taeniids that occur in Thailand, Asia and Pacific countries. This method could potentially be used for the molecular identification of the taeniid species that might be associated with suspicious cysts and lesions, or cyst residues in humans or livestock at the slaughterhouse.
Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai
A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma.
Garcia, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.
We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969
Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Ahn, Myoung-Hee
We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples.
Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook
A 15 years old girl of African origin was admitted with a history of headaches and a generalised tonic seizure. Her clinical\\u000a examination including fundoscopy was normal. She claimed she had been assaulted. Within a few hours of her admission she was\\u000a found dead in her bed during the ward round. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. At post-mortem, the major organs showed
Tibor Hortobágyi; Ali Alhakim; Olaf Biedrzycki; Vesna Djurovic; Jeewan Rawal; Safa Al-Sarraj
For serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE), the usefulness of three native antigens, a hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) obtained from infected sheep in China, two types of antigen B prepared from each HCF obtained in Iran and China, and one recombinant antigen B8/1 (RAgB), were evaluated by ELISA using a total of 155 serum samples from Iran, Turkey, China and Japan. Both the Iranian native antigen B and RAgB had high sensitivity, but RAgB showed an excellent specificity in comparison with native antigens because none of the serum samples of healthy people from Iran and Japan became positive with this antigen except one case of taeniasis. The taeniasis case exceptionally showing cross reactivity with all antigens was considered to be co-infected with Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia saginata. The recombinant antigen showing a high diagnostic odds ratio in comparison with other evaluated antigens might be recommended for diagnosis of CE in different CE-endemic areas. PMID:22472966
Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Sako, Yasuhito; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Sarkari, Bahador; Ito, Akira
A community based prospective study was conducted among randomly selected 300 children aged less than five years selected from three camps of the police force in Khartoum from 534 households representing a total population of 4962 individuals. The study was planned to determine the prevalence and type of parasitic infestations and the related risk factors in that community. From the 300 children, 298 stools specimens were examined: 116 were positive for a single parasite, while samples from 15 children showed ova and cysts for two types of parasites giving a prevalence rate of 44%. The commonest infestations were Giardiasis (21.1%), Taeniasis (10.4%) and Enterobiasis (7.4%). Non pathogenic E. coli, E. histolytica and Taenia saginata were detected in 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.7% of stools specimen respectively. Children aged between 3 years and above were the most affected group and the infection rate was highest among the illiterate, overcrowded and large sized families. Malnourished children comprised 9.4% of the study group but there was no significant association between undernutrition and the overall prevalence of intestinal infestations, although Giardia lamblia significantly affected the undernourished group. PMID:7796747
Karrar, Z A; Rahim, F A
The limited availability of water results in the reuse of wastewater or sludge. The Tunisian wastewater regulatory guidelines have specific limits for ova of helminths (<1 egg/l) but none for protozoan parasites. We assessed the presence and loads of parasites in 20 samples of raw, treated wastewater and sludge collected from six wastewater treatment plants. Samples were tested by microscopy using the modified Bailenger method (MBM), immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by immunofluorescent assay microscopy, and PCR and sequence analysis for the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The seven samples of raw wastewater had a high diversity of helminth and protozoa contamination. Giardia spp., Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris spp., Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia saginata were detected by MBM, and protozoan loads were greater than helminth loads. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also detected by IMS microscopy and PCR. Six of the eight samples of treated wastewater had parasites: helminths (n = 1), Cryptosporidium (n = 1), Giardia (n = 4), and Entamoeba (n = 4). Four of five samples of sludge had microscopically detectable parasites, and all had both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were of both human and animal origin. These findings suggest that it may be important to monitor the presence of protozoan parasites in treated wastewater and sludge in Tunisia. PMID:20352447
Khouja, Layla Ben Ayed; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua
A total of 3180 patients attending Mansoura University Hospitals' Clinics, were subjected to stool examination by direct wet smear, formol-ether concentration, original formol-tween concentration, modified formol-tween concentration, modified Sheather's sugar floatation, Potassium hydroxide concentration and Gomori's Trichrome stain, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain, and Ryan's Trichrome blue stain for Microsporidia. The intestinal helminthes in a descending order of abundance were: S. mansoni (5.3%), Fasciola sp. (4.8%), H. heterophyes (4.2%), Hymenolepis nana (3.9%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%), A. lumbricoides (1.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.5%), H. diminuta (1.4%), Taenia saginata (1.1%), E. vermicularis (by smear; 1.1 %), T. trichura (0.7%) and lastly A. duodenale (0.1%). The intestinal protozoa in a descending order of abundance were Blastocystis hominis (22.4%), Giardia lamblia (19.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar (19%), Iodamoeba butschlii (16%), Cryptosporidium parvum (14.3%), E. coli (9.7%), Isospora hominis (7.7%), Endolimax nana (6.9%), E. hartmani (5.9%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5.1%), Chilomastix mesnili (5.1%), Trichomonas hominis (4.2%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.2%), Microsporidia spores (3.2%), Enteromonas hominis (1.9%) and Embadomonas intestinalis (1.3%). The results were discussed. PMID:17153711
El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Sultan, Doaa M; Sadek, Gehan S; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A
The survey drew up the epidemiological situation of intestinal parasitism in the center of health El Idrissi (Kenitra, Morocco). The number of reviews has decreased between 1996 and 2005. A correlation between the number of examinations and years of the study period was observed (p <0.001). 4285 stool specimens collected in 1996-2005 were tested by parasitologic examination. Among the persons examined, 606 of them were parasited by one or several species, say an infestation index of 14.15%. Amoeba were frequently observed (47.04%) with prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica (23.74%), followed by Flagella (28.79%) represented by: Giardia intestinalis (22.71%), Trichomonas intestinalis (5.49%) and Chilomastix mesnilii (0.60%). Helminthes were less found. Ascaris lumbricoides was frequent among helminthes (11.87%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (5.64%), Hymenolepis nana (2.68%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.08%), Taenia saginata (0.75%) and Stronyloides stercoralis (0.45%). The clinical symptoms were observed in 110 subjects with parasites (110/606 or 18.15%) characterized by abdominal pain (75 cases) and association diarrhea more abdominal pain (35 cases). The relationship between the infestation index calculed, sex, age, the annual and seasonal changes, polyparasitism and intestinal parasitic infection is discussed. PMID:19297294
El Guamri, Y; Belghyti, D; Achicha, A; Tiabi, M; Aujjar, N; Barkia, A; El Kharrim, K; Barkia, H; El-Fellaki, E; Mousahel, R; Bouachra, H; Lakhal, A
Intestinal parasites are very common in children. We propose to study the prevalence and Epidemiological profile of the port of intestinal parasites in 300 children hospitalized in the Regional Hospital of Gharb area (Kenitra, Morocco) from June to December 2007. This study Identified 11 intestinal parasites. Of the 300 children, 157 at least one intestinal have Parasitism was 52.3% with 91 boxes of poly-Parasitism. Among the intestinal protozoan Identified, Is The first Amebiasis intestinal parasites. The rate of infestation of Amoebiasis IS 46.5%, Followed by Blastocystis hominis (28.7%) of giardiasis (14%). That shows 128 children in the study population IS a carrier of Various species of helminths, the main ones: Enterobius vermicularis (35%), Ascaris lumbricoides (29.9%), Trichuris trichiura (10.2%), Hymenolepis nana (3.8%) and Taenia saginata (2.5%). The survey shows the age group most That exposed to intestinal parasites IS Between 1 and 4 years and sex does not appear to significantly interferes in the distribution of different parasite species. The results show the necessity of improvement of the sanitation of the environment and the health education of the population. Then will Come the deworming campaign of which will be therefor effective. PMID:23120932
El Guamri, Y; Belghyti, D; Barkia, A; Tiabi, M; Aujjar, N; Achicha, A; El Kharrim, K; Elfellaki, L
A 9 year-old male, neutered cat with a history of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia and respiratory distress was presented in a veterinary practice in Lucca, Italy. A clinical examination revealed that the cat was severely dehydrated, and had pale mucous membranes and tachypnoea. No pain or discomfort was detected at the time of physical examination. The cat was administered fluids, antibiotics and supportive therapy, but died overnight. The owner of the cat requested for a post mortem examination to be conducted. At necropsy, acephalic structures, consistent with proliferative tapeworm (cestode) larvae, were detected in the thoracic cavity on pleural surfaces. As these larvae could not be identified to genus or species by microscopy, a PCR-based sequencing-phylogenetic approach was used. Part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was PCR-amplified from genomic DNAs from five individual larvae and sequenced; all five sequences obtained were identical. This consensus sequence was aligned (over 355 nucleotide positions) with homologous sequences representing a range of cestodes (including Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Hymenolepis microstoma, Mesocestoides spp. and Taenia saginata) from previously published studies and then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequence representing the larval cestode from the affected cat grouped, with strong statistical support, with those representing Mesocestoides corti and Mesocestoides lineatus. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis of pleural proliferative larval mesocestoidiasis could be made. This study illustrates the value of using molecular tools to directly assist clinical and pathological investigations of cestodiases of animals. PMID:22579793
Jabbar, Abdul; Papini, Roberto; Ferrini, Nadia; Gasser, Robin B
Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent advances in neuroimaging and immune diagnostic methods have enhanced its accuracy for the diagnosis of NCC.
Del Brutto, Oscar H
(1) The mechanism of the action of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline on intestinal smooth muscle was investigated. (2) The block of spontaneous and evoked spike activity by adrenaline was associated with hyperpolarization and an increased membrane conductance. Noradrenaline had a similar but weaker action. Isoprenaline blocked spike activity with little or no change in membrane conductance. (3) The effect of
Edith Bulbring; T. Tomita
Most publications devoted to diagnosis of helminths emphasize characteristic parasitological features. Histological feature are seldom described in detail. The purpose of this study was to propose a diagnostic method suitable for use by histologists who, unlike parasitologists, do not visualize the whole worm but rather pieces randomly scattered over a slide. It is relatively easy to distinguish helminths which have smooth muscle, no respiratory or circulatory system, and no coelom from arthropods which have striated muscle, both respiratory and circulatory systems, and coelom. At the adult stage, roundworms or nemathelminths present an external cuticle that may have patterned markings. The visceral cavity is empty. Adults can dwell either in the intestine in which case they are oviparous (oxyuris, ascaris, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris...) or in tissue in which case they are viviparous (filaria). Larva of some species can be found in tissues. Adult tape-worms are devoid of cuticle and have a mesenchymatous visceral cavity. Cestodes which are segmented and have no digestive tract (taenias) are readily distinguishable from trematodes which are not segmented and have a digestive tract (faciolasis) Some cestodes unable thrive in man can cause cyst formation (hydatidosis, sparganosis, cysticercosis, coenurosis). On the basis of symptoms and histological features, it is usually possible to diagnose the genus and even the species of the offending helminth provided that the parasite has not been excessively damaged and that a sufficient number of sections are available. PMID:9718562
Pierre, C; Civatte, M; Chevalier, A; Terrier, J P; Gros, P; Carloz, E
In Turkana, Kenya, a prevalence of hydatidosis of nearly 10% has been recorded among the pastoralists yet their livestock have a much lower prevalence of the disease. The present study investigated the release from dogs and subsequent survival of Echinococcus eggs in Turkana huts, water-holes and in the semi-arid environment. The results were compared with the survival of eggs of Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata. The study was repeated under the cooler and moister conditions found in Maasailand where livestock have a greater incidence of hydatid disease than in Turkana but where the incidence in man is ten times lower. The average number of Echinococcus eggs per proglottid is 823. Nine percent of these remain in proglottids 15 minutes after release from a dog and the released eggs lose their viability in less than two, 48 and 300 hours in the sun, huts and water in Turkana respectively: the major influencing factor being temperature. The greater survival of eggs in the houses, coupled with the fact that dogs congregate for most of the day in the small houses facilitating a close man:dog contact, provide ideal conditions for the transmission of the parasite to man. The hostile environmental conditions and lack of contact between dogs and livestock contributes to the lower infection rate in livestock. Conversely in Maasailand, Echinococcus eggs survive in the environment for longer than three weeks and in addition, dogs are used for herding. This partly explains the higher infection rate among Maasai livestock but the low human infection rate remains arcane and requires further study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050986
Wachira, T M; Macpherson, C N; Gathuma, J M
This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui. PMID:24754919
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong; Chai, Jong-Yil
Introduction HIV patients have reduced immune response which makes them more susceptible to different infections. This cross-sectional study was carried out to document the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo County, Kenya. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect clinical information after obtaining consent from the participants. Stool samples were collected from 285 respondents for intestinal parasitic examination using direct and formol-ether concentration to detect ova and cysts. Chi-square (X2) statistical analysis was used to test level of significance at P = 0.05 using SPSS. Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P < 0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability and diarrheal status. There was no association (P > 0.05) between age groups and gender with parasitic infection. Parasites identified were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (58.3%), Giardia lamblia (16.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), Entamoeba coli (5.9%), Taenia saginata (5.3%), Trichuris trichuria (1.9%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.9%) and hookworm (1.3%). Conclusion There was high prevalence of intestinal parasites, therefore, health education to HIV patients and community health workers on the importance of good environmental sanitation and personal hygiene could curb water, food and individual contamination promoting good management and care of HIV patients, hence improving their health status.
Kipyegen, Cornelius Kibet; Shivairo, Robert Shavulimo; Odhiambo, Rose Ogwang
In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741
Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong
Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023
Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan
Objective To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.
Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu
Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis.
Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvana; Suma, Gundareddy N; Dhillon, Manu; Srivastava, Siddharth; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Malik, Sangeeta Singh
Background Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their effectiveness and safety. Methods and Principal Findings We performed a search in the PubMed database, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and in references of relevant articles. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Albendazole was associated with better control of seizures than praziquantel in the pooled data analysis, when the generic inverse variance method was used to combine the incidence of seizure control in the included trials (patients without seizures/[patients×years at risk]) (156 patients in 4 studies, point effect estimate [incidence rate ratio]?=?4.94, 95% confidence interval 2.45–9.98). In addition, albendazole was associated with better effectiveness than praziquantel in the total disappearance of cysts (335 patients in 6 studies, random effects model, OR?=?2.30, 95% CI 1.06–5.00). There was no difference between albendazole and praziquantel in reduction of cysts, proportion of patients with adverse events, and development of intracranial hypertension due to the administered therapy. Conclusions A critical review of the available data from comparative trials suggests that albendazole is more effective than praziquantel regarding clinically important outcomes in patients with neurocysticercosis. Nevertheless, given the relative scarcity of trials, more comparative interventional studies—especially randomized controlled trials—are required to draw a safe conclusion about the best regimen for the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis.
Matthaiou, Dimitrios K.; Panos, Georgios; Adamidi, Eleni S.; Falagas, Matthew E.
Herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per mL of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. Close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. Thus, contact signals, together with the release of soluble growth factors, could endow cysts with the capacity to sense and regulate their numbers inside their habitat in relation to their population density.
Marcela, Esquivel-Velazquez; Ricardo, Hernandez; Carlos, Larralde; Pedro, Ostoa-Saloma
A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity\\u000a was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis,
Anke Dinkel; Selina Kern; Anja Brinker; Rainer Oehme; Amélie Vaniscotte; Patrick Giraudoux; Ute Mackenstedt; Thomas Romig
Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12.
Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina
Reports of orbital cysticercosis are uncommon despite the high incidence of brain and ocular involvement. Infestation of extraocular muscle is exceedingly rare. Two cases of cysticercosis of the extraocular muscles are reported here. Surgical removal of the encysted parasites successfully resolved the infestation in both cases.
D A DiLoreto; R A Kennedy; J M Neigel; J Rootman
The use of transgenic plants as new antigen-delivery systems for subunit vaccines has been increasingly explored. We herein report progress toward a papaya-based vaccine against cysticercosis. Synthetic peptides (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7) were successfully expressed in 19 different transgenic papaya clones and found to be immunogenic. Complete protection against cysticercosis was induced with the soluble extract of the clones that expressed the higher levels of transcripts in up to 90% of the immunized mice. This study represents a key step towards the development of a more effective, sustainable and affordable oral subunit vaccine against human and pig cysticercosis. PMID:17399859
Hernández, Marisela; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; López-Casillas, Fernando; Guevara-García, Arturo; Rosas, Gabriela; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Juárez, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Guadalupe; Cervantes, Jaquelynne; Acero, Gonzalo; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Bojalil, Rafael; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Sciutto, Edda
Forskolin was found to cause concentration dependent, reversible relaxations of isolated smooth muscle preparations including rat aorta, bovine coronary artery, canine coronary artery, guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine. The relaxant effects of forskolin in guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine were potentiated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors Ro 20-1724 and MIX. In rabbit small intestine,
M. J. Muller; H. P. Baer
Cysticercosis is a major health concern in developing countries, as it is a major cause of seizures in these countries. The tissues commonly affected are the neural tissues, muscle, heart, lungs, liver, subcutaeneous layers and peritoneum, but oral manifestations are rare. Present case is of an asymptomatic tongue nodule which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histologic examination. Thus, emphasizing the importance of routine microscopic examination and diagnosis of apparently innocuous lesions of the oral cavity.
Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Pattanayak, Sweta; Vibha
Cysticercosis is a major health concern in developing countries, as it is a major cause of seizures in these countries. The tissues commonly affected are the neural tissues, muscle, heart, lungs, liver, subcutaeneous layers and peritoneum, but oral manifestations are rare. Present case is of an asymptomatic tongue nodule which was diagnosed as cysticercosis on histologic examination. Thus, emphasizing the importance of routine microscopic examination and diagnosis of apparently innocuous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23633810
Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Pattanayak, Sweta; Vibha
Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon. PMID:22299404
Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira
... (c) Conditions of use â(1) Amount â(i) Dogs and cats (over 6 months of age): 10 milligrams of febantel and...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia pisiformis ). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma...
A 2-year-old boy presented with seizures and two parenchymal brain ring-enhancing lesions. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by positive serology and response to albendazole therapy. The patients's mother was a Taenia solium carrier, who had most likely infected the child through the fecal-oral route. Household contacts should always be investigated in children with neurocysticercosis. Proper identification and treatment of Taenia solium carriers will reduce the risk of further spread of the disease.
Brutto, Oscar H. Del
The isolated taenia coli of the guinea pig takes up tritiated adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate, in preference to tritiated inosine and adenine. After uptake, [3H]adenosine is converted and retained primarily as [3H]adenosine triphosphate. Tritium is released from taenia coli treated with [3H]adenosine upon activation of the nonadrenergic inhibitory nerves. These results are consistent with the previous
Che Su; John A. Bevan; Geoffrey Burnstock
A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 ?l total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive-tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. PMID:21327991
Dinkel, Anke; Kern, Selina; Brinker, Anja; Oehme, Rainer; Vaniscotte, Amélie; Giraudoux, Patrick; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas
The epidemiological status of cysticercosis, hydatidosis and dicrocoelosis in sheep and the production practices of sheep farmers that increase the risk of exposure of sheep to their infectious agents were studied in Al-Madinah, during 2011-2012. A total of 450 sheep and 1650 goats were inspected randomly at an abattoir survey and the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis and dicrocoelosis was recorded as 0.4%, 13.3% & 0.6% in sheep and 0.16%, 1.8% & 0.0% in goats respectively. The prevalence of cysticercosis increased dramatically in days of wedding parties to more than 75% because a large number of sheep was brought from one grazing endemic farm. The improper disposal of dead animals, the access of farm dogs to offal of slaughtered sheep, the farmers carelessness to treat their dogs with anthelmintic, and the grazing of flocks in fields where stray dogs have free access; increased the sheep and goats risk of exposure to hydatidosis and cysticercosis. PMID:23214224
Soliman, Mohammad I; Taha, Hoda A
Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research
Roger K. Prichard; María-Gloria Basáñez; Boakye A. Boatin; James S. McCarthy; Héctor H. García; Guo-Jing Yang; Banchob Sripa; Sara Lustigman
Experiments were carried out on 35 lambs infected with echinococcus eggs taken from canine donors, 5 lambs with echinococcosis, 5 lambs with echinococcosis + paecilomycosis, 5 lambs with coenurosis, 5 with cysticercosis ovis, 5 with alveococcosis, 5 with paecilomycosis, inoculated by the material taken from patients; and 5 healthy lambs formed a control group. Cystic hydatidosis was found to induce substantial cardiovascular changes. PMID:23088146
Abdiev, F T; Mamysheva, N O; Streliaeva, A V; Gasparian, E R; Sagieva, A T; Sadykov, R V; Lazareva, N B; Kurilov, D V; Akhmedov, Iu M; Sadykov, V M; Shcheglova, T A; Zuev, S S; Mukhitdinov, Sh M; Vakhidova, A V
Cysticercosis is an emerging disease in the United States. Neurocysticercosis may rarely cause disease within the spinal cord, but the occurrence of such pathology can produce debilitating symptoms for patients. We present the second report in the literature of intramedullary spinal neurocysticercosis presenting with a Brown-Sequard syndrome. PMID:23316264
Rice, Brian; Perera, Phillips
Double ring formation in single radial immunodiffusion for light chains of type kappa and not for light chains of type lambda was observed in cerebrospinal fluid in 24 out of 42 patients with multiple sclerosis, 1 patient with cerebral cysticercosis, 1 of 3 patients with neurosyphilis and 1 patient with spastic paraparesis of unknown eitology. Double ring formation was not
H. Iwashita; F. Grunwald; H. Bauer
Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids. PMID:14640419
Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P
This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada. PMID:19901402
Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean
Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found. PMID:24189683
Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P
Multiple cestode cysts identified as Taenia serialis were present in the bodies of two wild-caught African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) at necropsy. This rodent species can be an intermediate host for this parasite. Exotic rodents kept as pets in the United States may be affected. PMID:17315463
Lacasse, Claude; Travis, Erika; Gamble, Kathryn C; Craig, Thomas
...to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Cats â(i) Indications for use. For removal of feline cestodes...Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis. (ii) Dosage . Cats 4 pounds and under, 11.5 mg; 5 to 11 pounds, 23 mg;...
High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes. PMID:18325554
Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E
Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890
Eaton, R D; Secord, D C
Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp.
Eaton, R D; Secord, D C
The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Baermann-Moraes (adapted) techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:1842437
Willcox, H P; Coura, J R
Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5 % (95% CI; 0.1 % <> 1.3 %). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6 % in Annemasse and 2.6 % in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70 % of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286
Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck
1. In the guinea-pig taenia caecum, fluorescent adrenergic fibres terminate in both muscle layers. The density of these fibres is greater in the taenia than in the underlying circular muscle layer. The myenteric plexus and individual ganglion cells are also densely innervated by intensely fluorescent adrenergic nerve fibres.2. After three days of cold storage, the specific fluorescence disappeared from all tissue layers of the taenia caecum and smooth muscle fibres. In contrast, cholinesterase active substances were still demonstrable in all tissue layers even after seven days of cold storage but the density of these substances was decreased.3. Cold storage (3-7 days) decreased the tissue noradrenaline content and did not modify the cholinesterase enzyme activity (4 days).4. In cold stored strips, the inhibitory response to nicotine, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) or electrical transmural stimulation was abolished and enhancement of the contractile response occurred. Cold storage also inhibited the inhibitory action of tyramine. Similar results were observed after reserpine treatment.5. In fresh taenia, the relaxation produced by nicotine, DMPP and electrical transmural stimulation was inhibited by adrenoceptor blocking agents and bretylium. In cold storage preparations, contraction produced by these stimuli was blocked by parasympathetic blocking agents and potentiated by anti-cholinesterase. These results indicate that the inhibitory response to these stimulants is mediated by stimulation of the adrenergic nerve system more than by non-adrenergic nerves; the excitatory effect is probably due to stimulation of cholinergic nerves.6. These results suggest that the adrenergic mechanisms of the taenia caecum are more labile in cold storage than the cholinergic mechanisms. Thus, the inhibitory action of cold storage on the relaxation produced by nicotine, DMPP, and transmural stimulation is probably explained by selective physical degeneration of the adrenergic nerve terminal. Also, enhancement of the contractile response to these stimulants in cold stored preparations is explained by the lack of adrenergic inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:4656605
Hattori, K; Kurahashi, K; Mori, J; Shibata, S
Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China. PMID:24024457
Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing
The fish-borne parasitic zoonoses have been limited for the most part to populations living in low- and middle-income countries, but the geographical limits and populations at risk are expanding because of growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes such as population movements. While many in developed countries will recognize meat-borne zoonoses such as trichinellosis and cysticercosis, far fewer
Jong-Yil Chai; K. Darwin Murrell; Alan J. Lymbery
A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs. PMID:20938736
Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel
The epidemiology of helminth infections in West African dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern Nigeria was studied for 12 months. The infections observed were due to Haemonchus contortus (87.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena (30.2%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), Strongyloides sp. (18.8%), Cooperia spp. (17.2%), Gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%),
B. B. Fakae
Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947
Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K
1.The proposal that calcium antagonists have different sites of action has been tested by attempting to reverse their inhibitory effects with a dihydropyridine which augments Ca2+ entry into cells, Bay K 8644.2.Bay K 8644 (1–1000 nmol\\/l) increased the sensitivity to Ca2+ of K+-depolarized taenia preparations from the guinea-pig caecum. Thus Bay K 8644 augmented established submaximal Ca2+-induced contractions and also
Michael Spedding; Christiane Berg
Two high molecular weight antigens with molecular masses approximately 100 kDa and 130 kDa were identified by immunoblotting camel hydatid cyst fluid, with 94% sensitivity in sera from surgically confirmed Libyan cystic echinococcosis cases. 40% of sera from surgically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis cases cross-reacted with the 100 and 130 kDa antigens, as did 5·3% of sera from human Taenia solium
M. K. Shambesh; P. S. Craig; A. M. Gusbi; E. F. Echtuish; H. Wen
Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and holistic management of anaemia is advocated. PMID:24409641
Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard
Intracellular Ca2+ stores in rat and guinea-pig bladders and taenia caecum were studied in beta-escin skinned smooth muscle strips. 30 min of skinning with 40 microM and 80 microM beta-escin were the best parameters found to obtain good calcium response curves (10(-7)-10(-4) M) in rat and guinea pig, respectively. Calmodulin (1 microM) increased the calcium contractions significantly. pCa 6 was used to load intracellular stores and application of carbachol (50 microM) in all tissues then only contracted the tissues in the presence of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP; 100 microM). Inositol triphosphate (IP3; 50 microM), applied after pCa 6, contracted all tissues. Carbachol added after IP3 or heparin (1 mg/ml) no longer caused a contraction in any of them. In bladders, caffeine (30 mM) but not ryanodine (5 microM) prevented the subsequent carbachol contraction. A slowly rising contraction with carbachol was elicited after caffeine (30 mM) or ryanodine (5 microM) in the taenia and after ryanodine in the bladders. Caffeine (30 mM) suppressed the calcium response curves in all tissues. Procaine (30 mM) blocked the carbachol (50 microM) contractions in bladders but not in taenia. These results suggest that calcium induced calcium release (CICR) and IP3 induced calcium release (IICR) release calcium from a common store in bladder but two different compartments in taenia. PMID:17475242
Tugba Durlu-Kandilci, N; Brading, Alison F
Diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon is an increasingly common clinical problem in the ageing population of western industrialised countries but the mechanism by which the disease develops remains unknown. The muscular abnormality is the most striking and consistent feature and this has been studied by light and electron microscopy in 25 surgical specimens of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in 25 controls. This is the first ultrastructural study of human colonic muscle to be published and shows that the muscle cells in diverticular disease are normal; neither hypertrophy nor hyperplasia is present. There is, however, an increase in the elastin content of the taeniae coli by greater than 200% compared with controls: elastin is laid down between the muscle cells and the normal fascicular pattern of the taeniae coli is distorted. There is no alteration in the elastin content of the circular muscle. As elastin is laid down in a contracted form, this elastosis may be responsible for the shortening or 'contracture' of the taeniae which in turn leads to the characteristic concertina-like corrugation of the circular muscle. Such a structural change could explain the altered behaviour of the colon wall in diverticular disease and its failure to change on treatment with bran. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Whiteway, J; Morson, B C
The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034
Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki
ABSTRACT The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.
LI, Wei; GUO, Zhihong; DUO, Hong; FU, Yong; PENG, Mao; SHEN, Xiuying; TSUKADA, Hideharu; IRIE, Takao; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
The effect of chloroform soluble fraction (F-A) of twigs of Sarcostemma brevistigma on contractions induced by KCl, histamine, and acetylcholine in the isolated guinea pig ileum and taenia coli smooth muscles has been evaluated. F-A (19.5 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 87.6% in the isolated guinea pig ileum. In the isolated guinea pig ileum, F-A (64.3 and 59.2 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by acetylcholine and histamine to the extent of 85 and 83% respectively. In the isolated guinea pig taenia coli, F-A (65.2 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 96.0%. The inhibitory effect of F-A (40 microg/ml) on the isolated guinea pig taenia coli was reduced by Bay K 8644 (10(-6) M) to the extent of 61.6 from 73.6%. These results suggest that the F-A may exhibit smooth muscle relaxant activity by blocking the Ca2+ channels. PMID:17569282
Kumar, P Suresh; Soni, K; Jadhav, S R; Doshi, N S; Saraf, M N
Brain metastases occur in up to 10-30% of patients with cancer. Metastatic lesions are usually diagnosed as multiple mass lesions at the junction of the grey and white matter with associated perilesional vasogenic oedema. Cysticercosis is an endemic disease in underdeveloped countries of Africa, Central and South America and is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. The classical radiological finding of neurocysticercosis is cystic lesions showing the scolex in the brain parenchyma. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with cystic brain lesions mimicking neurocysticercosis. PMID:24717598
Costa, Ricardo; Costa, Rubens B; Bacchi, Carlos; Sarinho, Filipe
This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:22032501
Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio
Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is based on clinical manifestations and microscopic identification of eosinophils present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is caused by a variety of helminthic infections with most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Many case reports are there in which parasites have been found responsible, but there are rare reports of CSF eosinophilia associated with the use of drugs. We report a case of drug-induced (ibuprofen) eosinophilic meningitis in a healthy female who presented to us with severe headache and improved dramatically after drug withdrawal. PMID:24596473
Bansal, Sharad; Gupta, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Bansal, Shweta
The main public health issue in Madagascar at the beginning of the 21st century still involves transmissible infectious diseases including re-emerging diseases such as bubonic plague and emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, dengue fever and Chikungunya virus infection. Health and hygiene especially access to clean water is still poor especially in rural areas. No improvement in the public health situation with regard to malaria, schistomosomiais or cysticercosis as well as non-infectious diseases such as protein-energy malnutrition is expected within the next decade. PMID:17506269
Andrianarisoa, A C E; Rakotoson, J; Randretsa, M; Rakotondravelo, S; Rakotoarimanana, R D; Rakotomizao, J; Aubry, P
New anti-helminthic drugs have appeared lately: benzimidazoles (mebendazole, flubendazol, and abendazole), praziquantel and ivermectin. Mebendazol and flubendazol are poorly absorbed and are effective for ascaris, oxyuriasis and trycocephalus both in adults and children. Abendazole is well absorbed and may be considered the drug of choice for ascaris and oxyuriasis at a single 400 mg dose. This drug may also be used for hydatid cyst when surgery is not possible and for cysticercosis of the nervous system. Praziquantel is useful for treatment of tenia infections and ivermectin is useful for strongyloides and trichostrongyloides. Detailed dose schedules for different parasitic diseases are given in the text. PMID:2152732
Neglected parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and toxoplasmosis, affect millions of persons in the United States. Relatively few resources have been devoted to surveillance, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. Chagas disease primarily affects Latin American immigrants and can cause heart failure and death if not treated. Immediate antiparasitic treatment is indicated for most patients with acute Chagas disease. Treatment is recommended for patients younger than 18 years who have chronic Chagas disease and is generally recommended for adults younger than 50 years who do not have advanced cardiomyopathy; treatment decisions for other patients should be made on an individual basis. Toxocariasis primarily affects children and can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory, and ophthalmologic disease. Treatment options include albendazole and mebendazole. Patients with ocular infection require referral to an ophthalmologist. Neurocysticercosis, a form of cysticercosis, is the most common infectious cause of seizures in some parts of the United States. Initial treatment should focus on symptom control. Humans generally acquire toxoplasmosis by eating undercooked contaminated meat or ingesting things that have been contaminated with cat feces. Congenital infection can result in miscarriage or adverse fetal effects. Treatment is recommended for immunosuppressed persons, pregnant women, and immunocompetent persons with severe symptoms. PMID:24866216
Woodhall, Dana; Jones, Jeffrey L; Cantey, Paul T; Wilkins, Patricia P; Montgomery, Susan P
Eleven patients with diagnosis of possible neurocistycercosis were studied in our Department since 1986. All of them were adults. Eight were Bolivian citizens. The commonest neurological clinical manifestation were seizures and/or headache. Brain CT scans showed cystic lesions and calcifications in 5 patients, only calcifications in 3, enlarged ventricles in 2 and an isolated frontal cystic lesion in 1. Six out of 7 patients who were submitted to spinal fluid ELISA test showed positive response for cysticercosis. Patients were put on praziquantel (50 mg/Kg/d) or albendazol (15 mg/Kg/d) with good outcome for all them. Surgery was carried on for treatment of enlarged ventricles (2 patients) and for a like-expansive lesion (1 patient). The aim of this work is to underscore the fact that in Buenos Aires city, which previously was not within the endemic latin american area for cysticercosis, is now possible to find patients with the neurological manifestations of this parasitosis, most probably due to migration of people coming from the north provinces or from countries situated at its border where the disease is endemic. PMID:8297236
Villa, A M; Monteverde, D A; Rodriguez, W; Boero, A; Sica, R E
Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access.
Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.
Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible.
Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.
The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice. PMID:2080830
Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S
From 1987 to 1993, 89 wolves (Canis lupus) collected throughout the whole Italian range were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. Twelve species were found, including 5 nematodes (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina) and 7 cestodes (Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Dipylidium caninum). No significant differences were detected between sexes. T. canis showed higher prevalence and numbers in youngs, while E. granulosus and T. vulpis in adults. Interference between U. stenocephala and A. caninum was detected. Parasite biocenosis was stable in respect to geographical and ecological variables. PMID:8065823
Guberti, V; Stancampiano, L; Francisci, F
Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment.
Del Brutto, Oscar H.
The gastrointestinal parasites and prevalence of infestation in the Arabian red fox Vulpes vulpes arabica Thomas, were investigated at the King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre (KKWRC) in Thumamah, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia. Faecal samples were collected from 58 wild caught foxes while under anaesthesia and examined for gastrointestinal parasites stages. Male and female foxes were infected with three major groups of parasites; cestodes, nematodes, protozoa as well as an acanthocephalan. Faecal analyses revealed that 22 foxes (37.9%) were infected with two different Isospora spp. and three (5.2%) with an undescribed Eimeria sp., 12 (20.7%). Nine individuals (15.5%) harboured hookworms, (Trichosomoides sp.), two (3.5%) were infected with Trichuris sp. (probably Trichuris vulpes) and one individual (1.7%) with Taenia sp. (probably Taenia hydatigena). Carcasses of five male and three female foxes were necropsied. Four of the necropsied carcasses yielded Ancylostoma caninum, two each harboured Pterygodermatitis affinis, T. vulpes and Macracanthorhynchus catalinus, in six foxes Joyeuxiella echinorynchoides was found. Five and four foxes were infected with T. hydatigena and Diplopylidium nölleri, respectively. The possible role of the Arabian red fox as an intercalary host essential for the life cycle of Trichosomoides sp., common to the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus, in particular and the importance of this species as a vector for zoonotic infections and in the spread of other parasites to wild and domestic animals in general is discussed. PMID:21524855
Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Omer, Sawsan A
Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:19333622
Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S
Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859
Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald
Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements. PMID:17308808
da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Harter-Lailheugue, Stephanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; da Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Bouchet, Françoise
Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients.
Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa
Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections.
Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro
An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5–15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case–control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy.
Sejvar, James J.; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A.H.; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Mbonye, Anthony K.
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulphoxide, the main metabolite of albendazole, were studied in eight children with brain cysticercosis. Albendazole was given as a single oral dose of 15 mg per kg body weight (Zentel suspension; Smith Kline & Beecham, Philadelphia, PA). Blood samples were taken during 24 h and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma levels showed great interindividual variation. Maximum plasma levels for albendazole sulphoxide ranged from 0.2-1.0 microg/mL. A double peak was found in four children. The half-life for albendazole sulphoxide was from 2.3-8.3 hours and mean residence time values were from 5. 1-13.6 hours. These values are shorter than those found in adults. The results suggest that when treating children with neurocysticercosis, albendazole should be administered three times a day rather than twice daily as is currently done in Mexico. PMID:10423586
Jung, H; Sánchez, M; González-Astiazarán, A; Martínez, J M; Suástegui, R; González-Esquivel, D F
Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity. PMID:23459816
Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares
Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.
Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang
An epidemic illness characterized by head nodding associated with onchocerciasis has been described in eastern Africa since the early 1960s; we summarize published reports and recent studies. Onset of nodding occurs in previously healthy 5-15-year-old children and is often triggered by eating or cold temperatures and accompanied by cognitive impairment. Its incidence has increased in Uganda and South Sudan over the past 10 years. Four case-control studies identified modest and inconsistent associations. There were nonspecific lesions seen by magnetic resonance imaging, no cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and markedly abnormal electroencephalography results. Nodding episodes are atonic seizures. Testing has failed to demonstrate associations with trypanosomiasis, cysticercosis, loiasis, lymphatic filariasis, cerebral malaria, measles, prion disease, or novel pathogens; or deficiencies of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, retinol, or zinc; or toxicity from mercury, copper, or homocysteine. There is a consistent enigmatic association with onchocerciasis detected by skin snip or serologic analysis. Nodding syndrome is an unexplained epidemic epilepsy. PMID:23965548
Dowell, Scott F; Sejvar, James J; Riek, Lul; Vandemaele, Katelijn A H; Lamunu, Margaret; Kuesel, Annette C; Schmutzhard, Erich; Matuja, William; Bunga, Sudhir; Foltz, Jennifer; Nutman, Thomas B; Winkler, Andrea S; Mbonye, Anthony K
In areas where cysticercosis is endemic, calcified neurocysticercosis lesion(s) (CNL) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) commonly coexist in patients with localization-related epilepsies. To understand the pathogenesis of HS associated with CNL, we compared the characteristics of three groups of patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant epilepsies: CNL with HS, CNL without HS (CNL alone), and HS without CNL (HS alone). In comparison to patients with CNL alone, those with CNL with HS had CNL more frequently located in the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Those with CNL with HS had a lower incidence of febrile seizures, older age at initial precipitating injury and at onset of habitual complex partial seizures, and more frequent clustering of seizures and extratemporal/bitemporal interictal epileptiform discharges as compared to patients with HS alone. Our study illustrates that HS associated with CNL might have a different pathophysiologic basis as compared to classical HS. PMID:22242912
Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Thomas, Bejoy; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath
Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.
Swai, ES; Schoonman, L
Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections.
Ekong, Pius Stephen; Juryit, Raymond; Dika, Ndahi Mwapu; Nguku, Patrick; Musenero, Monica
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the major causes of childhood seizures in developing countries including India and Latin America. In this study neurological pediatric cases presenting with afebrile seizures were screened for anti-Cysticercus antibodies (IgG) in their sera in order to estimate the possible burden of cysticercal etiology. The study included a total of 61 pediatric afebrile seizure subjects (aged one to 15 years old); there was a male predominance. All the sera were tested using a pre-evaluated commercially procured IgG-ELISA kit (UB-Magiwell Cysticercosis Kit ™). Anti-Cysticercus antibody in serum was positive in 23 of 61 (37.7%) cases. The majority of cases with a positive ELISA test presented with generalized seizure (52.17%), followed by complex partial seizure (26.08%), and simple partial seizure (21.73%). Headaches were the major complaint (73.91%). Other presentations were vomiting (47.82%), pallor (34.78%), altered sensorium (26.08%), and muscle weakness (13.04%). There was one hemiparesis case diagnosed to be NCC. In this study one child without any significant findings on imaging was also found to be positive by serology. There was a statistically significant association found between the cases with multiple lesions on the brain and the ELISA-positivity (p = 0.017). Overall positivity of the ELISA showed a potential cysticercal etiology. Hence, neurocysticercosis should be suspected in every child presenting with afebrile seizure especially with a radio-imaging supportive diagnosis in tropical developing countries or areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.
Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Seepana, Jyotsna; Padela, Sudarsini; Sahu, Abani Kanta; Subbarayudu, Swarna; Barua, Ankur
An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using partially purified Eml8/16 enriched fraction (PP-Em18/16) prepared by isoelectric focusing was evaluated for serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The PP-Em18/16-ELISA was compared with Em2plus-ELISA by using sera from AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients in China, where both AE and CE are endemic; sera from CE patients in Australia, where only CE exists; and sera from patients with cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, or sparganosis in Korea, where no indigenous AE or CE exists. We used Em2plus-ELISA as a standard ELISA and found 24.6% (17 of 69 specimens) cross-reactivity with sera from CE. Furthermore, some of the sera from paragonimiasis, sparganosis, and cysticercosis patients were also cross-reactive in the Em2plus-ELISA. When we tested for similar cross-reactivity in the same sera from CE patients by PP-Em18/16-ELISA (23.2%, 16 of 69), it became evident that the specificity of the PP-Em18/16-ELISA was better than that of the Em2plus-ELISA, since no sera from patients with the examined parasitic diseases except CE showed cross-reactivity. Some CE patients from China showed exceptionally high levels of antibody in comparison with those of CE patients from Australia, where no AE occurs. It is speculated that these patients with strongly positive cases of CE from China may have been exposed to both species of Echinococcus.
Ito, A; Ma, L; Itoh, M; Cho, S Y; Kong, Y; Kang, S Y; Horii, T; Pang, X L; Okamoto, M; Yamashita, T; Lightowlers, M W; Wang, X G; Liu, Y H
The effects of reserpine on excitation-contraction coupling and 45Ca exchange of smooth muscle cells of the rabbit ear artery and the guinea-pig taenia coli have been studied. Reserpine inhibited the spontaneous mechanical activity of the taenia coli and the force development induced by 59 mM-external K or 10(-5) M-carbachol. In the ear artery reserpine blocked the K-induced contraction but its effect on the contraction elicited by noradrenaline was smaller. At 0.2 mM-Ca, the inhibition of the tonic component of the noradrenaline-induced contraction was more pronounced than that of the phasic component. This reserpine action was fully reversible for the noradrenaline stimulus in the ear artery but less so for K-induced contractions. The inhibitory action on contractions induced in taenia coli by K-rich solution and by carbachol was even less reversible. The analysis of the effect of reserpine on the 45Ca exchange in the ear artery has revealed that it inhibits the increase of the fractional loss induced by K depolarization, but that it does not exert a significant effect on the increased fractional loss induced by 10(-5) M-noradrenaline. Reserpine slows down the filling with 45Ca of the agonist-sensitive store without affecting the steady-state amount of Ca taken up by the store. A study of the degree of filling of the store by measuring the force development and the 45Ca release elicited by noradrenaline in Ca-free medium, reveals that the force development after loading in a reserpine-containing medium remains less than the control, although the same amount of Ca is released from the store. It was shown by using tetrabenazine that the inhibitory action of reserpine on the Ca exchange and the force development is not due to an interaction of reserpine with the receptor molecules that are responsible for its depleting action on aminergic granules. These results strongly suggest that reserpine exerts a Ca antagonistic action on smooth muscle whereby it blocks the potential-dependent channels. However, reserpine also affects the receptor-operated channels to some extent and in addition at a high concentration it seems to exert an unspecific inhibitory action on the contractile system.
Casteels, R; Login, I S
Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%). PMID:19238440
Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan
A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.
Khalafalla, Reda E.
In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861
Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz
In-patient and out-patient faeces examination reports from the State Hospital in Rundu, Kavango territory, Namibia, gave some idea of the prevalence of helminthic infections. 4174 specimens were examined over a 29-month period. Hookworm (6.8%) and Strongyloides (2.7%) were the most common infections, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1%), Schistosoma mansoni (1%) and Taenia sp. (0.9%). S. mansoni was more common in males than females, hookworm more common in females than males, and H. nana was most common in the pre-school group. Promiscuous defaecation on the banks of the Okavango river provides ideal situations for the development and transmission of hookworm and Strongyloides, while fishing and other activities enhance the transmission of S. mansoni infections. Larva migrans, probably due to Ancyclostoma braziliense or A. caninum, is common in the area. Studies involving schoolchildren would provide more accurate assessment of the prevalences of the various helminths. PMID:2617631
Evans, A C; Joubert, J J
Pups free from helminth infection were obtained by treating the bitch prior to parturition, and the bitch and her pups after whelping, with oxfendazole and praziquantel. They were then housed in an area free from contamination with helminth eggs. Freedom from infection was confirmed by necropsy examinations and by serological tests using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Groups of pups were infected with Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis, T. pisiformis and T. hydatigena and bled at 5-day intervals. Haematological examinations and measurement of serum proteins were performed on blood samples obtained throughout 30 days of infection. Levels of serum proteins were not significantly altered in any infection. Pups infected with T. canis showed a marked increase in numbers of circulating eosinophils during the phase of larval migration through the liver and lungs; they also showed marked antibody responses to T. canis larval ES antigen. Haematological values were not significantly altered in any other pups. PMID:6525114
Jenkins, D J; Rickard, M D
MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. They influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. Currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host microRNAs expression. The aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of Taenia crassiceps regulate LPS-induced miRNAs expression in human dendritic cells. We found that these antigens repressed LPS-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 and this correlates with a diminished inflammatory response. This let-7i downregulation in dendritic cells constitutes a novel feature of the modulatory activity that helminth-derived antigens exert on their host. PMID:23509825
Terrazas, Luis I; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Pérez-Miranda, Magaly; Mejía-Domínguez, Ana M; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Bojalil, Rafael; Gómez-García, Lorena
Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This study characterizes the proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical labelling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. At 6 weeks post-infection (wpi) there was an increase in villous length but crypt depth was normal. At 9 wpi there was evidence of epithelial hyperplasia, increased villous length and crypt depth, and expansion of zones of epithelial proliferation. Immunohistochemical labelling indicated that an increase in the number of proliferating cells produced a greater number of progeny cells. Intestinal hyperplasia during experimental infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae is likely to be related to the associated gastropathy, although the mechanisms underlying both changes remain undefined. PMID:18539293
Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M
We report the case of a 79-year-old woman admitted for sepsis from a hepatic hydatid cyst with multiple disseminations diagnosed one month earlier who refused the surgical treatment. Her family history was irrelevant with regard to the circumstances leading to Taenia Echinococcus infestation, and given her poor health status and absence of previous medical documents no useful information was obtained from her medical history. The patient also presented chronic ischemic heart disease and anemia secondary to a bleeding duodenal ulcer, found at necropsy, which worsened the already unfavorable course by the acute hepatic and renal failure secondary to toxic and septic shock. Despite the complex treatment, death occurred 6 days later, following a second episode of upper digestive hemorrhage. Particular to this case is the absence in patient's history of the anaphylactic/allergic reactions suggestive of hepatic hydatid cyst dissemination. PMID:22276455
Ionescu, Simona Daniela; Ouatu, Anca; Manea, Paloma; T?nase, Daniela Maria
The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Reggio Emilia during 2009. We analyzed 1961 samples from 1503 subjects: a copro-parasitological standard examination was performed in 1416 of the subjects and the scotch-test in the remaining 87. Of the 1503 subjects examined, 111 (7.4%) were positive for one or more parasites. Pathogenic parasites were found in 44 subjects (39.6% of all positive subjects) and non-pathogenic protozoa were found in 67 subjects (60.4% of all positive subjects). The most commonly found species were, of the protozoa, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia intestinalis and, of the helminths, Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia Spp. This epidemiological survey shows the need to pay more attention to immigrants and travellers to endemic areas as potential carriers of major parasitic infections in the community. PMID:20956870
Guidetti, Carlotta; Ricci, Lidia; Vecchia, Luigi
Intracranial infestation by the coenurus of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps is a rare occurrence in humans, with about 55 cases having been reported so far. Although most of these cases were observed in African or South American countries, the illness was occassionally found also in sheep-raising areas of Western Europe and the United States. Out of 4 personal cases, who were operated upon over an 18-year-period, 2 were neurologically intact respectively 20 and 3 years following surgical treatment. CT scans confirmed the absence of a progression of the disease. One patient was able to work 6 years after surgery, when he was killed in a road accident. A further, severely impaired patient remained unchanged and died with intercurrent infection 10 years following the operation. PMID:2334526
Pau, A; Perria, C; Turtas, S; Brambilla, M; Viale, G
A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884
Khalafalla, Reda E
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. It represents the most common cause of neurological disease in children living in developing countries. In recent years, NCC is increasingly being diagnosed also in high-socioeconomic countries, mainly due to the high rate of immigration. We describe a case of a 14-year-old Ecuadorian boy living in Italy, who experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and was diagnosed with NCC. The boy was successfully managed with anticonvulsant, anticysticercal and anti-inflammatory treatment. With the present case we would like to emphasize the importance of considering NCC as a possible cause of non febrile seizures in children living in developed countries, particularly in those immigrated from an endemic region or had a long-term stay in an area of high prevalence.
Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Erba, Paola; Di Nello, Francesca; Nannini, Pilar; Pisanelli, Stefania; Ramponi, Giulia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Characterization of the first tapeworm genome, Echinococcus multilocularis, is now nearly complete, and genome assemblies of E. granulosus, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis microstoma are in advanced draft versions. These initiatives herald the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology and underpin a diverse set of research agendas targeting both basic and applied aspects of tapeworm biology. We discuss the progress in the genomics of these species, provide insights into the presence and composition of immunologically relevant gene fa