Sample records for taenia saginata cysticercosis

  1. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve prevention of human infestation. PMID:24655724

  2. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  3. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis. PMID:23467406

  4. Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    García, Héctor H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Evans, Carlton A W; Gilman, Robert H

    2003-08-16

    The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures. PMID:12932389

  5. Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

    1995-01-01

    Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

  6. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

  7. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples. PMID:23452760

  8. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Taenia saginata: Comparison with T. solium and T. asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeong-Kyu Jeon; Kyu-Heon Kim; Keeseon S. Eom

    2007-01-01

    The complete sequence of the Taenia saginata mitochondrial genome was determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The mitochondrial genome was 13,670 bp long, contained 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). It did not encode

  9. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species. PMID:23864933

  10. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-08-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  11. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist. PMID:20540755

  12. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:24962350

  13. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    PubMed

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2014-06-19

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses. PMID:24945107

  14. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  15. The Disease Burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Manzanedo, Rafael; Berkvens, Dirk; Nsame Nforninwe, Denis; Zoli, André; Quet, Fabrice; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Carabin, Hélène; Geerts, Stanny

    2009-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. Methods Both the cost and Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) estimations were applied. All necessary parameters were collected and imported in R software. Different distributions were used according to the type of information available for each of the parameters. Findings Based on a prevalence of epilepsy of 3.6%, the number of people with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy was estimated at 50,326 (95% CR 37,299–65,924), representing 1.0% of the local population, whereas the number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis was estimated at 15,961 (95% CR 12,320–20,044), which corresponds to 5.6% of the local pig population. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis in West Cameroon were estimated at 10,255,202 Euro (95% CR 6,889,048–14,754,044), of which 4.7% were due to losses in pig husbandry and 95.3% to direct and indirect losses caused by human cysticercosis. The monetary burden per case of cysticercosis amounts to 194 Euro (95% CR 147–253). The average number of DALYs lost was 9.0 per thousand persons per year (95% CR 2.8–20.4). Interpretation This study provides an estimation of the costs due to T. solium cysticercosis using country-specific parameters and including the human as well as the animal burden of the zoonotic disease. A comparison with a study in South Africa indicates that the cost of inactivity, influenced by salaries, plays a predominant role in the monetary burden of T. solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowing the salary levels and the prevalence of the disease might allow a rapid indication of the total cost of T. solium cysticercosis in a country. Ascertaining this finding with additional studies in cysticercosis-endemic countries could eventually allow the estimation of the global disease burden of cysticercosis. The estimated number of DALYs lost due to the disease was higher than estimates already available for some other neglected tropical diseases. The total estimated cost and number of DALYs lost probably underestimate the real values because the estimations have been based on epilepsy as the only symptom of cysticercosis. PMID:19333365

  16. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

  17. Case-control study to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. FLÜTSCH; D. HEINZMANN; A. MATHIS; H. HERTZBERG; R. STEPHAN; P. DEPLAZES

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Taenia saginata cysticercosis causes financial losses to the beef industry and farmers, and represents a significant source for human infection in many countries. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for bovine cysticercosis on farms in Switzerland. The case group (n=119) consisted of farms with infected cattle identified at slaughter in 2005 and 2006. Infections were confirmed

  18. Evaluation of an antigenic fraction of Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid for immunodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E I; Rhoads, M L; Murrell, K D

    1987-08-01

    An antigenic fraction (ThFAS) isolated from Taenia hydatigena metacestode cyst fluid was used in an ELISA to detect antibodies to T saginata in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. In 10 calves given 1,000 to 100,000 T saginata eggs (20% to 60% viability), IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in all the calves by post-inoculation week 3. Immunoglobulin G antibody values remained increased until calves were slaughtered at post-inoculation weeks 13 to 26. Six naturally infected calves (determined by postmortem examination) were considered positive, using the ELISA. Shared antigens were demonstrated between ThFAS and T saginata and T crassiceps; there were no shared antigens between ThFAS and Haemonchus contortus or Fasciola hepatica. Specific lectin binding to ThFAS indicated the presence of glycoconjugates. Immunoblot analysis indicated that a low molecular weight polypeptide (10,000 Mr) bears the immunodiagnostic antigen. PMID:3631707

  19. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: immune response in susceptible and resistant BALB\\/c mouse substrains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio López-Briones; Edmundo Lamoyi; Gladis Fragoso; Mark J. Soloski; Edda Sciutto

    2003-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps can naturally and experimentally infect rodents in which they reproduce by budding. Differences in the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis were found between two BALB\\/c substrains: BALB\\/cAnN (susceptible) and BALB\\/cJ (resistant). In chimeric mice, resistance was transferred to susceptible mice with bone marrow cells from the resistant mice, which argues in favor of an immune mediation of the

  20. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Africa: risk factors, epidemiology and prospects for control using vaccination.

    PubMed

    Assana, Emmanuel; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Zoli, André P; Geerts, Stanny

    2013-07-01

    Poor sanitary conditions, free-roaming of domestic pigs and lack of awareness of the disease play an important role in the perpetuation of the Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis in Africa. Traditional pig production systems known as the source of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis complex are predominant in the continent, representing 60-90% of pig production in rural areas. It has been reported that T. solium cysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in human population and results in considerable public health problems and economic costs to the endemic countries. Although the socioeconomic impact and public health burden of cysticercosis have been demonstrated, up to now no large-scale control programme has been undertaken in Africa. Most disease control trials reported in the literature have been located in Latin America and Asia. This review discusses the risk factors and epidemiology of T. solium cysticercosis in Africa and critically analyzes the options available for implementing control of this zoonotic disease in the continent. PMID:23312868

  1. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs. PMID:23936558

  2. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  3. Evidence for high seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in individuals from three rural communities in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; Cabrera, Zully; Rojas, Glenda; Lares, Maria; Vera, Andez; de Noya, Belkis Alarcon; Fernandez, Iris; Romero, Haidee Urdaneta; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Cortez, Milagros M

    2003-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken in 1998 to evaluate levels of Taenia solium cysticercosis in 3 rural Venezuelan communities. Infection with viable metacestodes was diagnosed with a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects a secreted product of viable parasites. Anti-metacestode antibodies were assayed by ELISA using T. solium vesicular fluid as antigen. A total of 1254 sera was collected from 3 communities (Canoabo, Sanare, and Rio Tocuyo) where previous studies had suggested the presence of T. solium. Our results demonstrate an unusually high seroprevalence of cysticercosis, indicating an attendant risk of transmitting the disease to other areas. The seroprevalence of infection with viable cysts, as indicated by detection of circulating parasite antigen, was 9.1% in Canoabo, 6.1% in Sanare, and 5.7% in Rio Tocuyo. The corresponding frequency of antibodies to T. solium cyst antigens was 36.5% in Canoabo, 36.5% in Sanare, and 4% in Rio Tocuyo. As these communities are probably representative of many others in Venezuela, T. solium cysticercosis may be a significant public health problem and more work is certainly indicated. An important finding was that local knowledge of the disease and its transmission do not necessarily guarantee diminished disease prevalence, indicating a lack of appropriate vigilance towards disease control. PMID:15307416

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  5. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

  6. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  7. Molecular Approaches to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms. PMID:23467738

  8. Taenia eggs in a stabilization pond system with poor hydraulics: concern for human cysticercosis?

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Lizima, Louis A; Zhang, Jie; Iriarte, Mercedes; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the removal of Taenia eggs to the removal of Ascaris eggs in a wastewater stabilization pond system consisting of three ponds in series, where the hydraulic residence time distribution has been characterized via a tracer study supported by computational fluid dynamics modeling. Despite a theoretical hydraulic retention time of 30 days, the peak dye concentration was measured in the effluent of the first pond after only 26 hours. The smaller-sized Taenia eggs were detected in higher concentrations than Ascaris eggs in the raw wastewater. Ascaris eggs were not detected in the pond system effluent, but 45 Taenia eggs/L were detected in the system effluent. If some of these eggs were of the species Taenia solium, and if the treated wastewater were used for the irrigation of crops for human consumption, farmers and consumers could potentially be at risk for neurocysticercosis. Thus, limits for Taenia eggs in irrigation water should be established, and precautions should be taken in regions where pig taeniasis is endemic. The results of this study indicate that the theoretical hydraulic retention time (volume/flow) of a pond is not always a good surrogate for helminth egg removal. PMID:24355860

  9. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Praet, Nicolas; Benitez, Washington; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community. PMID:26147942

  10. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade PMID:23265557

  11. A recombinant immunodiagnostic antigen for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, M L; Zarlenga, D S; al-Yaman, F M

    1991-12-01

    The 70% ammonium sulfate-soluble fraction of the cyst fluid of Taenia hydatigena (designated ThFAS) was previously shown to have potential as an immunodiagnostic reagent for bovine cysticercosis. Western blot analysis indicated that the specific reactivity with antibodies in sera of T. saginata-infected cattle was associated with a 10 kDa component. Rabbit antiserum to ThFAS identified a homologous antigenic protein from the cestode Taenia crassiceps. Consequently, a cDNA expression library was constructed in lambda gt11 using poly A mRNA purified from T. crassiceps metacestodes and screened with rabbit antiserum to ThFAS. One strongly reactive clone (designated lambda TCA-2) produced a 123 kDa beta-galactosidase fusion protein which reacted in Western blot with sera from calves experimentally-infected with T. saginata and did not react with sera from uninfected calves or from cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica or with common gastrointestinal cattle parasites. PMID:1822902

  12. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac K. Phiri; Helena Ngowi; Sonia Afonso; Elizabeth Matenga; Mathias Boa; Samson Mukaratirwa; Samuel Githigia; Margaret Saimo; Chummy Sikasunge; Ndichu Maingi; George W. Lubega; Ayub Kassuku; Lynne Michael; Seter Siziya; Rosina C. Krecek; Emilia Noormahomed; Manuela Vilhena; Pierre Dorny; A. Lee Willingham III

    2003-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Taenia solium in a Multiple Taeniid-Endemic Region Reveals Competition May be Protective

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9–9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5–7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5–64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0–11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission. PMID:22855759

  14. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control. PMID:18440704

  15. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%. PMID:19478259

  16. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  17. Isolated intramuscular cysticercosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanhere, Sujata; Bhagat, Manish; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis is caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, larvae of a tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticercosis can involve any tissue in the body; the most common affected sites are central nervous system, subcutaneous tissue, eyes, and muscles. A few cases of isolated intramuscular cysticercosis without any other tissue involvement have been reported in pediatric population. Here, we report a case of intramuscular cysticercosis diagnosed by ultrasonography in a 5.5 year-old boy who presented with the swellings over the calf and the scapular region, without any associated neurological or ocular involvement. The patient responded well to the course of steroids and Albendazole with complete resolution of both the swellings. PMID:26023298

  18. Isolation of a 14 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cyst fluid by HPLC and its evaluation in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Assana; K. Kanobana; C. B. Tume; P. A. Zoli; Nguekam; S. Geerts; D. Berkvens; P. Dorny

    2007-01-01

    A fraction with a major band of 14kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300 high resolution) was purified using an anion exchange column (Mono Q HR 5\\/5) on high performance liquid chromatography. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3) was carried out

  19. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. PMID:24815426

  20. New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  1. Morphologic and Genetic Identification of Taenia Tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA Genotyping of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n=1) and T. saginata (n=3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1). PMID:22355207

  2. Isolated cysticercosis of tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pratima; Chauhan, Nidhi; Dogra, Rajeev; Kala, Pooja; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-08-01

    Cysticercosis of the tongue is a rare disease caused by infestation with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) in which man acts as a secondary host rather than a primary host. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic. The patient usually reports to the physician with the complaint of swelling. The solitary swelling in the tongue of this young 12-year-old girl was not suspected clinically for cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology, used for pre-operative diagnosis, suggested the possibility of cysticercosis. Detailed medical evaluation was carried out which ruled out neural cysticercosis and other extraneural lesions. The complete removal of the lesion was achieved by simple excision. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cysticercosis. PMID:24610792

  3. Nested PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Taenia solium Taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Mayta; Robert H. Gilman; Emily Prendergast; Janeth P. Castillo

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  5. Antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: lessons and experiences from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fengju; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yixin; Huang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Cysticercosis is a tropical disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Humans and pigs acquire cysticercosis by ingesting T. solium eggs shed in the feces of humans with taeniasis (i.e., infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm). Cerebral cysticercosis occurs when the cysts of T. solium develop within the central nervous system, and it is the primary cause of illness in T. solium infection. Currently, cerebral cysticercosis is endemic worldwide, and it is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. However, it is now increasingly detected in developed countries due to the immigration of T. solium carriers from the endemic areas. The antiparasitic treatment of cerebral cysticercosis remains controversial till now. In China, except a few cases who conform to the contraindicated criteria of antiparasitic therapy, most cerebral cysticercosis patients with symptoms and signs are given etiological treatment. This paper reviews the antiparasitic therapy of cerebral cysticercosis in China during the past several decades. Praziquantel treatment with different regimens has been used, and various efficacies are achieved. In the early stage, unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy was achieved due to small doses and short treatment courses. Afterwards, the therapeutic efficacy became increasingly remarkable in both adults and children with the increases in dosage and courses. Albendazole also presents activity against cysticercosis with slow and moderate action, and it has been widely used in the treatment of the infection. The comparison between praziquantel and albendazole treatments showed that the immediate and short-term effects of albendazole treatment were better than those of praziquantel treatment, but similar mid- and long-term efficacies were observed following albendazole and praziquantel treatments. The combination of albendazole and praziquantel treatments can increase the therapeutic efficacy, and now, from the massive clinical practices, most of Chinese clinical specialists propose the combination therapy of albendazole and praziquantel for cerebral cysticercosis with simultaneous administration of steroids, especially in the first course. In addition, administration of praziquantel at a high dose can become a diagnostic treatment for suspected cerebral cysticercosis and serve as a supplement of the currently available diagnostic methods, such as diagnoses based on the clinical features, immunology, CT and MRI imaging, etc., in some atypical cerebral cysticercosis patients. Praziquantel and albendazole treatments have some adverse reactions, and to control these adverse effects, all the cerebral cysticercosis patients should be treated in hospital. According to the type of cerebral cysticercosis, especially for intracranial hypertension type and meningocephalitis type, the dosages of anti-cysticercus drugs need to follow a gradually increasing pattern. During the period of anti-cysticercosis treatments, steroids and/or dehydrating agents need be administered which can alleviate the intracranial hypertension and so on. Traditional Chinese medicines have been also used in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis and achieve satisfactory outcomes. However, the compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicines is very complex, and the effective components are not fully clear. Some cerebral cysticercosis patients with very high intracranial tension could not receive antiparasitic treatment immediately, and surgical treatment is required. Chinese surgeons also achieve some successful experiences, but not all the cysticercus can be removed completely during the surgery. Therefore, antiparasitic drugs are still needed after the operation. The rehabilitative treatment is supplementary in the therapy of cerebral cysticercosis. In China, the rehabilitative treatment of cerebral cysticercosis is still at the initial stage. These lessons and experiences in China can be shared with medical staff and researchers from other countries where the disease is endemic. PMI

  6. Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis in Children and Young Adults Living in a Helminth Endemic Community in Leyte, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Mei; Acosta, Luz P.; Hou, Min; Manalo, Daria L.; Jiz, Mario; Jarilla, Blanca; Pablo, Archie O.; Ovleda, Remigio M.; Langdon, Gretchen; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Kurtis, Jonathan D.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a significant public health problem in countries where pigs are raised for consumption and remains an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. The Philippines is considered an endemic area for cysticercosis because cases in both humans and pigs have been reported; however, epidemiologic information stays limited. We conducted a pilot survey of the seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in a village in Leyte, the Philippines, by measuring antibody specific for Taenia solium cyst-fluid antigen. There were 497 subjects aged 7–30 years in our study and most subjects were infected with one or more helminths. The overall cysticercosis seroprevalence in this population was 24.6% (95% CI: 20.82% ~ 28.58%) with no significant difference based on age, sex, or other helminth coinfection status. Although the sample may not be representative of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant, but underrecognized public health concern in the Philippines. PMID:20368794

  7. Cysticercosis Control: Bringing Advances to the Field

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, SE; Winthrop, KL; Gonzalez, AE

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available. Strategies based on identification and treatment of T. solium adult tapeworms, as well as interventions that block cysticercosis acquisition in pigs have temporarily reduced transmission. Building on these successes with controlled community trials in varying endemic scenarios will drive progress towards regional elimination. PMID:21731303

  8. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4?cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360

  9. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

  10. Disseminated cutaneous cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sacchidanand, S; Namitha, P; Mallikarjuna, M; Nataraj, H V

    2012-05-01

    Disseminated cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A 19-year-old female presented with multiple nodules all over her body since 12 months. Histopathology showed features suggestive of parasitic granuloma with multinucleated giant cells and plenty of eosinophils admixed with necrosis. Ultrasonography of these lesions showed multiple well-defined cystic lesions of varying size with a few specks of calcification. Cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral, multiple, small hyperdense lesions in the supratentorial compartment. She was treated with oral albendazole and oral corticosteroids. This case is being reported because of its rare, disseminated nature with cutaneous, neural and ocular involvement. PMID:23130290

  11. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16?-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  12. Mapping of Taenia solium TSOL18 antigenic epitopes by phage display library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aijiang Guo; Xuepeng Cai; Wanzhong Jia; Bing Liu; Shaohua Zhang; Peiya Wang; Hongbing Yan; Xuenong Luo

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in humans and pigs. TSOL18 has been identified as a host-protective oncosphere\\u000a antigen. To obtain mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TSOL18 and to map its antigenic epitopes are potentials to develop\\u000a a vaccine for the prevention of T. solium infection. In this study, mAbs were produced by the hybridoma technique using

  13. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Assana, E; Amadou, F; Thys, E; Lightowlers, M W; Zoli, A P; Dorny, P; Geerts, S

    2010-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry season and that 42.7% of households keeping pigs in the rural areas have no latrine facility. Seventy-six per cent of the interviewed pig owners confirmed that members of the household used open-field defecation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antigen and antibody detection showed an apparent prevalence of cysticercosis of 24.6% and 32.2%, respectively. A Bayesian approach, using the conditional dependence between the two diagnostic tests, indicated that the true seroprevalence of cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay was 26.6%. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. PMID:20334716

  14. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dysanoor, Sujatha; Pol, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  15. The initial immune response during experimental cysticercosis is of the mixed Th1\\/Th2 type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Toenjes; R. E. Kuhn

    2003-01-01

    The immunological events that occur during the initial stages of experimental cysticercosis are not known. The studies presented here examined the cytokines produced by peritoneal exudate cells (PECs), splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells during the first week of infection with larval Taenia crassiceps in BALB\\/cJ mice. Proliferation assays determined that the earliest time when antigen-specific responses could be

  16. Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  17. Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Jimenez, Juan A; Rodriguez, Mary L; Ramirez, Mercy G; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-08-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Magnetic Immunochromatographic Test To Detect Taenia solium, Which Causes Taeniasis and Neurocysticercosis in Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Handali, Sukwan; Klarman, Molly; Gaspard, Amanda N.; Dong, X. Fan; LaBorde, Ronald; Noh, John; Lee, Yeuk-Mui; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain in most of the world. Rapid and simple screening tools to identify taeniasis and cysticercosis cases are needed for control programs, mostly to identify tapeworm carriers which are the source of infection and need to be treated, or as tools for point-of-care case detection or confirmation. These screening assays should be affordable, reliable, rapid, and easy to perform. Immunochromatographic tests meet these criteria. To demonstrate proof of principle, we developed and evaluated two magnetic immunochromatographic tests (MICTs) for detection of human Taenia solium taeniasis antibodies (ES33-MICT) and neurocysticercosis antibodies (T24-MICT). These assays detected stage-specific antibodies by using two recombinant proteins, rES33 for detection of taeniasis antibodies and rT24H for detection of cysticercosis antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of the ES33-MICT to detect taeniasis infections were 94.5% and 96%, respectively, and those of the T24-MICT to detect cases of human cysticercosis with two or more viable brain cysts were 93.9% and 98.9%, respectively. These data provide proof of principle that the ES33- and T24-MICTs provide rapid and suitable methods to identify individuals with taeniasis and cysticercosis. PMID:20181766

  19. Development of a species-specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Guezala, Maria-Claudia; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zamora, Humberto; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tembo, Alice; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:19706909

  20. Role of the programmed Death1 pathway in the suppressive activity of alternatively activated macrophages in experimental cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis I. Terrazas; Daniel Montero; César A. Terrazas; José L. Reyes; Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa

    2005-01-01

    We characterised a population of macrophages potentially involved in the immunoregulation induced by experimental cysticercosis. Following Taenia crassiceps infection, macrophages recruited in the peritoneal cavity were isolated and co-cultured at different ratios with T cells from naïve mice previously stimulated with anti-CD3\\/CD28 antibodies; these macrophages inhibited naïve T cell proliferation. This suppressive effect was Interleukin (IL)-10, Interferon-gamma (IFN-?), and nitric

  1. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis. PMID:24690153

  2. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H; Prendergast, Emily; Castillo, Janeth P; Tinoco, Yeny O; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Sterling, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis due to Taenia solium is a disease with important public health consequences, since the larval stage is not exclusive to the animal intermediate, the pig, but also infects humans, causing neurocysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers is important to prevent human cysticercosis. Current diagnosis based on microscopic observation of eggs lacks both sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, a nested-PCR assay targeting the Tso31 gene was developed for the specific diagnosis of taeniasis due to T. solium. Initial specificity and sensitivity testing was performed using stored known T. solium-positive and -negative samples. The assay was further analyzed under field conditions by conducting a case-control study of pretreatment stool samples collected from a population in an area of endemicity. Using the archived samples, the assay showed 97% (31/32) sensitivity and 100% (123/123) specificity. Under field conditions, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity using microscopy/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay coproantigen testing as the gold standards. The Tso31 nested PCR described here might be a useful tool for the early diagnosis and prevention of taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:17989190

  3. Antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci used in complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, E; Ordoñez, G; Sotelo, J

    1995-01-01

    Antigens from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis are scarce and difficult to obtain. We studied the reliability of antigens from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci as a substitute for those from T. solium in three diagnostic tests: complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot (immunoblot). Precision rates of the three tests of 93, 99, and 96%, respectively, were found. Cysticerci from T. crassiceps can be easily obtained in large quantities and can be effectively used for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:8586728

  4. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme. PMID:25017127

  5. Ring-Screening to Control Endemic Transmission of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gavidia, Cesar; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis) within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis). These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination. Methodology We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents) we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents) we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Principal Findings Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0–30.0) in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7–25.9) in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.87) while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.91). Conclusions/Significance Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation in larger populations over a greater period of time. PMID:25210748

  6. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect") and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively). In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band. PMID:19748853

  7. Human Neurocysticercosis Case and an Endemic Focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth

    2013-01-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR. PMID:24327790

  8. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p?=?0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p?=?0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission dynamics and impact of the disease on the local people. PMID:22479664

  9. Expression of Multiple Taenia Solium Immunogens in Plant Cells Through a Ribosomal Skip Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Hernández, Marisela; Fragoso, Gladis; Garate, Teresa; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major parasitic disease that affects the human health and the economy in underdeveloped countries. Porcine cysticercosis, an obligatory stage in the parasite life cycle, is a suitable target for vaccination. While several recombinant and synthetic antigens proved to be effective as vaccines, the cost and logistic difficulties have prevented their massive use. Taking this into account, a novel strategy for developing a multi-epitope low-cost vaccine is herein explored. The S3Pvac vaccine components (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7, and GK1 [KETc7]) and the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen were expressed in a Helios2A polyprotein system, based on the 'ribosomal skip' mechanism mediated by the 2A sequence (LLNFDLLKLAGDVESNPG-P) derived from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus, which induces self-cleavage events at a translational level. This protein arrangement was expressed in transgenic tobacco cells. The inserted sequence and its transcript were detected in several Helios2A lines, with some lines showing recombinant protein accumulation levels up to 1.3 µg/g of fresh weight in leaf tissues. The plant-derived Helios2A vaccine was recognized by antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid from neurocysticercosis patients and elicited specific antibodies in BALB/c immunized mice. These evidences point to the Helios2A polyprotein as a promising system for expressing multiple antigens of interest for vaccination and diagnosis in one single construction. PMID:25761936

  10. Tear IgA-ELISA: a novel and sensitive method for diagnosis of ophthalmic cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Priyadarshi S; Parija, Subhash C; Sahu, Promod K

    2008-06-01

    For the first time, presence of locally secreted specific IgA antibodies in tear specimen from human with ophthalmic cysticercosis is documented in the present study. The ELISA using Taenia solium metacestode excretory secretory (ES) antigen demonstrated a diagnostic level of IgA antibodies in tears with 100% sensitivity (6 out of 6 confirmed cases of ophthalmic cysticercosis) whereas, 25 of 34 (73.52%) clinically suspected cases were diagnosed positive. The ELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen detected a diagnostic titre of IgA antibody in tears with a sensitivity of 50% (3 out of 6 confirmed cases). The specificity of the tear IgAELISA using T. solium metacestode somatic and ES antigens is observed to be 94.87% and 92.3%, respectively. Overall in tears, the ELISA using T. solium metacestode ES antigens for detection of IgA antibodies shows a higher diagnostic efficiency (93.33%) compared to that using T. solium metacestode somatic antigen (88.88%). The sensitivities of the ELISA for detection of IgA antibodies in tears is observed to be higher than that for detection of IgG antibodies in serum using either somatic or ES antigens of the parasite. PMID:18462701

  11. Cysticercosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bowel movement. Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T. solium as a result of undercooking or improper food preparation. The disease can also be spread by contact with infected ...

  12. Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

    1995-01-01

    A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

  13. Incidence of Human Taenia solium Larval Infections in an Ecuadorian Endemic Area: Implications for Disease Burden Assessment and Control

    PubMed Central

    Coral-Almeida, Marco; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; García, Héctor Hugo; Rodríguez, Silvia; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease causing severe health disorders and even death. While prevalence data become available worldwide, incidence rate and cumulative incidence figures are lacking, which limits the understanding of the Taenia solium epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings A seroepidemiological cohort study was conducted in a south-Ecuadorian community to estimate the incidence rate of infection with and the incidence rate of exposure to T. solium based on antigen and antibody detections, respectively. The incidence rate of infection was 333.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8.4–1,858] per 100,000 person-years) contrasting with a higher incidence rate of exposure 13,370 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: [8,730–19,591] per 100,000 person-years). The proportion of infected individuals remained low and stable during the whole study year while more than 25% of the population showed at least one antibody seroconversion/seroreversion during the same time period. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the transmission of T. solium is essential to develop ad hoc cost-effective prevention and control programs. The estimates generated here may now be incorporated in epidemiological models to simulate the temporal transmission of the parasite and the effects of control interventions on its life cycle. These estimates are also of high importance to assess the disease burden since incidence data are needed to make regional and global projections of morbidity and mortality related to cysticercosis. PMID:24852050

  14. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-? at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p?0.05). Conclusion The present study indicates T. solium infection in humans is highly endemic in the southern highlands of Tanzania. PMID:23516650

  16. From stillness to motion: 80 years after the first description of Taenia solium oncosphere hatching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a considered public health problem in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Because of the enormous increase in international tourism and migration, NCC nowadays is also found in some developed countries. Our group was the first to demonstrate that tapeworm carriers in the household are the main risk factor for acquiring cysticercosis in humans and pigs, since the disease results from the ingestion of microscopic tapeworm eggs. Findings We had the opportunity to film the liberation of the embryo from the oncospheral membrane after the hatching of the egg, which is the activation process required for intestinal wall invasion by the onchosphere. Yoshino (J Formosa Med Ass 32:139-142, 1933) described with great detail in diagrams and photographs this process eighty years ago after he infected himself with three living cysticerci in order to study the life cycle of Taenia solium. Other authors further described this process. Nevertheless it has never been filmed before. The purpose of this paper is to shift from stillness to motion since we can now show for the first time a movie of an activated oncosphere and its release from the oncospheral membrane. Conclusion Oncospheral activation is the requisite for T. solium embryos to invade the intestinal mucosa and develop into cysticerci. This process has been amply described but here it is shown for the first time in motion; thus it may be of interest for readers of the journal and useful for educational purposes towards the control of NCC. PMID:24433262

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Taenia solium cysticerci using Open Reading Frame ESTs (ORESTES)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carolina R; Stoco, Patricia H; Wagner, Glauber; Sincero, Thaís CM; Rotava, Gianinna; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rodrigues, Juliana B; Sperandio, Maísa M; Maia, Antônio AM; Ojopi, Elida PB; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tyler, Kevin M; Dávila, Alberto MR; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Human infection by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium affects more than 50 million people worldwide, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Cysticercosis which arises from larval encystation can be life threatening and difficult to treat. Here, we investigate for the first time the transcriptome of the clinically relevant cysticerci larval form. Results Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) produced by the ORESTES method, a total of 1,520 high quality ESTs were generated from 20 ORESTES cDNA mini-libraries and its analysis revealed fragments of genes with promising applications including 51 ESTs matching antigens previously described in other species, as well as 113 sequences representing proteins with potential extracellular localization, with obvious applications for immune-diagnosis or vaccine development. Conclusion The set of sequences described here will contribute to deciphering the expression profile of this important parasite and will be informative for the genome assembly and annotation, as well as for studies of intra- and inter-specific sequence variability. Genes of interest for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are described and discussed. PMID:19646239

  18. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  19. Differentiating Taenia eggs found in human stools - Does Ziehl Neelsen staining help?

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; García, Héctor H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Unlike other tapeworms, T. solium infections carry risk for neurocysticercosis. Differential diagnosis of human tapeworm infections relies on morphology of the scolex or proglottids, frequently unavailable. DNA-based assays are poorly available in endemic areas. Ziehl Neelsen staining has been suggested but not tested in controlled designs. We validated whether Ziehl Neelsen staining could differentiate T. solium and T. saginata eggs. Methods Tapeworm proglottids (33 specimens, 23 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) and eggs (31 specimens, 13 T. solium and 10 T. saginata) were stained. Four eggs from each sample were measured and average diameters were recorded. Results T. saginata eggs stained entirely magenta in seven of 13 cases. T. solium eggs stained entirely blue/purple in 4/18 cases and entirely magenta in one. Eggs of T. saginata were slightly larger and always ovoid, while T. solium eggs were smaller and were mostly spheric. Conclusions Ziehl Neelsen staining can occasionally distinguish fully mature T. solium from T. saginata eggs. This distinction is poorly sensitive and not completely specific. Differential staining suggest differences in embryophore components between species, evident along egg maturation. In this small series, egg morphology (shape, maximal diameter) provided appropriate differentiation between T. solium and T. saginata eggs. PMID:20579318

  20. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  1. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  2. The initial immune response during experimental cysticercosis is of the mixed Th1/Th2 type.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, S A; Kuhn, R E

    2003-03-01

    The immunological events that occur during the initial stages of experimental cysticercosis are not known. The studies presented here examined the cytokines produced by peritoneal exudate cells (PECs), splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells during the first week of infection with larval Taenia crassiceps in BALB/cJ mice. Proliferation assays determined that the earliest time when antigen-specific responses could be measured was 5 days post-infection. Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation of host cells elicited an initial burst of IL-4 production at 24 h of infection and ConA-stimulated Th2-type cytokine production is predominant by 7 days post-infection. Thus, there are responses at day 1 of infection that seem to promote a Th2-type response. Stimulation of MLN cells, splenocytes and PECs with larval antigens supported previous reports of mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine production with increases in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Ex vivo IFN-gamma production by PECs from infected mice was increased at 3, 5 and 7 days post-infection, whereas at these times reduced ex vivo IL-10 production was observed. This ex vivo IFN-gamma response preceded an increasing IL-10 production by PECs between 3 and 7 days post-infection in parasite-specific and ConA-induced proliferation assays. Thus, infection with larval T. crassiceps results in an initial response mediated by IFN-gamma that is quickly followed by an increase in IL-10 production and subsequent reduction in the amount of IFN-gamma being produced. PMID:12632156

  3. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another. PMID:24745917

  4. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  5. Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis: lack of cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi and Taenia hydatigena.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; Forster, F I; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2012-11-17

    A commercial coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis, based on the use of MM3 monoclonal antibody for antigen capture, was investigated for possible cross-reactivity with Paramphistomum cervi, a trematode that commonly infects cattle and sheep grazing in fluke-infested pasture in Ireland. Histological sections of adult and immature Fasciola hepatica and P cervi were incubated with MM3 monoclonal antibody, and its binding to tissue-localised coproantigen was subsequently visualised by immunocytochemistry. In a related study, the soluble antigenic fractions derived from homogenates of P cervi adults and Taenia hydatigena metacestodes were tested for cross-reactivity with MM3 monoclonal antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA, using known F hepatica-positive and F hepatica-negative ovine faecal samples as natural controls. It was found that, while intense immunocytochemical labelling was located over the gastrodermis and gut contents of adult and immature F hepatica, sections of adult and immature P cervi were unlabelled. In the ELISA tests, the soluble fractions of F hepatica reacted strongly with MM3 monoclonal antibody, but those of P cervi and T hydatigena gave negative results. These findings support the specificity of the coproantigen ELISA test for fasciolosis in areas where paramphistomosis and cysticercosis are liable to occur singly or as coinfections with F hepatica. PMID:23077134

  6. [Case report of solitary breast cysticercosis in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Rakoto-Ratsimba, H N; Rabesalama, S S E N; Razafimahandry, H J C; Ranaivozanany, A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case of solitary breast cysticercosis presenting as a banal breast lump in a 15-year-old girl. Surgical excision was performed and histological examination demonstrated the presence of two Cysticercus cellulosae larvae. Characteristic features of this uncommon location are discussed based on a review of the literature. PMID:17691439

  7. Kinetics of Taenia solium antibodies and antigens in experimental taeniosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermina Avila; Marcela Benitez; Laura Aguilar-Vega; Ana Flisser

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of hamsters were infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, one of which was suppressed with methyl-prednisolone acetate on the day of infection and every 14 days thereafter. The other did not receive steroid treatment. Faecal and serum samples were taken prior to infection and then at weekly intervals. Parasite circulating- and coproantigens were detected by a capture ELISA with

  8. Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people’s approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

  9. The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice infected with larval Taenia crassiceps is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, S A; Spolski, R J; Mooney, K A; Kuhn, R E

    1999-06-01

    The subsets of lymphocytes and cytokines regulating the site-specific immune response in experimental cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps) are not known. This study investigated the cells present at the site of infection (PECs) using flow cytometry and measured the cytokines produced by these cells through 50 days of infection. The results showed an expansion of B220+CD5+, B220+CD5-, alpha beta TCR+CD4+ and CD8+ cells coincident with a transient increase in IL-10 production. After the initial increase, the percentage of B220+CD5- and helper T cells decreased with a concomitant decrease in IL-10 production. CD8+ T cells continued to increase throughout infection and gamma delta TCR+ cells increased after 10 days of infection. PECs demonstrated an increased IFN-gamma and IL-4 production throughout infection when stimulated with larval antigens. Because a Th2-type polarization has been shown for spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, cytokine profiles of spleen cells and PECs in response to ConA and larval antigens were compared. ConA and antigen-specific stimulation of spleen cells from 50-day-infected mice produced increased amounts of IL-10 while PECs showed a decreased IL-10 production suggesting that anatomically distinct lymphoid populations produce different cytokines and promote different types of responses. Surprisingly, late in infection the levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in serum increased substantially (460-fold and 100-fold, respectively). The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice during experimental cysticercosis, therefore, is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response. PMID:10406041

  10. [Disseminated cysticercosis: report of three cases in Togo].

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, A; N'Timon, B; Kumako, V; Darre, T; Saka, B; Tchaou, M; Amegbor, K; Kombate, K; Balogou, A A; Pitche, P

    2015-08-01

    We report 3 cases of disseminated cysticercosis (DC) in adult male subjects in Togo. All had consulted in dermatology for asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology of a resected nodule. Computed tomography allowed us to bring out the widespread dissemination of cysticerci. The skin, brain, muscle, eye, thyroid, and pleura were the affected organs. Treatment was based on albendazole and betamethasone, with adverse side effects in 2 of our 3 patients. Our 3 observations seem to be the first of their kind in Togo. The mechanism of contamination in these disseminated forms is not yet elucidated, however ingesting a gravid proglottis could be the basis of the widespread dissemination of cysticerci in the body. No consensus has yet been established in the treatment of DC and the management should follow the guideline for treatment of neurocysticercosis and ocular cysticercosis. PMID:25893814

  11. High Prevalence of Cysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rottbeck, Ruth; Nshimiyimana, Jules Fidèle; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Düll, Uta E.; Sattler, Janko; Hategekimana, Jean-Claudien; Hitayezu, Janvier; Bruckmaier, Irmengard; Borchert, Matthias; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Harms, Gundel

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by Taenia solium larvae, is a preventable and treatable cause of epilepsy. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of NCC in epilepsy differs geographically and, overall, is poorly defined. We aimed at contributing specific, first data for Rwanda, assessing factors associated with NCC, and evaluating a real-time PCR assay to diagnose NCC in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal findings At three healthcare facilities in southern Rwanda, 215 people with epilepsy (PWE) and 51 controls were clinically examined, interviewed, and tested by immunoblot for cysticerci-specific serum antibodies. Additionally, CSF samples from PWE were tested for anticysticercal antibodies by ELISA and for parasite DNA by PCR. Cranial computer tomography (CT) scans were available for 12.1% of PWE with additional symptoms suggestive of NCC. The Del Brutto criteria were applied for NCC diagnosis. Cysticerci-specific serum antibodies were found in 21.8% of PWE and 4% of controls (odds ratio (OR), 6.69; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.6–58.7). Seropositivity was associated with age and lack of safe drinking water. Fifty (23.3%) PWE were considered NCC cases (definitive, based on CT scans, 7.4%; probable, mainly based on positive immunoblots, 15.8%). In CSF samples from NCC cases, anticysticercal antibodies were detected in 10% (definitive cases, 25%) and parasite DNA in 16% (definitive cases, 44%). Immunoblot-positive PWE were older (medians, 30 vs. 22 years), more frequently had late-onset epilepsy (at age >25 years; 43.5% vs. 8.5%; OR, 8.30; 95%CI, 3.5–20.0), and suffered from significantly fewer episodes of seizures in the preceding six months than immunoblot-negative PWE. Conclusions/Significance NCC is present and contributes to epilepsy in southern Rwanda. Systematic investigations into porcine and human cysticercosis as well as health education and hygiene measures for T. solium control are needed. PCR might provide an additional, highly specific tool in NCC diagnosis. PMID:24244783

  12. Coadministration of protoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis with metacestode extract confers protective immunity to murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Moreno, S; García-Hernández, A L; Moreno-Fierros, L

    2014-06-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) is a promising mucosal immunogen and adjuvant that induces protective immunity against Naegleria fowleri and malaria infection models. We determined whether pCry1Ac acted as a protective adjuvant against infection with Taenia crassiceps. BALB/C mice were thrice i.p. immunized with (i) pCry1Ac, (ii) metacestode extract, (iii) extract + pCry1Ac or (iv) vehicle, challenged with metacestodes on day 26 and then sacrificed 35 days later. Cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity were counted, while the serum antibody response and cytokines were analysed after immunization and during infection. Only immunization with pCry1Ac plus extract conferred a significant protection (up to 47%). This group presented fluctuating antibody peaks during infection and the highest IgG1 and IgM titres. Immunization with extract alone elicited high IgG1 and the highest IgG2a responses after 25 days of infection, while nonimmunized mice presented a poor, mixed-Th1/Th2 response during infection. Sharp peaks of TNF? and IFN-? occurred immediately after the first immunization with extract, especially in the presence of pCry1Ac, but not after the challenge, while in the control and pCry1Ac-alone groups, cytokines were only detected after the challenge. The data support the protective-adjuvant effect of co-administration of pCry1Ac in cysticercosis. PMID:24484070

  13. Cysticercosis: Recent advances in diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Yancey; Pedro J. Diaz-Marchan; A. Clinton White

    2005-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is increasingly recognized as a cause of neurologic\\u000a disease worldwide. Because the clinical presentation is nonspecific, diagnosis has been difficult. Advances in imaging studies\\u000a and serodiagnostic techniques are facilitating the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis and tapeworm carriers. Neurocysticercosis\\u000a represents a spectrum of disease. Seizures are the main clinical manifestation in parenchymal

  14. Helminth antigens ( Taenia solium, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus) and cross-reactivities in human infections and immunized animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. I. Ishida; G. Rubinsky-Elefant; A. W. Ferreira; S. Hoshino-Shimizu; A. J. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline

  15. Serological Studies of Neurologic Helminthic Infections in Rural Areas of Southwest Cameroon: Toxocariasis, Cysticercosis and Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Conclusions/Significance Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment. PMID:20625553

  16. Cysticercosis lesions in basal ganglia are common but clinically silent.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Carlos; Velez, Miriam; Torres, Luis; Garcia, Hector H

    2002-01-01

    Movement disorders due to basal ganglia involvement by neurocysticercosis are rarely seen. To evaluate the frequency of basal ganglia location of cysticercotic cysts and its clinical manifestations, baseline MRI scans of 120 consecutive patients with active neurocysticercosis were reviewed and the presence and number of active cysticercosis lesions (viable cysts or enhancing lesions) in the basal ganglia were recorded and correlated with demographic and clinical data. Basal ganglia involvement was found in 32 cases (26.7%). The frequency of lesions in basal ganglia was related to the total number of lesions, ranging from 5% of patients with a single cysticerci, to 60% in patients with more than five parasites. Putamen and caudate nuclei were the most frequent sites of lesions. No significant difference between both hemispheres was observed. Basal ganglia localization is common in neurocysticercosis but it is rarely associated with clinical manifestations. PMID:11792479

  17. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Kimbi, Eliakunda C; Ngowi, Helena A; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mlangwa, James E; Lekule, Faustin P; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Willingham, Arve Lee; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2013-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by the larval stage of a zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium, is known to pose serious economic losses and public health risk among smallholder pig production communities. The present study was conducted to determine prevalence and associated risk factors for PC in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600 male and female pigs of different age categories were randomly selected and examined for PC using lingual examination method and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The overall pig level PC prevalence in Mbozi district was 11.7% (95% CI=8.5-15.8%) and 32% (95% CI: 27-37.5%) based on lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbeya Rural district, the prevalences were 6% (95% CI: 3.8-9.3%) and 30.7% (95% CI: 25.8-36.1%) by lingual examination and Ag-ELISA, respectively. In Mbozi district 46% of the households were found infected (one or more infected pigs) and the corresponding figure was 45% for Mbeya Rural district. The agreement between lingual examination and Ag-ELISA was poor (?<0.40). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of PC in different sex categories of pigs. Significant risk factors associated with PC prevalence were free roaming of pigs (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.3-3.6; p=0.006), past experience of porcine cysticercosis in the household (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.5-4.8; p=0.002), increased age of pig (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2-3.0), slatted raised floor in pig pen (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.0-70.0), in-house origin of the pig (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1-2.5) and sourcing of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p<0.001) and ponds (OR=5.0; 95% CI=1.2-21.7; p=0.031). This study has clearly revealed a high sero-prevalence of PC in the study area, which imposes a major economical and public health burden to the smallholder pig farmers. The study also points to a number of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium. PMID:24139481

  18. Distribution of hydatidosis and cysticercosis in different Peruvian populations as demonstrated by an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG).

    PubMed

    Moro, P L; Guevara, A; Verastegui, M; Gilman, R H; Poma, H; Tapia, B; Tsang, V C; Garcia, H H; Pacheco, R; Lapel, C

    1994-12-01

    A serosurvey for human hydatidosis and cysticercosis was performed in different regions of Peru. Those regions included a known endemic area for cystic hydatid disease, a cooperative in the central Peruvian Andes near the city of Tarma, Department of Junin; three areas endemic for cysticercosis in the Departments of Ancash, Cuzco, and San Martin, where the status of hydatid disease is not well defined; and an urban shantytown near Lima, where neither zoonosis is known to be present. A seroprevalence for hydatidosis 1.9% (6 of 309) was found with both the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) and double diffusion assays in the area endemic for hydatidosis. Seroprevalence in the other zones tested was zero using only the EITB assay. Cysticercosis seroprevalence was high in pig-raising zones but low in the high-altitude, sheep-raising areas and in the seaport of Callao. No cross-reactions between Echinococcus granulosus and cysticercosis were noted in any of the regions studied. Hydatid infection remains a major health problem in the central Peruvian Andes where sheep raising is widely practiced; however, in those regions where mainly swine are raised, human hydatid infection is not a problem. PMID:7810822

  19. Recent Situation of Taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. PMID:24850968

  20. Isolated Soft Tissue Cysticercosis Involving the Trunk in Children: Report of 4 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shalini; Tiwari, Abhishek; Khurana, Nita

    2013-01-01

    Isolated soft tissue cysticercosis of the trunk in the absence of concurrent central nervous system involvement is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose. We report 4 such cases in the pediatric age group. Preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue cysticercosis was considered only in 1 patient, the rest were diagnosed only after biopsy. Complete excision (without rupture) was done. All of them underwent a CT scan head along with ophthalmic examination to rule out the more common sites of occurrence of cysticercosis. No further treatment was undertaken as the evaluation was negative. In endemic areas like ours we must suspect this entity not only in the limb muscles, but also in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk. If diagnosed accurately, it can be treated medically, eliminating the need for surgery. PMID:24381831

  1. An unusual migration of Taenia hydatigena larvae in a lamb.

    PubMed

    Nourani, H; Pirali Kheirabadi, K H; Rajabi, H; Banitalebi, A

    2010-12-01

    The liver and lungs of an four month old, female dead lamb was referred to Veterinary clinic of Shahrekord, Iran by a sheepherder due to outbreak of an unknown disease that caused four deaths in the livestock over a period of one week. Post-mortem examination of the liver showed a massive infection of Taenia hydatigena larvae. Diffuse, spiral and haemorrhagic tracts made by migrating larvae were seen throughout the liver. Large brown to red areas of haemorrhages also appeared on the liver cut surfaces. All the recovered T. hydatigena larvae from migratory canals and hepatic surfaces were all immatures. There was no mature cyst formation. No evidence of pulmonary involvement was found. Histopathological examinations of the liver revealed numerous sections of migratory tracts filled with red blood cells, fibrin and tissue debris. Sections of T. hydatigena larvae were observed at the ends of migratory canals. Hepatocellular degeneration, necrosis, fatty change and infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were associated with these tracts. This article reports outbreak of an unusual and severe hepatitis cysticercosa with striking hepatic lesions that caused mortality in a livestock. PMID:21399607

  2. An up-date of Verster's (1969) `Taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus' (Cestoda) in table format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Loos-Frank

    2000-01-01

    The paper `A taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus, 1758 s. str.' (Verster, 1969) gives concise characterisations, together with drawings of rostellar hooks and the terminal genital organs, of the 32 Taenia species and three subspecies which this author found to be valid. Yet, it is hardly possible to quickly identify a questionable species or to readily access information on their

  3. Immune Destruction of Larval Taenia crassiceps in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, K. A.; Spolski, R. J.; See, E. J.; Kuhn, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps was examined by first injecting BALB/cJ mice subcutaneously with larval buds and 30 to 60 days later challenging the mice with larvae injected into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) secondarily are killed by host cells that completely encase the larvae in a thick sheath. The peritoneal exudate cells and the cytokines they produced were characterized by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). No changes in percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B1 cells, or macrophages were detected in the peritoneal cavities of mice that were killing larvae compared to mice with a primary 7-day infection i.p. Both RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated a decrease in cytokines including gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in mice that were killing the larvae compared to control mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, although there was little difference compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Serum cytokine levels in mice that were killing the larvae showed a decrease in IFN-? and IL-4, an increase in IL-10 when compared to mice infected for 30 to 60 days i.p. alone, and increases in all cytokines compared to mice infected for 7 days i.p. alone. Inhibition of nitric oxide production did not significantly affect the number or the viability of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mice that were killing larvae during secondary infection. PMID:10768922

  4. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and dingo/domestic dog hybrids), as sylvatic hosts for Australian Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.; Urwin, Nigel A.R.; Williams, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Kate L.; Lievaart, Jan J.; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Foxes (n = 499), shot during vertebrate pest control programs, were collected in various sites in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA). Wild dogs (dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and their hybrids with domestic dogs) (n = 52) captured also as part of vertebrate pest control programs were collected from several sites in the ACT and NSW. The intestine from each fox and wild dog was collected, and all Taenia tapeworms identified morphologically were collected and identified to species based on the DNA sequence of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene. Taenia species were recovered from 6.0% of the ACT/NSW foxes, 5.1% of WA foxes and 46.1% of ACT/NSW wild dogs. Taenia ovis was recovered from two foxes, 1/80 from Jugiong, NSW and 1/102 from Katanning, WA. We confirm from rrnS sequences the presence of T. ovis in cysts from hearts and diaphragms and Taeniahydatigena in cysts from livers of sheep in Australia. T.ovis was not recovered from any of the wild dogs examined but T. hydatigena were recovered from 4(8.3%) wild dogs and a single fox. With foxes identified as a definitive host for T. ovis in Australia, new control strategies to stop transmission of T. ovis to sheep need to be adopted. PMID:25161904

  5. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary collaborations between the veterinary and medical sectors to achieve a national reporting and control programme. PMID:24547659

  6. Preliminary field trial of a vaccine against coenurosis caused by Taenia multiceps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Varcasia; G. Tosciri; G. N. Sanna Coccone; A. P. Pipia; G. Garippa; A. Scala; V. Damien; G. Vural; C. G. Gauci; M. W. Lightowlers

    2009-01-01

    Taenia multiceps is a taeniid cestode that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the intermediate hosts, the larval stage of T. multiceps causes coenurosis, a common disease in the CNS of ruminants, which typically leads to the death of the infected animals. Recent research into new methods for control of coenurosis

  7. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Maravilla; Adriana Garza-Rodriguez; Benjamin Gomez-Diaz; Diego Emiliano Jimenez-Gonzalez; Elizabeth Toral-Bastida; Joel Martinez-Ocaña; Brett West; Nadia Molina; Ramon Garcia-Cortes; Simon Kawa-Karasik; Mirza Romero-Valdovinos; Guillermina Avila-Ramirez; Ana Flisser

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14days starting the day

  8. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland.

    PubMed

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-03-23

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Muskoxen and caribou are the only wild ungulates in Greenland. PMID:21955737

  9. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  10. Minimally invasive bone-saving orbitotomy for removal of optic nerve cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Vaitheeswaran, Krishna; Kaur, Preetinder; Garg, Shalini

    2015-04-01

    A 32-year-old man previously being managed for multiple neurocysticercosis presented with a reduction in vision and pain on eye movement. Fundus examination revealed disc edema with venous dilatation. MRI showed a localized hypointensity on T1 weighted images and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images suggestive of a cyst in the optic nerve sheath. Medical therapy with albendazole and steroids did not improve vision. Surgical removal of the cyst was achieved by a modified lateral orbital exploration using a lateral canthal incision without bone removal, with full recovery of vision. Histopathological examination confirmed cysticercosis. PMID:25835813

  11. Visual hallucinations of autobiographic memory and asomatognosia: a case of epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Kerik, Nora Estela; Diaz Meneses, Iván; Pérez-Gay, Fernanda Juárez

    2015-10-01

    The current study describes the case of a woman with symptomatic epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis acquired during childhood. During her adolescence, she developed seizures characterized by metamorphopsia, hallucinations of autobiographic memory and, finally, asomatognosia. Magnetic brain imaging showed a calcified lesion in the right occipitotemporal cortex, and positron emission tomography imaging confirmed the presence of interictal hypometabolism in two regions: the right parietal cortex and the right lateral and posterior temporal cortex. We discuss the link between these brain areas and the symptoms described under the concepts of epileptogenic lesion, epileptogenic zone, functional deficit zone, and symptomatogenic zone. PMID:25301252

  12. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  13. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Burlet; Peter Deplazes; Daniel Hegglin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and

  14. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): An inference from nuclear protein-coding genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Knapp; Minoru Nakao; Tetsuya Yanagida; Munehiro Okamoto; Urmas Saarma; Antti Lavikainen; Akira Ito

    2011-01-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate

  15. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aciöz, Mehmet; De?erli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Çetin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (?2 = 31.96, P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the schools for Taenia spp. (?2 = 4.37; P > 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (?2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children. PMID:15951641

  16. Taenia solium metacestode antigens which are protective for pigs induce Th1\\/Th2 mixed responses in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Cortes; Jose Luis Molinari; Sandra Solano; Lilian Hernandez-Mendoza; Antonio Ramirez; Patricia Tato

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses induced by Taenia solium metacestode antigens in mice and correlate them with the immune responses elicited in vivo. To assess this aim, mice were inoculated with metacestode antigens. RNA was obtained from spleen cells of immunized or control mice incubated with metacestode antigens and used to

  17. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon in Taenia crassiceps strobilae WFU strain (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae) from golden hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaethe Willms; Lilia Robert; José Agustín Jiménez; Mary Everhart; Raymond E. Kuhn

    2004-01-01

    Strobilae from Taenia crassiceps (WFU strain) were obtained from outbred hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus) by feeding them viable metacestodes maintained by intraperitoneal passage in female Balb\\/c mice. Mature and gravid proglottids from strobilae were recovered from hamster intestines and fixed for light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, the expected structure of taeniid proglottids was observed. Ultrastructural analysis of ten

  18. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  19. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  20. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents. PMID:23229489

  1. Intramedullary cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, R N; Hughes, J E; Sachdev, R K; Jarenwattananon, A

    1986-08-01

    In 1976 a 28-year-old Ecuadoran male suffered paraparesis after a kick to his back. Iophendylate myelography was followed by thoracic laminectomy with incomplete resolution of the paraparesis. One year later, worsening of the paraparesis was managed by further thoracic laminectomy without improvement. In 1978 a spinal cord stimulator was implanted via low thoracic laminectomy as a measure to counter his spasticity. In 1984 metrizamide myelography and computed tomography scanning were performed for increasing spastic paraparesis that disclosed an intramedullary lesion at the T-4 level. Exploration and myelotomy revealed an intramedullary cysticercal cyst, which was totally removed. PMID:3726745

  2. The implantation of Taenia solium metacestodes in mice induces down-modulation of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilian Hernández-Mendoza; José Luis Molinari; Esperanza Garrido; Isabel Cortés; Sandra Solano; Enrique Miranda; Patricia Tato

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the implantation of Taenia solium metacestodes and the treatment with suppressive metacestode factor (F1) on the ability of spleen cells from Balb\\/c mice to produce cytokines. Cytokine production was estimated 12 days following the implantation or 4 days after the last dose of F1 (five doses) by RT-PCR and flow cytometry

  3. Inhibition by ouabain and veratridine of acetylcholine-evoked phasic contraction in the guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadaharu Usune I; Takeshi Katsuragi; Tatsuo Furukawa

    1991-01-01

    Inhibitory action of ouabain and veratridine on acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked phasic contraction was examined in the guinea-pig taenia coli. ACh (5×10-4m) produced a biphasic (phasic and tonic) contraction. As the phasic contraction, but not the tonic contraction, was resistant to gallopamil (D600, 2 × 10-7m), a blocker of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, all experiments were carried out in the presence of gallopamil

  4. Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method Using Fecal Specimens for Differential Detection of Taenia Species from Humans? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Wandra, Toni; Swastika, I. Kadek; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We compared the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with that of a multiplex PCR method for differential detection of human Taenia parasites in fecal specimens from taeniasis patients. The LAMP method, with no false positives, showed a higher sensitivity (88.4%) than the multiplex PCR (37.2%). Thus, it is expected that the LAMP method has a high value for molecular diagnosis of taeniasis. PMID:20631114

  5. Relative seroprevalence of cysticercus antigens and antibodies and antibodies to Taenia ova in a population sample in south India suggests immunity against neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T; Prabhakaran, V; Babu, P; Raghava, M Venkata; Rajshekhar, V; Dorny, P; Muliyil, J; Oommen, A

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the exposure of a community in Vellore district of south India to Taenia solium infection and its relationship to the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) causing active epilepsy. Seroprevalence of Taenia cysticercus antigens and antibodies were determined in 1064 randomly chosen asymptomatic individuals, antibodies to T. solium ova in 197 selected sera, and prevalence of taeniasis by a coproantigen test in 729 stool samples. The prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy in Vellore district was determined in a population of 50 617. Coproantigens were detected in 0.8% (6 samples), Taenia cysticercus antigens in 4.5% (48 sera) and cysticercus IgG antibodies in 15.9% (169 sera) of the population. Cysticercus antibodies were directed against relatively low molecular weight cyst glycoprotein antigens in 14.9% (158 sera) of the population. IgG antibodies to Taenia ova were found in 81 (41.1%) of the selected samples. Prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy was 1.3 per 1000 population. These results show high exposure of the population to the parasite and a relatively high prevalence of active infections (4.5% antigen positives) but a low prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy (0.13%). These findings may indicate that the population is protected against developing neurocysticercosis. IgG antibodies directed against Taenia ova and low molecular weight cyst antigens may contribute to protection. PMID:21216417

  6. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere. PMID:21980787

  7. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. PMID:25450723

  8. Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

  9. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at ?70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts.

  10. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis. PMID:24768954

  11. A mechanism to account for mouse strain variation in resistance to the larval cestode, Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, G F; Rajasekariah, G R; Rickard, M D

    1980-01-01

    Mice of various inbred strains differ markedly in resistance to first infection with Taenia taeniaeformis. Hypothymic nude mice of relatively resistant (e.g. BALB/c) and relatively susceptible (e.g. CBA/H) genotypes are highly susceptible but both can be protected against infection by injection of serum from infected mice. Using differential pH elution of "immune serum" from protein A-Sepharose, evidence was obtained that a combination of the pH 6 eluate (enriched for IgG1 molecules) plus the pH 3 or 4 eluate (enriched for IgG2 molecules) was more effective than either eluate alone at transferring protection to nude mice. By using whole serum transfer techniques, the rate of appearance of "host protective serum activity" (presumably antibody) was shown to be increased in genetically resistant versus susceptible mouse strains. It is suggested that, in relatively resistant mouse strains, host protective antibodies prejudice the establishment (or subsequent survival) of larvae prior to the full expression of protective mechanisms in the establishing larvae. In keeping with a host-protective effect of an accelerated immune response early in infection, a high dose challenge with eggs actually resulted in lower infection levels in genetically resistant mouse strains such as BALB/c and C57B1/6. The proposed mechanism of immunologically mediated, genetically based variation in susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis should not influence the effectiveness of a model vaccine against first infection in all strains of mice. PMID:7380476

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  13. [Construction and identification of the Bifidobacterium expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum of Taenia solium].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bi-Ying; Liu, Mei-Chen; He, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria shuttle vector pGEX-1lambdaT. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSOL18 was transformed into Bifidobacterium longum with electroporation. The recombinant plasmid containing TSOL18 gene was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The length of synthesized TSOL18 gene was 393 bp. The results indicated that the Bifidobacteria expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum was successfully constructed. PMID:25223064

  14. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  15. Chinchilla laniger can be used as an experimental model for Taenia solium taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Pablo; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Gomez-Diaz, Benjamin; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; West, Brett; Molina, Nadia; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Kawa-Karasik, Simon; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Chinchilla laniger has been reported as an experimental definitive host for Taenia solium; however no information about its suitability and yield of gravid tapeworm proglottids containing viable and infective eggs has been published. In total 55 outbred female chinchillas were infected with 4 cysticerci each; hosts were immunodeppressed with 6 or 8 mg of methyl-prednisolone acetate every 14 days starting the day of infection and their discomfort was followed. Kinetics of coproantigen ELISA or expelled proglottids was used to define the infection status. Efficiency of tapeworm establishment was 21% and of parasite gravidity was 8%; chinchillas showed some degree of suffering along the infection. Viability of eggs obtained from gravid proglottids was tested comparing methods previously published, our results showed 62% viability with propidium iodide, 54% with trypan blue, 34% with neutral red, 30% by oncosphere activation and 7% with bromide 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT) reduction; no statistical differences were obtained between most techniques, except activation. Four piglets were infected with 50,000 eggs each, necropsy was performed 3 months later and, after counting the number of cysticerci recovered, the percentage of infection was similar to data obtained with T. solium eggs recovered from humans. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of T. solium taeniasis in C. laniger is a good alternative for providing eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments; optimization of the model probably depends on the use of inbred hosts and on the reduction of infected animals' suffering. PMID:21723412

  16. Taenia solium Oncosphere Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells In Vitro?

    PubMed Central

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando

    2007-01-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4°C compared with the adherence at 37°C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

  17. Sodium/sodium exchange in the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brading, A F

    1975-01-01

    External Na has been shown to initiate a loss of 24 Na from high-Na smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli. This is an ouabain-insensitive effect, and there appears to be a 1:1 exchange of Na ions, suggesting a classical Na/Na exchange mechanism. 2. The Na/Na exchange has many properties in common with a similar exchange studied in high-Na beef erythrocytes by Motais (1973), and Motais & Sola (1973). It is very temperature-sensitive, it is partially inhibited by the sulphydryl reagents studied and it has a fairly low external affinity for Na. 3. The affinity of the external site for alkali metal cations is Na greater than Li greater than K greater than Rb greater than Cs. 4. It has proved impossible to estimate the affinity of the intracellular sites for Na. The curve relating intracellular Na content with the stimulated efflux reaches a maximum and then declines slightly. 5. Another unexpected finding was that after the rate of loss of Na has been reduced in a Na-free medium, reintroducing Na causes an overshoot in the rate, it increases to a value beyond the original one, and then slowly declines to it. 6. Unlike the classical Na/Na mechanism, the process is reduced, but not abolished by metabolic inhibition that depletes the tissue of ATP. 7. The results are interpreted to suggest that the Na/Na exchange is occurring from a cellular compartment of limited volume, which is itself exchanging with the main cell compartment. It is suggested that this small compartment is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the effect of metabolic inhibition is to interfere in some way with the relationship between this compartment and the cell membrane. PMID:1185662

  18. Identification of neglected cestode Taenia multiceps microRNAs by illumina sequencing and bioinformatic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, but especially in developing countries, coenurosis of sheep and other livestock is caused by Taenia multiceps larvae, and zoonotic infections occur in humans. Infections frequently lead to host death, resulting in huge socioeconomic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of a large number of animal genes by imperfectly binding target mRNAs. To date, there have been no reports of miRNAs in T. multiceps. Results In this study, we obtained 12.8 million high quality raw reads from adult T. multiceps small RNA library using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNA families (containing 1,006 miRNAs) from 170,888 unique miRNAs were characterized using miRBase (Release 17.0). Here, we selected three conserved miRNA/miRNA* (antisense strand) duplexes at random and amplified their corresponding precursors using a PCR-based method. Furthermore, 20 candidate novel miRNA precursors were verified by genomic PCR. Among these, six corresponding T. multiceps miRNAs are considered specific for Taeniidae because no homologs were found in other species annotated in miRBase. In addition, 181,077 target sites within T. multiceps transcriptome were predicted for 20 candidate newly miRNAs. Conclusions Our large-scale investigation of miRNAs in adult T. multiceps provides a substantial platform for improving our understanding of the molecular regulation of T. multiceps and other cestodes development. PMID:23941076

  19. Characterization of a Thioredoxin-1 Gene from Taenia solium and Its Encoding Product.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Lucía; Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium thioredoxin-1 gene (TsTrx-1) has a length of 771?bp with three exons and two introns. The core promoter gene presents two putative stress transcription factor binding sites, one putative TATA box, and a transcription start site (TSS). TsTrx-1 mRNA is expressed higher in larvae than in adult. This gene encodes a protein of 107 amino acids that presents the Trx active site (CGPC), the classical secondary structure of the thioredoxin fold, and the highest degree of identity with the Echinococcus granulosus Trx. A recombinant TsTrx-1 (rTsTrx-1) was produced in Escherichia coli with redox activity. Optimal activity for rTsTrx-1 was at pH 6.5 in the range of 15 to 25°C. The enzyme conserved activity for 3?h and lost it in 24?h at 37°C. rTsTrx-1 lost 50% activity after 1?h and lost activity completely in 24?h at temperatures higher than 55°C. Best storage temperature for rTsTrx-1 was at -70°C. It was inhibited by high concentrations of H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MG), but it was inhibited neither by NaCl nor by anti-rTsTrx-1 rabbit antibodies that strongly recognized a ~12?kDa band in extracts from several parasites. These TsTrx-1 properties open the opportunity to study its role in relationship T. solium-hosts. PMID:26090410

  20. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  1. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17?-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17?-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17?-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17?-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17?HSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17?-HSD induced expression of Tsol17?-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17?-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. PMID:24698785

  2. gamma delta T cells do not play a major role in controlling infection in experimental cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, S A; Spolski, R J; Mooney, K A; Kuhn, R E

    1999-10-01

    Protective immunity against larval Taenia crassiceps has been shown to rely on T cells; however, the roles of the specific subsets of T cells during infection are not known. To investigate a possible role for gamma delta T cells, this study investigated larval infection in delta-chain knock-out C57BL/6 (deltaKO) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. It was found that deltaKO mice and C57BL/6 mice were equally susceptible to infection suggesting gamma delta T cells do not play a major role in protective immunity. Cytokine production by concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cells from infected deltaKO mice and C57BL/6 mice were determined. All infected mice demonstrated an increased IL-10 production suggesting a Th1-inhibitory function. Cells from infected deltaKO mice and C57BL/6 mice did not show increases in IL-4 production. Heavily-infected C57BL/6 mice showed a decrease in IFN-gamma production compared to deltaKO mice. These observations suggest that an increase in IL-10 production best correlates with a non-protective immune response. To make comparisons between in vitro cytokine production and systemic immune responses, cytokine levels in serum were determined. C57BL/6 mice and deltaKO mice showed increases in serum levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma at 52 days post-infection. The systemic immune response of these mice, therefore, is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response and gamma delta T cells are apparently not responsible for the systemic increases in these cytokines. PMID:10581620

  3. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  4. Current status of taeniasis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

    2013-02-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  5. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. PMID:24382413

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Zhong Jia; Hong-Bin Yan; Ai-Jiang Guo; Xing-Quan Zhu; Yu-Chao Wang; Wan-Gui Shi; Hao-Tai Chen; Fang Zhan; Shao-Hua Zhang; Bao-Quan Fu; D Timothy J Littlewood; Xue-Peng Cai

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set

  7. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031

  8. Vaccination against cestode parasites: anti-helminth vaccines that work and why

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W Lightowlers; A. L Colebrook; C. G Gauci; S. M Gauci; C. T Kyngdon; J. L Monkhouse; C Vallejo Rodriquez; A. J Read; R. A Rolfe; C Sato

    2003-01-01

    Highly effective recombinant vaccines have been developed against the helminth parasites Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata and Echinococcus granulosus. These vaccines indicate that it is possible to achieve a reliable, high level of protection against a complex metazoan parasite using defined recombinant antigens. However, the effectiveness of the vaccines against the taeniid cestodes stands in contrast to the more limited successes

  9. Comparative effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on contraction and 45Ca uptake in the smooth muscle of rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karaki, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Urakawa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on muscle tension and 45Ca uptake activated in different ways were compared in rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rabbit aorta, K-induced contraction was specifically inhibited by verapamil and noradrenaline-induced contraction by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K-induced and noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by verapamil or by sodium nitroprusside also. In taenia, both K- and histamine-induced sustained contractions were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. The effect of verapamil was competitively antagonized by external Ca, while that of sodium nitroprusside was not. High K, noradrenaline and histamine increased the rate of 45Ca uptake in aortae and taenia. In rabbit aorta the increment in response to high K was specifically inhibited by verapamil and the increment induced by noradrenaline was specifically inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, increments induced by both high K and noradrenaline were inhibited by verapamil and by sodium nitroprusside. In taenia, the increments induced by high K and by histamine were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. These results suggest different characteristics of Ca entry systems in these smooth muscles. In rabbit aorta, there seem to be two Ca channels, one of which is activated by high K and inhibited by verapamil, while the other is activated by noradrenaline and inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K- and noradrenaline-activated Ca pathways are sensitive to both verapamil and sodium nitroprusside whereas, in taenia, both K- and histamine-activated Ca pathways are sensitive only to verapamil. PMID:6322897

  10. Pharmacological effects of isopolar phosphonate analogues of ATP on P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, N. J.; Hourani, S. M.; Loizou, G. D.; Welford, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Isopolar methylene phosphonate analogues of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were synthesized and tested on the guinea-pig isolated taenia coli (where ATP causes relaxation) and urinary bladder (where ATP causes contraction), to see if restoration of the electronegativity of the methylene linkage would enhance pharmacological potency. The compounds used were the dichloromethylene and difluoromethylene analogues of adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (AMP-PCP), L-adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)triphosphonate (L-AMP-PCP) and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)-triphosphonate (2-methylthio-AMP-PCP). The order of potency of the analogues depended on the tissue, and was independent of the nature of the purine or ribose moieties. None of the analogues was degraded by ectonucleotidases on either tissue. In the taenia coli the order of potency for relaxation was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to dichloromethylene greater than methylene, and this reflected the order of electronegativity of the analogues. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were inactive in the taenia coli. In the bladder the order of potency for contraction was difluoromethylene greater than or equal to methylene greater than dichloromethylene, suggesting that electronegativity is of lesser importance here. The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP were active in this tissue. The differences between the two tissues in the order of potency for these non-degradable analogues supports suggestions that P2-purinoceptors in the taenia coli (P2Y) are different from those in the bladder (P2X). The isopolar analogues of L-AMP-PCP, like L-AMP-PCP itself, were selective agonists at the P2X-purinoceptor. PMID:3580709

  11. A quantitative relationship between cellular Na accumulation and relaxation produced by ouabain in the depolarized smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Kishimoto; Hiroshi Ozaki; Norimoto Urakawa

    1980-01-01

    1.An investigation was made of the effect of oubain on the membrane potential, tension development,45Ca uptake and intracellular Na and K contents of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig taenia coli depolarized by high-K solution. The results were compared with the effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil.2.All drugs produced concentration-dependent relaxations of high-K induced contractures without affecting the depolarization of the

  12. Decrease of peritoneal inflammatory CD4 + , CD8 + , CD19 + lymphocytes and apoptosis of eosinophils in a murine Taenia crassiceps infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Zepeda; Sandra Solano; Natalia Copitin; Ana María Fernández; Lilián Hernández; Patricia Tato; José L. Molinari

    2010-01-01

    After an intraperitoneal infection of mice with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, peritoneal inflammatory cells labeled with fluoresceinated MoAb anti-mouse were analyzed by flow cytometry.\\u000a Apoptosis was studied by annexin A\\/PI, TUNEL assays, DNA laddering, caspase-3 activity, and electron microscopy. An important\\u000a continuous decrease of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes, and an increase of eosinophils and macrophages throughout the observation\\u000a time were

  13. The effect of loop diuretics on Cl- transport in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens and taenia from the caecum.

    PubMed

    Aickin, C C; Brading, A F

    1990-02-01

    1. The role of Na+, K+, Cl- co-transport, identified in the previous paper (Aickin & Brading, 1990), has been characterized further by investigation of the effects of loop diuretics on Cl- movements in the smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig vas deferens measured by 36Cl fluxes and Cl(-)-sensitive microelectrodes. Some flux experiments were also repeated in the taenia from the guinea-pig caecum. 2. Frusemide (2 mM) reduced the steady-state Cl- content, slowed 36Cl loss into Cl(-)-free solution and both slowed and reduced Cl- accumulation by Cl(-)-depleted cells of the vas deferens. When anion exchange was inhibited by the presence of DIDS, (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), frusemide further slowed the loss of Cl- into Cl(-)-free solution, further reduced Cl- accumulation such that Cl- uptake amounted to a level consistent with a passive distribution and halted the rise in the intracellular Cl- activity (aiCl) at levels above about 10 mM. 3. Application of the higher-affinity loop diuretics bumetanide and piretanide in vas deferns had no significant effect on 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free solution or on the initial rate of rise of aiCl but reduced the final level attained. In the presence of DIDS, however, both agents further slowed efflux into Cl(-)-free solution, and halted the rise in aiCl at levels above about 10 mM. Measurement of greatly slowed intracellular pH transients on removal and readdition of external Cl- (Clo-) in the presence of frusemide suggests that the larger effects of this drug are mediated by inhibition of anion exchange as well as of co-transport. 4. The relative potency of the loop diuretics, investigated in the presence of DIDS was: bumetanide greater than piretanide greater than frusemide. This sequence was found in both vas deferens, using direct measurement of aiCl, and taenia, using 36Cl uptake. 5. Comparison of data from the vas and taenia showed that 36Cl efflux into Cl(-)-free, HCO3(-)-free solution was about twice as fast in the taenia, and that bumetanide or piretanide reduced this efflux to about the same rate as that observed in the vas with or without the loop diuretic. DIDS caused a similar absolute reduction of efflux in both preparations. 6. Stimulation of 36Cl efflux on readdition, and inhibition on removal of Nao+ in the presence of DIDS, was much greater in the taenia than in vas and in both preparations was blocked by bumetanide or piretanide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1693398

  14. Retrospective and spatial analysis tools for integrated surveillance of cystic echinococcosis and bovine cysticercosis in hypo-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Mulatti, Paolo; Zanardello, Claudia; Simonato, Giulia; Signorini, Manuela; Cazzin, Stefania; Tambalo, PierGiorgio; Cobianchi, Mario; Pietrobelli, Mario; Capelli, Gioia

    2014-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and bovine cysticercosis (BC) are two important parasitic zoonoses, whose prevalence varies among European countries. Few data are available on prevalence and geographic distribution of these two diseases in Veneto region in North-Eastern Italy, where they are generally perceived as minor public health problems. Available data from regional farms on cattle positive to CE and BC and slaughtered in the period 2006-2010 were analysed by spatial scan statistic using a Bernoulli probablility model. Out of 576 bovines testing positive to CE, 467 were found to be autochthonous cases. Three significant CE clusters were identified, the most likely one (P < 0.0001) located in the eastern part of the Veneto region. As for BC, two clusters were identified from 148 animals resting positive, 91 which were autochthonous. An epidemiological survey was conducted and the most likely CE cluster was centered, collecting faecal samples from 28 dogs living in the farms of the area. Out of five animals (all shepherd dogs) found positive for taenid eggs by copromicroscopy, one was confirmed positive for Echinoccus granulosus by means of polymerase chain reaction. The study demonstrates the usefulness of integration of slaughterhouse data and geographical coordinates of farms involved for effective surveillance of CE and BC. The reliability of the spatial analysis in the identification of clusters of EC cases was confirmed by the finding of one dog positive for E. granulosus. PMID:24893028

  15. Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysts) in sheep and goat from north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Sharma, J K

    2015-03-01

    Taenia hydatigena is an adult parasite of dogs with the metacestode (Cysticercus tenuicollis) stage residing in ruminants and pigs. Documentation and surveillance data concerning to the prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in India is largely lacking. In this experiment, 3,199 carcasses, including 760 sheep and 2,439 goat were examined for the presence of C. tenuicollis (T. hydatigena cysts) on post-mortem inspection at different slaughter houses/shops in northern India. Morphological analysis was also conducted on five samples from each species. Out of 3199 carcasses examined, 135 were found containing cysts of T. hydatigena indicating a prevalence of 4.22 %. Most of the cysts were present in abdominal cavity, except few which were embedded in the liver. The high prevalence of 4.83 was recorded in goats as compared to 2.23 % in sheep. Principal component analysis was applied for statistical analysis. The results of morphological analysis indicated its usefulness as a valid criterion for differentiation of T. hydatigena cysts and that there might be possibility of two different strains infecting sheep and goat. PMID:25698866

  16. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  17. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  18. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  19. Triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI): phage display and antibodies as tools for finding target regions to inhibit catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ayala, Víctor; Belmont, Iaraset; Abraham, Landa

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase of Taenia solium (TTPI) can alter its enzymatic catalysis. In the present study, we used antibodies produced against the NH2-terminal region of TTPI (1/3NH2TTPI) and the phage display technology to find target regions to inhibit TTPI activity. As a first step, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against non-conserved regions from the 1/3NH2TTPI, which had an inhibitory effect of about 74 % on catalytic activity. Afterward, they were used to screen a library of phage-displayed dodecapeptides; as a result, 41 phage mimotope clones were isolated and grouped according to their amino acid sequence, finding the consensus A1 (VPTXPI), A2 (VPTXXI), B (LTPGQ), and D (DPLPR). Antibodies against selected phage mimotope clones were obtained by rabbit's immunization; these ones clearly recognized TTPI by both Western blot and ELISA. However, only the mimotope PDTS16 (DSVTPTSVMAVA) clone, which belongs to the VPTXXI consensus, raised antibodies capable of inhibiting the TTPI catalytic activity in 45 %. Anti-PDTS16 antibodies were confronted to several synthetic peptides that encompass the 1/3NH2TTPI, and they only recognized three, which share the motif FDTLQK belonging to the helix-?1 in TTPI. This suggests that this motif is the main part of the epitope recognized by anti-PDTS16 antibodies and revealed its importance for TTPI catalysis. PMID:25273631

  20. Neurocysticercosis as a Cause of Epilepsy and Seizures in Two Community-Based Studies in a Cysticercosis-Endemic Region in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Luz M.; Saito, Mayuko; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Olaya, Sandra; Ayvar, Viterbo; González, Isidro; Larrauri, Luis; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Llanos, Fernando; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of epilepsy added to inadequate treatment results in chronic morbidity and considerable mortality in poor populations. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminthic disease of the central nervous system, is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world. Methods Taking advantage of a cysticercosis elimination program, we performed two community-based cross-sectional studies between 2006 and 2007 in 58 rural communities (population 20,610) to assess the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in this endemic region. Serological and computed tomography (CT) data in individuals with epilepsy were compared to previous surveys in general population from the same region. Principal findings In two surveys, 17,450 individuals were evaluated. Lifetime prevalence of epilepsy was 17.25/1000, and prevalence of active epilepsy was 10.8/1000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy increased after age 25 years and dropped after age 45. Only 24% (45/188) of patients with active epilepsy were taking antiepileptic drugs, all at sub-therapeutic doses. Antibodies to cysticercosis were found in approximately 40% of individuals with epilepsy in both studies. In one survey only individuals presenting strong antibody reactions were significantly associated with having epilepsy (OR 5.74; p<0.001). In the second, the seroprevalence as well as the proportion presenting strong antibody reactions were both significantly higher in individuals with epilepsy (OR 2.2 and 4.33, respectively). Brain CT showed NCC-compatible images in 109/282 individuals with epilepsy (39%). All individuals with viable parasites on CT were seropositive. Conclusion The prevalence of epilepsy in this cysticercosis endemic region is high and NCC is an important contributor to it. PMID:24551255

  1. Parasite Antigen in Serum Predicts the Presence of Viable Brain Parasites in Patients With Apparently Calcified Cysticercosis Only

    PubMed Central

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Cordova, Erika G.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Pretell, E. Javier; Castillo, Yesenia; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Gabriël, Sarah; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Dorny, Pierre; Garcia, Hector H.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Computed tomography (CT) remains the standard neuroimaging screening exam for neurocysticercosis, and residual brain calcifications are the commonest finding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than CT but is rarely available in endemic regions. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay uses antibody detection for diagnosis confirmation; by contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) detects circulating parasite antigen. This study evaluated whether these assays predict undetected viable cysts in patients with only calcified lesions on brain CT. Methods.?Serum samples from 39 patients with calcified neurocysticercosis and no viable parasites on CT were processed by Ag-ELISA and EITB. MRI was performed for each patient within 2 months of serologic testing. Conservatively high ELISA and EITB cutoffs were used to predict the finding of viable brain cysts on MRI. Results.?Using receiver operating characteristic–optimized cutoffs, 7 patients were Ag-ELISA positive, and 8 had strong antibody reactions on EITB. MRI showed viable brain cysts in 7 (18.0%) patients. Patients with positive Ag-ELISA were more likely to have viable cysts than Ag-ELISA negatives (6/7 vs 1/32; odds ratio, 186 [95% confidence interval, 1–34 470.0], P < .001; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 96.9%, positive likelihood ratio of 27 to detect viable cysts). Similar but weaker associations were also found between a strong antibody reaction on EITB and undetected viable brain cysts. Conclusions.?Antigen detection, and in a lesser degree strong antibody reactions, can predict viable neurocysticercosis. Serological diagnostic methods could identify viable lesions missed by CT in patients with apparently only calcified cysticercosis and could be considered for diagnosis workup and further therapy. PMID:23788241

  2. Myosin light chain phosphorylation and the cross-bridge cycle at low substrate concentration in chemically skinned guinea pig Taenia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Hellstrand; Anders Arner

    1985-01-01

    Force-velocity relations, rate of ATP turnover (JATP), and phosphorylation of the 20,000 D myosin light chains (LC20) were measured in chemically skinned guinea pigTaenia coli. Relative LC20 phosphorylation at 3.2 mM MgATP was 17% in relaxed tissues at pCa 9, and increased with force at increasing [Ca2+] to a maximum of 67% at pCa 4.5. Force at pCa 4.5 was

  3. Calculation of the membrane potential in smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig's taenia coli by the Goldman equation

    PubMed Central

    Casteels, R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The intracellular K+, Cl- and Na+ concentrations in the taenia coli cells of the guinea-pig have been estimated from the total ion content or the extrapolated intracellular tracer content, the sorbitol space and the dry wt./wet wt. ratio. 2. The exchange of K+, Cl- and Na+ was studied by following the uptake and the efflux of these ions with radioactive isotopes. The following efflux values have been calculated: mK, 4 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1; mCl, 8·4 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1 and mNa, 7·2 p-mole.cm-2.sec-1. These flux values agree well with the influx values, obtained under the same experimental conditions. 3. The slowness of diffusion in the extracellular space reduces the Na flux by about 2·5% and the K flux by about 30%. A correction factor of 1·3 has to be introduced to obtain the true K flux. 4. The values for the permeability constants calculated by the constant field assumptions are for PK, 11 × 10-8 cm/sec; PCl, 6·7 × 10-8 cm/sec and for PNa, 1·8 × 10-8 cm/sec. The introduction of these values and of the ion concentrations in the Goldman equation gives a resting potential of -37 mV. 5. One of the possible explanations for the discrepancy between the measured resting potential and the calculated one, is that the resting potential of these smooth muscle cells is partly a diffusion potential and partly due to the operation of an electrogenic Na pump. PMID:5354999

  4. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24905052

  5. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2014-05-27

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC. PMID:24865274

  6. Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Current EU regulation requires that every bovine carcass is examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC) at meat inspection. This is costly and might be superfluous at low BC prevalence. However, from a consumer view-point it may be important to identify and manage infected carcasses to avoid human infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish cattle population, (2) estimate the animal level prevalence (3) provide descriptive statistics of potential risk factors for BC, and (4) determine attributable risks and fractions of selected risk factors potentially useful for a future risk-based meat inspection system. In total, 348 cases of BC were recorded among all cattle slaughtered (n=4,090,661) in Denmark between 2004 and 2011. The true animal level prevalence of BC was estimated to be 0.06%. The herd of origin of the cases were defined as the herd in which the animals spent most of their lifetimes. The detected cases were found to originate from 328 herds, with a maximum of two cases per herd indicating sporadic occurrence. Even though organic farming was associated with a higher risk (RR=1.9 in univariable analysis) of BC-positive animals being detected at slaughter, the population attributable fraction showed that only 5% of the animals with BC could be attributed to organic farming practices at the level of organic farming practiced in Denmark in the study period. Thus, organic farming status was not a suitable risk factor to use to target future risk-based meat inspection. However, 54% of the animals with BC in the cattle population were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior to slaughter. The challenges and opportunities of this approach should be investigated further. PMID:23245844

  7. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Fonseca, Héctor; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Bobes, Raúl José; Govezensky, Tzipe; Piñero, Daniel; Texco-Martínez, Laura; Fleury, Agnès; Proaño, Jefferson; Cárdenas, Graciela; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht), which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg), were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity. PMID:24271046

  8. Properties of the inhibitory potential of smooth muscle as observed in the response to field stimulation of the guinea-pig taenia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bülbring, Edith; Tomita, T.

    1967-01-01

    1. The inhibitory potential evoked by field stimulation of the guineapig taenia coli was studied in hypertonic solution in which the spontaneous electrical and mechanical activity was slowed or abolished. 2. There was no direct correlation between the inhibitory potential and the muscle membrane polarization in response to the stimulating current. The chronaxie for the inhibitory potential was less than 1 msec and that for the muscle spike 20-30 msec. 3. The inhibitory potential decreased in size along the tissue when one end of the tissue was stimulated, but its spatial decay was slower than that of the electrotonic potential in the muscle bundle. 4. Tetrodotoxin (5 × 10-7 g/ml.) abolished the inhibitory potential without affecting the electrical properties of the muscle membrane. It was concluded that the inhibitory potential was the result of stimulation of intrinsic inhibitory nerves. 5. The following properties of the intrinsic nerve fibres were deduced from the experimental results: The length of the nerve fibres is probably only a few mm and the space constant of the order of 0·1 mm. No repetitive firing is produced by a long current pulse. The absolute refractory period is 3-4 msec. PMID:6034115

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within Taenia taeniaeformis variants and other taeniid cestodes inferred from the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Bessho, Y; Kamiya, M; Kurosawa, T; Horii, T

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence variations in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (391 bp) were examined within seven species of the genus Taenia and two species of the genus Echinococcus, including ten isolates of T. taeniaeformis and six isolates of E. multilocularis. More than a 12% rate of nucleotide differences between taeniid species was found, allowing the species to be distinguished. In E. multilocularis, no sequence variation was observed among isolates, regardless of the host (gray red-backed vole, tundra vole, pig, Norway rat) or area (Japan, Alaska) from which each metacestode had been isolated. In contrast, six distinct sequences were detected among the ten T. taeniaeformis isolates examined. The level of nucleotide variation in the COI gene within T. taeniaeformis isolates except for one isolate from the gray red-backed vole (TtACR), which has been proposed as a distinct strain or a different species, was about 0.3%-4.1%, whereas the COI gene sequence for TtACR differed from those of the other isolates, with levels being 9.0%-9.5%. Phylogenetic trees were then inferred from these sequence data using two different algorithms. PMID:7567901

  10. STANDARDIZATION OF A FLUORESCENT-BASED QUANTITATIVE ADHESION ASSAY TO STUDY ATTACHMENT OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE TO EPITHELIAL CELLS In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Evangelista, Julio; Gilman, Robert H.; Arana, Yanina; Palma, Sandra; Sterling, Charles R; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando; Verastegui, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    To fully understand the preliminary stages of Taenia solium oncosphere attachment in the gut, adequate tools and assays are necessary to observe and quantify this event that leads to infection. A fluorescent-based quantitative adhesion assay, using biotinylated activated-oncospheres and monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or human intestinal monolayer cells (INT-407, HCT-8 or HT-29), was developed to study initial events during the infection of target cells and to rapidly quantify the in vitro adhesion of T. solium oncospheres. Fluorescein streptavidin was used to identify biotinylated activated-oncospheres adhered to cells. This adherence was quantified using an automated fluorescence plate reader, and the results were expressed as fluorescence intensity values. A series of three assays were performed. The first was to identify the optimum number of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to be used in the adhesion assay. The goal of the second assay was to validate this novel method with the established oncosphere-binding system using the immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) method to quantify oncosphere adhesion. A total of 10,000 biotinylated activated-oncospheres were utilized to assess the role of sera and laminin (LM) in oncosphere adherence to a CHO-K1 cell monolayer. The findings that sera and LM increase the adhesion of oncospheres to monolayer cells were similar to results that were previously obtained using the IFA method. The third assay compared the adherence of biotinylated activated-oncospheres to different types of human intestinal monolayer cells. In this case, the fluorescence intensity was greatest when using the INT-407 cell monolayer. We believe this new method of quantification offers the potential for rapid, large-scale screening to study and elucidate specific molecules and mechanisms involved in oncosphere-host cell attachment. PMID:22178422

  11. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  12. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  13. Comparison of the excitatory actions of substance P, carbachol, histamine and prostaglandin F2 alpha on the smooth muscle of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum.

    PubMed Central

    Benham, C. D.; Bolton, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of the actions of substance P, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), histamine and carbachol on the membrane potential and conductance of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum using the double sucrose gap apparatus. The increases in conductance produced by the four drugs during matched depolarizations in the sucrose gap were not significantly different and they were substantially larger than the increase in conductance brought about during the same depolarization produced by passing outward current. In sucrose-substituted, Na- and Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarization due to carbachol, substance P, and PGF2 alpha were attenuated to a similar extent. The depolarization due to histamine under these conditions was reduced to a significantly greater extent than that due to carbachol. In Tris-benzene-sulphonate substituted Na- and Cl-deficient solution the responses due to carbachol and histamine were attenuated to a similar extent. This suggests that sucrose addition may have a specific effect on the histamine response. In Tris-substituted Na-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarization produced by substance P, histamine and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. The depolarization due to PGF2 alpha was reduced by a significantly greater amount which may be due to unmasking an inhibitory effect that was sometimes apparent in normal solution. In benzenesulphonate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarizations produced by moderate concentrations of PGF2 alpha, histamine and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. The response to substance P was little affected. In glucuronate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution the increases in conductance and depolarizations due to substance P and carbachol were attenuated to a similar extent. This result, and the observation that the depolarization to large concentrations of carbachol was not reduced in benzenesulphonate-substituted, Cl-deficient solution, suggest that benzenesulphonate interferes with the reactions of the non-peptide stimulants with their respective receptors. The similarities in the effects of activating the four types of receptor under some conditions could be explained if they all acted on the same population of receptor-operated channels. In addition it seems that PGF2 alpha acts also on a population of inhibitory receptors, sucrose interferes with histamine's action, and benzenesulphonate interferes with the reactions of non-peptide stimulants with their respective receptors. PMID:6196069

  14. Effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed

    Lang, R J; Paul, R J

    1991-02-01

    1. The inhibitory actions of cadmium (Cd2+), nifedipine and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were investigated using a single-electrode whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. 2. Calcium channel currents were isolated using pipette solutions containing Cs+, tetraethylammonium and ATP (3 mM). Ca2+ or Ba2+ (7.5 mM) in the bathing solution acted as the charge carrier during inward current flow. Ca2+ channel currents in 7.5 mM-Ba2+ (IBa) were recorded at potentials positive to -40 mV, were maximal near 0 mV and reversed near +60 mV. Ca2+ channel activation showed a sigmoidal relationship with potential, which was half-maximal at -13 mV. 3. Both the inward and outward flow of current was depressed and eventually blocked by 0.3-100 microM-Cd2+, 0.1-10 microM-nifedipine and 2-20 mM-BDM. Half-maximal blockade of IBa at 0 mV was achieved with approximately 3 microM-Cd2+, 1 microM-nifedipine and 10 microM-BDM. Steady-state activation curves were not affected by Cd2+ or BDM, but were shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction by nifedipine at concentrations > 1 microM. 4. Calcium channel currents in single cells and K+ contractures in intact strips were both blocked in a voltage-dependent manner. Steady-state inactivation curves (f infinity (V)) for IBa were shifted 20 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 0.3 microM-nifedipine and 4 mV by 10 mM-BDM. From these shifts a dissociation binding constant to inactivated Ca2+ channels for nifedipine was estimated as 78 nM, and for BDM, 5 mM. 5. At 10 microM Cd2+ produced a 43 +/- 6% (n = 3) block of the inward current at 0 mV when Ca2+ (7.5 mM) was the charge carrier (ICa), compared with the 36 +/- 3% block of IBa induced by 1 microM-Cd2+, consistent with the suggestion that Ca2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ compete for the same binding site. In contrast, nifedipine (1 microM) and BDM (10 mM) blocked ICa more effectively than IBa. 6. Bay K 8644 (1.0 microM) increased Ca2+ channel currents two- to fourfold at all potentials due to a shift, of approximately 10 mV in the negative direction, of their activation curve and an equal shift in the positive direction of their inactivation curve. BDM (5-10 mM) could antagonize the action of Bay K 8644, shifting both curves back towards their control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1726794

  15. Effects of okadaic acid and ATP gamma S on cell length and Ca(2+)-channel currents recorded in single smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, R. J.; Ozolins, I. Z.; Paul, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of inhibiting phosphatase activity on Ca(2+)-channel currents and cell shortening in single cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci were investigated by whole-cell voltage clamp and video recording techniques. 2. Ca(2+)-channel currents were isolated by use of pipette solutions containing Cs, tetraethylammonium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (3 mM). Ca2+ or Ba2+ (7.5 mM) in the bathing solution acted as the charge carrier during inward current flow. 3. Ca(2+)-channel currents in 7.5 mM Ba2+ (IBa) were recorded at potentials positive to -40 mV, were maximal near 0 mV and reversed near +60 mV. Both the inward and outward flow of current was blocked by 100 microM Cd2+. 4. Addition of the ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-O(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) (1 mM) to the pipette solution (containing 3 mM ATP) caused cell shortening to 23 +/- 2% (n = 5) of their initial length within 5 min. Control cells (containing 4 mM ATP) did not contract during recording periods up to 60 min in duration. 5. IBa, recorded 1-2 min after membrane rupture, was 134 +/- 19 (n = 13) pA, compared with 209 +/- 25 (n = 5) pA in control cells, otherwise there were no significant time-dependent effects of ATP gamma S. In particular, ATP gamma S did not prevent the decrease in amplitude, nor the acceleration of inactivation when Ca2+ (7.5 mM) replaced Ba2+ as the permeating ion. 6. Okadaic acid (OA) (50 microM), a chemical inhibitor of phosphatase activity, produced similar effects when applied intracellularly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1665731

  16. Taeniasis in Indonesia with special reference to Samosir Island, north Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Depary, A A; Kosman, M L

    1991-12-01

    In Indonesia, taeniasis is endemic on the islands of Bali, Irian Jaya and Sumatra. The Balinese eat pork or beef raw in a dish called "lawar". Natives of Irian Jaya also have a custom of preparing and consuming raw pork. On Samosir Island in North Sumatra, undercooked pork is consumed in traditional ceremonies. In Bali, the local people defecate into cages (called "teba") of domestic animals. In Irian Jaya, pigs are allowed to feed on human feces inside houses at night. The natives of Samosir Island defecate in their gardens and their feces are easily consumed by freely roaming pigs. Since 1972, studies have been carried out on the epidemiology of taeniasis in North Sumatra. The Taenia sp. found on Samosir Island is morphologically identical to Taenia saginata. However, the local people seldom or never consume beef because it is very expensive, while pork is commonly consumed. The species and the natural intermediate hosts of Taenia sp. on Samosir Island are still under investigation. PMID:1822896

  17. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens. PMID:18693552

  18. Neurocysticercosis in free roaming pigs--a slaughterhouse survey.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Anand; Kumar, G Sai; Rout, Manoranjan; Nagarajan, K; Kumar, Ram

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of neurocysticercosis among free ranging pigs and to study the type of pathomorphological lesions in affected brains, a total of 200 brains were collected from pigs slaughtered at a local abattoir, between August, 2005 to March, 2006. Gross and histopathological examination revealed 3% (6/200) occurrence of neurocysticercosis in pigs. Taenia solium cysticercosis is an under-rated zoonosis and is a leading cause of epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis in human population of India. The prevailing situation warrants immediate implementation of effective control measures for this dreaded disease. PMID:17966268

  19. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  20. Oral albendazole in the management of extraocular cysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sihota, R; Honavar, S G

    1994-01-01

    Surgical removal of extraocular cysticerci is fraught with complications. The effect of oral albendazole in such cases has been evaluated in a randomised, controlled, clinical trial. Of 24 ultrasonographically diagnosed, and ELISA positive cases of extraocular cysticerci, 12 received oral albendazole 15 mg/kg once daily for 1 month, while the 12 controls received a placebo. Marked clinical improvement was seen in all the cases in the treatment group at 4 weeks, with collapse of the cyst at 6 weeks (75%), and complete disappearance at 3 months (100%). No clinical or ultrasonographical change was noted in the control group. A trial of medical management with oral albendazole merits consideration in cases of extraocular cysticerci. Images PMID:7918290

  1. High Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Phaneropsolus molenkampi, and Other Helminth Infections among People in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Um, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Sung; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal helminth infections, including Opisthorchis, Haplorchis, Phaneropsolus, hookworms, Enterobius, and Taenia, was surveyed in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,242 people (590 men and 652 women) in 3 Mekong riverside villages and were examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 81.1%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 81.1% and the positive rate for hookworms was 6.7%. To obtain adult worms, 35 people who were positive for small trematode eggs were treated with 20-30 mg/kg praziquantel and 10-15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Diarrheic stools were collected from 33 of these people and searched for helminth parasites using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various helminths (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, echinostomes, hookworms, Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and/or Taenia saginata) were found. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 20,907 (approximately 634 per person). The most common species was H. taichui, followed by P. molenkampi, O. viverrini, P. bonnei, E. vermicularis, hookworms, and Trichostrongylus spp. These results show that diverse species of intestinal nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes are infecting humans in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. PMID:19724697

  2. High prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Phaneropsolus molenkampi, and other helminth infections among people in Khammouane province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Han, Eun-Taek; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Um, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Sung; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal helminth infections, including Opisthorchis, Haplorchis, Phaneropsolus, hookworms, Enterobius, and Taenia, was surveyed in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,242 people (590 men and 652 women) in 3 Mekong riverside villages and were examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 81.1%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 81.1% and the positive rate for hookworms was 6.7%. To obtain adult worms, 35 people who were positive for small trematode eggs were treated with 20-30 mg/kg praziquantel and 10-15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Diarrheic stools were collected from 33 of these people and searched for helminth parasites using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various helminths (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, echinostomes, hookworms, Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and/or Taenia saginata) were found. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 20,907 (approximately 634 per person). The most common species was H. taichui, followed by P. molenkampi, O. viverrini, P. bonnei, E. vermicularis, hookworms, and Trichostrongylus spp. These results show that diverse species of intestinal nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes are infecting humans in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. PMID:19724697

  3. Neurocysticercosis: unraveling the nature of the single cysticercal granuloma.

    PubMed

    García, H H; Gonzalez, A E; Rodriguez, S; Tsang, V C W; Pretell, E J; Gonzales, I; Gilman, R H

    2010-08-17

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. PMID:20713953

  4. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    García, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Rodriguez, S.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Pretell, E.J.; Gonzales, I.; Gilman, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    A single enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma, also called an inflammatory granuloma, is a frequent neurologic diagnosis. One of the commonest causes of this lesion is human neurocysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Following the demonstration that viable cysticercosis cysts survive in good conditions for several years in the human brain, single cysticercal granulomas have been consistently interpreted as representing late degeneration of a long-established parasite. On the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence detailed in this article, we hypothesize that in most cases these inflammatory lesions correspond to parasites that die in the early steps of infection, likely as the natural result of the host immunity overcoming mild infections. GLOSSARY NCC = neurocysticercosis; SCG = single cysticercal granuloma. PMID:20713953

  5. Intraventricular Taenia solium Cysts Presenting with Bruns Syndrome and Indications for Emergent Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Garnes, Natalie Dailey; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-06-01

    Bruns syndrome is an unusual phenomenon, characterized by attacks of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. The presumptive cause of Bruns syndrome is a mobile deformable intraventricular mass leading to an episodic obstructive hydrocephalus. Intraventricular tumors have been associated with Bruns syndrome; however, few cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis have been reported to present with Bruns syndrome. We report the first series of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis presenting with Bruns syndrome in the United States and review the other published cases where surgery was indicated. PMID:25870426

  6. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p?=?0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and practical control intervention for rural endemic areas. PMID:23285305

  7. Inhibition of P-450 aromatase prevents feminisation and induces protection during cysticercosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morales-Montor; C. Hallal-Calleros; M. C. Romano; R. T. Damian

    2002-01-01

    Cysticercotic male mice undergo an impressive feminisation process, characterised by 200 times increased serum 17?-estradiol levels while testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are 90% reduced, which results in elevated parasite burden. Administration of Fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor) in male and female mice suppressed the production of 17?-estradiol, accompanied with a 70% reduction in parasite burden. This protective effect was associated in male

  8. Neuro-cysticercosis presenting with single delusion: A rare psychiatric manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Suhash; Singi, Shilpa R; Pradhan, Gyanaranjan; Anantha Subramanya, HC

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of multiple parenchymal neurocysticercosis in an elderly lady without raised intracranial tension which caused diagnostic confusion. The initial manifestation was only psychological as delusional disorder without any neurological symptoms or focal neurological deficit. Plain computed tomography scan showed mild bilateral periventricular and subcortical hypodensities. The development of hemiplegia during the course of psychiatric treatment prompted us to go for magnetic resonance imaging brain which clinched the diagnosis. PMID:25143893

  9. Quantitative serial T2 relaxometry: a prospective evaluation in solitary cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; de Souza, Aaron; Saini, Jitender; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2014-06-01

    We describe the evolution of quantitative T2 relaxometry values on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (SCCL), and determine whether albendazole therapy affects T2 relaxation (T2R) values. Patients with new-onset seizures and MRI-confirmed SCCL were randomized to treatment with albendazole and antiepileptics ("treatment group") or antiepileptics only ("controls"). Serial MRI including T2 relaxometry was performed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Of 123 patients recruited, 81 had more than three MRI scans (treatment group: 37; controls: 44; 58 patients had five scans). The lesion wall at baseline showed a mean T2R value of 152.3 ms, centre 474.9 and perilesional parenchyma 338.5 ms. These were significantly higher than those from normal parenchyma (114 ms). Over time, most sharply in the initial three months, T2R values fell but even at 24 months, they remained above those from normal parenchyma. A slight increase in T2R values from the lesion centre at six months was thought to represent the initiation of gliosis. In the treatment group, T2R values approached normal at 24 months, while controls had persistently higher T2R values. The decline in T2R values at six months was more prominent in the treatment group. T2R values at baseline and at three months differed significantly depending on the stage of the lesion, being higher in stage 2 SCCL. T2R values from SCCL declined over 24 months, being significantly higher in earlier stages of degeneration. A mild increase after six months may be due to the initiation of gliosis. T2R values appear to decline faster in patients who receive albendazole. PMID:24976202

  10. Intestinal parasitism in San Cayetano, Corrientes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Borda, C E; Rea, M J; Rosa, J R; Maidana, C

    1996-09-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted in San Cayetano, a village in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in children. Eighty-eight households were randomly selected. Stool samples were collected from 207 children (72% of the school-age population and 12% of the total village population) over a period of six consecutive days, and were subjected to microscopic examination. Of the samples examined, 170 (83%) contained one or more parasites, of which the most frequently found was Blastocystis hominis (in 43% of the samples). Other parasites and commensals detected included Giardia lamblia (29%), hookworms (27%), Entamoeba coli (27%), Enterobius vermicularis (4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia saginata, Isospora belli, Iodamoeba bütschlii, and Balantidium coli (each 0.5%). The high observed prevalence of intestinal parasitoses indicates active parasite transmission in San Cayetano as a result of poor environmental hygiene-ascribable largely to a lack of public water supply, sewerage, and waste removal services. PMID:8897723

  11. Prevalence of the intestinal flukes Haplorchis taichui and H. yokogawai in a mountainous area of Phongsaly Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Shin, Eun-Hee; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Phongsaly Province, located in the northernmost area of Lao PDR, was previously suggested to be endemic for the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection. To confirm, or rule out, this suggestion, the Phonxay village in the Khoua District, Phongsaly Province, was selected for a survey. Ten volunteers (8 men and 2 women aged 31-57 years) who consumed raw freshwater fish and had gastrointestinal troubles were treated with a single dose of praziquantel (40 mg/kg) and pyrantel pamoate (10 mg/kg) and purged with magnesium sulfate to recover any worm parasites. Eight of the 10 volunteers expelled 1 or more species of trematodes, nematodes, or cestodes (worm positive rate; 80%). The worms were morphologically identified as H. taichui (861 worms from 8 people), H. yokogawai (59 from 6 people), Phaneropsolus bonnei (1 from 1 person), Trichostrongylus sp. (2 from 2 people), Ascaris lumbricoides (2 from 1 person), Enterobius vermicularis (11 from 3 people), and Taenia saginata (1 strobila with scolex from 1 person). The results indicate that the mountainous area of Phongsaly Province, Lao PDR, is not endemic for the liver fluke but endemic for intestinal flukes, in particular, Haplorchis taichui and H. yokogawai. PMID:21234239

  12. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  13. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  14. [Use of polymerase chain reaction for identifying helminth DNA from the species Trichinella, Fasciola, Echinococcus, Nematodirus, Taenia].

    PubMed

    Romanova, E A; Semenova, S K; Benediktov, I I; Ryskov, A P

    1997-01-01

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method to identify DNA polymorphism in three classes of helminths, Cestoda, Nematoda and Trematoda. In this study, RAPD markers have been used for a description of the genetic variability between the families, genera, species and isolates of helminths. We optimized the conditions of the RAPD analysis and revealed the genetic variability of helminths belonging to different taxonomic groups. These results show that the RAPD-PCR method can be considered as a suitable technic for a phylogenetic study of helminths. The problem of an age variability and most specificity of RAPDs markers is discussed. PMID:9297179

  15. The measurement of Ascaris suum protein by radioimmunoassay in sera from patients with helminthiasis and with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kawamura, H; Tohgi, N; Tsuji, M; Miyachi, Y; Miyoshi, A

    1983-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) for Ascaris suum protein (Asp) and have measured the serum concentration of Asp in control subjects and in patients with helminthiasis and a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The cross-reactivities of Asp antibody with other helminth worm antigens were also measured by RIA. Ascaris lumbricoides contained approximately the same amount of Asp antigenic substance as did Ascaris suum. Toxocara canis had a high concentration of a substance partially cross-reactive with Asp. Small amounts of substance cross-reacting with Asp were also exhibited by Anisakis larvae, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia saginata. However, no cross-reactivities of Fasciola hepatica and Paragonimus westermani with Asp were observed in this study. Almost all the serum levels of Asp from normal control subjects were below the sensitivity of this RIA (10 ng/ml). High concentrations of Asp were observed in sera from patients with ascariasis (64.5 +/- 18.8 ng/ml: mean +/- S.E.), anisakiasis (75.2 +/- 28.0 ng/ml), toxocariasis (78.4 +/- 31.3 ng/ml) and schistosomiasis japonica (14.3 +/- 3.4 ng/ml). Asp levels in sera from patients with other helminthiasis were not significantly high. From these findings, it was suggested that RIA for Asp may not be specific for diagnosis of ascariasis, but might be a suitable screening method for patients with some kinds of helminthiasis. Interestingly, high concentrations of Asp were also observed in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis (24.8 +/- 2.5 ng/ml) and Crohn's disease (19.8 +/- 5.2 ng/ml), but Asp levels from 7 other gastrointestinal diseases seemed not to be significantly high. These findings remain unexplained but may derive from cross-reactivities between helminthic and gut mucosal antigens. PMID:6682964

  16. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui infection among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  17. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui Infection among Riparian People in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  18. The effect of different chemical and physical agents on the viability of Cysticercus bovis: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ghebrekidan, H

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro comparative effect of 23 chemicals and 5 physical agents on the viability of Cysticerci of Taenia saginata was investigated. Accordingly the effects of Vinegar, "Kosso-Araki", "Senafitch", "Dagim-Araki", "Datta", Gin, Lemon-juice, Cognac, Fernet Whisky, Bitter, Brandy, Kilikil, "Feto", ArakiUzo, Araki-Double Uzo, Vermouth, Metta Beer, Pilsner Beer, "Awazie", "Tella", "Tej", and Sarris Wine Red and White; was assessed on the basis of minimum exposure time (in minutes) required to render viable cysticerci nonevaginable, and was found to be 5, 20, 20, 25, 40, 40, 45, 50, 55, 75, 80, 90, 90, 90, 105, 105, 110 respectively with the remaining showing no deleterious effects on the cysts up to 180 minutes of exposure. Similarly, viable bovine cysticerci were subjected to the physical forces of x-ray radiation, electricity, UV light radiation, centrifugation and vibration, and the effect of the individual agent on the cysts was assessed on the basis of minimum applicable force required to render bovine cysticerci non-evaginable. And it was found that, whereas 500 grays (Gy) of absorbed xray radiation dose and electric current measuring 0.1 mA applied for 1/2 a minute were required to render cysts nonviable. A relative decrease in evagination time and increased viger and motility of the evaginated cysticerci was observed with the other physical forces. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that an attempt to understand the mechanism of action and may be elucidation of the active principle of the more potent agents will be a step forward towards a successful break in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:1563360

  19. Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui among humans and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-08-01

    This study confirmed the prevalence of the intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) among people and fish in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 559 riparian people (229 males and 330 females), residing in 4 Districts (Luang Prabang, Xieng Ngeun, Pak Ou, and Nam Bak) and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 64.9%. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 15.2%. For recovery of adult helminths, 10 STE-positive people were treated with 40mg/kg praziquantel and 15mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 3 Haplorchis species (H. taichui, H. pumilio, and H. yokogawai), a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms were found. The worm load for trematodes was exclusively high for H. taichui with an average of 7691 specimens per infected person, followed by H. yokogawai (8.3 specimens) and H. pumilio (4.1 specimens). Out of 207 freshwater fish (17 species) purchased in a market in Luang Prabang District, 138 (67%) harboured H. taichui metacercariae (metacercarial burden per fish; 520). Lower prevalence of fish and lower metacercarial density were observed for H. yokogawai (52% and 50 per fish, respectively) and H. pumilio (18% and 3 per fish, respectively). STE found in the surveyed population of Luang Prabang Province were verified to be those of intestinal fukes, particularly H. taichui. PMID:24754919

  20. Evidence-based identification of the most important livestock related zoonotic diseases in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Fèvre, Eric M; Waiswa, Charles; Kaboyo, Winyi; Eisler, Mark C; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-08-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods. PMID:21467754

  1. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  2. [Report on the first nationwide survey of the distribution of human parasites in China. 1. Regional distribution of parasite species].

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Xu, L; Jiang, Z; Xu, S; Han, J; Zhu, Y; Chang, J; Lin, J; Xu, F

    1994-01-01

    A nationwide (Taiwan Province not included) survey of the distribution of human parasites in China during 1988-1992 was conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health, with stratified masses randomly sampling. A total of 2,848 pilot sites in 726 counties with a population of 1,477,742 were surveyed, according to unified standard, unified diagnostic method and control quality. The overall infection rate of parasites was 62. 632%. Among them, the infection rate was over 50% in 17 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M), over 80% in Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guizhou, being highest in Hainan (94. 735%). Altogether 56 species were detected. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time at home, Echinochasmus liliputanus and Echinostoma angustitestis are reported for the first time at home and abroad. Echinochasmus fujianensis is a new species. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, A. lumbricoides, whipworm and pinworm were distributed nationwide, while Cysticercus (27 P/A/M), Taenia (27), hookworm (26), Balantidium coli (22), Clonorchis sinensis (22), Paragonimus westermani (21), H. diminuta (21), Echinococcus (18), H. nana (17), Fasciolopsis buski (16), T. spiralis (12) were distributed non-nationwide. A preliminary suggestion on intervention of the common and/or most detrimental parasitic diseases was submitted, including hydatidosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, trichinellosis, hookworm disease, ascariasis, trichuriasis and enterobiasis. PMID:7720194

  3. Perilesional brain edema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E.; Pretell, E. Javier; Lescano, Andres. G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Héctor H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium is a leading cause of adult acquired seizures and epilepsy that frequently occurs in patients with only calcified larval cysts. Transient episodes of perilesional brain edema occur around calcified foci but its importance, association with seizures, incidence, and pathophysiology are unknown. Methods One hundred and ten persons with only calcified lesions and a history of seizures or severe headaches were followed prospectively in a cohort design to assess the incidence of seizure relapses. In a nested case-control sub study, perilesional edema was assessed by MRI at the time a seizure occurred in the symptomatic patient and in a matched asymptomatic control, amongst the 110 followed. Results Median follow up was 32.33 months (SD 19.99). Twenty-nine people had an incident seizure with an estimated 5 year seizure incidence of 36%. Twenty-four patients of the 29 with seizure relapse had an MRI evaluation within five days of the event. Perilesional edema was found in 12 (50.0%) compared to 2 of 23 asymptomatic matched controls (8.7%). Conclusions Perilesional edema occurs frequently and is associated with episodic seizure activity in calcified neurocysticercosis. Our findings are likely representative of symptomatic patients in endemic regions and suggest a unique and possibly preventable cause of seizures in this population. PMID:18986841

  4. Comparison of the in vitro translation capacity of Taenia crassiceps metacestode mRNA prepared by the phenol and cesium chloride method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kleine-Herzbruch; E. Geyer

    1988-01-01

    Total RNA of T. crassiceps metacestodes harvested from male and female NMRI mice was prepared by both the phenol extraction technique and cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation. mRNA was selected by oligo (dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography and used as the template for the in vitro translation of parasite polypeptides in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The template activity of the mRNA

  5. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4R?, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-? on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  6. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. PMID:25000963

  7. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases—The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Mableson, Hayley E.; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 “London Declaration” and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. Methodology/Principal Findings The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. Conclusions and Significance The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries—anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis—is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach as is promoted for the NTDs under WHA66.12. PMID:24901769

  8. Cultural drivers and health-seeking behaviours that impact on the transmission of pig-associated zoonoses in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Burniston, Stephanie; Okello, Anna L; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Blacksell, Stuart D; Allen, John; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Pig rearing is an important income source in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), with many smallholder farmers using traditional free-range pig production systems. Despite the potentially significant health risks posed by pig production regarding pig-associated zoonoses, information on the sociocultural drivers of these zoonoses is significantly lacking. This review summarises the existing sociocultural knowledge on eight pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia: brucellosis, Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), trichinellosis, hepatitis E virus, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, Streptococcus suis and Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis. It summarises current knowledge on these diseases grouped according to their clinical manifestations in humans to highlight the propensity for underreporting. A literature search was conducted across multiple databases for publications from 1990 to the present day related to the eight pig-associated zoonoses and the risk and impact connected with them, with Lao PDR as a case study. Many of these pig-associated zoonoses have similar presentations and are often diagnosed as clinical syndromes. Misdiagnosis and underreporting are, therefore, substantial and emphasise the need for more robust diagnostics and appropriate surveillance systems. While some reports exist in other countries in the region, information is significantly lacking in Lao PDR with existing information coming mainly from the capital, Vientiane. The disease burden imposed by these zoonoses is not only characterised by morbidity and mortality, but directly impacts on livelihoods through income reduction and production losses, and indirectly through treatment costs and lost work opportunities. Other factors crucial to understanding and controlling these diseases are the influence of ethnicity and culture on food-consumption practices, pig rearing and slaughter practices, hygiene and sanitation, health-seeking behaviours and, therefore, risk factors for disease transmission. Published information on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of people regarding pig zoonoses and their risk factors is also extremely limited in Lao PDR and the broader Southeast Asian region. The need for more transdisciplinary research, using a One Health approach, in order to understand the underlining social determinants of health and their impacts on health-seeking behaviours, disease transmission and, ultimately, disease reporting, cannot be more emphasized. PMID:25973203

  9. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indications for use. For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus ); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala ); ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ); and...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis ), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and large roundworms (Toxocara...roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina ), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma braziliense ,...

  16. Characterization of the carcinoma-associated Tk antigen in helminth parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Ubillos; Andrea Medeiros; Martín Cancela; Cecilia Casaravilla; Jenny Saldaña; Laura Domínguez; Carlos Carmona; Jacques Le Pendu; Eduardo Osinaga

    2007-01-01

    Expression of Tk antigen, a truncated carbohydrate antigen, was examined in helmith parasites. Using the monoclonal antibody LM389, this antigen was detected in extracts from Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides vogae (syn corti), and Taenia crassiceps. No reactivity was observed in Thysanosoma spp., Dipylidium caninum, Fasciola hepatica, and Nyppostrongylus brasiliensis. On the basis of their electrophoretic mobility, different patterns of Tk-bearing glycoproteins

  17. Review article Immunodiagnostic tools for taeniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Allan; Patricia P. Wilkins; Victor C. W. Tsang; Philip S. Craig

    Most diagnostic work conducted on the Taenia species zoonoses has been carried out on the larval stage of Taenia solium in man, reflecting the relativ es everity of the pathology caused by this stage of that organism. This review will, however, concentrate on the immunodiagnosis of the adult intestinal stages of these parasites in humans. Diagnosis of T. solium will

  18. Article de synthse Les protases chez les helminthes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the principally identified pro- teases of four helminths: Schistosoma sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp. and Haemonchus Fasciola hepatica, have been successfully tested in experimental immunodiagnosis. Proteases identified helminthes : Schistosoma sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp. et Haemonchus sp. Certaines de ces protéases et

  19. Persistent MR Contrast Enhancement of Calcified Neurocysticercosis Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarang N. Sheth; Luana Pilon; Jay Keystone; Walter Kucharczyk

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether cysticercosis lesions in the brain continue to enhance after nodular involution and complete calcification, and to investigate the clinical significance of this finding with respect to seizure recurrence after cysticidal treatment. METHODS: Serial contrast-enhanced MR images were obtained in all patients with neuro- cysticercosis seen at our hospital over a 6-year period (1991-1997). From

  20. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Dirofilaria immitis and for the treatment and control of adult roundworm (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Dirofilaria immitis and for the treatment and control of adult roundworm (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina ), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum ), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis ), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus...

  2. Estimating the Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Bhattarai, Rachana

    2012-10-19

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic disease caused by the larva of the zoonotic cestode Taenia solium. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of presenting clinical manifestations of NCC, to ...

  3. Helminth parasites of pine marten, Martes americana (Turton), from Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Poole, B C; Chadee, K; Dick, T A

    1983-01-01

    Five species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 139 North American pine marten (Martes americana) from three areas of Manitoba: Alaria taxideae in 75 marten; Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) in 16; Taenia mustelae in nine; Baylisascaris devosi in one; Trichinella sp. larvae in one. Taenia mustelae and Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) were found in two different areas of the province, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis) being isolated from the more northerly regions. Alaria taxideae, the most prevalent parasite in the survey, was common to all three areas. The intensity of infection and prevalence level of A. taxideae was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the southern region of this study. Altogether, male marten had a significantly higher intensity of A. taxideae compared to females, although there was no significant difference in prevalence level. When data for A. taxideae was combined for sexes and for regions a significantly higher prevalence level in young-of-the-year marten was noted compared to juveniles or adults, but no significant difference in intensities among the three age classes was found. No significant differences were detected in the prevalence of A. taxideae, Taenia sp. (cf. martis martis), or T. mustelae between sexes or among age classes from any of the three areas. PMID:6842730

  4. [Etiology of the epileptic seizures in Recife city, Brazil: study of 249 patients].

    PubMed

    Valença, M M; Valença, L P

    2000-12-01

    The etiological causes of the epileptic seizures presenting by 249 patients were studied, in a neurological clinic in Recife City, Brazil. The cause of the seizure was not identified in 43.0% of the patients. As suspected causal factors we found: ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD, 17.3%), cysticercosis (8.8%), head trauma (HT, 6.8%), brain tumors (6.8%), hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (HCVD, 4.8%), vascular malformation (3.6%), other causes (8. 4%). In the patients with age less than 15-year-old, the most frequent cause was cysticercosis (10.3%), following vascular malformation (5.1%), and ICVD (5.1%). In the group between 15 and 45 years of age the major cause of seizure was cysticercosis (11.6%), following HT (10.7%), ICVD (4.5%), and brain tumors (3.6%). On the other hand, in the patients with more than 45-year-old the main cause was ICVD (36.7%), following brain tumors (12.3%), HCVD (11.2%), and cysticercosis (5.1%). Im conclusion, cerebrovascular disease was the most prevalent cause of epileptic seizures, considering all groups of patients. Although, cysticercosis was main cause found in the patients with less than 45 years of age. PMID:11105074

  5. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ?99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  6. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ?99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  7. CT findings in symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts of the pituitary gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Dietemann; J. F. Bonneville; F. Buchheit; F. Cattin; N. Heldt; A. Wackenheim

    1983-01-01

    Symptomatic intrasellar Rathke's cleft cysts are rather rare: only a few cases with CT findings have been reported. The authors describe the CT appearance of 3. Histological aspects and embryology are discussed. Rathke's cleft cysts have to be differentiated from other intrasellar tumours: cystic craniopharyngiomas, cystic or necrotic pituitary adenomas, cysticercosis.

  8. Radiology — including computed tomography — of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bhargava

    1983-01-01

    Summary Neurocysticercosis is the commonest parasitic infection seen in India. Echinococcus is rare. In cysticercosis multiple diffuse cystic parenchymal lesions predominate in the East, whereas multiple diffuse basal racemose ones predominate in the West. Because of their protean and varied clinical picture, each patient in the past had at least two contrast studies and some even three such studies, before

  9. Électroencéphalogrammes réalisés chez 250 patients épileptiques dans une zone d'endémie cysticerquienne au Burundi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Diagana; G. Nsengiyumva; M. Tuillas; M. Druet-Cabanac; B. Bouteille; P.-M. Preux; P. Tapie

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. – This work aimed at describing EEG abnormalities in epileptic patients living in areas endemic for cysticercosis, underlining the electroclinical correlations and discussing the interest of EEG examination in this context.Methods. – During a case-control study, 250 EEGs from patients with epilepsy were recorded with a portable system. Types of seizures were assessed clinically and from information obtained through

  10. Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E

    2008-04-01

    High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes. PMID:18325554

  11. Die orbitotemporale Region im Schädel von Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Chelonia) und Lacerta sicula Rafinesque (Lacertilia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Rieppel

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the ontogenesis of the chondrocran¡um gives the following homologies in the skull of Lacerta and Chelydra: Chelydra Lacerta Pila metoptica subiculum infundibuli cartilago hypochiasmatica Pila antotica pila antotica pila accessoriaDorsal border of planum supraseptale part of the taenia marginalis closing the fenestra epioptica dorsally Caudal process of the pila antotica dorsal to the incisura prootica part of

  12. Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Shimalov

    2002-01-01

    We examined 94 carcasses of and 1,213 faecal samples from red foxes collected between 1981 and 2001 in natural and transformed ecosystems in the southern part of Belarus. A total of 32 helminth species were found. Of these, the most common were Alaria alata, Pearsonema plica, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spp. larvae and Uncinaria stenocephala. All species are significant

  13. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  14. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-04-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  15. Systematics of Mesocestoides (Cestoda: Mesocestoididae): evaluation of molecular and morphological variation among isolates.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry A; Nadler, Steven A; Munson, Linda; Sacks, Ben; Boyce, Walter M

    2005-12-01

    A hypothesis-based framework was used to test if 3 genetic strains of Mesocestoides (clades A, B, and C) are distinct evolutionary lineages, thereby supporting their delimitation as species. For comparative purposes, 3 established cestode species, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, and Taenia crassiceps were assessed using the same methods. Sequence data from mitochondrial rDNA (12S) and the second internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA (ITS-2) revealed derived (autapomorphic) characters for lineages representing clade A (n = 6 autapomorphies), clade B (n = 4), and clade C (n = 9) as well as T. pisiformis (n = 15) and T. serialis (n = 12). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of morphological data revealed significant differences among the 3 genetic strains of Mesocestoides and between T. pisiformis and T. serialis. The level of phenotypic variation within evolutionary lineages of Mesocestoides and Taenia spp. tapeworms was similar. Results from this study support recognizing Mesocestoides clades A, B, and C as separate species, and provide evidence that clade B and Mesocestoides vogae are conspecific. PMID:16539028

  16. Anatomy of the fully formed chondrocranium of Emydura subglobosa (Chelidae): a pleurodiran turtle.

    PubMed

    Daniel J, Paluh; Christopher A, Sheil

    2013-01-01

    The chondrocranium is a cartilaginous structure that forms around and protects the brain and sensory organs of the head. Through ontogeny, this skeletal structure may become more elaborate, remodeled and reabsorbed, and/or ossified. Though considerable attention has been given to the formation of the chondrocranium and a great amount of data has been gathered on the development of this structure among many craniates, the anatomy of this structure in turtles often is neglected. We describe the mature chondrocranium of the pleurodiran turtle, Emydura subglobosa (Chelidae) based on hatchling specimens. Though formation and ossification of bony elements has been studied previously in this species, a detailed description of the chondrocranium of this pleurodiran turtle has not been presented. Anatomy of the chondrocranium was described for E. subglobosa by examination of cleared and double-stained specimens. The orbitotemporal region of E. subglobosa is dramatically different from that of other described turtles (e.g., Apalone spinifera, Pelodiscus sinensis, Chelydra serpentina, Macrochelys temminckii, Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, and Eretmochelys imbricata) in that a prominent taenia marginalis spans the space between the planum supraseptale and otic capsules, and the pila antotica (which becomes modified and ossified through ontogeny to form the processus clinoideus) is greatly reduced and essentially absent in hatchling specimens. The morphology seen in E. subglobosa is similar to that of Caretta caretta, particularly as it relates to the taenia marginalis. Variation in the orbitotemporal region is briefly discussed in the context of the taenia marginalis, taenia medialis, pila metoptica, and pila antotica. PMID:22972700

  17. Taeniid species of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in Portugal with special focus on Echinococcus spp.?

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Diogo; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Silva, Marta; Bravo, Inês; Santos, Nuno; Deplazes, Peter; Carvalho, Luís Manuel Madeira de

    2012-01-01

    Taeniid species represent relevant pathogens in human and animals, circulating between carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts. In Portugal, however, little is known about their occurrence and life cycles, especially in wild hosts. An epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify the role of the Iberian wolf as a definitive host for taeniid species, including Echinococcus spp. Wolf fecal samples (n = 68) were collected from two regions in Northern Portugal. Taeniid eggs were isolated through a sieving-flotation technique, and species identification was performed using multiplex-PCR followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Taenia hydatigena (in 11.8% of the samples), Taenia serialis (5.9%), Taenia pisiformis (2.9%), Taenia polyacantha (1.5%) and Echinococcus intermedius (Echinococcus granulosus ‘pig strain’, G7) (1.5%) were detected. This is the first study to characterize the taeniid species infecting the Portuguese Iberian wolf, with the first records of T. polyacantha and E. intermedius in this species in the Iberian Peninsula. Iberian wolves can be regarded as relevant hosts for the maintenance of the wild and synanthropic cycles of taeniids in Portugal. PMID:24533315

  18. A redescription of Triuterina anoplocephaloides (Fuhrmann, 1902) (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from African parrots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Jones

    1982-01-01

    This species was first described as Taenia anoplocephaloides by Fuhrmann (1902) from a single specimen without a scolex from the African grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus L. (distribution, Equatorial Africa); he later (1921) made this the type of a new genus, Triuterina, characterized by the distinctive trilobed uterus. Baer (1927) redescribed the type specimen and Joyeux, Gendre & Baer (1928) briefly

  19. Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Arambula Cosio; J. A. Marquez Flores; M. A. Padilla Castaneda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2003-01-01

    In this work is described the development of an automatic color image segmentation and cell counting system for immunocytochemical analysis of stained tissue samples. The system is designed to automatically count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples treated with cytokines DNA probes of pigs naturally parasitized with Taenia solium metacestodes and using in situ hybridization.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in France.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Comte, Sébastien; Raton, Vincent; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Favier, Stéphanie; Combes, Benoît; Boué, Franck

    2014-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. It is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. Dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. In two medium-sized cities of Eastern France (Annemasse and Pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces samples were collected and analyzed by a flotation technique followed by a multiplex PCR assay. For the first time in France, we assessed the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in four dog feces samples, in which it represents an estimated prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1% <> 1.3%). Eight other samples presented taeniid infections from three different species (Taenia crassiceps, Taenia serialis, and Taenia polyacantha). When considering both E. multilocularis and Taenia sensu lato, prevalence rose to 0.6% in Annemasse and 2.6% in Pontarlier. In this highly endemic context, proper application of the usual deworming recommendations (70% of the dogs were treated twice a year or more) failed to prevent dog infection, particularly for hunting dogs. Our results stressed the need to adapt treatment to the environmental context and to the specific activity of dogs. Further epidemiological surveys in domestic dogs and cats using this coprological approach are still needed to obtain a better overview of infection and the associated zoonotic risk. PMID:24687286

  1. Functional and molecular evidence for ?1-, ?2- and ?3-adrenoceptors in human colon

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation of carbachol pre-contracted human colonic muscle to (–)-isoprenaline was examined in circular, longitudinal and taenia coli preparations to determine the ?-adrenoceptor subtypes involved. ?1-, ?2- and ?3-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were also measured in colonic muscle and mucosa.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of longitudinal smooth muscle preparations with pEC50=7.39±0.12, and this response was inhibited by both propranolol (0.1??M, pKB 8.55±0.12) and the selective ?1-antagonist, CGP 20712A (0.1??M, pKB 8.80±0.20), while the selective ?2-antagonist, ICI 118551 (0.1??M) failed to inhibit isoprenaline relaxation consistently.(–)-Isoprenaline caused relaxation of taenia coli with a pEC50 of 6.70±0.17. Propranolol (0.1??M), CGP 20712A (0.1??M) and ICI 118551 (0.1??M) inhibited the isoprenaline response with similar low affinities (pKB values 7.93, 7.71 and 7.54, respectively). Carbachol pre-contracted circular smooth muscle preparations failed to relax consistently to isoprenaline and these responses were not characterized.?1- and ?2-Adrenoceptor mRNAs were present in circular/longitudinal muscle samples and taenia coli samples, and lower levels were detected in mucosa. ?3-mRNA was also present in both muscle preparations but was not detected in human colonic mucosa.In summary, ?1-adrenoceptors are the predominant subtype mediating isoprenaline-induced relaxation of the thin longitudinal smooth muscle of human colon, while ?3-receptors do not appear to be involved in these responses. However, ?3-adrenoceptors may play a role in relaxation of the taenia coli as conventional antagonist affinities are low. ?3-Adrenoceptor mRNA was present in taenia coli and circular/longitudinal smooth muscle but absent from human colonic mucosa. PMID:9113375

  2. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss

    PubMed Central

    Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Bhargava, Amita Narendra; Bhushan, Bharat; Khichar, Subhakaran; Sood, Isha

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report. PMID:25540557

  3. [Electrophysiological analysis of the action of kavinton on the smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Gurkovskaia, A V; Gokina, N I; Bury?, V A; Shuba, M F

    1987-01-01

    Cavinton at a concentration of 10(-7)-10(-5) M was found to have a dose-dependent relaxing effect on bovine cerebral artery smooth muscles, without changing the resting potential and membrane resistance. Smooth muscles of the rabbit portal vein and guinea-pig taenia coli were insensitive to low cavinton concentrations. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that relaxing action of cavinton is due to the blocking of Ca2+ ions influx into the cells of cerebral artery through receptor-operated calcium channels. At higher concentrations (exceeding 10(-5) M) cavinton exerts nonspecific influence on the smooth muscles under study, inhibiting their excitability and decreasing membrane resistance resulting in the attenuation of tetanic contractions in the smooth muscles of the portal vein and taenia coli. PMID:3801654

  4. Antigen-specific suppression of cultured lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Ávila, S L M; Ferreira, A W

    2001-01-01

    The biological parasite–host interactions involved in neurocysticercosis (NC) are of a complex nature. A lymphoproliferation assay was performed using mononuclear cells from 11 patients with NC, who were classified according to the alterations obtained by imaging examinations. Antigen extracts from the membrane and/or scolex of Taenia solium and from the vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps were used. Mononuclear cells from patients with NC showed antigen-specific suppression when compared with a control group. The patients presenting calcified cysts showed higher suppression when compared with patients in the active phase of disease. The antigen in the vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps seems to play a suppressor role in vitro, completely inhibiting cell proliferation induced by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. PMID:11703375

  5. Morphological and molecular identification of the metacestode parasitizing the liver of rodent hosts in bamboo growing areas of mizoram, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Malsawmtluangi, Chenkual; Prasad, Pramod Kumar; Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Tandon, Veena

    2011-01-01

    In Mizoram (Northeast India), rodent outbreaks are known to occur periodically with the onset of bamboo flowering causing a tremendous destruction to food grains and as per the folk belief, often resulting in famine. In an exploratory survey of rodent pests in bamboo growing atreas for their helminth parasite spectrum, metacestodes of tapeworms were frequently encountered infecting the liver lobes and body cavity of the host. The morphological criteria were found to be closely consistent with the metacestode of Taenia species. In molecular characterization of the parasite, the ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial COI were amplified and sequenced. Based upon both morphological data and molecular analysis using bioinformatic tools, the metacestode is identified as confirmed to be representing Cysticercus fasciolaris. The adult form of which (Taenia taeniaeformis) commonly occurs in felid and canid mammalian hosts. PMID:22347781

  6. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Bianca Strassen; Katja Fischer; Gülendem Aksu; Sven Klimpel; Heinz Mehlhorn

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol\\/propylene carbonate) PEG\\/PC extracts were made from coconut,\\u000a onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic\\u000a activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died.

  7. Reverse vaccinology approach identify an Echinococcus granulosus tegumental membrane protein enolase as vaccine candidate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjia Gan; Guoxiong Zhao; Hongxu Xu; Weihua Wu; Wuying Du; Jiang Huang; Xinbing Yu; Xuchu Hu

    2010-01-01

    Applying reverse vaccinology strategy, we employed a sequence encoding an enolase from Taenia asiatica to search its homolog in the expression sequence tag (EST) database of Echinococcus granulosus and found two EST sequences (Access number: CN653186 and CN649593) of a clone Eg_PSGRS_13B09 from E. granulosus protoscolex full-length cDNA library, which are responding for the 5? and 3? partial cds of

  8. Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guedon, Gérald; Boué, Franck

    2013-10-18

    Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 "départements" in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each "départements". During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analyzed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, Taenia mustelae, Taenia polyacantha and Taenia martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French "départements" where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite. PMID:23725822

  9. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  10. The epidemiology of helminthosis in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Fakae

    1990-01-01

    The epidemiology of helminth infections in West African dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern Nigeria was studied for 12 months. The infections observed were due to Haemonchus contortus (87.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena (30.2%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), Strongyloides sp. (18.8%), Cooperia spp. (17.2%), Gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%),

  11. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Nakayama; Satoshi Atsuta; Takao Shinmi; Tsuyoshi Uchiyama

    2011-01-01

    We measured biomagnetic fields in musculatures with spontaneous electric activity using a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor with the sensitivity improved toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level. Due to the sufficiently short operation interval of 1?s, this magnetic sensor enabled quasi-real time recordings of the magnetic field for biological electric activity. Isolated small musculatures from the guinea-pig stomach, taenia caeci, portal vein

  12. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  13. Automatic analysis of immunocytochemically stained tissue samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Arámbula Cosío; J. A. Márquez Flores; Miguel A. Padilla Castañeda; S. Solano; P. Tato

    2005-01-01

    An automatic colour image segmentation and cell counting software system has been developed for immunocytochemical analysis\\u000a of stained tissue samples. The system was designed to count the total number of positive and negative cells in tissue samples\\u000a treated with cytokine DNA probes from pigs naturally parasitised with Taenia solium metacestodes, using in situ hybridisation.\\u000a A reaction index was calculated as

  14. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2 years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis. PMID:25425681

  15. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  16. The electrical activity of single isolated smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Purves; Gerda E. Mark; Geoffrey Burnstock

    1973-01-01

    Summary 1.Smooth mucle cells from the taenia coli of the guinea-pig have been grown in tissue culture.2.Intracellular recordings from clumps of cells showed spontaneous spikes of variable height, associated with slow waves. Cells in clumps appeared to be electrotonically coupled to their neighbours.3.Single isolated cells also generated spontaneous spikes and slow waves. Spikes from these cells were of nearly constant

  17. Effect of pinaverium bromide on electrical and mechanical activity of smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Droogmans; B. Himpens; R. Casteels

    1983-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide exerts antagonistic effects on the contractions induced by BaCl2 in intestinal smooth muscle. We have therefore investigated its effects on the electrical and mechanical activity and on the 45Ca exchange of guinea-pig taenia coli and ileum. In the concentration range 10-7 to 10-5 M this drug does not exert an effect on the resting potential of either preparation.

  18. Intestinal parasites of the Arctic fox in relation to the abundance and distribution of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Stien, A; Voutilainen, L; Haukisalmi, V; Fuglei, E; Mørk, T; Yoccoz, N G; Ims, R A; Henttonen, H

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal parasite community of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) on the Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic was investigated in relation to the abundance and distribution of intermediate hosts. Five species of cestodes (Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia crassiceps, Taenia polyacantha, Taenia krabbei and Diphyllobothrium sp.), ascaridoid nematodes and one unidentified acanthocephalan species were found. The cestodes E. multilocularis, T. crassiceps and T. polyacantha all showed a decreasing prevalence in the fox population with increasing distance from their spatially restricted intermediate host population of sibling voles (Microtus levis). In addition, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in a sample from the vole population was directly related to the local vole abundance. The cestode T. krabbei uses reindeer as intermediate host, and its prevalence in female foxes was positively related to the density of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus). Finally, the prevalence of the ascaridoid nematodes also decreased with increasing distance from the vole population, a finding that is consistent with the idea that voles are involved in transmission, most likely as paratenic hosts. The prevalence of the remaining species (Diphyllobothrium sp. and an unidentified acanthocephalan) was very low. We conclude that the distribution and abundance of intermediate host structure the gastrointestinal parasite community of the Arctic fox on the Svalbard archipelago. PMID:19723357

  19. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?s) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAM?s and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  20. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:26064015

  1. Survey on Helminths in the Small Intestine of Wild Foxes in Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Wei; GUO, Zhihong; DUO, Hong; FU, Yong; PENG, Mao; SHEN, Xiuying; TSUKADA, Hideharu; IRIE, Takao; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes. PMID:23749034

  2. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

  3. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:22032501

  4. Imaging findings in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    García, Héctor H; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2003-06-01

    The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was greatly improved by the introduction of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These techniques demonstrate the number and topography of lesions, their stage of involution, and the degree of inflammatory reaction of the host against the parasites and have largely replaced previous radiological procedures such as plain roentgenograms, pneumoencephalograms, cerebral angiography and myelography. In general, MRI provides better image detection and definition. The possibility of multiplanar reconstruction of images, its capability to visualize the posterior fossa without bone artifacts, and its high contrast resolution (far superior to that of CT) allow MRI to recognize many forms of cysticercosis not visualized on CT. However, the costs of MRI are high and the equipment is scarcely available in many endemic countries, and its sensitivity for the detection of calcified lesions is poor. CT remains the best screening neuroimaging procedure for patients with suspected neurocysticercosis, and MRI is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of patients with intraventricular cysticercosis, brainstem cysts and small cysts located over the convexity of cerebral hemispheres. Its better image definition also suggests that MRI is superior to CT in the follow-up of the patients after therapy. PMID:12781380

  5. Endoscopic transaqueductal removal of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Xiao, Qing; Zheng, Jiaping; Wu, Jinting; Ao, Qiang; Liu, Yunsheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we try to present our experience of transaqueductal removal of the fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis (FVNCC) with a flexible neuroendoscope. Three cases of the fourth ventricular cysticercosis were transaqueductally removed with FUJINON EB-270P flexible neuroendoscope through a frontal precoronal burr hole. The diagnosis was established on imaging and confirmed on histology in all of the cases. Complete excision of cysts in the fourth ventricle was performed in all cases with no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. The shunt and the string-of-beads multiple cysts in the basal cistern were removed simultaneously through the orificium fistulae of the third ventricle floor with the flexible neuroendoscope. Satisfactory postoperative CSF flow around foramen magnum was detected by cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients were asymptomatic, with an average follow-up of 6 months. The whole ventricular system can be explored easily with electrical flexible neuroendoscope. Endoscopic transaqueductal removal of the fourth ventricular cysticercosis with a flexible neuroendoscope should be recommended as the optimal choice of the disease due to its minimal invasion, fewer complications, shorter length of stay and cheaper treatment costs. PMID:26037193

  6. Latent-Class Methods to Evaluate Diagnostics Tests for Echinococcus Infections in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hartnack, Sonja; Budke, Christine M.; Craig, Philip S.; Jiamin, Qiu; Boufana, Belgees; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of canine echinococcosis can be a challenge in surveillance studies because there is no perfect gold standard that can be used routinely. However, unknown test specificities and sensitivities can be overcome using latent-class analysis with appropriate data. Methodology We utilised a set of faecal and purge samples used previously to explore the epidemiology of canine echinococcosis on the Tibetan plateau. Previously only the purge results were reported and analysed in a largely deterministic way. In the present study, additional diagnostic tests of copro-PCR and copro-antigen ELISA were undertaken on the faecal samples. This enabled a Bayesian analysis in a latent-class model to examine the diagnostic performance of a genus specific copro-antigen ELISA, species-specific copro-PCR and arecoline purgation. Potential covariates including co-infection with Taenia, age and sex of the dog were also explored. The dependence structure of these diagnostic tests could also be analysed. Principle findings The most parsimonious result, indicated by deviance-information criteria, suggested that co-infection with Taenia spp. was a significant covariate with the Echinococcus infection. The copro-PCRs had estimated sensitivities of 89% and 84% respectively for the diagnoses of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus. The specificities for the copro-PCR were estimated at 93 and 83% respectively. Copro-antigen ELISA had sensitivities of 55 and 57% for the diagnosis of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus and specificities of 71 and 69% respectively. Arecoline purgation with an assumed specificity of 100% had estimated sensitivities of 76% and 85% respectively. Significance This study also shows that incorporating diagnostic uncertainty, in other words assuming no perfect gold standard, and including potential covariates like sex or Taenia co-infection into the epidemiological analysis may give different results than if the diagnosis of infection status is assumed to be deterministic and this approach should therefore be used whenever possible. PMID:23459420

  7. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts. These data identify environmental factors affecting transmission and potential distribution of each parasite taxon, and provide important information increasing our understanding of the potential effects of environmental change on parasite ecology. PMID:24533331

  8. Helminth parasites of fisher Martes pennanti (Erxleben) from Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dick, T A; Leonard, R D

    1979-07-01

    Seven species of helminths were recovered during a survey of 162 fisher (Martes pennanti) from four areas of Manitoba: Baylisascaris devosi in 52 fisher; Taenia sibirica in 25; Physaloptera sp. in nine; Alaria mustelae in two; Metorchis conjunctus in one; Trichinella spiralis in one of 81; Molineus sp. in one. B. devosi was the most prevalent parasite and differences in its geographical distribution were possibly related to population density of fisher. The prevalence of other parasites did not appear to be related to density of fisher. PMID:574167

  9. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  10. Effect of illuminated nifedipine, a potent antioxidant, on intestinal and vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, V.; Rekalov, V. V.; Juránek, I.; Gergel, D.; Bohov, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of nifedipine (Nif) and its illuminated nitroso product nitrosopine (NTP) were investigated on lipid peroxidation, KCl elevated smooth muscle tension, and ionic currents of single smooth muscle cells. 2. Illumination of Nif at 400-700 nm within 24-48 h changed it completely to a potent antioxidant, NTP. 3. Nif relaxed the KCl-induced contractions of guinea-pig taenia caeci and rat aorta and reduced the amplitude of the evoked inward Ca2+ current of taenia caeci cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NTP (up to 100 microM) was ineffective in this respect. Pretreatment by NTP (10 microM) did not affect the actions of Nif. 4. The evidence suggests that NTP, generated by day-light illumination from Nif, exerts antioxidant activity but is devoid of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDC) blocking property and does not interfere with the action of Nif on the smooth muscle cell membrane VDC. PMID:7582513

  11. Effects of various selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on carbachol-induced contraction and cyclic nucleotide contents in the guinea pig gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Takeharu; Watanabe, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Kazumasa; Urakawa, Norimoto; Nakajyo, Shinjiro

    2005-07-01

    The effects of various selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on muscle contractility and cyclic nucleotide contents in the guinea pig gall bladder were investigated. Various selective PDE inhibitors, vinpocetine (type 1), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA, type 2), milrinone (type 3), Ro20-1724 (type 4), and zaprinast (type 5), inhibited CCh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of potency for the gall bladder was Ro20-1724 > vinpocetine > EHNA > milrinone > zaprinast, which was different from that of the trachea, taenia coli, and aorta. In the presence of CCh (0.3 muM), vinpocetine, milrinone, and Ro20-1724 each increased cAMP content, but not cGMP. By contrast, zaprinast increased cGMP content, but not cAMP, and EHNA increased both cAMP and cGMP contents. These results suggest that vinpocetine-, milrinone-, and Ro20-1724-induced relaxation was correlated with cAMP, zaprinast-induced relaxation was correlated with cGMP, and that EHNA-induced relaxation was correlated with cAMP and cGMP in the guinea pig gall bladder. In conclusion, the effect of PDE inhibitors in the guinea pig gall bladder was different from those in smooth muscles, such as the trachea, taenia coli, and aorta. PMID:16082113

  12. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

  13. Seasonal prevalence of Toxocara ova in soil samples from public parks in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avcioglu, H; Burgu, A

    2008-06-01

    This survey was conducted to determine prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs and seasonal variation of this prevalence in public parks in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 259 sand samples were collected from May 2005 to April 2006 in 40 public parks for determining prevalence. To attain seasonal variation, a total of 696 sand samples were collected from five public parks regularly throughout year. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. and combination of Toxascaris leonina and Taenia spp. was 15.05% and 0.38%. Overall, 45% of public parks were contaminated. There was a seasonal variation in prevalence. Prevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina, and Taenia spp. eggs during summer (4.21%) was lower than during spring (12.64%), autumn (13.21%), and winter (9.77%; p < 0.05). Average number of Toxocara spp. eggs was 2.57 per 50 g of sand, with average dimension of 70.1 mum. In conclusion, prevalence data are consistent with international data reported in other metropolitans. Our results indicate that the public parks in surveyed areas may be a source of toxocariasis. Effective preventive measures should be established. PMID:18494602

  14. Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Córdoba (Spain) and their risk to public health.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, F J; Hernández, S; López-Cobos, E; Becerra, C; Acosta, I; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2007-01-19

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs was studied in the province of Córdoba (southern Spain), with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to man. The experiment was completed with the examination of soil samples from public parks and city gardens. The study was carried out over a population of 1800 animals entered in the Control Animal Centre (CECA) by coprological methods, and within this group, 300 dogs were sacrificed and necropsied. The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was 71.33%. The following parasites of the gastrointestinal tract were recorded: Isospora canis (22%), Isospora (Cystoisospora) spp. (10.22%), Sarcocystis (2.5%), Hammondia/Neospora (1.94%), Giardia canis (1%), Dipylidium caninum (13.2%), Taenia hydatigena (7.66%), Taenia pisiformis (4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (33.27%), Toxascaris leonina (14.94%), Toxocara canis (17.72%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.66%). Related to public health, it is important to point out the presence of T. canis only in puppies younger than one year and Uncinaria, more frequent in adult dogs. Soil samples of parks revealed the presence of eggs of Toxocara, and it suggests the existence of real risk for human infection. PMID:16971046

  15. Muscarinic activity of McN-A-343 and its value in muscarinic receptor classification.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Kenny, B. A.; Michel, A. D.; Whiting, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The affinity and potency of McN-A-343 (4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy) -2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride) has been assessed at a range of M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors. McN-A-343 was shown to act as a full agonist at M2 receptors present in the guinea-pig isolated taenia caeci (-log EC50 = 5.14). McN-A-343 exhibited no agonist action in the guinea-pig ileum, atria, bladder or trachea. McN-A-343 was not selective in terms of affinity since its dissociation constants at M1 and M2 binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex and myocardium respectively, were very similar (cortical pPKi = 5.05; myocardial pKi = 5.22). The selectivity previously reported for the compound may be due to differences in intrinsic efficacy and/or tissue receptor reserve. Based on differential antagonist affinities, the muscarinic receptor profile of the taenia caeci, trachea and bladder was similar to that observed in the ileum, but dissimiliar to that observed in the atria. PMID:2437988

  16. Evaluation of host preferences by helminths and ectoparasites among black-tailed jackrabbits in northern California.

    PubMed

    Clemons, C; Rickard, L G; Keirans, J E; Botzler, R G

    2000-07-01

    Fifty-four black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) (five juvenile males, 22 adult males, five juvenile females, and 22 adult females) from Humboldt County, California (USA) were evaluated for sex and age-specific differences in parasite prevalences and intensities, 26 February through 30 October 1996. Nematodes found included Biogastranema leporis in 42 hares (78% prevalence), Rauschia triangularis in 26 hares (48%), Trichostrongylus calcaratus in 14 hares (26%), and Trichuris sylvilagi in two hares (4%). Cestodes found included Taenia sp. cysticerci in five hares (9%) and Taenia sp. coenurus found in one hare (2%). Ectoparasites found included the ticks Dermacentor variabilis on 10 hares (19%) and Ixodes spinipalpis (= Ixodes neotomae) on nine hares (17%), as well as the anoplurid louse Haemodipsus setoni on 12 hares (22%). No significant differences in the parasite prevalences or intensities were found between male and female jackrabbits; this was for all males and females collectively, juvenile males and females only, as well as adult males and females only. Combining male and female hosts, adult jackrabbits had a significantly higher prevalence of B. leporis and R. triangularis compared to juveniles. This is the first known report of Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Rauschia triangularis, Trichuris sylvilagi, and Dermacentor variabilis among black-tailed jackrabbits and the first known report of T. calcaratus and T. sylvilagi in the western USA. This is the first published report of I. spinipalpis, the vector for Lyme disease in California, on black-tailed jackrabbits. PMID:10941744

  17. Survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, M J

    1990-10-01

    During the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (Alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Alberta (Canada) were collected for parasitological examination. Most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 97 adult white-tailed deer. The intensity of infection generally was low; however, one wapiti had over 600 flukes in the liver. Infections were restricted to alpine and montane regions in southwestern Alberta (97%) as well as boreal uplands of the Cypress Hills in southeastern Alberta (3%). Other parasites recorded included Taenia hydatigena cysts in liver of 61% of 191 moose and 14% of 247 mule deer. Dictyocaulus viviparus was found in lungs of 14% of 50 moose, 14% of 118 mule deer, 12% of 41 wapiti, and 6% of 54 white-tailed deer. Echinococcus granulosus cysts were found in lungs (and occasionally liver) of 37% of 51 moose. Incidental infections of Thysanosoma actinoides, Orthostrongylus macrotis, and Taenia omissa were recorded. Adult Dicrocoelium dendriticum were collected from liver of two wapiti, one mule deer, and one white-tailed deer from the Cypress Hills. PMID:2250321

  18. Contribution of NADH dehydrogenase subunit I and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I sequences toward identifying a case of human coenuriasis in France.

    PubMed

    Collomb, Jocelyne; Machouart, Marie; Biava, Marie-France; Brizion, Mélanie; Montagne, Karine; Plénat, François; Fortier, Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Coenuriasis is a parasitic disease induced by larval taeniid tapeworms that is rarely observed in humans. In December 2005, a case was diagnosed in Nancy, France, after surgical excision of a cyst on a 24-yr-old woman returning from the Côte d'Ivoire. Morphological and epidemiological criteria suggested that the infection was due to Taenia serialis. Molecular analysis of NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences was also in favor of T. serialis identification, but the absence of available genetic data on T. brauni and T. glomeratus and the small number of published sequences for T. serialis and T. multiceps must be considered with caution. The NDI partial sequences presented more variations within species of Taenia than the COI sequences, which make them more useful targets for species identification and analysis of intraspecific polymorphisms. The present study points to the usefulness of molecular biology tools to help make up for the shortcomings of the commonplace parasitological diagnosis for coenuriasis. PMID:17918379

  19. Intestinal helminth parasites of the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    ?irovi?, Duško; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Penezi?, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) is the most widespread large carnivore in Europe with large populations in the Eastern part of Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. In this study, a total of 102 wolves were examined for intestinal helminth parasites. The carcasses were collected within the Serbian part of the wolf's range during the period 2009-2014. Nine helminth species were found: one nematode, Toxocara canis (3.9%), one trematode, Alaria alata (1.0%), and seven cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (1.0%), T. hydatigena (9.8%), T. polyacantha (2.9%), T. taeniaeformis (2.0%), T. (syn. Multiceps) multiceps (3.9%), T. serialis (1.0%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (1.0%). Taenia (syn. Hydatigera) taeniaeformis has been registered for the first time in a wolf from Europe. An overall moderate prevalence (16.7%) of infected wolves was recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sexes. Of the years studied, the highest prevalence was found in 2014 (57.1%). The maximum number of helminth species per host specimen was four. PMID:26051257

  20. [Acute appendicitis and coinfection with enterobiasis and taeniasis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Çall?, Gülhan; Özbilgin, Mücahit; Yapar, Nur; Sar?o?lu, Sülen; Özkoç, Soykan

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are rarely associated with inflammation of the appendix. Generally, parasites cause acute abdominal pain via blocking the gut lumen. In this article, we presented a case of appendicitis where Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the surgical specimen and Taenia was detected in the stool. A 31 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, which has begun two days ago. On physical examination, tenderness was positive on palpation of the right lower abdominal quadrant and the patient was operated on with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Histopathological examination of the patient's appendectomy material revealed numerous parts of parasites resembling Enterobius vermicularis and slight mucosal erosion. On parasitological examination of the patient's stool, Taenia eggs and adult forms were determined. Antiparasitic therapy was started with niclosamide for taeniasis and albendazole for enterobiasis. Parasitic infections can mimic acute appendicitis clinically. Radiological and laboratory findings do not help to distinguish the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. In the histopathological examination of the appendix, the findings of acute inflammation of the appendix wall may not be defined. For patients with normal histopathological examination, screening for parasites should be done, and anti-parasitic treatment should be started after appendectomy. PMID:24659705

  1. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Özgür

    2007-01-01

    Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen). Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15%) were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies). Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis. PMID:17524150

  2. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  3. Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Romani, Elizabeth Luz Sanchez; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2006-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50)from patients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1), were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5), immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques. Serum samples (n18) from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis) or healthy blood donors (n15), were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests) or 96% (EITB test). Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna) besides Lima. PMID:16862333

  4. [Main features of helminth parasitism in cattle in Ituri (Haut-Zaire). III. Geographic distribution and prevalence of the main helminths].

    PubMed

    Chartier, C; Bushu, M; Kamwenga, D

    1991-01-01

    A necropsic survey, carried out in eleven slaughterhouses in Ituri (Haut-Zaïre), has permitted to define the geographic distribution and prevalences of the main cattle helminths. Trematodes, except the paramphistomes, had a very heterogeneous distribution. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica ranged from 9 to 72% according to the sites, but these variations were not linked to topographic or climatologic parameters. The infection with Schistosoma bovis was much variable as well (12.5 to 72%) and seemed absent from the central high altitude area. The occurrence of Dicrocoelium hospes was restricted to the northern part of Ituri with a moderate prevalence of about 35%. By contrast, nematodes had a fairly homogeneous distribution in Ituri. Prevalences were high for gastro-intestinal strongyles of the following genera, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Oesophagostomum (over 60%). Cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) occurred in 10 to 14% of cattle in the middle and south areas of Ituri whereas the north areas were nearly free. PMID:1775693

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Western Blot Kit for Diagnosis of Human Trichinellosis

    PubMed Central

    Yera, Hélène; Andiva, Shakir; Perret, Catherine; Limonne, Denis; Boireau, Pascal; Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated industrially prepared Western blot strips designed to avoid the cross-reactions observed with indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays used for the serodiagnosis of trichinellosis. The antigen preparations were crude extracts of Trichinella spiralis. The Western blot profile characteristic of trichinellosis was characterized by comparing 60 sera from patients infected by Trichinella to 11 sera from healthy subjects, 51 sera from patients with other proven parasitic diseases (cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidosis, fascioliasis, toxocariasis, liver amebiasis, anisakiasis, filariasis, toxoplasmosis, hydatidosis, or malaria), and 23 sera from patients with autoantibodies. Specific 43- to 44-kDa and 64-kDa bands were obtained with all of the sera from 51 patients with acute trichinellosis, in 4 out of 9 patients at the early stages of the disease, and in only 1 control patient, who had suspected anisakiasis and in whom trichinellosis could not be ruled out by muscle biopsy. PMID:12965906

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for zoonotic helminth infection among humans and animals - Jos, Nigeria, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ekong, Pius Stephen; Juryit, Raymond; Dika, Ndahi Mwapu; Nguku, Patrick; Musenero, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections. PMID:22826731

  7. The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Strassen, Bianca; Fischer, Katja; Aksu, Gülendem; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, chloroform, aqueous, (polyethylene glycol/propylene carbonate) PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni). In all in vitro tests, the target parasites died. It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. In addition, the same composition was effective against the intestinal fluke E. caproni, but not against the liver fluke F. hepatica in the final host, while both worms were killed in vitro. Inoculation of fluids of coconut eliminated T. taeniaeformis tapeworms from naturally infected cats. This goal was not reached with oil of cistrose. PMID:21107861

  8. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance.

  9. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  10. A survey of the intestinal helminths of refugees in Juba, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marnell, F; Guillet, A; Holland, C

    1992-08-01

    A parasitological survey of refugees based in Juba, Sudan, involving 241 faecal samples, revealed that 66% of the population harboured intestinal helminths. The most commonly found infection was hookworm (36%), followed by Schistosoma mansoni (26%), Strongyloides stercoralis (20%), Hymenolepis nana (11%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%), Trichuris trichiura (0.8%) and Taenia sp. (0.4%). Many of the specimens (42%) harboured a single infection, 21% had double, 2% triple and 1% quadruple infections. Parasite prevalences and intensities were analysed in relation to age, sex, religion and occupation: females (70%) were found to be more infected than males (64%); Muslims (50%) were less infected than Christians (68%) and agriculturalists (90%) were the most infected occupational group. PMID:1463359

  11. Gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats (Felis catus) from Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, S K; Mukharjee, S N

    2011-03-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 27 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus) in Aizawl, Mizoram, India from January 2005 to April, 2009. The examined cats showed mixed helminthic infections, with an overall prevalence of 85.2%. Five nematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 trematode were identified. The most common helminthes were Taenia taeniaeformis (70.4%), Toxocara cati (59.3%), Physaloptera praeputalis (44.4%), Dipylidium caninum (40.7%), Spirocerca felineus (18.5%), Gnathostoma spinigerum (11.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (7.4%) and Opisthorchis sp (3.7%). Co-infection with T. taeniaeformis and T. cati was seen in 48.1% (13/27), indicating the possibility of these cats were paratenic hosts for toxocariasis in cats. PMID:21710844

  12. Comparative cytogenetics of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Nannacara, Ivanacara and Cleithracara) indicates evolutionary reduction of diploid chromosome numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hoda?ová, Lucie; Kalous, Lukáš; Musilová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in five species of a monophyletic clade of neotropical Cichlasomatine cichlids, namely Cleithracara maronii Steindachner, 1881, Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros, 1993), Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905, N. aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 and N. taenia Regan, 1912. Karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics were revealed by CDD banding and mapped onto the phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular analyses of four genes, namely cyt b, 16S rRNA, S7 and RAG1. The diploid numbers of chromosomes ranged from 44 to 50, karyotypes were composed predominantly of monoarmed chromosomes and one to three pairs of CMA3 signal were observed. The results showed evolutionary reduction in this monophyletic clade and the cytogenetic mechanisms (fissions/fusions) were hypothesized and discussed. PMID:25349669

  13. Enteric parasites of free-roaming, owned, and rural cats in prairie regions of Canada.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Jessica; Hill, Janet E; Polley, Lydden; Fernando, Champika; Wagner, Brent; Schurer, Janna; Jenkins, Emily

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, intensity, and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and pet cats in urban areas of Saskatchewan (SK) and a rural region in southwestern Alberta (AB). Fecal samples were analyzed using a modified double centrifugation sucrose flotation to detect helminth eggs and coccidian oocysts, and an immunofluorescence assay to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Endoparasite prevalence was higher in samples from rural AB cats (41% of 27) and free-roaming SK cats (32% of 161) than client-owned SK cats (6% of 31). Parasites identified using morphological and molecular techniques included Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris-type eggs, Eucoleus aerophilus, Taenia taeniaeformis, Isospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and zoonotic genotype A of Giardia duodenalis. This study demonstrates significant differences in endoparasite prevalence in feline populations, and the value of molecular techniques in fecal-based surveys to identify and determine parasite zoonotic potential. PMID:25969584

  14. Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

  15. A coprological survey of intestinal helminthes in stray dogs captured in osaka prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akio; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Nagahama, Shinya; Horikoshi, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006-2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  16. A survey of helminthic infections in the residents of rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do-Sung; Chung, Byung-Ha; Lee, Nam-Seok; Kim, Joong-Ho

    1999-01-01

    A total of 738 samples was collected to survey the helminthic infections of residents in two rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for 2 weeks from July 23 to August 2, 1998. Among 391 scotch-taped slides of anal swabs of children and of young teenagers, Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in 138 cases (35.3%). With the fecal samples of 206 Kato-Katz thick smear slides from adults, the eggs of E. vermicularis were observed in 9 cases and Taenia sp. in one case, respectively. And by ELISA on 141 blood samples absorbed to blood sampling paper, 12 cases (8.5%) were found to be positive against the hydatid cyst antigen. Enterobiasis and hydatidosis are two major endemic diseases which are related closely to the life style of Mongolian. PMID:10507221

  17. Conservative management of neurocysticercosis in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Purvey, S; Lu, K; Mukkamalla, S K; Anandi, P; Dumitriu, B; Kranick, S; Hammoud, D A; O'Connell, E; Oh, A L; Barrett, J; Mahanty, S; Battiwalla, M

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is common in developing countries but its occurrence and management in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report the case of an immigrant female patient who underwent a matched-related allogeneic HSCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was incidentally found to have a solitary viable neurocysticercosis lesion. However, despite severe immunosuppression, the size of the cyst did not increase. More importantly, restoration of the immune system did not induce significant inflammation or seizures. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the neurocysticercosis lesion. Thus, in the setting of HSCT, an asymptomatic patient with a single neurocysticercosis lesion was successfully managed without the use of anthelmintics, steroids, or anti-epileptics. PMID:25850995

  18. Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

  19. Human helminthosis in a rural community of Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onwuliri, C O; Imandeh, N G; Okwuosa, V N

    1992-11-01

    Urine and faecal samples were obtained from 1,517 people in Fier, a typical rural village in Plateau State, Nigeria, for a parasitological survey among the population. 643 (42.39%) persons were found to be infected with altogether 9 helminths, namely: Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis. Age and religion as opposed to sex, type of sewage system, and type of housing had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the prevalence rates of the helminths in the population. Snail vector survey for schistosomatosis revealed the presence of Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus, Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi with the latter being the most common with brevifurcate cercariae, and xiphidiocercariae being the most common cercariae harboured by the snails. PMID:1456465

  20. [Current zoonoses from the food hygiene point of view (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grossklaus, D

    1979-03-01

    Of the numerous zoonoses part of which are reportable, according to the Federal Communicable Diseases Act, the food hygienist attributes topicality at present to salmonellosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis (T. saginata), trichinellosis, and sarcosporidiosis. In salmonellosis, combating is directed to breeding and keeping of Salmonella-free flocks, poultry offering favourable conditions for this purpose. Moreover, one tries to decontaminate feeds through certain pelleting machines with the aid of friction heat or by admixing propionic acid. In brucellosis, the possibility of infection by tourism, but also that through ingestion of imported dairy products (like soft cheese) play a certain role. Instruction of tourists and advising foreign labour from endemic areas are essential contributions to combating. Another important infection source of toxoplasmosis is infected raw pig meat. As the agent does not survive freezing temperatures under certain conditions, the decontamination procedure is particularly suitable. In pregnancy advising, the role of raw pig meat for development of congenital toxoplasmosis should be clearly explained. In trichinellosis, apart from the traditional examination by the trichinoscope, the modified digestion procedure using pepsin as a digestive fluid was successful. Moreover, it is suitable for detecting weakly infected swine. The importance of systematic examinations of all domestic and wild pigs became evident only recently in 1977, when in Bavaria an epidemic of trichinellosis occurred following the ingestion of undetected Trichinella containing wild pig meat. According to most recent knowledge on the cycle of development of sarcosporidia, the studies showed that the species Sarc. bovihominis and suihominis were pathogens for human beings. Quite apart from necessary supplementary examinations, the freezing procedure would here too, warrant an effective protection for the raw meat consuming population. PMID:113956

  1. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  2. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  3. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  4. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed Central

    Román, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-França, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

  5. Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US–Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening) to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:18575621

  6. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: global trends.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2011-11-24

    Diseases resulting from zoonotic transmission of parasites are common. Humans become infected through food, water, soil and close contact with animals. Most parasitic zoonoses are neglected diseases despite causing a considerable global burden of ill health in humans and having a substantial financial burden on livestock industries. This review aims to bring together the current data available on global burden estimates of parasitic zoonoses and indicate any changes in the trends of these diseases. There is a clear need of such information as interventions to control zoonoses are often in their animal hosts. The costs of such interventions together with animal health issues will drive the cost effectiveness of intervention strategies. What is apparent is that collectively, parasitic zoonoses probably have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV in addition to animal health burden. Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, the major contributors to the global burden of parasitic zoonoses are toxoplasmosis, food borne trematode infections, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis and zoonotic schistosomosis. In addition, diarrhoea resulting from zoonotic protozoa may have a significant impact. PMID:21862222

  7. Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

  8. Free-floating vitreous cyst in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Yasin; Raza, Sabri; Cakmak, Hasan Basri; Cagil, Nurullah

    2013-12-01

    A 50 year-old male patient was referred to our clinic due to a floating mass in the right eye. The uncorrected visual aquity was 10 / 10 in both eyes.The patient did not have any systemic disorder and trauma history. His ophthalmological examination revealed an unremarkable anterior segment with no signs of inflammation. Indirect opthalmoscopy and posterior segment biomicroscopy performed with 90D lens was unremarkable in the left eye, while in the right eye a single oval cyst was identified floating freely in the vitreous. The cyst was partially masking the underlying retinal vasculature. B-scan ultrasound revealed an echo-free, round-shaped cyst that was free from surrounding vitreous strands or retina localised at the posterior vitreous. Fluorescein angiography (FA) ruled out the presence of intra and overlying vascularisation of the cyst. Indeed, FA showed a clear-edged hypofluorescence due to a pre-retinal masking effect. The indirect hemaglutinin tests of the patient for ecinococcus and cysticercosis were negative. Eosinophilia was not detected in the preripheral blood smear. Based on these findings the patient was diagnosed as primary vitreal cyst. The presented case was mild symptomatic so the patient was decided to be followed up without any treatment. PMID:24311934

  9. China's sustained drive to eliminate neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Griffiths, Sian M; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases dominate the public health arena in China, yet neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are still widespread and create a substantial burden. We review the geographical distribution, prevalence, and epidemic characteristics of NTDs identified in China caused by helminths, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Lymphatic filariasis was eliminated in 2007, but schistosomiasis still affects up to 5% of local village residents in some endemic counties with around 300?000 people infected. China harbours more than 90% of the world's burden of alveolar echinococcosis and food-borne zoonoses are emerging. In 2010, the overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was 11·4%, with 6·8% of these infections caused by A lumbricoides. Corresponding figures for food-borne trematodiasis, echinococcosis, and cysticercosis are more than 5%. Dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, rabies, and trachoma exist in many areas and should not be overlooked. Transmission of vector-borne diseases can be interrupted; nevertheless, epidemics occur in remote areas, creating a challenge for surveillance and control. Rigorous surveillance, followed by immediate and integrated response packages tailored to specific social and ecological systems, is essential for progress towards the elimination of NTDs in China. PMID:24875936

  10. Isolated pancreatic cysticercal cyst presenting as a diagnostic challenge: diagnosis and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Neogi, Sushanto

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis most commonly affects the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver and, rarely, the heart, thyroid and pancreas. Owing to vague clinical presentation and unfamiliarity of clinicians with this entity, it is difficult to diagnosis when seen as an isolated cyst. We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with an upper abdominal lump and jaundice. Ultrasonography (USG) and MRI of the abdomen were carried out, which revealed a cystic mass (8.5×7×7?cm) in the pancreas. No evidence of solid component or papillary projections was noted within the lesion. Tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA 19-9) were normal. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, which revealed the presence of cysticercus larvae, along with a foreign body giant cell reaction. The patient was treated with therapeutic aspiration and antihelminthic therapy. Since then, he has been symptom free and under regular follow-up for the last 1?year. A diagnosis of cysticercal cyst at atypical sites is very rare and depends mainly on histopathological examination, which, along with USG and MRI, can give an accurate analysis. These cysts can be very well treated non-surgically with antihelminthics and aspiration. PMID:26160552

  11. Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA Using Crude Antigen of Toxocara canis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia. PMID:24039286

  12. The identification of a Clonorchis sinensis gene encoding an antigenic egg protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mejeong; Chung, Young-Bae; Lee, Suk-Keun; Chung, Byung-Suk; Li, Shunyu; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2005-02-01

    The cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis was screened for genes encoding antigenic proteins by using sera from clonorchiasis patients. A gene of 888 bp encoding a 28-kDa protein (Cs28) was cloned and found to contain a high percentage of glycine (20%), tyrosine (11%), and lysine (11%). The amino acid sequence of Cs28 showed 60% homology with the vitelline B precursor protein of Opisthorchis viverrini and of 33% homology with the vitelline B1 and B2 proteins of Fasciola hepatica. A strong positive reaction was observed in the intrauterine eggs of adult C. sinensis by immunohistochemical analysis using specific immune sera against recombinant Cs28 protein (rCs28). By immunoblot analysis, rCs28 displayed an antigenic reaction with 73% of the serum samples from 115 cases of clonorchiasis. In addition, it cross-reacted with the sera of 77.5% of 40 opisthorchiasis cases, 90% of 20 schistosomiasis cases, and 50% of 10 paragonimiasis cases. However, no cross-reactions were observed with the sera of sparganosis or cysticercosis patients. In conclusion, the Cs28 protein was identified as an egg protein of C. sinensis and as an antigen common to the trematode species examined. PMID:15616856

  13. Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. PMID:24265948

  14. Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  15. Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, several neglected parasite species are now fast-becoming recognized as important zoonotic diseases of humans, e.g. anasakiasis, several fish-borne trematodiasis and fasciolosis. In the present review, we discuss the current disease status of these primary helminth zoonotic infections with particular emphasis on their diagnosis and control. Advances in molecular biology, proteomics and the release of helminth genome-sequencing project data are revolutionizing parasitology research. The use of these powerful experimental approaches, and their potential benefits to helminth biology are also discussed in relation to the future control of helminth infections of animals and humans. PMID:19687044

  16. Praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-03-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis, fasciolopsiasis, neodiplostomiasis, gymnophalloidiasis, taeniases, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and cysticercosis. However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. The precise mechanism of action of praziquantel is still poorly understood. There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. PMID:24265948

  17. Five cases of neurocysticercosis diagnosed in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Walker, J; Chen, S; Packham, D; McIntyre, P

    1991-12-01

    Cysticercosis, once rare in Australia, is now more frequently diagnosed. This change reflects the countries of origin of new immigrants and the destinations of Australians travelling. Five cases of neurocysticercosis diagnosed at Westmead Hospital in Sydney are described. Two involved Australians, a father and son who had visited eastern and southeastern Asia 10 years before presentation. The other three included immigrants from Chile and India and a visitor from Timor. Ages ranged from 5 to 57 years. Three individuals presented after focal seizures involving the upper limb, one had a long standing history of neurological dysfunction and one suffered from persistent headaches. In all cases computed tomographic scanning (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cystic brain lesions and three of the five were seropositive as well. Four were treated with praziquantel and in one the lesions regressed significantly following treatment. However, the lesion in one case had decreased in size prior to treatment and that in the untreated individual also became smaller. PMID:1822897

  18. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  19. Helminth infections of the central nervous system occurring in Southeast Asia and the Far East.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Although helminth infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, their public health implications must not be neglected. Indeed, several helminth species can cause cerebrospinal infections, especially if humans serve as intermediate or non-permissive host. The diagnosis of cerebrospinal helminthiases is difficult, and the detection of parasites in cerebrospinal fluid is rarely successful. Cerebrospinal helminth infections therefore often remain undetected, and hence prognosis is poor. Increases in tourism and population movements are risk factors for cerebrospinal helminthiases and infections pose particular challenges to clinicians in non-endemic areas. In this review, we focus primarily on food-borne helminthiases that are endemic and often emerging in Southeast Asia and the Far East, namely angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis. Additionally, we discuss neuroschistosomiasis, a disease that is transmitted through human-water contact. For each disease, we describe the pathogen, its transmission route and possible mechanisms for entering the CNS. We also summarise common signs and symptoms, challenges and opportunities for diagnosis, treatment, clinical management, geographical distribution and epidemiology. The adoption of a comprehensive set of diagnostic criteria for different cerebrospinal helminthiases is proposed, including epidemiological history, typical signs and symptoms, neuroimaging and laboratory findings. Finally, risk factors, and research needs for enhanced patient management and population-based control measures are discussed. PMID:20624537

  20. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  1. [Diagnostic features of Microsomacanthus microsoma (Creplin, 1829), type species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942, as the base for the revision of the genus].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A K; Regel', K V

    2010-01-01

    The genus Microsomacanthus was created by Lopez-Neyra (1942). Its type species, Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829, was described from the common eider Somateria mollissima and remained a collective species until Fuhrmann (1913) revealed its diagnostic features on the original material. Simultaneously he described two new species of "microsoma-Gruppe", Microsomacanthus jaegerskioeldi (Fuhrmann, 1913) and M. diorchis (Fuhrmann, 1913). Fuhrmann stressed that under the name of Hymenolepis microsoma Cohn (1901) gave a description of quite different species (a parasite of the freshwater duck Anas penelope). Much earlier Leuckart (1879) used the same name for the denomination of a certain larval form from freshwater snails, without any experimental verification. Fuhrmann (1932), in conflict with himself, synonymized Taenia microsoma Creplin, 1829 and Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 and thus caused new inadequacy. Spassky et Spasskaja (1954) confirmed the validity of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 and supplemented its diagnosis with such significant criteria as the number of rostellar hooks (10) and the absence of any accessory structures in the copulatory apparatus. Intermediate hosts of M. microsoma proved to be gammarids (Belopolskaya, 1952). Nevertheless Yamaguti (1959) synonymized a larval form from pond snails (Monocercus lymnaei Villot, 1883) with Microsomacanthus microsoma, meanwhile Hymenolepis microsoma sensu Cohn, 1901 was shown to be a synonym of Microsomacanthus compressa (Linton, 1892). The life cycle of the latter species includes copepods as intermediate hosts and freshwater gastropods as storage (reservoir) ones. Schmidt (1986) and Czaplinski and Vaucher (1994) chose M. compressa as an illustrative example of the genus Microsomacanthus instead of its type species. The diagnostic features of the genus remain vague, so the list of its synonyms attained as much as 17. Fuhrmann's material on M. microsoma, as well as on the two other species of "microsoma-Gruppe", deposited in the Museum of Natural History (Geneva) was reinvestigated. The diagnostic features of the group formulated by Fuhrmann (1913) were confirmed and enlarged. Large assemblage of species corresponding to M. microsoma by morphology (small gonads, early resorption of testes, formation of eggpacket in the uterus) and biology (gammarids as intermediate hosts) is established. This group is taken as the nominotypical subgenus Microsomacanthus (Microsomacanthus). For the antithetic group which life cycle corresponds to that of M. compressa (a species with comparatively large gonads, with testes persisting till the maturation of female gonads and eggs disseminating one by one from the uterus) we erect a new taxon, Microsomacanthus (Leucartcohnacanthus subgen. nov. Microsomacanthus paracompressa (Czaplinski, 1956) is selected as its type species. Representatives of both subgenera of the genus Microsomacanthus may have rostellar hooks of the same length. Literary data on their larval forms were often based on misidentification. PMID:21309145

  2. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  3. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C.; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  4. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

  5. Cysticerci Drive Dendritic Cells to Promote In Vitro and In Vivo Tregs Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Fragoso, Gladis; Cárdenas, Graciela; Rosetti, Marcos; Casanova-Hernández, Didier; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in immune homeostasis. Treg induction is a strategy that parasites have evolved to modulate the host's inflammatory environment, facilitating their establishment and permanence. In human Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NC), the concurrence of increased peripheral and central Treg levels and their capacity to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation support their role in controlling neuroinflammation. This study is aimed at identifing possible mechanisms of Treg induction in human NC. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy human donors, cocultivated with autologous CD4+ naïve cells either in the presence or absence of cysticerci, promoted CD25highFoxp3+ Treg differentiation. An increased Treg induction was observed when cysticerci were present. Moreover, an augmentation of suppressive-related molecules (SLAMF1, B7-H1, and CD205) was found in parasite-induced DC differentiation. Increased Tregs and a higher in vivo DC expression of the regulatory molecules SLAMF1 and CD205 in NC patients were also found. SLAMF1 gene was downregulated in NC patients with extraparenchymal cysticerci, exhibiting higher inflammation levels than patients with parenchymal parasites. Our findings suggest that cysticerci may modulate DC to favor a suppressive environment, which may help parasite establishment, minimizing the excessive inflammation, which may lead to tissue damage. PMID:23762101

  6. GK-1 Improves the Immune Response Induced by Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells Loaded with MAGE-AX in Mice with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Piñón-Zárate, Gabriela; Herrera-Enríquez, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Téllez, Beatriz; Jarquín-Yáñez, Katia; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés Eliú

    2014-01-01

    The aim of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in cancer is to induce tumor-specific effector T cells that may reduce and control tumor mass. Immunostimulants that could drive a desired immune response are necessary to be found in order to generate a long lasting tumor immune response. GK-1 peptide, derived from Taenia crassiceps, induces not only increase in TNF?, IFN?, and MCP-1 production in cocultures of DCs and T lymphocytes but also immunological protection against influenza virus. Moreover, the aim of this investigation is the use of GK-1 as a bone marrow DCs (BMDCs) immunostimulant targeted with MAGE antigen; thus, BMDC may be used as immunotherapy against murine melanoma. GK-1 induced in BMDCs a meaningful increment of CD86 and IL-12. In addition, the use of BMDCs TNF?/GK-1/MAGE-AX induced the highest survival and the smallest tumors in mice. Besides, the treatment helped to increase CD8 lymphocytes levels and to produce IFN? in lymph nodes. Moreover, the histopathological analysis showed that BMDCs treated with GK-1/TNF? and loaded with MAGE-AX induced the apparition of more apoptotic and necrotic areas in tumors than in mice without treatment. These results highlight the properties of GK-1 as an immunostimulant of DCs and suggest as a potential candidate the use of this immunotherapy against cancer disease. PMID:25759825

  7. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink. PMID:18752724

  8. [Palaeoparasitological study of atypical elements of the low and High Nile Valley].

    PubMed

    Harter-Lailheugue, S; Bouchet, F

    2006-03-01

    Paleoparasitology in the Old World has mainly concerned the study of latrine sediments and coprolites collected from mummified bodies or archaeological strata, mostly preserved by natural conditions. For the first time, different unusual archaeological samples were studied to look for the eggs of helminths parasites (embalming reject jar, canopic package, shroud). Now, samples of organic matter have been successfully processed in order to extract helminths eggs, following the protocol of BOUCHET 2001 (4). Helminth eggs are frequently preserved in the late Quaternary archaeological contexts because of their hard-wearing chitin shell. Six types of eggs were revealed (Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). This study allows to enlarge the Palaeoparasitological research with material never exploited. Moreover, if we take into account identified parasite and geography, it's possible to enlarge the debate to parasite spatio-temporal migration. Considering the particular context of samples preservation, it's interesting to observe an exceptional conservation of parasitological sign related to excellent taphonomic condition (aridity anaeroby, rapid interruption of thanatomorphosis, natural "mummification"). PMID:16568686

  9. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of ?-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  10. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  11. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  12. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

  13. Distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, Cristiane; Rocha, Nelisa Helena; Mengatto, Vanessa; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene; Marino-Neto, José

    2009-09-01

    The distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-containing perikarya and processes in the brainstem and diencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia) were investigated using single-labeling chromogenic and double-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemical methods for TPH and 5-HT. TPH-immunoreactive (TPH-ir) perikarya were seen extending from the caudal medulla to mid-hypothalamic levels, located in brainstem regions previously described as containing 5-HT-ir somata. Brainstem TPH-ir cell clusters (the midline raphe, and the dorsolateral and ventrolateral serotonergic cell groups) and the circumventricular cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the taenia choroidea (in the caudal brainstem), recessus infundibuli and paraventricular organ (in the hypothalamus) were shown to co-express 5-HT immunoreactivity. However, heavily labeled TPH-ir cell clusters were observed in the nucleus premamillaris (PMM), in the stratum cellulare internum (SCI), in the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis (PVN) and in the medial border of the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami (DMA). Double-labeling experiments indicated that none of these medial hypothalamic TPH-ir cells were immunoreactive to 5-HT. These cells correspond to dopamine- and melatonin-containing neurons previously found in the avian hypothalamus, and appear to be comparable to the mammalian TPH-ir hypothalamic A11-A13 catecholaminergic somata, suggesting that they may be a conserved attribute in the amniote medial hypothalamus. PMID:19559984

  14. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

  15. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  16. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored. PMID:19209758

  17. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

  18. Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ifeadike, C. O.; Ironkwe, O. C.; Adogu, P. O. U.; Nnebue, C. C.; Emelumadu, O. F.; Nwabueze, S. A.; Ubajaka, C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In developing countries, biological contaminants largely bacteria and other parasites constitute the major causes of food-borne diseases often transmitted through food, water, nails, and fingers contaminated with faeces. Accordingly, food-handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections by these micro-organisms. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive one in which a multistage sampling technique was employed to select 168 food handlers of various types. Subjects’ stool, urine, and fingernail analyses were carried out and the result scientifically scrutinized. Results: Fingernail bacteria isolates include: E. Coli (1.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (17.9%), Staphylococcus aureus(7.1%), Klebsiella species (2.4%), Serratia species (1.2%), Citrobacter species (1.2%), and Enterococcus species (1.8%). The subjects’ stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%), T. trichuria (1.8%), S. starcolaris (3.0%), E. histolytica (10.7%), G. lambilia (1.8%), S. mansoni (1.2%), and Taenia species (4.8%). Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. Conclusion: Food establishments should screen and treat staff with active illness, and regularly train them on good personal and workplace hygiene practices. PMID:23293419

  19. High Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in a Riparian Population in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection. PMID:22711932

  20. [Role of infectious agents in the emergence of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, A G; Yuzhalin, A E; Brusina, E B; Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), at least 6 virus species (HPV, EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, HTLV-1, HBV, HCV), 4 helminthes species (Schistosoma haematobium and japonicum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis) and I bacterium species (Helicobacter pylori) have been proved to be capable of causing the development of cancer. The analysis of the data available shows that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), monkey virus 40 (SV40), cytomegalovirus (CMV), xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), Helicobacter bilis and hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Fusobacterium varium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Prevotella spp., Streptococcus bovis and anginosus, Treponema denticola, Salmonella typhi, paratyphi and typhimurium, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, trachomatis and psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Propionibacterium acnes, Tropheryma whippelii, Schistosoma mansoni, Opistorchis felineus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Candida spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Trichomonas vaginalis can also be potential etiological agents of cancer. Apparently, detection of new associations between infectious agents and risk of the development of cancer will facilitate progress in elaboration of prophylaxis measures, early diagnostic methods and, probably, methods of treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:23163048

  1. Prevalence of Helminthic Infections among Inhabitants of Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  2. Prevalence of helminthic infections among inhabitants of Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR. PMID:24623882

  3. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  5. A specific antigen-detection elisa for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, H. H.; Harrison, L. J. S.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Montenegro, T.; Martinez, S. M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Gilman, R. H.

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antigen secreted by viable Taenia solium metacestodes (Ag-elisa) was applied to 43 pre-treatment and 47 follow-up cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from Peruvian patients with neurocysticercosis demonstrated by computed tomography and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 86%. Negative pre-treatment results in the Ag-elisa test were restricted to patients with only a single live cyst or only enhancing lesions. Patients with hydrocephalus had higher levels of circulating antigen. There was no difference between antigen levels in CSF taken before and immediately after treatment (day 14). Levels of parasite antigen were significantly positively correlated with the number of live cysts detected by tomography and were also proportional to the number and intensity of antibody reactions recognized by the immunoblot diagnostic test. In contrast, there was a negative correlation with the number of enhancing lesions revealed by tomography, supporting the hypothesis that enhancing lesions correspond to a terminal, moribund stage of the parasite. The use of antigen-detection tests specific for viable metacestodes has immediate utility in the clinical context, not only providing important information on the viability of the parasites but also leading to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis before and after drug treatment. PMID:9850394

  6. Inputs to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Won; Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-12-10

    The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral and immune- and stress-related stimuli. Here, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer to identify other brain sites that innervate the BSTvl. Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and, most prominently the amygdala--primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and, most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla). In the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, some retrogradely labeled neurons contained either agouti-related peptide or cocaine/amphetamine-regulated transcript. Of the numerous retrogradely labeled neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area, few contained melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin. In the brainstem, many retrogradely labeled neurons were either serotoninergic or catecholaminergic. In summary, the BSTvl receives inputs from a variety of brain sites implicated in hunger, salt and water intake, stress, arousal, and reward. PMID:18853414

  7. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. PMID:25291044

  8. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  9. Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

  10. Ultrastructural evidence for an olfactory-autonomic pathway through the rat central amygdaloid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cassell, M D; Roberts, L

    1991-11-25

    The innervation of medullary projection neurons in the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce) by afferents from the ventral taenia tecta (VTT) was investigated using combined lesion-induced axonal degeneration and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (HRP-WGA). Injections of HRP-WGA into the nucleus tractus solitarii resulted in retrograde labeling of neurons in the medial Ce. Ultrastructurally HRP-WGA reaction product was identifiable in the perikarya and proximal dendrites of Ce neurons. Degenerating terminals, probably due to damage at the HRP-WGA injection site, were few and confined to the ventral Ce. Electrolytic coagulation of the VTT resulted in approximately 9% of terminals in medial Ce showing signs of degeneration at 5 days post-lesion. Of the terminals sampled, slightly more than 40% were in contact with the dendrites of retrogradely labeled neurons. Where evident, these terminals formed exclusively symmetrical synaptic contacts. These data provide evidence for an oligosynaptic olfactory-autonomic pathway in the rat that may mediate olfactory influences on gastric and cardiovascular aspects of autonomic function. PMID:1724308

  11. Is atherosclerosis fundamental to human aging? Lessons from ancient mummies.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Emily M; Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Cox, Samantha L; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahem; Miyamoto, Michael I; Frohlich, Bruno; Nur el-din, Abdel-Halim; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Narula, Jagat; Zink, Albert R; Finch, Caleb E; Michalik, David E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-05-01

    Case reports from Johan Czermak, Marc Ruffer, and others a century or more ago demonstrated ancient Egyptians had atherosclerosis three millennia ago. The Horus study team extended their findings, demonstrating that atherosclerosis was prevalent among 76 ancient Egyptian mummies and among 61 mummies from each of the ancient cultures of Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands. These findings challenge the assumption that atherosclerosis is a modern disease caused by present day risk factors. An extensive autopsy of an ancient Egyptian teenage male weaver named Nakht found that he was infected with four parasites: Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia species, Trichinella spiralis, and Plasmodium falciparum. Modern day patients with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus experience premature atherosclerosis. Could the burden of chronic inflammatory disease have been a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these ancient cultures? The prevalence of atherosclerosis in four diverse ancient cultures is consistent with atherosclerosis being fundamental to aging. The impact of risk factors in modern times, and potentially in ancient times, suggests a strong gene-environmental interplay: human genes provide a vulnerability to atherosclerosis, the environment determines when and if atherosclerosis becomes manifest clinically. PMID:24582386

  12. Pork as a source of human parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B; Nikoli?, A; Klun, I; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2013-07-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have been estimated to annually affect 10% of the global population, among which zoonotic parasites constitute an important class of aetiological agents. The major meatborne parasites include the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp., and the helminths Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp., all of which may be transmitted by pork. The significance of zoonotic parasites transmitted by pork consumption is emphasized by the prediction by the Food and Agriculture Organization of an 18.5% increase in world pork production over the next 10 years. Of all the porkborne parasites, the three 'T' parasites have been responsible for most porkborne illness throughout history; they are still endemic, and therefore are important public-health concerns, in developing countries. Although the risk of porkborne parasites, particularly helminths, may currently be considered insignificant in developed countries, the modern trend of consuming raw meat favours their re-emergence. This paper overviews the main parasites transmitted to humans by pork, and outlines the main lines of prevention. PMID:23402388

  13. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common. PMID:24952091

  14. Experimental cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis in goats: A comparative study on the morphological and molecular characteristics of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Maryam; Moazeni, Mohammad; Oryan, Ahmad; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Amrabadi, Omidreza

    2015-07-30

    This experimental study was conducted to test whether cerebral and non-cerebral forms of Coenurus cerebralis belong to one origin or they are originated from two different tape worms. In the first step of the study, two groups of dogs were orally infected with the protoscoleces of cerebral and non-cerebral cysts and four months after infection, the adult worms were collected and morphologically characterized. Then the obtained eggs from two groups of adult worms were orally inoculated to two groups of goats to trace the predilection sites and also to compare the morphological and molecular characteristics of the larval stage of the parasites. The results showed that, both cerebral and non-cerebral coenuri, produced morphologically similar worms in the experimentally infected dogs. We observed only non-cerebral coenurus cysts in two groups of experimentally infected goats and the morphological characteristics of the cysts of two different groups were also similar. The molecular findings also showed that the cysts of two groups were 100% identical to each other based on the CO1 and nad1 sequences. In conclusion, our morphological and molecular findings reinforce the evidence that Taenia multiceps is the single origin of both cerebral and non-cerebral form of C. cerebralis but in goats, the cysts show more tendency to non-cerebral organs. PMID:26116455

  15. The epidemiology of helminthosis in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fakae, B B

    1990-01-01

    The epidemiology of helminth infections in West African dwarf sheep and goats under the traditional husbandry system prevailing in the derived savanna area of eastern Nigeria was studied for 12 months. The infections observed were due to Haemonchus contortus (87.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (63.8%), metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena (30.2%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (22.4%), Strongyloides sp. (18.8%), Cooperia spp. (17.2%), Gaigeria pachyscelis (6.0%), Moniezia expansa (6.0%), Bunostomum trigonocephalum (4.3%), Trichuris ovis (3.5%), Capillaria sp. (0.9%) and paramphistomes (0.9%). Mixed infections were most prevalent. The endemicity of parasitic gastroenteritis in the area was indicated by the high prevalence of the helminths irrespective of the season of the year. The overall trend in helminthosis in these animals was that of an escalating worm burden during the period of confinement (April - October) and a low worm burden when animals were allowed free range (November - March), these periods corresponding to the cropping and harvest seasons respectively. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.73; p less than 0.01) was obtained between the mean strongyle worm burden and the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces. A single treatment with a broad spectrum anthelmintic followed by movement into clean sheds at the beginning of confinement is suggested to give control of helminthosis in small ruminants in this area. PMID:2247944

  16. Parasites of South African wildlife. XII. Helminths of Nyala, Tragelaphus angasii, in Natal.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Flamand, J R

    1991-12-01

    The helminths of 77 nyala, Tragelaphus angasii, from 4 game reserves in Natal, were collected, counted and identified. Ten nematode species and 4 nematode genera, a trematode species and paramphistomes, and 2 cestode genera were recovered from the antelope. Of these, a Cooperia rotundispiculum race, Gaigeria pachyscelis, a Gongylonema sp., Haemonchus vegliai, Impalaia tuberculata, an Oesophagostomum sp., a Setaria sp., Trichostrongylus deflexus, Trichostrongylus falculatus, the larval stage of a Taenia sp., a Thysaniezia sp. and Schistosoma mattheei are new parasite records for this host. Individual nematode helminth burdens varied from 3 to 13 493 and the total mean nematode burden was 700. The mean burdens of nyala from Mkuzi were the largest and those from animals from the Umfolozi Game Reserve and the False Bay Park the smallest. Ostertagia harrisi was the most prevalent nematode, and it was also the most numerous in nyala from Umfolozi, Mkuzi and False Bay. A race of Cooperia rotundispiculum was the most numerous in nyala from Ndumu. No clear-cut trends in the seasonal abundance could be discerned for any of the worm species recovered in this study. PMID:1780128

  17. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed. PMID:2024431

  18. Comparative evaluation of Strongyloides ratti and S. stercoralis larval antigen for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in an endemic area of opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Eamudomkarn, Chatanun; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The use of Strongyloides ratti as heterologous antigen for serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis is preferable to Strongyloides from humans due to the ease and safety of antigen preparation. In Southeast Asia where Opisthorchis viverrini coexists with Strongyloides stercoralis, there has been no report in using S. ratti for serodiagnosis of S. stercoralis. In this study, performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on S. ratti was compared with that based on S. stercoralis for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in areas where O. viverrini is co-endemic in Thailand. Of the 107 individuals, 50 (46.7 %) were positive for S. stercoralis by agar culture method and by ELISA; 82 (76.6 %) and 81 (75.7 %) were seropositive using S. ratti and S. stercoralis antigens, respectively. The levels of parasite-specific IgG to S. ratti and S. stercoralis antigen were significantly proportionally correlated (P?Taenia spp., hookworms, Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Ascaris lumbricoides except for Fasciola spp. (1 of 5), and Opisthorchis viverrini (5 of 20). In spite of cross-reactivities, the results suggest that the S. ratti antigen provides an useful option for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in an endemic area of opisthorchiasis with high sensitivity comparable to the S. stercoralis antigen and provide a basis for effective control strategies for strongyloidiasis. PMID:25877389

  19. Parasitic infection of the appendix as a cause of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; da Silva, Reinaldo José; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Sartorelli, Alesso Cervantes; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2007-12-01

    The association between parasitic infection of the appendix and acute appendicitis has been widely investigated. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infection of the appendix in a tropical area at southeast Brazil and to assess its possible relation to acute appendicitis in surgically removed appendices. Of the 1,600 appendectomies performed during a 10-year period, 24 (1.5%) were found to have helminths within the appendix. Enterobius vermicularis was observed in 23 of the 24 specimens (95.8%), and Taenia sp. was detected in only one case. Sixteen patients (66.7%) were less than 10 years old; 15 patients were male and nine female; 21 patients were white, and three were nonwhites. Pathologic analysis disclosed acute neutrophilic inflammation in the appendix wall in 12 of the 24 specimens and lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 of the 24 appendices. Gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed in three cases, and peritonitis was found in 11 of the 24 infected appendices. The results of the present study indicate that E. vermicularis is the commonest worm found in the appendix and that its presence can cause pathologic changes ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to acute phlegmonous inflammation with life-threatening complications like gangrene and peritonitis. PMID:17851689

  20. Alternatively activated macrophages engage in homotypic and heterotypic interactions through IL-4 and polyamine-induced E-cadherin/catenin complexes.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, Jan; Bogaert, Pieter; van Hengel, Jolanda; Guérin, Christopher J; Berx, Geert; Movahedi, Kiavash; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Pereira-Fernandes, Anna; Geuns, Jan M C; Pircher, Hanspeter; Dorny, Pierre; Grooten, Johan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2009-11-19

    Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs), triggered by interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, play a modulating role during Th2 cytokine-driven pathologies, but their molecular armament remains poorly characterized. Here, we established E-cadherin (Cdh1) as a selective marker for IL-4/IL-13-exposed mouse and human macrophages, which is STAT6-dependently induced during polarized Th2 responses associated with Taenia crassiceps helminth infections or allergic airway inflammation. The IL-4-dependent, arginase-1/ornithine decarboxylase-mediated production of polyamines is important for maximal Cdh1 induction, unveiling a novel mechanism for IL-4-dependent gene transcription. At the macrophage surface, E-cadherin forms a functional complex with the catenins that accumulates at sites of cell contact. Macrophage-specific deletion of the Cdh1 gene illustrates the implication of E-cadherin in IL-4-driven macrophage fusion and heterotypic interactions with CD103(+) and KLRG1(+) T cells. This study identifies the E-cadherin/catenin complex as a discriminative, partly polyamine-regulated feature of IL-4/IL-13-exposed alternatively activated macrophages that contributes to homotypic and heterotypic cellular interactions. PMID:19726720

  1. Formation of the chondrocranium of Trachemys scripta (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae) and a comparison with other described turtle taxa.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Frank J; Sheil, Christopher A

    2007-02-01

    Few descriptions of the formation of the chelonian chondrocranium exist. Herein, developmental stages critical to the formation of the chondrocranium of the Red-eared Slider, Trachemys scripta (Testudines: Emydidae), are described and illustrated, with particular attention given to ontogenetic changes that take place in the orbitotemporal region of the skull. Morphological descriptions are based on cleared and double-stained and serially-sectioned embryos. These specimens allowed for a detailed evaluation of the developmental morphology of the trabeculae, interorbital septum, pilae metoptica, taeniae marginalis, acrochordal cartilage, pilae antotica, parachordal cartilages, and crista sellaris. Additionally, the formation of the chondrocranium of T. scripta is compared to those of Chrysemys picta (Emydidae) and Caretta caretta (Chelonidae). Overall, the patterns of formation and remodeling of the chondrocranium are quite similar among these species, with the most conspicuous differences observed in remodeling of the posterior orbital cartilages (specifically, the pila metoptica). Reorganization of these cartilages is discussed briefly in the context of associated extraocular muscles for T. scripta and C. caretta. A prominent intertrabecula is reported in T. scripta, supporting previous observations of this structure in emydid turtles. PMID:17236189

  2. Parasitic Zoonoses: One Health Surveillance in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Ndao, Momar; Skinner, Stuart; Irvine, James; Elmore, Stacey A.; Epp, Tasha; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a joint human-animal health investigation in a Dene community in northern Saskatchewan, where residents harvest wildlife (including moose, bear, elk, and fish), live in close contact with free roaming dogs, and lack access to permanent veterinary services. Fecal analysis of owned and free-roaming dogs over two consecutive years (N?=?92, 103) identified several parasites of public health concern, including Toxocara canis, Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus/Taenia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Administration of pyrantel pamoate to a subset of dogs (N?=?122) in the community in the first year was followed by reduced shedding of T. canis and other roundworms in the second year, demonstrating the potential utility of canine de-worming as a public health intervention. Using direct agglutination tests with confirmatory indirect fluorescent antibody test, 21% of 47 dogs were sero-positive for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sero-prevalence rates in 201 human volunteers were as follows: Toxoplasma gondii (14%), Echinococcus granulosus (48%), Toxocara canis (13%) and Trichinella spp. (16%). Overall 65% of participants were sero-positive for at least one parasite. A survey administered to volunteers indicated few associations between widely accepted risk factors for parasite exposure and serological status, emphasizing the importance of environmental transmission of these parasites through soil, food, and waterborne routes. PMID:23556025

  3. Patterns of FOS protein induction in singing female starlings

    PubMed Central

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Females of many songbird species produce song, but information about the neural correlates of singing behavior is limited in this sex. Although well studied in males, activity in premotor song control regions and social behavior regions has not been examined in females during song production. Here, we examined the immediate early gene protein product FOS in both song control and social behavior brain regions after female starlings defending nest boxes responded to an unfamiliar female in a naturalistic setting. We found that females that sang in response to the intruder had much higher numbers of fos-immunoreactive neurons (fos-ir) in the vocal control regions HVC, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), and the dorsomedial part of the nucleus intercollicularis (DM of the ICo). In HVC, fos-ir correlated positively with song length. In RA, DM and Area X, fos-ir correlated positively with number of songs produced. In social behavior regions, singers showed higher fos-ir in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, the dorsal part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the ventromedial hypothalamus than non-singers. Overall, patterns of fos-ir in song control regions in females were similar to those reported for males, but differences in fos-ir were identified in social behavior regions. These differences may reflect a distinct role for brain regions involved in social behavior in female song, or they may reflect differences in the social function of female and male song. PMID:23022365

  4. Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Vogt, Scott; Guzman, Antenor N; Vice, Daniel S; Pitt, William C; Shiels, Aaron B; Spraker, Terry R

    2015-03-01

    Rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most damaging invasive species worldwide. The accidental introduction of rats has caused significant detriment to native flora and fauna, crops, structures, and human livelihoods. Rats are vectors of disease and carriers of various zoonotic parasites. Capillaria hepatica (syn. Callodium hepaticum) is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but is known to infect over 140 mammal species, including human beings and several species of domestic animals. In this case study, the presence of C. hepatica infection in black rats on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, is reported. Liver samples from 20 black rats (Rattus rattus) were collected during a concurrent population density estimation study. Histology revealed 15 (75%) of the rats sampled had a current or previous infection with C. hepatica. In addition, a larval cestode compatible in size and shape with Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis of cats, was found in 3 (15%) of the rats sampled. The high prevalence of C. hepatica infection in rats on Diego Garcia has implications for human health given the high population density of rats found on the island. PMID:25691507

  5. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region. PMID:24257329

  6. Parasitic zoonoses: one health surveillance in northern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; Ndao, Momar; Skinner, Stuart; Irvine, James; Elmore, Stacey A; Epp, Tasha; Jenkins, Emily J

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a joint human-animal health investigation in a Dene community in northern Saskatchewan, where residents harvest wildlife (including moose, bear, elk, and fish), live in close contact with free roaming dogs, and lack access to permanent veterinary services. Fecal analysis of owned and free-roaming dogs over two consecutive years (N?=?92, 103) identified several parasites of public health concern, including Toxocara canis, Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus/Taenia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Administration of pyrantel pamoate to a subset of dogs (N?=?122) in the community in the first year was followed by reduced shedding of T. canis and other roundworms in the second year, demonstrating the potential utility of canine de-worming as a public health intervention. Using direct agglutination tests with confirmatory indirect fluorescent antibody test, 21% of 47 dogs were sero-positive for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sero-prevalence rates in 201 human volunteers were as follows: Toxoplasma gondii (14%), Echinococcus granulosus (48%), Toxocara canis (13%) and Trichinella spp. (16%). Overall 65% of participants were sero-positive for at least one parasite. A survey administered to volunteers indicated few associations between widely accepted risk factors for parasite exposure and serological status, emphasizing the importance of environmental transmission of these parasites through soil, food, and waterborne routes. PMID:23556025

  7. Plasma IgG autoantibody against actin-related protein 3 in liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection.

    PubMed

    Rucksaken, R; Haonon, O; Pinlaor, P; Pairojkul, C; Roytrakul, S; Yongvanit, P; Selmi, C; Pinlaor, S

    2015-07-01

    Opisthorchiasis secondary to Opisthorchis viverrini infection leads to cholangiocellular carcinoma through chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and possibly inducing autoimmunity. It was hypothesized that plasma autoantibodies directed against self-proteins are biomarkers for opisthorchiasis. Plasma from patients with opisthorchiasis was tested using proteins derived from immortalized cholangiocyte cell lines, and spots reacting with plasma were excised and subjected to LC-MS/MS. Seven protein spots were recognized by IgG autoantibodies, and the highest matching scored protein was actin-related protein 3 (ARP3). The antibody against ARP3 was tested in plasma from 55 O. viverrini-infected patients, 24 patients with others endemic parasitic infections and 17 healthy controls using Western blot and ELISA. Immunoreactivity against recombinant ARP3 was significantly more prevalent in opisthorchiasis compared to healthy controls at Western blotting and ELISA (P < 0·05). Plasma ARP3 autoantibody titres were also higher in opisthorchiasis compared to healthy individuals (P < 0·01) and other parasitic infections including Strongyloides stercoralis (P < 0·001), echinostome (P < 0·05), hookworms (P < 0·001) and Taenia spp. (P < 0·05). It was further characterized in that the ARP3 autoantibody titre had a sensitivity of 78·18% and specificity of 100% for opisthorchiasis. In conclusion, it may be suggested that plasma anti-ARP3 might represent a new diagnostic antibody for opisthorchiasis. PMID:25809205

  8. Seizure and radiological outcomes in children with solitary cysticercous granulomas with and without albendazole therapy: a retrospective case record analysis.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sheffali; Jain, Puneet; Sachan, Deepak; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Kumar, Atin; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis, parasitic infestation of the central nervous system by the Taenia solium larvae, is a major public health problem, primarily in the developing countries. Seizures are the primary clinical manifestation which could be acute (secondary to active lesions) or remote symptomatic (due to calcified lesions). Cysticidal therapy is the standard of care for solitary parenchymal active neurocysticerci. However treatment related side effects and tendency to spontaneous resolution raises concern from time to time whether cysticidal therapy is actually required. This is a retrospective case record analysis of two groups of patients with solitary parenchymal neurocysticerci (group A; 171 patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive cysticidal therapy, group B; 512 patients between 2008 and 2013 who received cysticidal therapy). Group B had significantly more radiological resolution of lesions whereas group A reported significantly more seizure recurrences on antiepileptics. There was no significant difference in occurrence of calcification in the two groups. Overall patients with calcified lesions had significantly more breakthrough seizures. Well designed prospective studies should be planned in future to understand the mechanism underlying the epileptogenicity of calcified lesions and how they are linked to host and environment factors. PMID:24908563

  9. Haustral Fold Segmentation with Curvature-Guided Level Set Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongbin; Barish, Matthew A.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-01-01

    Human colon has complex structures mostly because of the haustral folds. The folds are thin flat protrusions on the colon wall, which complicate the shape analysis for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. Fold segmentation may help reduce the structural complexity, and the folds can serve as anatomic reference for computed tomographic colonography (CTC). Therefore, in this study, based on a model of the haustral fold boundaries, we developed a level-set approach to automatically segment the fold surfaces. To evaluate the developed fold segmentation algorithm, we first established the ground truth of haustral fold boundaries by experts' drawing on 15 patient CTC datasets without severe under/over colon distention from two medical centers. The segmentation algorithm successfully detected 92.7% of the folds in the ground truth. In addition to the sensitivity measure, we further developed a merit of segmented area ratio (SAR), i.e., the ratio between the area of the intersection and union of the expert-drawn folds and the area of the automatically-segmented folds, to measure the segmentation accuracy. The segmentation algorithm reached an average value of SAR=86.2%, showing a good match with the ground truth on the fold surfaces. We believe the automatically-segmented fold surfaces have the potential to benefit many post-procedures in CTC, such as CAD, taenia coli extraction, supine-prone registration, etc. PMID:23193228

  10. Retrovesical hydatidosis associated with urinary tract pathology - case report.

    PubMed

    Barabás-Hajdu, Enik?; Maier, Adrian; Coro?, Florin; Mártha, Orsolya

    2015-03-01

    Cystic hydatidosis (CH) is a worldwide distributed parasitic zoonosis. It is considered one of the 17 neglected parasitic tropical diseases, among cysticercosis and soil transmitted helminthiases. CH is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, a tapeworm that usually infects dogs and other carnivorous animals as definitive hosts and herbivorous animals and rarely humans as intermediate hosts. Main primary localizations are the liver and the lung. In less than 3% they can primarily be present in the spleen. Treatment is mainly surgical, in some cases resulting in reoccurrence. In this paper we present the case of a male 55 years old patient who underwent a surgical intervention on his spleen for a solitary hydatid cyst as primary localization. Fifteen years after the operation the patient presented macroscopic haematuria; routine laboratory findings presented soft eosinophilia, 5%, without any other modification. There was found no palpable tumour in the pelvis by rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasound investigation revealed a 2×1 cm formation in the urinary bladder at the base of the left bladder-wall and a retrovesical, inhomogeneous 10×10 cm tumour with multiple septa and transonic zones. Computed tomography (CT) scan strongly suggested the presence of a bladder tumour and a hydatid cyst. The symptoms caused by the bladder tumour revealed the co-existing non-symptomatic retrovesical secondary CH, which is a rare complication of splenic Echinococcus granulosus infection. Close follow-up and a proper pre- and postoperative anti-parasitic medication of the patient could have prevented reoccurrence of CH. PMID:25823451

  11. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: The Problem of Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Grant, Warwick N.; Boatin, Boakye A.; McCarthy, James S.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:22545164

  12. Differential diagnosis of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using an immunochromatographic test based on the detection of specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-yun; Gao, Chun-hua; Steverding, Dietmar; Wang, Xia; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yue-tao

    2013-10-01

    Human cystic and alveolar echinococcoses are zoonotic diseases caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. As the diseases are co-endemic in many areas of the world, a simple and rapid test for the differential diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinocoocosis (AE) is needed. Here, we describe the development of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) using crude hydatid cyst fluid and a recombinant 18-kDa protein (rEm18) as antigens for the detection of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis antibodies in serum samples. The ICT was evaluated with serum samples from 195 echinococcosis patients from different endemic areas in northwestern China. These included 144 from CE patients, 51 from AE patients, 67 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 13 from patients with serous hepatic cysts, and 60 from healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT for CE were 91.0 and 96.9% and for AE were 98.0 and 99.3% with diagnostic efficiencies of 94.1 and 99.1%, respectively. No significant differences and high degrees of agreement were found between the ICT and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for both CE and AE. Five serum samples from cysticercosis patients and one serum sample from a healthy control were found positive for CE with the ICT. These findings indicate that this test allows for discrimination between both forms of human echinococcosis. In conclusion, the ICT developed in this study is a promising tool for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of CE and AE. This test will be useful for serodiagnosis of CE and AE in clinical settings and screening programs. PMID:23949310

  13. The prevalence of invasive amebiasis is not increased in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jessurun, J; Barrón-Rodríguez, L P; Fernández-Tinoco, G; Hernández-Avila, M

    1992-03-01

    The incidence of diseases among AIDS patients and controls was investigated through autopsies at the General Hospital of Mexico City. Of particular interest was the association between amebiasis and AIDS, and other parasitic diseases. AIDS cases and controls were selected from a registry of 600 autopsies/year which represents about 50% of all hospital-occurring deaths. 94 AIDS cases were obtained between August 1986-December 1989, which represents 85% of AIDS mortality cases. Case controls were matched by month of death, age, and gender in 2 periods, between 1972-79 before the 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed and between 1982-89. Analysis was conducted for each control group, but because results were almost identical, data were pooled and presented as 1 analysis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios at a 95% confidence interval level. Of the AIDS autopsies, 55.4% were homosexual/bisexual men, 13.8% were infected through blood transfusions, 5.3% through heterosexual contact, and 24.9% in a no-risk category. Results indicate that there is no difference in the relative frequency or severity of amebiasis among AIDS compared with control cases. This finding is unrelated to the administration of antiamebic drugs to AIDS patients, since none were administered during the hospital stay. This finding is also supported by other studies including invasion by E. histolytica among HIV-infected patients in populations with a high incidence of chronic diarrhea. Another common parasitic disease, cysticercosis, was found also to be less frequent among AIDS patients compared with controls. Other infections found to greater than controls among AIDS patients were military tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus infection, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:1567575

  14. A survey of the causes of cattle organs and/or carcass condemnation, financial losses and magnitude of foetal wastage at an abattoir in Dodoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Wilfred; Nonga, Hezron E

    2015-01-01

    Slaughterhouses provide a safeguard that prevents the public from consuming meat of poor quality or meat which may be infected with zoonotic diseases. This work reviews a 3-year database of cattle that were slaughtered and inspected between 2010 and 2012 at Dodoma abattoir, Tanzania. In addition, meat inspection was undertaken for 1 month (December 2013). The aim of this study was to establish causes of organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications as well as the magnitude of slaughter of pregnant cows at Dodoma abattoir. During retrospective study, it was found that a total of 9015 (10.5%) lungs, 6276 (7.3%) intestines, 5402 (6.3%) livers, 3291 (3.8%) kidneys and 41 (0.05%) carcasses were condemned. Pulmonary emphysema (3.4%), fasciolosis (4.5%), pimply gut (5.7%), kidney congenital cysts (1.9%) and hydatidosis (3.1%) were major causes of organ condemnations. This large number of condemned edible organs and/or carcasses implies that public health considerations result in deprivation of valuable protein. Occurrence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, fasciolosis and tuberculosis illustrates the possible public health problem and presence of environmental infections. Of the 794 cows slaughtered in December 2013, 46% were pregnant. Financial loss as a result of organ and/or carcass condemnations was estimated at $9892. Condemnation of organs and/or carcasses and indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows represent a significant loss of meat and revenue and a reduction in growth of future herds, which has a negative effect on the livestock industry. This justifies appropriate surveillance and disease control programmes coupled with strict enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to curb the slaughter of pregnant animals. PMID:26017465

  15. Photodynamic action of aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (A1PcS4) on smooth muscle: effects of thiols and a cyclic GMP analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, E. K.; Flaherty, C.; Smith, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The smooth muscle system of the guinea-pig taenia caeci has been used in vitro to characterize the photodynamic action of aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (A1PcS4) in the presence or absence of the thiol reductants L-cysteine (Cys), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) or reduced glutathione (GSH). 2. In all photodynamic experiments the muscle was exposed to A1PcS4 (10(-5) M) for 30 min, followed by a 30 min washout period before photon irradiation at 32,000 lux (lambda > 570 nm) for 30 min. Photodynamic contractions were measured relative to the contractile response to carbachol (5 x 10(-5) M) and relaxation responses were determined in muscle precontracted with either carbachol 5 x 10(-5) M or KCl 23.5 mM. 3. Photon-activation of A1PcS4-sensitized smooth muscle evoked a triphasic response: an initial transient contraction and subsequent relaxation followed by a secondary sustained contraction. Cys 10 mM, NAC 10 mM and DTT 5 mM had no effect on the initial photodynamic contraction but significantly decreased the magnitude of the sustained contraction from mean values of 98% to 18%, 95% to 72% and 93% to 6% of the standard carbachol contraction (5 x 10(-5) M), respectively; GSH 10 mM was without significant effect on either the initial or sustained contraction. 4. In the absence of extracellular calcium the A1PcS4-sensitized smooth muscle did not respond to photon activation but re-introduction of calcium after cessation of illumination produced a sustained contraction which was markedly inhibited by Cys 10 mM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905342

  16. Calcium-dependent inactivation of potential-dependent calcium inward current in an isolated guinea-pig smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed Central

    Ganitkevich VYa; Shuba, M F; Smirnov, S V

    1987-01-01

    1. Calcium current (ICa) was studied in single isolated smooth muscle cells of a guinea-pig taenia caeci dialysed with Cs+-containing solution to suppress K+ outward current. 2. With increasing step depolarizations up to +10 mV, acceleration of ICa inactivation was observed. With further increase of step depolarization, ICa inactivation was slowed down. The largest ICa (observed at +10 mV) was characterized by the maximal speed of inactivation. 3. Comparison of ICa in different external concentrations of Ca2+ ions ([Ca2+]o) revealed that at the same membrane potential the time course of ICa inactivation was slower, the smaller the amplitude of ICa. Slowing down of ICa inactivation was observed also during its partial block by Co2+ ions. 4. Elevation of temperature increased ICa peak amplitude and accelerated its decay. The amplitude of ICa was increased by a factor of 1.7 +/- 0.14 (n = 6) when the temperature was raised by 10 degrees C. 5. Calculations of Ca2+ entry during ICa as a time integral of Co2+-sensitive current, and comparison with the degree of ICa inactivation, showed that inactivation was tightly related to Ca2+ entry in the membrane potential range -20 to +40 mV. 6. Ba2+ current through Ca2+ channels was larger than ICa and its inactivation was considerably slower. 7. Recovery of ICa from inactivation was found to be potential dependent. When the cell membrane was hyperpolarized, ICa recovery was accelerated. 8. It was concluded that inactivation and recovery of ICa in smooth muscle cells were influenced by both Ca2+ entry and membrane potential. It was also pointed out that the observed events are difficult to explain by the hypothesis that inactivation was produced simply by accumulation of Ca2+ ions near the inner side of the membrane, and that recovery was due to lowering of internal free Ca2+ ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). PMID:2451726

  17. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

    PubMed Central

    ADINEZADEH, Amir; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; SHOJAEE, Saideh; ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher; ZAREI, Zabihollah; MOWLAVI, Golamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue protozoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009. Methods Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider's Drosophila (HIMEDIA) and RPMI1640 (GIBCO) for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), respectively. Results 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%), Dipylidium caninum (46%), Mesocestoides lineatus (19%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Toxascaris leonina (53%) and Toxocara canis (7%). Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8%) at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47%) showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17%) showed titer of ?1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears. Conclusion The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species especially E. granulosus and T. canis emphasizes the risk of diseases spread in urban areas by stray dogs PMID:24454441

  18. The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, C.; Kipp, W.; Asaba, G.; Mugisa, C.; Kabagambe, G.; Rating, D.; Leichsenring, M.

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Except for neurocystocercosis due to Taenia solium, little is known about possible underlying causes. This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda. Individuals complaining of seizures were identified by means of a population census in 12 villages. Active epilepsy was confirmed in 61 of 4743 inhabitants (crude prevalence rate = 1.3%; age-standardized rate = 1.1%). Distribution of epilepsy in the study area was clustered, ranging from a prevalence of 0.2% to 3.4% in different villages. Age-specific prevalence was highest between 10 and 19 years, with a rate of 3.6% for the study are as a whole, and up to 10.0% in villages of high epilepsy prevalence. The prevalence of onchocerciasis in the 10-19-year-old age group was assessed by skin-snip biopsy and ranged from 15% to 85% in different villages. Epilepsy was significantly more frequent in the three villages with the highest levels of O. volvulus endemicity than in other villages (P < 0.0001). Serological testing for T. solium infection was positive in one and borderline in three of 53 epilepsy patients tested. The significant correlation between epilepsy and onchocerciasis did not change when these four patients were excluded from the analysis. These findings suggest a strong association between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in this area. This could have significant implications for the concept of morbidity due to O. volvulus. PMID:8823957

  19. Cytoarchitecture of the telencephalon in the coral reef multiband Butterflyfish ( Chaetodon multicinctus : Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Dewan, Adam K; Tricas, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Detailed neuroanatomical studies of model species are necessary to facilitate comparative experiments which test hypotheses relevant to brain evolution and function. Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) boast numerous sympatric species that differ in social behavior, aggression and feeding ecology. However, the ability to test hypotheses relevant to brain function in this family is hindered by the lack of detailed neural descriptions. The cytoarchitecture of the telencephalon in the monogamous and territorial multiband butterflyfish, Chaetodon multicinctus, was determined with Nissl-stained serial sections and an immunohistochemical analysis of arginine vasotocin (AVT), serotonin, substance P and tyrosine hydroxylase. The ventral telencephalon was similar to that of other perciform fishes studied, with one major difference. A previously undescribed postcommissural region, the cuneate nucleus, was identified and putatively assigned to the ventral telencephalon. While the function of this nucleus is unknown, preliminary studies indicate that it may be part of a behaviorally relevant subpallial neural circuit that is modulated by AVT. The dorsal telencephalon consisted of 15 subdivisions among central, medial, lateral, dorsal and posterior zones. Several regions of the dorsal telencephalon of C. multicinctus differed from many other perciform fishes examined thus far. The nucleus taenia was in a more caudal position, and the central and lateral zones were enlarged. Within the lateral zone, an unusual third, ventral subdivision and a large-celled division were present. One hypothesis is that the enlarged ventral subdivision of the lateral zone (potential hippocampus homolog) relates to an enhancement of spatial learning or olfactory memory, which are important for this coral reef fish. This study provides the neuroanatomical basis for future comparative and evolutionary studies of brain organization and neuropeptide distributions, physiological studies of neural processing and insight into the complex social behavior of butterflyfishes. PMID:25138693

  20. Estrogen synthesis and secretion in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater).

    PubMed

    Saldanha, C J; Schlinger, B A

    1997-03-01

    Estrogens exert profound effects on vertebrate physiology and behavior. In most vertebrates, including birds, estrogens derived from ovarian tissue circulate at high levels during discrete periods of reproductive activity, and estrogen levels in males are low. In some songbirds (Passeriformes) plasma estrogens are high in both males and females. In the zebra finch, aromatase (estrogen-synthetase) is expressed abundantly in several regions of the male and female telencephalon and contributes to peripheral estrogen titers. To determine if this pattern of neural aromatase and estrogen synthesis is found in other songbirds, we have examined the patterns of estrogen synthesis in various tissues of another songbird, the common North American cowbird (Molothrus ater). Radiolabeled aromatizable androgenic substrate was injected in vivo or provided in vitro to telencephalic and gonadal tissue from adult male and female cowbirds. Estrogenic products were assayed in blood from the carotid artery and jugular vein, and in the telencephalon, ovary, and testes. Additionally, the presence of aromatase mRNA was studied in the brain using in situ hybridization. Radiolabeled androgenic substrate, injected in vivo, was readily converted to estrogens with higher amounts in the jugular compared to carotid blood, suggesting that the brain contains relatively high levels of aromatase. Further, radiolabeled androgens, provided in vitro to telencephalic, ovarian, and testicular tissue, resulted in the formation of radiolabeled estrogens. Aromatase mRNA is distributed widely in several areas of the cowbird telencephalon including the hippocampus, caudomedial neostriatum (including Field L), and nucleus taeniae. This pattern of neural aromatase expression resembles what we found previously in the zebra finch. Telencephalic aromatase may be characteristic of passerine songbirds and may function to provide local estrogenic cues to estrogen-sensitive neural loci, and/or contribute to peripheral estrogen titers in male and female songbirds. PMID:9073501

  1. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  2. Parasitic Appendicitis From Past to Present in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Engin, O; Calik, S; Calik, B; Yildirim, M; Coskun, G

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the etiology of appendicitis is important for developing effective treatments the relationship between parasitic appendicitis and various socio-cultural factors were examined, particularly with respect to the incidence of literacy. The aim of the article was to research the relations between parasitic appendicitis and literacy ratio in population. Methods Cases of parasitic appendicitis resulting in surgery performed at Buca Seyfi Demirsoy Large State Hospital Surgery Clinic between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to age, sex, type of parasite, morbidity, and mortality. Studies conducted in different regions of Turkey as well as in other countries were reviewed to determine if there was a relationship between parasitic appendicitis and literacy. Results Of the 1,969 appendectomy cases reviewed, nine were classified as parasitic appendicitis (0.45%). Enterobius vermicularis was observed in seven cases and Taenia spp. in two. The average age was 26.4 yr. No morbidity or mortality was found. Conclusion The data were compared with a retrospective review of studies conducted in the same regions and a decrease in the rate of parasitic appendicitis was observed during the period between the two reviews. It was determined that a low literacy rate was associated with an increase in the incidence of parasitic appendicitis. Observations made between different countries also produced similar results. In countries where the incidence of parasitic appendiciticis was greater than 1.5%, the literacy rate was less than 88%. To avoid appendectomy resulting from parasites, it is important to increase education and literacy. In some areas, individuals with appendicitis undergo surgery due to a lack of education or poor literacy. PMID:22347256

  3. Expression of VGF mRNA in the adult rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S E; Salton, S R

    1998-04-27

    VGF is a secretory peptide precursor that is expressed and processed by neuronal cells in a cell type-specific fashion. In addition, VGF transcription and secretion are rapidly and relatively selectively induced by neurotrophins and depolarization in vitro. To gain insight into the possible function(s) of VGF in the nervous system, we have carried out a detailed examination of the distribution of VGF mRNA in the adult rat central nervous system by using in situ hybridization. Robust expression was detected in many neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord, in several types of neurons in the retina, and in presumptive chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. In the brain, prominent expression of VGF mRNA was observed in neurons of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs; in the anterior olfactory nucleus; in the induseum griseum and taenia tecta; in the olfactory tubercle; in CA1-CA3, the hilus of the dentate gyrus, and the subicular complex of the hippocampal formation; in the piriform, periamygdaloid, transitional, and lateral entorhinal cortices; in the endopiriform nucleus; in the hypothalamus, particularly the preoptic, periventricular, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, and arcuate nuclei; and in a number of septal, thalamic, amygdaloid, and brainstem nuclei. Labeling was also seen in neurons of the neocortex and transitional cortical areas, particularly in layer V, and in basal ganglia and cerebellum. These data demonstrate that VGF mRNA is expressed much more extensively in the brain than has been described in previous RNA or immunohistochemical studies, and, furthermore, that VGF is widely expressed in the spinal cord and retina. PMID:9550144

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory/secretory products of adult Echinococcus granulosus, and their application to coproantigen detection.

    PubMed

    Casaravilla, Cecilia; Malgor, Ramiro; Rossi, Andrea; Sakai, Hirofumi; Nonaka, Nariaki; Kamiya, Masao; Carmona, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    Two IgM murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), EgC1 and EgC3, were produced against the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Echinococcus granulosus adult worms. Immunoblotting revealed that both predominantly recognized a 50 kDa antigen in the somatic extract and an 85 kDa component in the E/S products. Immunolocalization showed that both MAbs reacted with the tegument of the parasite, and additionally EgC3 reacted with parenchyma and the tegument lining the external surface of the reproductive organs. A coproantigen capture ELISA was developed using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against E/S products from adult tapeworms as catching antibodies, and each one of MAbs as detecting antibody. The assays detected seven out of eight (EgC1), and eight out of eight (EgC3) experimentally infected dogs (worm burdens ranging from 61 to 57,500), using heat-treated samples obtained at prepatent period, and none (n=8) of helminth-free samples. Time course analysis showed that, after a 12-25 days lag, coproantigen levels rose above cut off O.D. values and typically peaked around 30 days post-infection (DPI) at the end of the experiment. One dog experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena metacestodes was slightly detected as positive at different time points after 30 DPI. Both MAbs showed a similar pattern of recognition, but T. hydatigena antigens were undetectable for a longer period, and reached lower O.D. values with EgC1. Interestingly, fecal samples from two experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus multilocularis were not recognized by the EgC1 assay, suggesting a potential value as species-specific diagnostic tool. PMID:15710549

  5. Comparative Analysis of Cystatin Superfamily in Platyhelminths

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

  6. [Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].

    PubMed

    Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area. PMID:12525846

  7. Presence of very high prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola hepatica among Aymara children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1997-06-24

    Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca. PMID:9177091

  8. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. Results A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. Conclusion The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial surveillance is crucial. PMID:24499189

  10. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans, and these showed high prevalences in the rats, the assessment and regular monitoring of infections carried by wild rodents have important roles to play in public health. PMID:22397763

  11. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    I., Ziadinov; P., Deplazes; A., Mathis; B., Mutunova; K., Abdykerimov; R., Nurgaziev; P.R, Torgerson

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indicates that red foxes are a major definitive host of E. multilocularis in this country. This also demonstrates that the abundance and prevalence of E. multilocularis in the natural definitive host are likely to be high in geographical regions where there is a concomitant high prevalence in alternative definitive hosts such as dogs. In addition Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria and Acanthocephala spp. were found in 99 (66%), 50 (33%), 48 (32%), 46 (30%), 9 (6%), 34 (23%) and 2 (1%) of foxes, respectively. The prevalence but not the abundance of E. multilocularis decreased with age. The abundance of Dipylidium caninum also decreased with age. The frequency distribution of E. multilocularis and Mesocestoides spp. followed a zero inflated negative binomial distribution, whilst all other helminths had a negative binomial distribution. This demonstrates that the frequency distribution of positive counts and not just the frequency of zeros in the data set can determine if a zero inflated or non-zero inflated model is more appropriate. This is because the prevalences of E. multolocularis and Mesocestoides spp. were the highest (and hence had fewest zero counts) yet the parasite distribution nevertheless gave a better fit to the zero inflated models. PMID:20434845

  12. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r?=?0.089, P?=?0.094). PMID:23573282

  13. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  14. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  15. Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Özbak??, Gökben; Gürcan, Safa

    2014-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on hair and in faeces of healthy owned cats and dogs and to make comparisons between data (sex, age, host factor, etc.) collected from dogs and cats. Toxocara eggs were found on the hair of 14% of 100 dogs and 22% of 100 cats. In total, 58 and 136 eggs were recovered from the hair samples of examined cats and dogs, respectively. Of the total number of eggs, 2 were classified as embryonated in cats. One of the eggs recovered was embryonating in dogs. The maximum number of eggs was found in the tail bottom of cats (28 eggs) and dogs (58 eggs). As well as finding Toxocara eggs in dogs and cats hair, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Toxascaris leonina. In addition, faecal samples of same dogs and cats were also examined by two techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation): Toxocara eggs were found in 5% and 13% of dogs and cats faeces, respectively. But, 14% of the dogs and 22% of the cats were positive for Toxocara eggs on hair. The prevalence of eggs in faecal samples was lower than those detected from hair samples (P < 0.05). Two techniques for recovering Toxocara eggs from faecal samples were tested for efficiency and suitability for routine use. The results were expressed as the percentage rate of recovery of Toxocara eggs in positive faecal samples. The recovery rate was better with the method of sedimentation than with the method of flotation (P < 0.05). This study indicates that dogs and cats without internal infections were shown to have eggs on their hair and so uninfected animals also pose a threat in terms of the eggs present on their hair, albeit a small risk. PMID:25458563

  16. Variation in Brain Regions Associated with Fear and Learning in Contrasting Climates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Timothy C.; Gallagher, Caitlin M.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    In environments where resources are difficult to obtain and enhanced cognitive capabilities might be adaptive, brain structures associated with cognitive traits may also be enhanced. In our previous studies, we documented a clear and significant relationship among environmental conditions, memory and hippocampal structure using ten populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over a large geographic range. In addition, focusing on just the two populations from the geographical extremes of our large-scale comparison, Alaska and Kansas, we found enhanced problem-solving capabilities and reduced neophobia in a captive-raised population of black-capped chickadees originating from the energetically demanding environment (Alaska) relative to conspecifics from the milder environment (Kansas). Here, we focused on three brain regions, the arcopallium (AP), the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala and the lateral striatum (LSt), that have been implicated to some extent in aspects of these behaviors in order to investigate whether potential differences in these brain areas may be associated with our previously detected differences in cognition. We compared the variation in neuron number and volumes of these regions between these populations, in both wild-caught birds and captive-raised individuals. Consistent with our behavioral observations, wild-caught birds from Kansas had a larger AP volume than their wild-caught conspecifics from Alaska, which possessed a higher density of neurons in the LSt. However, there were no other significant differences between populations in the wild-caught and captive-raised groups. Interestingly, individuals from the wild had larger LSt and AP volumes with more neurons than those raised in captivity. Overall, we provide some evidence that population-related differences in problem solving and neophobia may be associated with differences in volume and neuron numbers of our target brain regions. However, the relationship is not completely clear, and our study raises numerous questions about the relationship between the brain and behavior, especially in captive animals. PMID:22286546

  17. Variation in brain regions associated with fear and learning in contrasting climates.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Gallagher, Caitlin M; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    In environments where resources are difficult to obtain and enhanced cognitive capabilities might be adaptive, brain structures associated with cognitive traits may also be enhanced. In our previous studies, we documented a clear and significant relationship among environmental conditions, memory and hippocampal structure using ten populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over a large geographic range. In addition, focusing on just the two populations from the geographical extremes of our large-scale comparison, Alaska and Kansas, we found enhanced problem-solving capabilities and reduced neophobia in a captive-raised population of black-capped chickadees originating from the energetically demanding environment (Alaska) relative to conspecifics from the milder environment (Kansas). Here, we focused on three brain regions, the arcopallium (AP), the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala and the lateral striatum (LSt), that have been implicated to some extent in aspects of these behaviors in order to investigate whether potential differences in these brain areas may be associated with our previously detected differences in cognition. We compared the variation in neuron number and volumes of these regions between these populations, in both wild-caught birds and captive-raised individuals. Consistent with our behavioral observations, wild-caught birds from Kansas had a larger AP volume than their wild-caught conspecifics from Alaska, which possessed a higher density of neurons in the LSt. However, there were no other significant differences between populations in the wild-caught and captive-raised groups. Interestingly, individuals from the wild had larger LSt and AP volumes with more neurons than those raised in captivity. Overall, we provide some evidence that population-related differences in problem solving and neophobia may be associated with differences in volume and neuron numbers of our target brain regions. However, the relationship is not completely clear, and our study raises numerous questions about the relationship between the brain and behavior, especially in captive animals. PMID:22286546

  18. Androgen-metabolizing enzymes show region-specific changes across the breeding season in the brain of a wild songbird.

    PubMed

    Soma, K K; Bindra, R K; Gee, J; Wingfield, J C; Schlinger, B A

    1999-11-01

    The Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) is an arctic-breeding songbird that shows rapid behavioral changes during a short breeding season. Changes in plasma testosterone (T) in the spring are correlated with singing but not territorial aggression in males. Also, T treatment increases song but not aggression in this species. In contrast, in temperate-zone breeders, song and aggression are highly correlated, and both increase after T treatment. We asked whether regional or temporal differences in androgen-metabolizing enzymes in the longspur brain explain hormone-behavior patterns in this species. We measured the activities of aromatase, 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase in free-living longspur males. Aromatase and 5alpha-reductase convert T into the active steroids 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), respectively. 5beta-Reductase deactivates T via conversion to 5beta-DHT, an inactive steroid. We examined seven brain regions at three stages in the breeding season. Overall, aromatase activity was high in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and ventromedial telencephalon (containing nucleus taeniae, the avian homologue to the amygdala). 5beta-Reductase activity was high throughout the telencephalon. Activities of all three enzymes changed over time in a region-specific manner. In particular, aromatase activity in the rostral hypothalamus was decreased late in the breeding season, which may explain why T treatment at this time does not increase aggression. Changes in 5beta-reductase do not explain the effects of plasma T on aggressive behavior. PMID:10512976

  19. Prevalence of endoparasites in household cat (Felis catus) populations from Transylvania (Romania) and association with risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mircean, Viorica; Titilincu, Adriana; Vasile, Cozma

    2010-07-15

    There is no current information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Romanian cats. Consequently, we conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of endoparasites in a sample of household cats in the Transylvania region, to point out the risk factors for parasite infection and to evaluate the knowledge of cat owners about the zoonotic potential of some parasites. Four hundred fourteen faecal samples were collected and examined by sodium chloride flotation followed by microscopy. Also, questionnaires were administered to cat owners (196). The overall prevalence of endoparasites in household cats was 34.3% (142/414; CI 29.8-39.1). Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 17.6% cats. The detected parasites were Toxocara cati (20.3%), Ancylostoma spp. (10.1%), Isospora rivolta (8.9%), Isospora felis (5.3%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (5.6%), Strongyloides spp. (3.4%), Capillaria aerophila (3.1%), Taenia taeniaeformis (2.7%), T. gondii/H. hammondi (1.2%), Sarcocystis spp. (1%), Giardia duodenalis (0.7%) and Dypillidium caninum (0.2%). Risk factors for infection with parasites in cats were identified to be age and medium (rural or urban area). Thus, I. felis, I. rivolta and T. cati were more common in cats less than/equal to 1-year old, and Ancylostoma spp. and A. abstrusus were more prevalent in cats older than 1-year of age. 72.4% of the owners applied anthelmintic treatments to their cats, more commonly in urban areas (87.3%) (4 treatments/year) than in rural areas (12.7%) (1 treatment/year). 66.3% of the owners knew about the zoonotic potential of some parasites from cats, and the main source of information was veterinarians (65.4%). In conclusion the prevalence of endoparasites in household cats from Transylvania is high. Consequently, consideration should be given to the use of anthelmintics and to pet owner education. PMID:20381250

  20. Results of testing for intestinal parasites by state diagnostic laboratories, United States, 1987.

    PubMed

    Kappus, K K; Juranek, D D; Roberts, J M

    1991-12-01

    We analyzed results of 216,275 stool specimens examined by the state diagnostic laboratories in 1987; parasites were found in 20.1%. Percentages were highest for protozoans: Giardia lamblia (7.2%), Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (4.2% each), Blastocystis hominis (2.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.9%), and Cryptosporidium species (0.2%). Identifications of Giardia lamblia increased broadly from the 4.0% average found in 1979, with 40 states reporting increases and seven decreases. Most states that identified Giardia in more than 9% of specimens were located around the Great Lakes or in the Northwest. Seasonally, Giardia identifications increased in the summer and fall, especially in northern states. The most identified helminths were nematodes: hookworm (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Other less commonly identified helminths included Clonorchis and Opisthorchis species (0.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.4%), Hymenolepis nana (0.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Taenia species (0.1%). Tape tests for Enterobius, reported for 35 states, were positive for 11.4% of 9,597 specimens. Nine states (California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, Wisconsin) reported hookworms in more than 2% of specimens; none were states traditionally associated with indigenous transmission. Cryptosporidium diagnoses, reported by 25 of 49 states, were recorded for the first time in a national survey and showed no marked regional clustering. The Giardia data revealed changes in rates of identification and in geographic patterns compared with state laboratory data collected a decade earlier (1976-1978). PMID:1779956

  1. Seasonal changes in androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the song nucleus HVc of a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Soma, K K; Hartman, V N; Wingfield, J C; Brenowitz, E A

    1999-06-28

    In seasonally breeding songbirds, song behavior and neural morphology change seasonally. Song control nuclei are larger during the breeding season, as determined by multiple cytological labels. Seasonal changes in song nuclei are regulated by testosterone (T), and several song nuclei contain intracellular androgen receptors (AR). Changes in AR levels may interact with changes in plasma T levels to regulate song nuclei morphology. We measured seasonal changes in AR-immunoreactive cells in the telencephalic song nucleus HVc using the affinity-purified PG21 antibody to rat AR. We caught wild adult male Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) during spring breeding in Alaska and during autumn migration in Washington State. To enhance PG21 labeling, animals were treated with T for 90 minutes (as in Smith et al. [1996] J. Histochem. Cytochem. 44:1075-1080). AR+ cells were found in HVc and other song nuclei, hippocampus, nucleus taeniae (homologue to mammalian amygdala), and the hypothalamus. HVc volume was larger in spring (S) than autumn (A), in both the PG21- and Nissl-stained sections (S:A = 1.9 and 1.7, respectively). In spring, but not autumn, PG21 and Nissl measurements were slightly different (PG21:Nissl = 1.07), perhaps because PG21 labeled the most caudal extent of HVc more clearly. In HVc, AR+ cell density and number were greater in spring. The percentage of AR+ cells was also increased in spring. Qualitatively, the staining intensity of individual cells was higher in spring. In time course studies, the T injection enhanced PG21 staining within 15 minutes, suggesting that it increases labeling via AR translocation to and concentration in the cell nucleus. PMID:10379916

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4(+) T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals) were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001) risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001) affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated. PMID:21483561

  3. Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 2005–2010 data from ten French slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer’s lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. PMID:23628140

  4. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G; Bustos, Javier A; Zimic, Mirko; Escalante, Diego; Saavedra, Herbert; Gavidia, Martin; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Najar, Enrique; Umeres, Hugo; Pretell, E Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. Findings Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10–2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87–2·38, p=0·151). No significant differences in adverse events were reported between treatment groups (18 in combined treatment group, 11 in standard albendazole group, and 19 in increased albendazole group). Interpretation Combination of albendazole plus praziquantel increases the parasiticidal effect in patients with multiple brain cysticercosis cysts without increased side-effects. A more efficacious parasiticidal regime without increased treatment-associated side-effects should improve the treatment and long term prognosis of patients with neurocysticercosis. Funding National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health. PMID:24999157

  5. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Intervention for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Boatin, Boakye A.; McCarthy, James S.; García, Héctor H.; Yang, Guo-Jing; Sripa, Banchob; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost) and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations). To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis and food-borne trematodiases, will need to be integrated with monitoring, education, sanitation, access to health services, and where appropriate, vector control or reduction of the parasite reservoir in alternative hosts. Based on an analysis of current knowledge gaps and identification of priorities, a research and development agenda for intervention tools considered necessary for control and elimination of human helminthiases is presented, and the challenges to be confronted are discussed. PMID:22545163

  6. Caveolae in smooth muscles: nanocontacts

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, LM; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Mandache, E; Cretoiu, D

    2006-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) caveolae have been investigated by quantitative and qualitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of rat stomach, bladder and myometrium, guinea pig taenia coli, human ileum, and rat aortic SMCs. Ultrathin (below 30 nm) serial sections were used for examination of caveolar morphology and their connections with SMC organelles. Average caveolar diameter was smaller in vascular SMCs (70 nm, n=50) than in visceral SMCs (77 nm, n=100), but with the same morphology. Most of the caveolae, featured as flask-shaped plasma membrane (PM) invaginations, opened to the extracellular space through a 20 nm stoma (21, 3nm) having a 7 nm thick diaphragm. A small percentage of caveolae (3%), gathered as grape-like clusters, did not open directly to the extracellular space, but to irregular PM pockets having a 20-30 nm opening to the extracellular space. In visceral SMCs, caveolae were disposed in 4 - 6 rows, parallel to myofilaments, whilst aortic SMCs caveolae were arranged as clusters. This caveolar organization in rows or clusters minimizes the occupied volume, providing more space for the contractile machinery. The morphometric analysis of relative volumes (% of cell volume) showed that caveolae were more conspicuous in visceral than in vascular SMCs (myometrium - 2.40%; bladder - 3.66%, stomach - 2.61%, aorta - 1.43%). We also observed a higher number of caveolae per length unit of cell membrane in most visceral SMCs compared to vascular SMCs (myometrium - 1.06/?m, bladder - 0.74/?m, aorta - 0.57/?m, stomach - 0.48/?m). Caveolae increase the cellular perimeter up to 15% and enlarge the surface area of the plasma membrane about 80% in SMCs. Three-dimensional reconstructions (15?3) showed that most caveolae, in both visceral and vascular SMCs, have nanocontacts with SR (87%), or with mitochondria (10%), and only 3%, apparently, have no contact with these organelles. Usually, 15 nm wide junctional spaces exist between caveolae and SR, some of them with nanostructural links between each other or with mitochondria: direct contacts (space < 2 nm or none) and molecular links, so called ‘feet’ (about 12 nm electron dense structures between organellar membranes). Direct contacts possibly allow molecular translocation between the two membranes. Electron-dense ‘feet’-like structures suggest a molecular link between these organelles responsible for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis (excitation-contraction coupling or pharmaco-mechan-ical coupling). Close appositions (?15 nm) have also been observed between caveolae and perinuclear SR cisterna, suggesting that caveolae might be directly implicated in excitation-transcription coupling. PMID:17125599

  7. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon dog and the native red fox. PMID:24533328

  8. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ?2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (p<0.001). All three control approaches significantly reduced the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the highest reductions achieved when chemotherapy was combined with sanitation and health education. The prevalence of T. trichiura remained at 30% and above regardless of the intervention. Only bi-annual treatment combined with latrine construction and health education significantly impacted on the prevalence of Taenia spp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas, sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminth infections necessitates measures to reduce faecal environmental contamination to complement mass drug administration. However, elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiasis will not be achieved in the short run even with a package of interventions, and probably requires improvements in living conditions, changes in hygiene behaviour and more efficacious anthelminthic drugs and treatment regimens. PMID:25308524

  9. First insight into CD59-like molecules of adult Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunliang; Toet, Hayley; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Beddoe, Travis; Huang, Weiyi; Spithill, Terry W

    2014-09-01

    The present study focussed on investigating CD59-like molecules of Fasciola hepatica. A cDNA encoding a CD59-like protein (termed FhCD59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the F. hepatica tegument was isolated. This homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human CD59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved CD59/Ly-6 family motif "CCXXXXCN". An analysis of cDNAs from two different adult specimens of F. hepatica revealed seven variable types of FhCD59-1 sequences, designated FhCD59-1.1 to FhCD59-1.7, which had 94.3-99.7% amino acid sequence identity upon pairwise comparison. Molecular modeling of FhCD59-1.1 with human CD59 confirmed the presence of the three-finger protein domain found in the CD59 family and predicted three disulphide bonds in the F. hepatica sequence. The interrogation of F. hepatica databases identified two additional sequences, designated FhCD59-2 and FhCD59-3, which had only 23.4-29.5% amino acid identity to FhCD59-1.1. Orthologues of the inferred CD59 protein sequences of F. hepatica were also identified in other flatworms, including Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus and the free living Schmidtea mediterannea. The results revealed a considerable degree of sequence complexity in the CD59-like sequence families in F. hepatica and flatworms. Phylogenetic analysis of CD59-like aa sequences from F. hepatica and flatworms showed that FhCD59-2 clustered with the known surface-associated protein SmCD59-2 of S. mansoni. Relatively well-supported clades specific to schistosomes, fasciolids and opisthorchiids were identified. The qPCR analysis of gene transcription showed that the relative expression of these 3 FhCD59-like sequences varied by 11-47-fold during fluke maturation, from the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) to the adult stage. These findings suggest that different FhCD59-like sequences play distinct roles during the development of F. hepatica. PMID:24955521

  10. Post-treatment Vascular Leakage and Inflammatory Responses around Brain Cysts in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2015-01-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-?, TNF-? were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2R?) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to investigate mechanisms involved in host damaging inflammatory responses and agents or modalities that may control damaging post treatment inflammation. PMID:25774662

  11. The parasitic trematode Fasciola hepatica exhibits mammalian-type glycolipids as well as Gal(beta1-6)Gal-terminating glycolipids that account for cestode serological cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wuhrer, Manfred; Grimm, Christiane; Dennis, Roger D; Idris, Mohamed A; Geyer, Rudolf

    2004-02-01

    Neutral glycosphingolipids from sheep-derived Fasciola hepatica liver flukes were isolated and characterized both structurally and serologically. After HPLC fractionation, glycolipids were analyzed by linkage analysis, enzymatic cleavage, and MALDI-TOF as well as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Obtained results revealed the presence of two types of neutral glycolipids. The first group represented mammalian-type species comprising globo- and isoglobotriaosylceramides (Gal(alpha1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide and Gal(alpha1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide, respectively) as well as Forssman antigen (GalNAc(alpha1-3)GalNAc(beta1-3/4)Gal(alpha1-4/3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide). Applying Helix pomatia agglutinin, recognizing terminal alpha-linked GalNAc, to cryosections of adult flukes, the latter glycolipid could be localized to the F. hepatica gut. As Forssman antigen from the parasite and sheep host led to identical MALDI-TOF MS profiles, this glycolipid might be acquired from the definitive host. As a second group, highly antigenic glycolipids were structurally characterized as Gal(beta1-6)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide, Gal(beta1-6)Gal(alpha1-3/4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide and Gal(beta1-6)Gal(beta1-6)Gal(alpha1-3/4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide, the latter two structures of which exhibited both isoglobo- or globo-series core structures. Terminal Gal(beta1-6)Gal1-motifs have previously been shown to represent antigenic epitopes of neogala-series glycosphingolipids from tape worms. Using human Echinococcus granulosus infection sera, Gal(beta1-6)Gal-terminating glycolipids could be allocated to the gut in adult liver fluke cryosections. Corresponding neogala-reactive antibodies in F. hepatica infection serum were detected by their binding to E. granulosus and Taenia crassiceps neogala-glycosphingolipids. These antibodies might contribute to the known serological cross-reactivity between F. hepatica and parasitic cestode infections. PMID:14638629

  12. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ? 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections. PMID:24703071

  13. Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ?2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n?=?130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. Conclusions This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a sound awareness of worm infection and the underlying risk factors may prevent infection and re-infection after treatment. PMID:24499584

  14. Advances with the Chinese anthelminthic drug tribendimidine in clinical trials and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Keiser, Jennifer; Xue, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The anthelminthic drug tribendimidine has been approved by Chinese authorities for human use in 2004, and a first comprehensive review was published in Acta Tropica in 2005. Here, we summarise further advances made through additional clinical trials and laboratory investigations. Two phase IV trials have been conducted in the People's Republic of China, the first one enrolling 1292 adolescents and adults aged 15-70 years and the second one conducted with 899 children aged 4-14 years who were infected with one or multiple species of soil-transmitted helminths. Oral tribendimidine (single 400mg enteric-coated tablet given to adolescents/adults and 200mg to children) showed high cure rates against Ascaris lumbricoides (90.1-95.0%) and moderate-to-high cure rates against hookworm (82.0-88.4%). Another trial done in school-aged children using a rigorous diagnostic approach found a cure rate against hookworm of 76.5%. A single oral dose of tribendimidine showed only low cure rates against Trichuris trichiura (23.9-36.8%) confirming previous results. Tribendimidine administered to children infected with Enterobius vermicularis (two doses of 200mg each on consecutive days) resulted in a high cure rate (97.1%). Importantly, a series of randomised, exploratory trials revealed that tribendimidine shows interesting activity against the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the tapeworm Taenia spp. and the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis with respective cure rates of 70.0%, 40.0%, 53.3% and 36.4%. Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Chinese volunteers indicated that after oral administration of tribendimidine, no parent drug was detected in plasma, but its primary metabolite, p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (aminoamidine, deacylated amidantel) (dADT), was found in plasma. dADT is then further metabolised to acetylated dADT (AdADT). dADT exhibits activity against several species of hookworm and C. sinensis in experimental studies, similar to that of tribendimidine. First studies elucidating the mechanism of action suggested that tribendimidine is an L-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Additional experimental studies revealed that the anti-parasite spectrum of tribendimidine is very broad. Indeed, to date, activity has been documented against 20 different nematode, trematode and cestode species. Taken together, tribendimidine warrants further scientific inquiry, including more comprehensive toxicity appraisals, mechanism of action studies and clinical investigation as it holds promise as a broad spectrum anthelminthics. PMID:23352956

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2–100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2–100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2–100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  16. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Prison Inmates and Tobacco Farm Workers in Shewa Robit, North-Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Results Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 %) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121?=?72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115?=?50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) ?=?2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?=?1.52–4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR?=?3.25, 95% CI?=?1.75–6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively. Conclusion The results show that IPIs are common health problems in the studied populations. PMID:24926687

  17. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis. PMID:21859463

  18. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue. PMID:24506006

  19. Controlling parasites, understanding practices: the biosocial complexity of a One Health intervention for neglected zoonotic helminths in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin; Inthavong, Phouth; Xayaheuang, Sivilai; Okello, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    A parasitological survey in northern Lao PDR showed a remote ethnic minority village to be hyper-endemic for Taenia solium, a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that impacts human and pig health. An intervention combining human Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with porcine vaccination and antihelmintic treatment was then implemented, targeting both T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths. To understand the biosocial complexity of this integrated One Health intervention, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study exploring the transmission dynamics of T. solium and locally acceptable long-term control options. Informed by two years of project work in the village, this included six focus group discussions, 35 semi-structured interviews, a latrine survey, a school-based education meeting, participant observation and many unstructured interviews conducted over two weeks in October 2013. We found that risk behaviours were mediated by various social determinants including limited market access, interrelationships between alcohol, ancestral sacrifices and the consumption of raw pork, seasonal variations and poor latrine coverage. Only sixteen percent of households had latrines, attributed to the unacceptability of dry latrines, lack of water access, poor building techniques and poverty. Whilst women could explain T. solium transmission, most men and children could not, revealing that distributed posters/leaflets relied too heavily on text and ambiguous images. Compliance with MDA was high due to trust between project staff and village leaders. However understandings of pharmacology, minor side effects, human migration and children's fear of worms may lead to resistance in future programmes. Our research highlights the complexities of controlling T. solium and other soil-transmitted helminths in a remote ethnic minority village and the need to integrate biomedical and participatory approaches. Although we showcase the heuristic value of using rapid ethnography to inform intervention strategies as part of a One Health/NTD agenda, we also identify several possible paradoxes and conundrums in embedding locally-grounded biosocial analysis into NTD programmes. These need to be acknowledged and negotiated by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25261615

  20. Medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, L.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. The film may have been mislaid, or the examination was not requested, or the radiograph had been misinterpreted. The converse is also quite common. Examinations are performed that add nothing to patient management, such as skull films when CT will in any case be requested or views of the internal auditory meatus and heal pad thickness in acromegaly, to quote some examples. Other issues are more complicated. Should the patient who clinically has gall-bladder disease have more than a plain film that shows gall-stones? If the answer is yes, then why request a plain film if sonography will in any case be required to 'exclude' other pathologies especially of the liver or pancreas? But then should cholecystography, CT or scintigraphy be added for confirmation? Quite clearly there will be individual circumstances to indicate further imaging after sonography but in the vast majority of patients little or no extra information will be added. Statistics on accuracy and specificity will, in the case of gall-bladder pathology, vary widely if adenomyomatosis is considered by some to be a cause of symptoms or if sonographic examinations 'after fatty meals' are performed. The arguments for or against routine contrast urography rather than sonography are similar but the possibility of contrast reactions and the need to limit ionizing radiation must be borne in mind. These diagnostic strategies are also being influenced by their cost and availability; purely pragmatic considerations are not infrequently the overriding factor. Non-invasive methods will be preferred, particularly sonography as it is far more acceptable by not being claustrophobic and totally free of any known untoward effects. There is another quite different but unrelated aspect. The imaging methods, apart from limited exceptions, cannot characterize tissues as benign or malignant, granulomatous or neoplastic; cytology or histology usually provides the answer. Sonography is most commonly used to locate the needle tip correctly for percutaneous sampling of tissues. Frequently sonography with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy is the least expensive, safest and most direct route to a definitive diagnosis. Abscesses can be similarly diagnosed but with needles or catheters through which the pus can be drained. The versatility and mobility of sonography has spawned other uses, particularly for the very ill and immobile, for the intensive therapy units and for the operating theatre, as well in endosonography. The appointment of more skilled sonographers to the National Health Service could make a substantial contribution to cost-effective management of hospital services. Just when contrast agents and angiography have become safe and are performed rapidly, they are being supplanted by scanning methods. They are now mainly used for interventional procedures or of pre-operative 'road maps' and may be required even less in the future as MRI angiography and Doppler techniques progress. MRI will almost certainly extent its role beyond the central nervous system (CNS) should the equipment become more freely available, especially to orthopaedics. Until then plain films, sonography or CT will have to suffice. Even in the CNS there are conditions where CT is more diagnostic, as in showing calculations in cerebral cysticercosis. Then, too, in most cases CT produces results comparable to MRI apart from areas close to bone, structures at the base of the brain, in the posterior fossa and in the spinal cord. Scintigraphy for pulmonary infarcts and bone metastases and in renal disease in children plays

  1. Effects of calcium and substrate on force-velocity relation and energy turnover in skinned smooth muscle of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Arner, A; Hellstrand, P

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties and rate of ATP breakdown (JATP) have been determined in the chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli at 22 degrees C. The influence of varied [Ca2+], [Mg ATP] and muscle length were investigated. The shortening response after a step decrease in force (isotonic quick release) was highly curvilinear in the first 100-200 ms. This effect was shown to be a time-dependent response to the force step and not primarily caused by the shift along the length-force relation associated with shortening. Maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) decreased gradually following the release. At pCa (= -log [Ca2+]) 4.5, Vmax at 20 and 1000 ms after release was 0.49 +/- 0.07 and 0.041 +/- 0.004 (mean +/- S.E. of mean, n = 5) lengths s-1 respectively. Unloaded shortening velocity obtained from length steps of different magnitude (slack test) also showed a gradual decrease after the release, consistent with the isotonic release results. Increasing [Ca2+] from the relaxed state at pCa 9 (1 microM-calmodulin present) gave increased isometric force to a maximum at pCa 4.5. Half-maximal response was obtained at pCa 6.1. JATP at maximal force at pCa 4.5 was about 3 times the basal rate at pCa 9. The relation between JATP and force was highly non-linear, with a marked increase in JATP with little alteration in force at the highest [Ca2+]. When force was reduced to zero at pCa 4.5 by shortening the muscle to 0.3 L0 (L0 being the length giving maximal active force), JATP decreased by about 30%. At two levels of [Ca2+] giving similar force (pCa 5.75 and 4.5) the energetic tension cost obtained by length variations was lower at the low [Ca2+]. At pCa 6.0, Vmax and force were decreased to the same extent relative to their values at pCa 4.5. At pCa 5.75, where there was no reduction in force but a 25% decrease in isometric JATP, Vmax was unchanged relative to pCa 4.5. Force, Vmax and JATP were all dependent on [Mg ATP]. Half-maximal response was obtained at 0.1 mM for force and Vmax, and at 0.5 mM for JATP. The results are discussed in relation to a possible influence of both Ca2+ and Mg ATP on kinetic properties of the cross-bridge cycle. PMID:3872937

  2. [Cryptosporidia and other endoparasites in heifers imported into the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I

    1995-10-01

    Totally 887 heifers of Holstein-Friesian breed mostly in late pregnancy imported to the Czech Republic from France (597), Germany (89), Denmark (181) and Holland (20) were examined coprologically from September 1993 to March 1995 in the parasitological laboratory of the National Veterinary Institute (NVI). Prague. Feces were sampled individually, rectally, always on days 1-3 following importation from heifers housed in particular quarantine sheds. In compliance with presently valid veterinary regulations, all animals were examined for liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) and lungworm. Moreover, 634 heifers were submitted to qualitative coprological examination aimed at revealing the presence of cysts and oocysts of protozoa, eggs of taenias and nematodes of gastrointestinal tract. The method according to Pavlásek (1991), especially designed for proving oocysts of the genus Cryptosporidium, was applied in all fecal specimens delivered to the SVI from animals in quarantine (N = 887). From trematodes, 12 heifers imported from France were positive for eggs of Fasciola hepatica and in other two animals eggs of the genus Paramphistomum were found. None of the imported heifers showed lungworm disease. Summary of data on occurrence of endoparasites gained during qualitative examination of samples of feces taken from heifers imported from France, Germany and Denmark is presented in Tab. I. Parasitologically, 91.2 to 100% of imported animals were positive. Taeniasis (the genus Moniezia) was detected in 2.8% of heifers imported from France and in 9.8% animals from Denmark. Protozoal parasites were found in 58.8% (Denmark) and 92.8% (Germany) heifers. Coccidial oocysts most frequently observed represented the genus Eimeria (E. bovis, E. auburnensis and E. zuernii). Gastrointestinal nematodes of nine genera were found in 72.5 to 80.8% of heifers. The most frequent findings were genera Ostertagia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Oocysts, morphologically identical with Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer (1907), 1910, were detected in 4.5% of heifers imported into the Czech Republic from France and in 7.9% of those from Germany. In view of the fact the imported heifers were sampled always on days 1-3 of their quarantine following their importation it is quite impossible, considering the development of the protozoon, they could become infected just in the territory of the Czech Republic. Therefore, with the highest probability, our findings of C. muris-like oocysts in heifers are of priority importance for France and Germany because in the literature these countries do not report cattle as a host of this protozoon. We have found out 57.9% out of 19 animals positive for C. muris on one farm of a private cattle keeper. On the basis of a long-term monitoring of three dairy cows and one bull, the duration of the patent period is longer than 18 months, while we do not know precise onset of shedding oocysts of the protozoon in these naturally infected animals. Furthermore, the paper discusses the need of future studies of C. muris from the point of view of spread, pathogenicity, specificity and host spectrum. The author proposes and recommends obligatory examinations of imported animals with special attention paid to presence of coccidia of the genus Cryptosporidium in order to maintain, with respect to their zoonotic character, these protozoal infections under proper control. At present the parasitological laboratory of the NVI in Prague has a bank of oocyst isolates of the C. muris type from cattle (Bos taurus), from desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii Satunin, 1903) and camels (Camelus bactrianus). Experimental infections is permanently kept in laboratory mice following successful transmission from desert hamsters. PMID:8659084

  3. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Pekta?, Bayram; Altinta?, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the cut-off value (mean OD of negative controls+2 SD) were accepted as positive. The sensitivity of the ELISA tests performed with EgHF, Em2 and Em2II/3-10 antigens were estimated as 100%, 90% and 90%, respectively, whereas the specificity were 63%, 91% and 91%, respectively. When Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA tests were evaluated together, the specificity increased to 96%. Our data indicated that the highest sensitivity (100% with EgHF-ELISA) and specificity (96% with Em2-ELISA + EmII/3-10-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of AE can be achieved by the combined use of the ELISA tests with three different antigens. It was concluded that the early and accurate diagnosis of AE in our country which is endemic for that disease, could be supported by the use of highly specific serological tests such as Em2-ELISA ve EmII/3-10-ELISA contributing radiological data. PMID:25052112