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1

Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

Weiser, Martin W.

1993-01-01

2

Study of plasma- and detonation gun-sprayed alumina coatings using taguchi experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a most versatile thermal spray method for depositing alumina (Al2O3) coatings, and detonation gun (D-gun) spraying is an alternative thermal spray technology for depositing such coatings with\\u000a extremely good wear characteristics. The present study is aimed at comparing the characteristics of Al2O3 coatings deposited using the above techniques by using Taguchi experimental design.\\u000a \\u000a Alumina coating

P. Saravanan; V. Selvarajan; M. P. Srivastava; D. S. Rao; S. V. Joshi; G. Sundararajan

2000-01-01

3

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. (Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

4

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. [Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)

1992-08-01

5

Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.  

PubMed

'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

2012-09-01

6

Taguchi's Parameter Design: A Panel Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is more than a decade since Genichi Taguchi's ideas on quality improvement were inrroduced in the United States. His parameter-design approach for reducing variation in products and processes has generated a great deal of interest among both quality practitioners and statisticians. The statistical techniques used by Taguchi to implement parameter design have been the subject of much debate, however,

Vijayan N. Nair; Bovas Abraham; Jock MacKay; George Box; Raghu N. Kacker; Thomas J. Lorenzen; James M. Lucas; Raymond H. Myers; G. Geoffrey Vining; John A. Nelder; Madhav S. Phadke; Jerome Sacks; William J. Welch; Anne C. Shoemaker; Kwok L. Tsui; Shin Taguchi; C. F. Jeff Wu

1992-01-01

7

Metal recovery enhancement using Taguchi style experimentation  

SciTech Connect

In the remelting of scrap, the ultimate goal is to produce clean aluminum while minimizing metal losses. Recently, it has become more difficult to make significant recovery improvements in Reynolds` Reclamation Plants since metal recoveries were nearing the theoretical maximum. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the factors impacting Reynolds remelting process, a series of experiments using a Taguchi-type design was performed. Specifically, the critical variables and interactions affecting metal recovery of shredded, delacquered Used Beverage Containers (UBC) melted in a side-well reverbatory furnace were examined. This furnace was equipped with plunger-style puddlers and metal circulation. Both delacquering and melting processes operated continuously with downtime only for necessary mechanical repairs. The experimental design consisted of an orthogonal array with eight trials, each using nominal 500,000 lb shred charge volumes. Final recovery results included molten output and metal easily recovered from dross generated during the test.

Wells, P.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Manufacturing Technology Lab.; Andreas, R.E.; Fox, T.M. [Reynolds Metals Co., Sheffield, AL (United States). Alabama Reclamation Plant

1995-12-31

8

Design optimisation of aluminium recycling processes using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a robust design method is developed for reducing cost and improving quality in aluminium recycling. An experimental investigation into the process parameter effects is presented to determine the optimum configuration of design parameters for performance, quality and cost. The Taguchi method is applied initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. Orthogonal array techniques are used to

A. R Khoei; I Masters; D. T Gethin

2002-01-01

9

Optimization of Experimental Conditions of the Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters for Mechanical Properties of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds Based on the Taguchi Design Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array was implemented to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters for the hardness and the toughness of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS, UNS S32760) welds. In this regard, the hardness and the toughness were considered as performance characteristics. Pulse current, background current, % on time, and pulse frequency were chosen as main parameters. Each parameter was varied at three different levels. As a result of pooled analysis of variance, the pulse current is found to be the most significant factor for both the hardness and the toughness of SDSS welds by percentage contribution of 71.81 for hardness and 78.18 for toughness. The % on time (21.99%) and the background current (17.81%) had also the next most significant effect on the hardness and the toughness, respectively. The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values for hardness were found as the first level of pulse current (100 A), third level of background current (70 A), first level of % on time (40%), and first level of pulse frequency (1 Hz), while they were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), second level of % on time (60%), and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz) for toughness. The Taguchi method was found to be a promising tool to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Finally, in order to verify experimental results, confirmation tests were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, there were good agreements between the predicted and the experimental results for the both hardness and toughness.

Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

2012-09-01

10

Application of Taguchi L32 orthogonal array design to optimize copper biosorption by using Spaghnum moss.  

PubMed

In this work, Taguchi L32 experimental design was applied to optimize biosorption of Cu(2+) ions by an easily available biosorbent, Spaghnum moss. With this aim, batch biosorption tests were performed to achieve targeted experimental design with five factors (concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature and agitation time) at two different levels. Optimal experimental conditions were determined by calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Higher is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain high metal removal efficiencies. The impact ratios of factors were determined by the model. Within the study, Cu(2+) biosorption efficiencies were also predicted by using Taguchi method. Results of the model showed that experimental and predicted values were close to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach. Furthermore, thermodynamic, isotherm and kinetic studies were performed to explain the biosorption mechanism. Calculated thermodynamic parameters were in good accordance with the results of Taguchi model. PMID:25011119

Ozdemir, Utkan; Ozbay, Bilge; Ozbay, Ismail; Veli, Sevil

2014-09-01

11

The application of Taguchi’s method in the experimental investigation of the laser sintering process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective laser sintering (SLS) of iron powder has been investigated through a number of experiments statistically planned\\u000a as per Taguchi L8 design. Seven input parameters, namely, laser peak power density, laser pulse on-time, laser scan speed,\\u000a stepping distance (distance traveled between pulses), interval–spot ratio (ratio of laser scan line interval and laser spot\\u000a diameter), size range of iron powder

S. Dingal; T. R. Pradhan; J. K. Sarin Sundar; A. Roy Choudhury; S. K. Roy

2008-01-01

12

A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye?:?Fe+2, H2O2?:?Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

2014-01-01

13

Using Taguchi robust design method to develop an optimized synthesis procedure of nanocrystalline cancrinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, perlite was used as a low-cost source of Si and Al to synthesis of nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite. The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite from perlite by using the alkaline hydrothermal treatment under saturated steam pressure was investigated. A statistical Taguchi design of experiments was employed to evaluate the effects of the process variables such as type of aging, aging time and hydrothermal crystallization time on the crystallnity of synthesized zeolite. The optimum conditions for maximum crystallinity of nanocrystalline cancrinite were obtained as microwave-assisted aging, 60 min aging time and 6 h hydrothermal crystallization time from statistical analysis of the experimental results using Taguchi design. The synthetic samples were characterization by XRD, FT-IR and FE-SEM techniques. The results showed that the microwave-assisted aging can shorten the crystallization time and reduced the crystal size to form nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite.

Azizi, Seyed Naser; Asemi, Neda; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolrouf

2012-09-01

14

Use of Taguchi method to develop a robust design for the magnesium alloy die casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the Taguchi method to optimize the process parameters for the die casting of thin-walled magnesium alloy parts in computer, communications, and consumer electronics (3C) industries. The objectives of the Taguchi method for robust parameter design are to establish the optimal combination of design parameters and to reduce the variation in quality from a minimum number of experiments.

Der Ho Wu; Mao Sheng Chang

2004-01-01

15

Robust Design of SAW Gas Sensors by Taguchi Dynamic Method.  

PubMed

This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio analysis to optimize the dynamic characteristics of a SAW gas sensor system whose output response is linearly related to the input signal. The goal of the present dynamic characteristics study is to increase the sensitivity of the measurement system while simultaneously reducing its variability. A time- and cost-efficient finite element analysis method is utilized to investigate the effects of the deposited mass upon the resonant frequency output of the SAW biosensor. The results show that the proposed methodology not only reduces the design cost but also promotes the performance of the sensors. PMID:22573961

Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Wu, Der Ho; Chiang, Ting-Lung; Chen, Hsin Hua

2009-01-01

16

Robust Design of Dual Band\\/Polarization Patch Antenna Using Sensitivity Analysis and Taguchi's Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, sensitivity analysis and Taguchi's method are applied to the design of dual band patch antenna using gap coupling. The proposed structure uses T-slotted aperture coupling between patch and feed line of ground plane. Using sensitivity analysis, optimum dimensions of patch and coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed line are first sought. Then the optimized values are modified by Taguchi's

Jae-Hyeong Ko; Jin-Kyu Byun; Jun-Seok Park; Hyeong-Seok Kim

2011-01-01

17

Taguchi method for solving the economic dispatch problem with nonsmooth cost functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm that applies the Taguchi method to solve the economic dispatch problem with nonsmooth cost functions. In our approach, we employ the Taguchi method that involves the use of orthogonal arrays in estimating the gradient of the cost function. The Taguchi method has been widely used in experimental designs for problems with multiple parameters where

Derong Liu; Ying Cai

2005-01-01

18

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Hybrid Nanocarrier for Cancer Therapy: Taguchi Orthogonal Array Based Design  

PubMed Central

Taguchi orthogonal array design is a statistical approach that helps to overcome limitations associated with time consuming full factorial experimental design. In this study, the Taguchi orthogonal array design was applied to establish the optimum conditions for bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanocarrier (ANC) preparation. Taguchi method with L9 type of robust orthogonal array design was adopted to optimize the experimental conditions. Three key dependent factors namely, BSA concentration (% w/v), volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio (v?:?v), and concentration of diluted ethanolic aqueous solution (% v/v), were studied at three levels 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v; 1?:?0.75, 1?:?0.90, and 1?:?1.05?v/v; 40%, 70%, and 100% v/v, respectively. The ethanolic aqueous solution was used to impart less harsh condition for desolvation and attain controlled nanoparticle formation. The interaction plot studies inferred the ethanolic aqueous solution concentration to be the most influential parameter that affects the particle size of nanoformulation. This method (BSA, 4% w/v; volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio, 1?:?0.90?v/v; concentration of diluted ethanolic solution, 70% v/v) was able to successfully develop Gemcitabine (G) loaded modified albumin nanocarrier (M-ANC-G) of size 25.07 ± 2.81?nm (? = ?23.03 ± 1.015?mV) as against to 78.01 ± 4.99?nm (? = ?24.88 ± 1.37?mV) using conventional method albumin nanocarrier (C-ANC-G). Hybrid nanocarriers were generated by chitosan layering (solvent gelation technique) of respective ANC to form C-HNC-G and M-HNC-G of sizes 125.29 ± 5.62?nm (? = 12.01 ± 0.51?mV) and 46.28 ± 2.21?nm (? = 15.05 ± 0.39?mV), respectively. Zeta potential, entrapment, in vitro release, and pH-based stability studies were investigated and influence of formulation parameters are discussed. Cell-line-based cytotoxicity assay (A549 and H460 cells) and cell internalization assay (H460 cell line) were performed to assess the influence on the bioperformance of these nanoformulations. PMID:24106715

Tekade, Rakesh K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

2013-01-01

19

Determining optimum conditions for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of triethanolamine (TEA)-based esterquat cationic surfactant by a Taguchi robust design method.  

PubMed

A Taguchi robust design method with an L? orthogonal array was implemented to optimize experimental conditions for the biosynthesis of triethanolamine (TEA)-based esterquat cationic surfactants using an enzymatic reaction method. The esterification reaction conversion% was considered as the response. Enzyme amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and molar ratio of substrates, [oleic acid: triethanolamine (OA:TEA)] were chosen as main parameters. As a result of the Taguchi analysis in this study, the molar ratio of substrates was found to be the most influential parameter on the esterification reaction conversion%. The amount of enzyme in the reaction had also a significant effect on reaction conversion%. PMID:21642941

Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Mahiran; Abdullah, Dzulkifly Kuang

2011-01-01

20

Modeling a Dynamic Design System Using the Mahalanobis Taguchi System - Two-Step Optimal Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work presents a novel algorithm, the Mahalanobis Taguchi System- Two Step Optimal algorithm (MTS-TSO), which combines\\u000a the Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) and Two-Step Optimal (TSO) algorithm for parameter selection of product design, and parameter\\u000a adjustment under the dynamic service industry environments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a From the results of the confirm experiment, a service industry company is adopted to applies in the methodology,

Tsung-Shin Hsu; Ching-Lien Huang

2010-01-01

21

Application of artificial neural network and Taguchi method to preform design in metal forming considering workability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a new method of perform design in muti-stage metal forming processes considering workability limited by ductile fracture. The finite element simulation combined with ductile fracture criterion has been performed in order to predict ductile fracture. The artificial neural network using the Taguchi method has been implemented for minimizing objective functions relevant to the forming process. The combinations

Dae-Cheol Ko; Dong-Hwan Kim; Byung-Min Kim

1999-01-01

22

Taguchi statistical design and analysis of cleaning methods for spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we have extensively tested various cleaning protocols. The variant parameters included the type and concentration of solvent, type of wipe, pretreatment conditions, and various rinsing systems. Taguchi statistical method was used to design and evaluate various cleaning conditions on ten common spacecraft materials.

Lin, Y.; Chung, S.; Kazarians, G. A.; Blosiu, J. O.; Beaudet, R. A.; Quigley, M. S.; Kern, R. G.

2003-01-01

23

Multi-response unreplicated-saturated Taguchi designs and super-ranking in food formulation improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine product formulation screening at the industrial level in terms of multi-trait improvement by considering several pertinent controlling factors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study adopts Taguchi's orthogonal arrays (OAs) for sufficient and economical sampling in a mixture problem. Robustness of testing data is instilled in this method by employing a two-stage analysis

George J. Besseris

2009-01-01

24

Investigation on the sensitivity of TiO2:Ru pH sensor by Taguchi design of experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Taguchi method with orthogonal array (L18) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was applied to studying performance of pH sensor. The pH sensor was based on a separative extended-gate field effect transistor (SEGFET), and the sensing film was fabricated by a ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Ru). In terms of sensitivity, Taguchi method was evaluated to determine the optimal combination of the experimental parameters having the properties of the-larger-the-better. The observed conditions were as follows: detected window size (16 mm2), buffered oxide etch (B.O.E.) etching time (10 min), R.F. power (120 W), D.C. power (10 W), work pressure (50 mTorr), deposited time (90 min), annealed temperature (400 °C) and annealed time (10 min). Only 18 experiments (L18) were required, instead of 4374 (21 × 37) experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time approach. It not only reduced the design cost but also promoted the performance of the sensors. As the result of Taguchi analysis in this study, annealed temperature and time were the most influencing parameters on the sensitivity of pH sensor. After verification of the experiments, the pH sensor sensitivity is 56.1-60.9 mV/pH, not only satisfies the Nernstian response but stable (0.9987), and not affected by redox systems in the solutions. Annealed temperature is controlled at 400 °C to reach Nernstian response; however, the super-Nernstian response could be observed at 600 °C.

Yang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Jung-Chuan

2012-11-01

25

A Taguchi and experimental investigation into the optimal processing conditions for the abrasive jet polishing of SKD61 mold steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces an abrasive jet polishing (AJP) technique in which the pneumatic air stream carries not only abrasive particles, but also an additive of either pure water or pure water with a specified quantity of machining oil. Taguchi design experiments are performed to identify the optimal AJP parameters when applied to the polishing of electrical discharge machined SKD61 mold

F. C. Tsai; B. H. Yan; C. Y. Kuan; F. Y. Huang

2008-01-01

26

Application of Taguchi Design and Response Surface Methodology for Improving Conversion of Isoeugenol into Vanillin by Resting Cells of Psychrobacter sp. CSW4  

PubMed Central

For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, Box-Behnken design experiments under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for further optimization. Four factors (isoeugenol, NaCl, biomass and tween 80 initial concentrations), which have significant effects on vanillin yield, were selected from ten variables by Taguchi experimental design. With the regression coefficient analysis in the Box-Behnken design, a relationship between vanillin production and four significant variables was obtained, and the optimum levels of the four variables were as follows: initial isoeugenol concentration 6.5 g/L, initial tween 80 concentration 0.89 g/L, initial NaCl concentration 113.2 g/L and initial biomass concentration 6.27 g/L. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum predicted concentration of vanillin was 2.25 g/L. These optimized values of the factors were validated in a triplicate shaking flask study and an average of 2.19 g/L for vanillin, which corresponded to a molar yield 36.3%, after a 24 h bioconversion was obtained. The present work is the first one reporting the application of Taguchi design and Response surface methodology for optimizing bioconversion of isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell conditions. PMID:24250648

Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Amini, Jahanshir

2013-01-01

27

Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.  

PubMed

Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong. PMID:24291584

Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

2014-01-01

28

Methodology of preform design considering workability in metal forming by the artificial neural network and Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a new method of preform design in multi-stage metal forming processes considering workability limited by ductile fracture. The finite element simulation combined with ductile fracture criterion has been carried out in order to predict ductile fracture. The artificial neural network (ANN) using Taguchi method has been implemented for minimizing objective functions relevant to the forming process. The

D. C. Ko; D. H. Kim; B. M. Kim; J. C. Choi

1998-01-01

29

Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Vanadium from Mechanically Milled Oil-Fired Fly Ash: Analytical Process Optimization by Using Taguchi Design Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Taguchi design method was employed to determine the optimum experimental parameters in extraction of vanadium by NaOH leaching of oil-fired fly. Prior to designed experiments, the raw precipitates were mechanicallly milled using a high-energy planetary ball mill. Experimental parameters were investigated as follows: mechanical milling (MM) times (2 and 5 hours), NaOH (1 and 2 molar concentration) as reaction solution (RS), powder to solution ( P/ S) ratios (100/400 and 100/600 mg/mL), temperature ( T) of reaction system (303 K and 333 K [30 °C and 60 °C]), stirring times (ST) of reaction media (4 and 12 hours), stirring speed (SS) being adjusted to 400 and 600 rpm, and rinsing times (RT) of remained filtrates (1 and 3 hours). Statistical analysis of signal-to-noise ratio followed by analysis of variance was performed in order to estimate the optimum levels and their relative contributions. Data analysis is carried out using L8 orthogonal array consisting of seven parameters each with two levels. The optimum conditions were MM1 (3 hours), RS2 (2 molar NaOH), P/ S2 (100/600 mg/mL), T2 (333 K [60 °C]), ST2 (12 hours), SS1 (400 rpm), and RT1 (1 hour). Finally, from environmental and economical points of view, the process is faster and better organized by employing this analytical design method.

Parvizi, Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi; Ardani, Mohammad Rezaei

2012-12-01

30

Robust Design of Credit Scoring System by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit scoring is widely used to make credit decisions, to reduce the cost of credit analysis and enable faster decisions. However, traditional credit scoring models do not account for the influence of noises. This study proposes a robust credit scoring system based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). The MTS, primary proposed by Taguchi, is a diagnostic and forecasting method using multivariate

Chao-Ton su; Huei-Chun Wang

2004-01-01

31

Production and optimization of valproic acid nanostructured lipid carriers by the Taguchi design.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was production of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of valproic acid for brain delivery thought the nasal pathway. NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using a Taguchi design. The lipid, oil and valproic acid were dissolved in organic phase then dispersed in aqueous phase containing the surfactant. The most effective factors on size were surfactant concentration, organic/aqueous phase ratio and acetone/ethanol volume ratio. Zeta potential was more affected by the lipid type, while the surfactant concentration and sonication time were more effective variables on drug release rate. The entrapment efficiency was more affected by lipid/drug weight ratio. Optimum formulation obtained with 400 mg lipid, 400 mg valproic acid, 2% surfactant, 1:5 organic/aqueous phase ratio, 1:1 acetone/ethanol volume ratio and 2 min sonication. PMID:19552542

Varshosaz, Jaleh; Eskandari, Sharareh; Tabakhian, Majid

2010-01-01

32

Robust manufacturing system design using petri nets and bayesian methods  

E-print Network

are an integral part of Taguchi?s orthogonal array based Experimental design procedures and they provide a useful way to consider both mean 7 and variance components of a performance measure. Interested readers can refer to literature presented... suggested for the robust design of manufacturing systems. Major literature in this area can be classified into experimental design, risk analysis and Genetic Algorithms (GA) based approaches. Taguchi?s (1986, 1987) signal to noise ratio based methods...

Sharda, Bikram

2008-10-10

33

Evaluation of contributions of orthodontic mini-screw design factors based on FE analysis and the Taguchi method.  

PubMed

This study determines the relative effects of changes in bone/mini-screw osseointegration and mini-screw design factors (length, diameter, thread shape, thread depth, material, head diameter and head exposure length) on the biomechanical response of a single mini-screw insertion. Eighteen CAD and finite element (FE) models corresponding to a Taguchi L(18) array were constructed to perform numerical simulations to simulate mechanical responses of a mini-screw placed in a cylindrical bone. The Taguchi method was employed to determine the significance of each design factor in controlling strain. Simulation results indicated that mini-screw material, screw exposure length and screw diameter were the major factors affecting bone strain, with percentage contributions of 63%, 24% and 7%, respectively. Bone strain decreased obviously when screw material had the high elastic modulus of stainless/titanium alloys, a small exposure length and a large diameter. Other factors had no significant on bone strain. The FE analysis combined with the Taguchi method efficiently identified the relative contributions of several mini-screw design factors, indicating that using a strong stainless/titanium alloys as screw material is advantageous, and increase in mechanical stability can be achieved by reducing the screw exposure length. Simulation results also revealed that mini-screw and bone surface contact can provide sufficient mechanical retention to perform immediately load in clinical treatment. PMID:20466376

Lin, Chun-Li; Yu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Heng-Liang; Lin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Yang-Sung

2010-08-10

34

Taguchi design for optimization and development of antibacterial drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This research report was to develop Cefixime loaded polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles using modified precipitation method. TEM analysis indicated formation of well-formed, smooth, spherical nanoparticles with no aggregates whereas XRD recommended dispersion of drug in PLGA carrier system in amorphous form. The polymer and stabilizer concentration and organic to aqueous ratio were found to be significant factors for nanoparticles and their optimization using Taguchi design (L9). The design formulations showed entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size and poly-dispersity index (PDI) ranging 68.31 ± 1.74%, 159.8-157.7 nm and 0.126-0.149, respectively indicated small and stable nanoparticles with good homogeneity and encapsulation. The design optimized formulation drug release and permeation studies demonstrated that it is four times sustained release behavior and 1.74 times better permeation than free drug. The result of microbiological assay also suggested that optimized formulation has significant antibacterial activity against intracellular multidrug resistance (MDR) of Salmonella typhi. PMID:24315945

Sonam; Chaudhary, Hema; Kumar, Vikash

2014-03-01

35

Cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33 on Allium cepa determined using Taguchi's L? orthogonal array.  

PubMed

In this study, Taguchi L? experimental design was applied to determine cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33, which is the most toxic azo reactive dye species, on Allium cepa. With this aim, A. cepa test system was performed to achieve targeted experimental design with three factors (concentration of dye, pH and volume) in two different levels. Toxic conditions were determined considering calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Smaller is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain lower root lengths. In the work, toxic effects of azo dye were also predicted by using the Taguchi method. Taguchi model showed that experimental and predicted values were closer to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach. PMID:24125870

Al, Gonca; Özdemir, Utkan; Aksoy, Özlem

2013-12-01

36

The use of Taguchi method for process design of experiment to resolve gate oxide integrity issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the process improvements for resolving gate oxide integrity (GOI) issue using the Taguchi method through reliability engineering for eliminating shallow trench isolation (STI) edge failure mode. The selected process parameters are narrowed down to STI\\/ILD stress, silicide residue, nitride residue, and other surface contaminants. The analysis of S\\/N ratio show that the most GOI improvement comes from

Tommy Cahyadi; Pee-Ya Tan; Mien-Ta Ng; Tammi Yeo; Juat-Jong Boh; Ben Fun

2009-01-01

37

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This SciGuide addresses how students can improve the design of investigations and understand how scientists do science. The format of this SciGuide is designed to help all precollege teachers (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) design inquiry investigations.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-08-01

38

Designing hybrid onconase nanocarriers for mesothelioma therapy: a taguchi orthogonal array and multivariate component driven analysis.  

PubMed

Onconase (ONC) is a member of a ribonuclease superfamily that has cytostatic activity against malignant mesothelioma (MM). The objective of this investigation was to develop bovine serum albumin (BSA)-chitosan based hybrid nanoformulations for the efficient delivery of ONC to MM while minimizing the exposure to normal tissues. Taguchi orthogonal array L9 type design was used to formulate ONC loaded BSA nanocarriers (ONC-ANC) with a mean particle size of 15.78 ± 0.24 nm (? = -21.89 ± 0.11 mV). The ONC-ANC surface was hybridized using varying chitosan concentrations ranging between 0.100 and 0.175% w/v to form various ONC loaded hybrid nanocarriers (ONC-HNC). The obtained data set was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regressions (PCR) to decode the effects of investigated design variables. PCA showed positive correlations between investigated design variables like BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol with particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE) of formulated nanocarriers. PCR showed that the particle size depends on BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol content, while EE was only influenced by BSA content. Further analysis of chitosan and TPP effects used for coating of ONC-ANC by PCR confirmed their positive impacts on the particle size, zeta potential, and prolongation of ONC release compared to uncoated ONC-ANC. PCR analysis of preliminary stability studies showed increase in the particle size and zeta potential at lower pH. However, particle size, zeta potential, and EE of developed HNC were below 63 nm, 31 mV, and 96%, respectively, indicating their stability under subjected buffer conditions. Out of the developed formulations, HNC showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability with lower IC50 against human MM-REN cells compared to ONC and ONC-ANC. This might be attributed to the better cell uptake of HNC, which was confirmed in the cell uptake fluorescence studies. These studies indicated that a developed nanotherapeutic approach might aid in reducing the therapeutic dose of ONC, minimizing adverse effects by limiting the exposure of ONC to normal tissues, and help in the development of new therapeutic forms and routes of administration. PMID:25179221

Tekade, Rakesh K; Youngren-Ortiz, Susanne R; Yang, Haining; Haware, Rahul; Chougule, Mahavir B

2014-10-01

39

Experimental design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of long life, low weight nickel cadmium cells is studied. The status of a program to optimize nickel electrodes for the best performance is discussed. The pore size of the plaque, the mechanical strength and active material loading are considered in depth.

Lim, H. S.

1983-01-01

40

Evaluation of B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactants' potency for diesel-contaminated soil washing: optimization of oil desorption using Taguchi design.  

PubMed

Low solubility of certain hydrophobic soil contaminants limits remediation process. Surface-active compounds can improve the solubility and removal of hydrophobic compounds from contaminated soils and, consequently, their biodegradation. Hence, this paper aims to study desorption efficiency of oil from soil of SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant. The effect of different physicochemical parameters on desorption potency was assessed. Taguchi experimental design method was applied in order to enhance the desorption capacity and establish the best washing parameters. Mobilization potency was compared to those of chemical surfactants under the newly defined conditions. Better desorption capacity was obtained using 0.1% biosurfacatnt solution and the mobilization potency shows great tolerance to acidic and alkaline pH values and salinity. Results show an optimum value of oil removal from diesel-contaminated soil of about 87%. The optimum washing conditions for surfactant solution volume, biosurfactant concentration, agitation speed, temperature, and time were found to be 12 ml/g of soil, 0.1% biosurfactant, 200 rpm, 30 °C, and 24 h, respectively. The obtained results were compared to those of SDS and Tween 80 at the optimal conditions described above, and the study reveals an effectiveness of SPB1 biosurfactant comparable to the reported chemical emulsifiers. (1) The obtained findings suggest (a) the competence of Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant in promoting diesel desorption from soil towards chemical surfactants and (b) the applicability of this method in decontaminating crude oil-contaminated soil and, therefore, improving bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. (2) The obtained findings also suggest the adequacy of Taguchi design in promoting process efficiency. Our findings suggest that preoptimized desorption process using microbial-derived emulsifier can contribute significantly to enhancement of hydrophobic pollutants' bioavailability. This study can be complemented with the investigation of potential role in improving the biodegradation of the diesel adsorbed to the soil. PMID:23818070

Mnif, Inès; Sahnoun, Rihab; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

2014-01-01

41

Experimental Investigation of Parameters of CNC Turning by Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AISI H13, a chromium based hot work tool Steel has a wide variety of applications in aluminum casting and extrusion dies, forging dies, hot nut tools, hot header dies, extrusion mandrels, plastic molds, cores, die holder blocks, hot press dies and specially hot work punches etc. In this study, the optimization of two response parameters (Surface roughness and Material Removal Rate) by three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) is investigated in high speed turning of H13 in dry conditions. Taguchi's L'18 orthogonal array and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used for individual optimization. The simultaneous optimization is done by Grey Relational Analysis approach. The different levels of all machining parameters are used and experiments are done on HMT STALLION-100 HS CNC lathe machine. The optimum condition for combined effects was found V5-F1-D1 and the optimal value of the surface roughness (Ra) comes out to be 0.85 (μm) and of MRR is 488.8 (mm³/sec). The optimum results are also verified with the help of confirmation experiments. Keywords: CNC Turning, O

Sharma, Pankaj; Bhambri, Kamaljeet

2013-03-01

42

Estimating the effect of cutting parameters on surface finish and power consumption during high speed machining of AISI 1045 steel using Taguchi design and ANOVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper outlines an experimental study to investigate the effects of cutting parameters on finish and power consumption\\u000a by employing Taguchi techniques. The high speed machining of AISI 1045 using coated carbide tools was investigated. A combined\\u000a technique using orthogonal array and analysis of variance was employed to investigate the contribution and effects of cutting\\u000a speed, feed rate and

Anirban Bhattacharya; Santanu Das; P. Majumder; Ajay Batish

2009-01-01

43

Optimized selection of benchmark test parameters for image watermark algorithms based on Taguchi methods and corresponding influence on design decisions for real-world applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the growing commercialization of watermarking techniques in various application scenarios it has become increasingly important to quantify the performance of watermarking products. The quantification of relative merits of various products is not only essential in enabling further adoption of the technology by society as a whole, but will also drive the industry to develop testing plans/methodologies to ensure quality and minimize cost (to both vendors & customers.) While the research community understands the theoretical need for a publicly available benchmarking system to quantify performance, there has been less discussion on the practical application of these systems. By providing a standard set of acceptance criteria, benchmarking systems can dramatically increase the quality of a particular watermarking solution, validating the product performances if they are used efficiently and frequently during the design process. In this paper we describe how to leverage specific design of experiments techniques to increase the quality of a watermarking scheme, to be used with the benchmark tools being developed by the Ad-Hoc Watermark Verification Group. A Taguchi Loss Function is proposed for an application and orthogonal arrays used to isolate optimal levels for a multi-factor experimental situation. Finally, the results are generalized to a population of cover works and validated through an exhaustive test.

Rodriguez, Tony F.; Cushman, David A.

2003-06-01

44

Applying the Mahalanobis-Taguchi strategy for software defect diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) strategy combines mathematical and statistical concepts like Mahalanobis distance, Gram-Schmidt\\u000a orthogonalization and experimental designs to support diagnosis and decision-making based on multivariate data. The primary\\u000a purpose is to develop a scale to measure the degree of abnormality of cases, compared to “normal” or “healthy” cases, i.e.\\u000a a continuous scale from a set of binary classified cases. An

Dimitris Liparas; Lefteris Angelis; Robert Feldt

45

Applying the Taguchi design for optimized formulation of sustained release gliclazide chitosan beads: an in vitro/in vivo study.  

PubMed

Gliclazide is a second generation of hypoglycemic sulfonylurea and acts selectively on pancreatic beta cell to control diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to produce a controlled release system of gliclazide using chitosan beads. Chitosan beads were produced by dispersion technique using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as gelating agent. The effects of process variables including chitosan molecular weight, concentration of chitosan and TPP, pH of TPP, and cross-linking time after addition of chitosan were evaluated by Taguchi design on the rate of drug release, mean release time (MRT), release efficiency (RE(8)%), and particle size of the beads. The blood glucose lowering effect of the beads was studied in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The optimized formulation CL(2)T(5)P(2)t(10) with about 31% drug loading, 2.4 h MRT, and 69.16% RE(8)% decreased blood glucose level in normal rats for 24 h compared to pure powder of gliclazide that lasted for just 10 h. PMID:19205888

Varshosaz, J; Tavakoli, N; Minayian, M; Rahdari, N

2009-01-01

46

COMPARISON OF 2K FACTORIAL AND TAGUCHI METHOD TO OPTIMIZE DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR QFN STACKED DIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several optimization techniques are available in the literature and most of them are based on statistical treatments. Optimization technique helps to identify optimal design parameters in design work. This study used the 2k factorial method to determine optimised design parameters. The control factors used in this study comprise of bottom die thickness, bottom die are, a top die thickness and

N. N. Bachok; M. Z. M. Talib; I. Ahmad; I. Abdullah

2008-01-01

47

Experimental design and husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent gerontology experiments should be carefully designed and correctly analyzed so as to provide the maximum amount of information for the minimum amount of work. There are five criteria for a “good” experimental design. These are applicable both to in vivo and in vitro experiments: (1) The experiment should be unbiased so that it is possible to make a true

Michael F. W. Festing

1997-01-01

48

Study of magnetic abrasive finishing in free-form surface operations using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) to conduct free-form surface abrasion of stainless SUS304 material operations.\\u000a The operations were demonstrated using a permanent magnetic finishing mechanism installed at the CNC machining center. The\\u000a operations were performed using the Taguchi experimental design, considering the effects of magnetic field, spindle revolution,\\u000a feed rate, working gap, abrasive, and lubricant. Furthermore, the experimental

Ching-Tien Lin; Lieh-Dai Yang; Han-Ming Chow

2007-01-01

49

Grey-based taguchi method for optimization of bead geometry in submerged arc bead-on-plate welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-response optimization problem has been developed in search of an optimal parametric combination to yield favorable\\u000a bead geometry of submerged arc bead-on-plate weldment. Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array (OA) design and the concept of signal-to-noise\\u000a ratio (S\\/N ratio) have been used to derive objective functions to be optimized within experimental domain. The objective functions\\u000a have been selected in relation to

Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Pradip Kumar Pal

2008-01-01

50

An Experimental Investigation into the Optimal Processing Conditions for the CO2 Laser Cladding of 20 MnCr5 Steel Using Taguchi Method and ANN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of laser clad profile formed by means of CO2 laser applying Taguchi method and the artificial neural network (ANN). Laser cladding is one of the surface modifying technologies in which the desired surface characteristics of any component can be achieved such as good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and hardness etc. Laser is used as a heat source to melt the anti-corrosive powder of Inconel-625 (Super Alloy) to give a coating on 20 MnCr5 substrate. The parametric study of this technique is also attempted here. The data obtained from experiments have been used to develop the linear regression equation and then to develop the neural network model. Moreover, the data obtained from regression equations have also been used as supporting data to train the neural network. The artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the input/output parameters of the process. The established ANN model is then indirectly integrated with the optimization technique. It has been seen that the developed neural network model shows a good degree of approximation with experimental data. In order to obtain the combination of process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate for which the output parameters become optimum, the experimental data have been used to develop the response surfaces.

Mondal, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Asish.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

2010-10-01

51

Cell Membrane Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The final activity of this unit, which integrates the Keepers of the Gate unit through the Go Public challenge, involves students taking part in experimental design. They design a lab that answers the challenge question: "You are spending the night with your grandmother when your throat starts to feel sore. Your grandma tells you to gargle with salt water and it will feel much better. Thinking this is an old wive's tale, you scoff, but when you try it later that night it works! Why?" Students must have their plan approved by the instructor before they begin. A formal lab write-up is due as part of the laboratory investigation.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

52

Taguchi analysis of drilling quality associated with core drill in drilling of composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust force and surface roughness of core drill with drill parameters (grit size of diamond, thickness, feed rate and\\u000a spindle speed) in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally investigated in this study.\\u000a A L27 (313) orthogonal array and signal-to-noise (S\\/N) were employed to analyze the effect of drill parameters. Using Taguchi method\\u000a for design of a

C. C. Tsao

2007-01-01

53

Experimental design and performance analysis of TiN-coated carbide tool in face milling stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary experiment and performance analysis of a TiN-coated carbide tool in the face milling of stainless steel is given first. Then, the experimental design of using the Taguchi method is employed to optimize the cutting parameters. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to study the performance characteristics in face milling

Tsann-Rong Lin

2002-01-01

54

Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design.  

PubMed

Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 3(2) central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P?0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics. PMID:22470891

Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S; Devi, V Kusum

2012-01-01

55

Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design  

PubMed Central

Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 32 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P?0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics. PMID:22470891

Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.; Devi, V. Kusum

2012-01-01

56

Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.

Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.

1993-01-01

57

Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

1992-01-01

58

The Implementation of Taguchi Method on EDM Process of Tungsten Carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the cutting of Tungsten Carbide ceramic using electro-discharge machining (EDM) with a graphite electrode by using Taguchi methodology has been reported. The Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyse the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each EDM parameter such as peak current, voltage,

Mohd Amri Lajis; H. C. D. Mohd

59

Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24749379

Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

2012-04-01

60

Development of a hybrid methodology for dimensionality reduction in Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using Mahalanobis distance and binary particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern recognition method applied to classify data into categories – “healthy” and “unhealthy” or “acceptable” and “unacceptable”. MTS has found applications in a wide range of problem domains. Dimensionality reduction of the input set of attributes forms an important step in MTS. The current practice is to apply Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE) and orthogonal

Avishek Pal; J. Maiti

2010-01-01

61

Designing an Experimental "Accident"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

Picker, Lester

1974-01-01

62

Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force on tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy, Taguchi parametric design and

A. K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

2008-01-01

63

Predicting the financial crisis by Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Examples of Taiwan's electronic sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past researches of financial crisis early-warning model, multiple regression, linear probability model, and multiple discriminate analysis are commonly adopted, all of which have generated good discrimination effects, with over 90% accuracy. Dr. Taguchi, well known for his robust design, has lately brought up a new method – Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS), which is mainly used to conduct multivariate diagnoses

Yu-cheng Lee; Hsiao-lin Teng

2009-01-01

64

Study on interaction between palladium(??)-Linezolid chelate with eosin by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second order of scattering and frequency doubling scattering methods using Taguchi orthogonal array design.  

PubMed

Linezolid reacted with palladium to form 1:1 binary cationic chelate which further reacted with eosin dye to form 1:1 ternary ion association complex at pH 4 of Walpole's acetate buffer in the presence of methyl cellulose. As a result not only absorption spectra were changed but Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS), Second-order Scattering (SOS) and Frequency Doubling Scattering (FDS) intensities were greatly enhanced. The analytical wavelengths of RRS, SOS and FDS (?ex/?em) of ternary complex were located at 538 nm/538nm, 240 nm/480 nm and 660 nm/330 nm, respectively. The linearity range for RRS, SOS and FDS methods were 0.01-0.5 ?g mL(-1), 0.1-2 ?g mL(-1) and 0.2-1.8 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The sensitivity order of three methods was as RRS>SOS>FDS. Accuracy of all methods were determined by recovery studies and showed recovery between 98% and 102%. Intraday and inter day precision were checked for all methods and %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all methods. The effects of foreign substances were tested on RRS method and it showed the method had good selectivity. For optimization of process parameter, Taguchi orthogonal array design L8(2(4)) was used and ANOVA was adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the scattering intensities of methods. The reaction mechanism, composition of ternary ion association complex and reasons for scattering intensity enhancement was discussed in this work. PMID:24299978

Thakkar, Disha; Gevriya, Bhavesh; Mashru, R C

2014-03-25

65

Optimal nonlinear Bayesian experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding an optimal geometry, or design, for a field experiment generally involves searching for the design which maximizes the expected post-experimental information given particular model parameters of interest. This is equivalent to minimizing the expected post-experimental uncertainties in those model parameters. Classical methods for experimental design are shown to fail in nonlinear problems because they incorporate linearized design criteria based on local gradients. A more fundamental criterion is introduced which, in principle, can be used to design any experiment including experiments with nonlinear mathematical backgrounds. This criterion is entropy-based and depends on the calculation of marginal probability distributions. In turn, this requires the numerical calculation of integrals for which we use a Monte Carlo sampling approach. Synthetic experiments show that the choice of discretization in the parameter/data space strongly influences the number of samples required. Thus, the only practical limitation for this technique appears to be computational power. A one-dimensional seismic amplitude versus offset (AVO) experiment is used to demonstrate the method. Interestingly, although overly coarse discretizations lead to incorrect evaluation of the entropy, the optimal design remains unchanged.

van den Berg, J.; Curtis, A.; Trampert, J.

2003-04-01

66

Taguchi Optimization of Pulsed Current GTA Welding Parameters for Improved Corrosion Resistance of 5083 Aluminum Welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Taguchi method was used as a design of experiment (DOE) technique to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) parameters for improved pitting corrosion resistance of AA5083-H18 aluminum alloy welds. A L9 (34) orthogonal array of the Taguchi design was used, which involves nine experiments for four parameters: peak current ( P), base current ( B), percent pulse-on time ( T), and pulse frequency ( F) with three levels was used. Pitting corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated by anodic polarization tests at room temperature and calculating the width of the passive region (? E pit). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the measured data and S/ N (signal to noise) ratios. The "bigger is better" was selected as the quality characteristic (QC). The optimum conditions were found as 170 A, 85 A, 40%, and 6 Hz for P, B, T, and F factors, respectively. The study showed that the percent pulse-on time has the highest influence on the pitting corrosion resistance (50.48%) followed by pulse frequency (28.62%), peak current (11.05%) and base current (9.86%). The range of optimum ? E pit at optimum conditions with a confidence level of 90% was predicted to be between 174.81 and 177.74 mVSCE. Under optimum conditions, the confirmation test was carried out, and the experimental value of ? E pit of 176 mVSCE was in agreement with the predicted value from the Taguchi model. In this regard, the model can be effectively used to predict the ? E pit of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded joints.

Rastkerdar, E.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

2013-04-01

67

Taguchi methods in LSI fabrication process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of robust engineering is based on the principles of Taguchi methods. Genichi Taguchi derived these principles after several years of research. The concept systematically evolved starting from 1950s. These principles are aimed at providing the companies with a cost effective methodology to enhance their competitive position in the global market. Three case studies related to semiconductor fabrication process

G. Taguchi

2001-01-01

68

Investigation Of Tool Wear In Hard Turning Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard turning is a machining process defined of hardness higher than 45 HRC under appropriate cutting tools and cutting speed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum process parameters for a particular work piece-tool material combination. . In this study, three levels of each parameters viz. Hardness (HRC), Speed(mm/min), Feed(mm/rev) and three different tool materials are evaluated for process quality characteristics such as tool wear. The three different tool materials used are High CBN, Low CBN, Mixed ceramic. AISI H 11 was taken as work piece material. The experiment is designed using Taguchi Method. The results obtained from the experiments are transformed into signal to noise (S/N) ratio and used to optimize the value of tool wear. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to indentify the statistical significance of parameters. The final results of experimental investigation are presented in this paper. The conclusions arrived at are critically discussed at the end.

Chaudhari, Y. D.

2013-03-01

69

Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

Skidmore, Susan

2008-01-01

70

Taguchi optimization in drilling of AISI 316L stainless steel to minimize burr size using multi-performance objective based on membership function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burr in drilling plays an important role on product quality and hence it is essential to minimize the burr size at the production stage. This paper presents the application of Taguchi optimization method for simultaneous minimization of burr height and burr thickness influenced by cutting conditions and drill geometry. The approach of Taguchi design for drilling optimization problem is based

V. N. Gaitonde; S. R. Karnik; B. T. Achyutha; B. Siddeswarappa

2008-01-01

71

Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

Schwabe, Robert A.

72

From Cookbook to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing expertise, whether from cook to chef or from student to scientist, occurs over time and requires encouragement, guidance, and support. One key goal of an elementary science program should be to move students toward expertise in their ability to design investigative questions. The ability to design a testable question is difficult for…

Flannagan, Jenny Sue; McMillan, Rachel

2009-01-01

73

Optimization of glucose formation in karanja biomass hydrolysis using Taguchi robust method.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study is aimed to optimize the process parameters for the production of glucose from karanja seed cake. The Taguchi robust design method with L9 orthogonal array was applied to optimize hydrolysis reaction conditions and maximize sugar yield. Effect of temperature, acid concentration, and acid to cake weight ratio were considered as the main influencing factors which effects the percentage of glucose and amount of glucose formed. The experimental results indicated that acid concentration and liquid to solid ratio had a principal effect on the amount of glucose formed when compared to that of temperature. The maximum glucose formed was 245 g/kg extractive free cake. PMID:24951940

Radhakumari, M; Ball, Andy; Bhargava, Suresh K; Satyavathi, B

2014-08-01

74

Nonlinear Matroid Optimization and Experimental Design  

E-print Network

Jul 9, 2007 ... Mathematics .... in learning an unknown system whose output y is an unknown function ? of a multivariate input x = (x1,...,xk) ? Rk. It is ... to concrete aberration criteria useful in optimal model-fitting in experimental design.

2007-07-06

75

Parametric optimization of selective laser melting for forming Ti6Al4V samples by Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a selective laser melting experiment was carried out with Ti6Al4V alloy powders. To produce samples with maximum density, selective laser melting parameters of laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness, hatching space and scanning strategy were carefully selected. As a statistical design of experimental technique, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the selected parameters. The results were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios by design-expert software for the optimal parameters, and a regression model was established. The regression equation revealed a linear relationship among the density, laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness and scanning strategy. From the experiments, sample with density higher than 95% was obtained. The microstructure of obtained sample was mainly composed of acicular martensite, ? phase and ? phase. The micro-hardness was 492 HV0.2.

Sun, Jianfeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Di

2013-07-01

76

Dispersion Stability Evaluated by Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of paraffin and hydrocarbon oil dispersions stabilized by nonionic surfactants has been systematically evaluated. Using experimental design, the influence of the following parameters on dispersion stability was studied: surfactant concentration, shear rate, shear time and temperature of homogenisation. The experiments were evaluated with respect to particle size and particle migration velocity by a scanning optical analysis technique. This

Helena Wassenius; Magnus Nydén; Krister Holmberg

2001-01-01

77

DESIGN & EXPERIMENTATION OF HIGH CURRENT DENSITY DC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) MICROPUMP  

E-print Network

DESIGN & EXPERIMENTATION OF HIGH CURRENT DENSITY DC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) MICROPUMP Nguyen: Design, Fabrication, & Experimentation of DC MHD Micropump OF THE THESIS Design, Fabrication, & Experimentation of DC MHD Micropump by Bao Thanh Nguyen Master of Science

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

78

Study of optimal laser parameters for cutting QFN packages by Taguchi's matrix method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the study of optimal laser parameters for cutting QFN (Quad Flat No-lead) packages by using a diode pumped solid-state laser system (DPSSL). The QFN cutting path includes two different materials, which are the encapsulated epoxy and a copper lead frame substrate. The Taguchi's experimental method with orthogonal array of L9(34) is employed to obtain optimal combinatorial parameters.

Chen-Hao Li; Ming-Jong Tsai; Ciann-Dong Yang

2007-01-01

79

An optimization method for radial forging process using ANN and Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the artificial neural network (ANN) and the Taguchi method are employed to optimize the radial force and strain\\u000a inhomogeneity in radial forging process. The finite element analysis of the process verified by the microhardness test (to\\u000a confirm the predicted strain distribution) and the experimental forging load published by the previous researcher are used\\u000a to predict the strain

M. Sanjari; A. Karimi Taheri; M. R. Movahedi

2009-01-01

80

Bread Making: Classic Biotechnology and Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bread making activities can help students meet local and national standards for scientific inquiry, experimental design, and problem solving. In the first activity, students make and observe yeast solutions. Then they predict what might happen when the recipe is modified and conduct invesitigations. The subsequent investigations increase the level of student input and encourages students to practice the skills before using them outside of the classroom. The final assignment draws upon and expands the skills practiced in class with an at-home investigation.

Sitzman, Daniel L.

2003-01-01

81

Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

Hellbaum, R. F.

1976-01-01

82

ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study consists in the research of new ways of designing reinforced concrete structures submitted to commercial aircraft impact. We will particularly focus on the shaking resulting from such load case. The cutoff  

E-print Network

with a Taguchi experimental design. The calculation of the shaking induced by an aircraft impact on an industrialABSTRACT: The purpose of our study consists in the research of new ways of designing reinforced concrete structures submitted to commercial aircraft impact. We will particularly focus on the shaking

Boyer, Edmond

83

DATA CLASSIFICATION USING THE MAHALANOBIS—TAGUCHI SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern information technology developed by Dr. Taguchi. This technology is aimed at providing a better prediction for multivariate data through the construction of a multivariate measurement scale. In this study, two sets of data are analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the MTS. Implementation results reveal that the MTS outperforms traditional discriminant analysis methods.

Huei-Chun Wang; Chih-Chou Chiu; Chao-Ton Su

2004-01-01

84

Applying the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System to Vehicle Ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is a diagnosis and forecasting method for multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance is a measure based on correlations between the variables and different patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting small, correlated data sets. This

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

85

Fault diagnosis for bearing based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for fault diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS), which is applied to practical fault diagnosis for rolling element bearing. Firstly, this method utilizes time\\/frequency domain analysis for feature extraction from the vibration data. Then, a computational scheme based on Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used for fault clustering. In addition, Taguchi methods are employed to reduce

Zhipeng Wang; Zili Wang; Laifa Tao; Jian Ma

2012-01-01

86

Taguchi's off line method and Multivariate loss function approach for quality management and optimization of process parameters -A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-line quality control is considered to be an effective approach to improve product quality at a relatively low cost. The Taguchi method is one of the conventional approaches for this purpose. Through this approach, engineers can determine a feasible combination of design parameters such that the variability of a product's response can be reduced and the mean is close to the desired target. The traditional Taguchi method was focused on ensuring good performance at the parameter design stage with one quality characteristic, but most products and processes have multiple quality characteristics. The optimal parameter design minimizes the total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. Several studies have presented approaches addressing multiple quality characteristics. Most of these papers were concerned with maximizing the parameter combination of signal to noise (SN) ratios. The results reveal the advantages of this approach are that the optimal parameter design is the same as the traditional Taguchi method for the single quality characteristic; the optimal design maximizes the amount of reduction of total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. This paper presents a literature review on solving multi-response problems in the Taguchi method and its successful implementation in various industries.

Bharti, P. K.; Khan, M. I.; Singh, Harbinder

2010-10-01

87

Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

2004-01-01

88

Multi-response optimisation using Taguchi method and super ranking concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple methodology in solving multi-response optimisation problems by employing Taguchi methods and a non-parametric statistical technique. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – There is a continuous interest in developing effective and statistically sound multi-response optimisation methods such that they will provide a firm framework in global product and process improvement. A non-parametric approach

George J. Besseris

2008-01-01

89

A CMOS sensor array IC for Van der Waals enhanced MOSFET and Taguchi type sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS sensor array IC capable of performing fluctuation enhanced sensing for two different chemical sensing devices has been designed. The targeted sensing devices are the novel Van der Waals force enhanced MOSFET for gas and nano-particle detection and sputtered ZnO thin films as Taguchi-type sensors for gas detection. The sensor output contains information in the dynamic stochastic fluctuations around

S. R. Sonkusale; L. Kish; M. Cheng; W. Marlow; Y. Kim; A. Agarwal

2004-01-01

90

Design and Experimental Applications of Acoustic Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic metamaterials are engineered materials that were extensively investigated over the last years mainly because they promise properties otherwise hard or impossible to find in nature. Consequently, they open the door for improved or completely new applications (e.g. acoustic superlens that can exceed the diffraction limit in imaging or acoustic absorbing panels with higher transmission loss and smaller thickness than regular absorbers). Our objective is to surpass the limited frequency operating range imposed by the resonant mechanism that s1ome of these materials have. In addition, we want acoustic metamaterials that could be experimentally demonstrated and used to build devices with overall performances better than the previous ones reported in the literature. Here, we start by focusing on the need of engineered metamaterials in general and acoustic metamaterials in particular. Also, the similarities between electromagnetic metamaterials and acoustic metamaterials and possible ways to realize broadband acoustic metamaterials are briefly discussed. Then, we present the experimental realization and characterization of a two-dimensional (2D) broadband acoustic metamaterial with strongly anisotropic effective mass density. We use this metamaterial to realize a 2D broadband gradient index acoustic lens in air. Furthermore, we optimize the lens design by improving each unit cell's performance and we also realize a 2D acoustic ground cloak in air. In addition, we explore the performance of some novel applications (a 2D acoustic black hole and a three-dimensional acoustic cloak) using the currently available acoustic metamaterials. In order to overcome the limitations of our designs, we approach the active acoustic metamaterials path, which offers a broader range for the material parameters values and a better control over them. We propose two structures which contain a sensing element (microphone) and an acoustic driver (piezoelectric membrane or speaker). The material properties are controlled by tuning the response of the unit cell to the incident wave. Several samples with interesting effective mass density and bulk modulus are presented. We conclude by suggesting few natural directions that could be followed for the future research based on the theoretical and experimental results presented in this work.

Zigoneanu, Lucian

91

Integrating Taguchi Method with Desirability Function Analysis to Optimize the Laser Transmission Welding Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a hybrid approach based on Taguchi method and desirability function analysis to optimize the laser transmission welding process. The Taguchi L25 orthogonal array, for a four factor five level design, is used for the study. The welding parameters, namely: laser power, welding speed, stand-off distance and clamp pressure are optimized with considerations of multiple quality characteristics including weld strength and weld width. The multiple quality characteristics are then combined into a dimensionless measure of performance called composite desirability function to simplify the optimization procedure. Subsequently, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to determine the significance of parameters and to identify the optimum levels of parameters based on the composite desirability function. The confirmation experiment at the optimal levels shows that the targeted multiple quality characteristics can be significantly improved to achieve more desirable levels.

Acherjee, Bappa; Kuar, Arunanshu S.; Mitra, Souren; Misra, Dipten

2010-10-01

92

An optimization of superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride/zinc oxide materials using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on the preparation and characterization of PVDF/ZnO composite materials. The superhydrophobic surface was prepared through spray coating of a mixture of PVDF polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on aluminum substrate. Stearic acid was added to improve the dispersion of ZnO. Taguchi's design of experiment method using MINITAB15 was used to rank several factors that may affect the superhydrophobic properties in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 was applied with three level of consideration for each factor. ANOVA were carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the water contact angle. Confirmation tests were performed on the predicted optimum process parameters. The crystallinity and morphology of PVDF-ZnO membranes were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of Taguchi method indicate that the ZnO and stearic acid contents were the parameters making significant contribution toward improvement in hydrophobicity of PVDF materials. As the content of ZnO nanoparticles increased, the values of water contact angle increased, ranging from 122° to 159°, while the contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle decreased to 3.5° and 2.5°, respectively. The SEM results show that hierarchical micro-nanostructure of ZnO plays an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface. FTIR results showed that, in the absence or present ZnO nanoparticles, the crystallization of the PVDF occurred predominantly in the ?-phase.

Mohamed, Adel M. A.; Jafari, Reza; Farzaneh, Masoud

2014-01-01

93

Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same goal in an automated fashion.

Malakar, Nabin Kumar

94

Experimental designs for identifying causal mechanisms  

E-print Network

Experimentation is a powerful methodology that enables scientists to establish causal claims empirically. However, one important criticism is that experiments merely provide a black box view of causality and fail to identify ...

Imai, Kosuke

95

Application of Three Quasi-Experimental Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented as part of a symposium on evaluation on juvenile diversion programs, this brief paper describes several specific research procedures which have been utilized to help decide which type of diversion approach is best for specific types of clients. Procedures discussed are the regression discontinuity design, the tie-breaker design, and the…

Cordray, David S.

96

Optimal experimental design applied to DC resistivity problems  

E-print Network

The systematic design of experiments to optimally query physical systems through manipulation of the data acquisition strategy is termed optimal experimental design (OED). This dissertation introduces the state-of-the-art ...

Coles, Darrell Ardon, 1971-

2008-01-01

97

Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

NONE

1990-04-13

98

An experimental study of computer mediated collaborative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in network technology and multi user software allow computer mediated collaborative design (CMCD), where the computer enables two designers to communicate and work together while in different places. Research in integrated and collaborative design identify the need to capture design semantics as well as decisions about the final physical product. We describe an experimental study of computer mediated

Mary Lou Maher; Anna Cicognani; Simeon J. Simoff

1996-01-01

99

Optimization of sol-gel technique for coating of metallic substrates by hydroxyapatite using the Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Taguchi method of design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on various metallic substrates deposited by sol-gel dip-coating technique. The experimental design consisted of five factors including substrate material (A), surface preparation of substrate (B), dipping/withdrawal speed (C), number of layers (D), and calcination temperature (E) with three levels of each factor. An orthogonal array of L18 type with mixed levels of the control factors was utilized. The image processing of the micrographs of the coatings was conducted to determine the percentage of coated area ( PCA). Chemical and phase composition of HA coatings were studied by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDS techniques. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the PCA of HA coatings was significantly affected by the calcination temperature. The optimum conditions from signal-to-noise ( S/N) ratio analysis were A: pure Ti, B: polishing and etching for 24 h, C: 50 cm min-1, D: 1, and E: 300 °C. In the confirmation experiment using the optimum conditions, the HA coating with high PCA of 98.5 % was obtained.

Pourbaghi-Masouleh, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.

2013-08-01

100

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

101

DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT  

E-print Network

DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

102

Bayesian optimal experimental design for the Shock-tube experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequential optimal experimental design formulated as an information-theoretic sensitivity analysis is applied to the ignition delay problem using real experimental. The optimal design is obtained by maximizing the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables, which is quantified in this study using mutual information. This is naturally posed in the Bayesian framework. The study shows that by monitoring the information gain after each measurement update, one can design a stopping criteria for the experimental process which gives a minimal set of experiments to efficiently learn the Arrhenius parameters.

Terejanu, G.; Bryant, C. M.; Miki, K.

2013-02-01

103

Nonrandomized Interventional Study Designs (Quasi-Experimental Designs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to observational study designs, interventional studies manipulate clinical care to evaluate treatment effects\\u000a on outcomes. Although surgeons have often relied on observational studies to establish the efficacy and effectiveness of operative\\u000a and perioperative interventions, observational studies (also referred to as case series) are limited to demonstrating the\\u000a correlation between the outcome of interest and the procedure. Prospective controlled

David A. Axelrod; Rodney Hayward

104

Experimental design for study of nucleate boiling in porous structures  

E-print Network

The superheat required to initiate nucleate boiling inside porous wicks is not well understood in practice. This thesis reports the design of an experimental setup for investigating the onset of vapor nucleation in sintered ...

Kelley, Mitchell Joseph

2011-01-01

105

Experimental vertical stability studies for ITER performance and design  

E-print Network

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic ...

Hutchinson, Ian H.

106

A Single Group Experimental Design for Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of the single group experimental research design is to test the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the achievement of the pupils under the experimental treatment and their achievement at their previous rate of progress. (Author)

Papillon, Alfred L.

1972-01-01

107

Optimizing Experimental Design for Comparing Models of Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the first attempt to formalize the optimization of experimental design with the aim of comparing models of brain function based on neuroimaging data. We demonstrate our approach in the context of Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM), which relates experimental manipulations to observed network dynamics (via hidden neuronal states) and provides an inference framework for selecting among candidate models.

Jean Daunizeau; Kerstin Preuschoff; Karl Friston; Klaas Stephan

2011-01-01

108

Observer-based control design for an experimental hybrid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of an observer- based control design strategy for a continuous piecewise lin- ear (PWL) system by application to an elastic beam with a one-sided support. The experimental beam system consists of a flexible steel beam, which is clamped on two sides and is locally supported by a one-sided linear spring. The ex- perimental beam

A. Doris; N. van de Wouw; H. Nijmeijer

109

Preparation of photocatalytic ZnO nanoparticles and application in photochemical degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate using taguchi approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method for the first time. Taguchi method was used to identify the several factors that may affect degradation percentage of betamethasone sodium phosphate in wastewater in UV/K2S2O8/nano-ZnO system. Our experimental design consisted of testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of betamethasone sodium phosphate, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. With four levels of each factor tested. It was found that, optimum parameters are irradiation time, 180 min; pH 9.0; betamethasone sodium phosphate, 30 mg/L; amount of ZnO, 13 mg; K2S2O8, 1 mM. The percentage contribution of each factor was determined by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that irradiation time; pH; amount of ZnO; drug concentration and dosage of K2S2O8 contributed by 46.73, 28.56, 11.56, 6.70, and 6.44%, respectively. Finally, the kinetics process was studied and the photodegradation rate of betamethasone sodium phosphate was found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equation represented by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Giahi, M.; Farajpour, G.; Taghavi, H.; Shokri, S.

2014-07-01

110

Experimental Demonstrations for a New Design Paradigm in Space Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study to experimentally evaluate a new design paradigm for robotic components, with emphasis on space robotics applications. In this design paradigm, robotic components are made from embedded binary ac- tuators and compliant mechanisms in order to reduce weight and complexity. This paper presents a series of five experiments that demonstrate the concept. These studies include a

Matthew D. Lichter; Vivek A. Sujan; Steven Dubowsky

2000-01-01

111

Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

2002-07-01

112

Structural Health Monitoring Using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to monitor the structural health condition in the case of damage samples shortage, a new approach is proposed by only using the healthy samples of vibration signals. By taking root mean square (RMS), variance, kurtosis and crest factor as characteristic parameters, an identification model for structural health condition monitoring is built by using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). It is

Wang Jin; Duan Chendong

2009-01-01

113

Mahalanobis Taguchi System based criteria selection for shrimp aquaculture development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture development suitable location is not formulated from one criterion but from multiple criteria. A list of criteria was selected by reviewing the literature and consultation with aquaculture experts and then classified into five categories namely; water, soil, support, infrastructure and risk factor. Using these criteria a Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based tool was developed to facilitate the selection of

P. Mahalakshmi; K. Ganesan

2009-01-01

114

Applying the Mahalanobis - Taguchi System to Vehicle Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) is a diagnosis and forecasting method using multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance (MD) is a measure based on correlations between the variables and patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The MTS is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting using small, correlated data sets. This is

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

2006-01-01

115

Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering students…

Hsiung, Chin-Min

2011-01-01

116

SVM-RFE Based Feature Selection and Taguchi Parameters Optimization for Multiclass SVM Classifier.  

PubMed

Recently, support vector machine (SVM) has excellent performance on classification and prediction and is widely used on disease diagnosis or medical assistance. However, SVM only functions well on two-group classification problems. This study combines feature selection and SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) to investigate the classification accuracy of multiclass problems for Dermatology and Zoo databases. Dermatology dataset contains 33 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 366 testing instances; and the Zoo dataset contains 16 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 101 testing instances. The feature variables in the two datasets were sorted in descending order by explanatory power, and different feature sets were selected by SVM-RFE to explore classification accuracy. Meanwhile, Taguchi method was jointly combined with SVM classifier in order to optimize parameters C and ? to increase classification accuracy for multiclass classification. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy can be more than 95% after SVM-RFE feature selection and Taguchi parameter optimization for Dermatology and Zoo databases. PMID:25295306

Huang, Mei-Ling; Hung, Yung-Hsiang; Lee, W M; Li, R K; Jiang, Bo-Ru

2014-01-01

117

SVM-RFE Based Feature Selection and Taguchi Parameters Optimization for Multiclass SVM Classifier  

PubMed Central

Recently, support vector machine (SVM) has excellent performance on classification and prediction and is widely used on disease diagnosis or medical assistance. However, SVM only functions well on two-group classification problems. This study combines feature selection and SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) to investigate the classification accuracy of multiclass problems for Dermatology and Zoo databases. Dermatology dataset contains 33 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 366 testing instances; and the Zoo dataset contains 16 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 101 testing instances. The feature variables in the two datasets were sorted in descending order by explanatory power, and different feature sets were selected by SVM-RFE to explore classification accuracy. Meanwhile, Taguchi method was jointly combined with SVM classifier in order to optimize parameters C and ? to increase classification accuracy for multiclass classification. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy can be more than 95% after SVM-RFE feature selection and Taguchi parameter optimization for Dermatology and Zoo databases.

Huang, Mei-Ling; Hung, Yung-Hsiang; Lee, W. M.; Li, R. K.; Jiang, Bo-Ru

2014-01-01

118

Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

119

Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we propose a new method, a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA), for optics and zoom optics with a diffractive optical element (DOE) in order to eliminate chromatic aberration more efficiently than traditional damped least squares (DLS) does. By researching and validating a set of optical designs using a DOE, we have derived an optimal theory for the specific elimination of chromatic aberrations. Following the advanced technology applied to microlenses and the etching process, precisely made microDOE elements may now be manufactured on a large scale. We adopted the genetic algorithm (GA) and incorporated the steady Taguchi method into it. Combining these two methods produced a new hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA). Suitable glass combinations and best positions for the DOE, which could not be properly achieved with DLS, were carefully selected to minimize the chromatic aberration in the optical system. We used an optical system with a fixed-focus and complicated 4 × zoom optics with a DOE to compare the optimization results of traditional DLS for optics with a DOE. Experiments show that, whether the chromatic aberration was axial or longitudinal, the values of the measurements involving the chromatic aberration of the optical lens could be significantly reduced.

Fang, Yi Chin; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Wei Teng

2009-04-01

120

REDUCTION OF DESIGN STEPS FOR STACKED DIE QFN USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi method has been shown to be successful in optimizing design parameters in the manufacturing industry. Finite element (FE) simulation, on the other hand, is used as a design tool and helps to reduce design time and cost. In this paper, the finite element analysis and Taguchi method were combined to aid in the design steps and to optimize the

N. N. Bachok; M. Z. M. Talib; I. Ahmad; I. Abdullah

2008-01-01

121

Causal discovery in social media using quasi-experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media systems have become increasingly attractive to both users and companies providing those systems. Efficient management of these systems is essential and requires knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships within the system. Online experimentation can be used to discover causal knowledge; however, this ignores the observational data that is already being collected for operational purposes. Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are commonly used

Hüseyin Oktay; Brian J. Taylor; David D. Jensen

2010-01-01

122

Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C/C(0)) versus time (min) or bed volumes (BV). The chosen experimental parameters and their ranges are: HTAB concentration (C(htab)), 1-7.5 gL(-1); HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab)), 0.015-0.075 L min(-1); textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye)), 0.025-0.050 L min(-1) and zeolite bed height (H(bed)), 25-50 cm, respectively. Mixed orthogonal array L(16) (4(2)x2(2)) for experimental plan and the larger the better response category were selected to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: HTAB concentration (C(htab))=1g L(-1), HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab))=0.015 L min(-1), textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye))=0.025 L min(-1) and bed height (H(bed))=50 cm. Under these conditions, the treated wastewater volume reached a maximum while the bed volumes (BV) were about 217. While HTAB concentration, gL(-1) (A); zeolite bed height, cm (D) and wastewater flowrate, L min(-1) (C) were found to be significant parameters, respectively, whereas, HTAB flowrate, L min(-1) (B) was found to be an insignificant parameter. PMID:18387737

Engin, Ahmet Baki; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Z

2008-11-30

123

Experimental design of bioassays for screening and low dose extrapolation  

SciTech Connect

Relatively high doses of chemicals generally are employed in animal bioassays to detect potential carcinogens with relatively small numbers of animals. The problem investigated here is the development of experimental designs which are effective for high to low dose extrapolation for tumor incidence as well as for screening (detecting) carcinogens. Several experimental designs are compared over a wide range of different dose response curves. Linear extrapolation is used below the experimental data range to establish an upper bound on carcinogenic risk at low doses. The goal is to find experimental designs which minimize the upper bound on low dose risk estimates (i.e., maximize the allowable dose for a given level of risk). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is employed for screening purposes. Among the designs investigated, experiments with doses at the MTD, 1/2 MTD, 1/4 MTD, and controls generally provide relatively good data for low dose extrapolation with relatively good power for detecting carcinogens. For this design, equal numbers of animals per dose level perform as well as unequal allocations.

Gaylor, D.W.; Chen, J.J.; Kodell, R.L.

1985-03-01

124

Parameter optimization of laser transformation hardening by using Taguchi method and utility concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of Taguchi method and the utility concept for optimizing the laser process parameters\\u000a in laser transformation hardening of commercially pure titanium using a continuous-wave 2-kW, Nd:YAG laser. In this study,\\u000a a set of optimal laser process parameters were evaluated through the Taguchi method of orthogonal arrays and utility concept.\\u000a Taguchi method and utility concept, a

Duradundi Sawant Badkar; Krishna Shankar Pandey; G. Buvanashekaran

2011-01-01

125

Design, Control, and Experimental Performance of a Teleoperated Robotic Fish  

E-print Network

Design, Control, and Experimental Performance of a Teleoperated Robotic Fish Evangelos Papadopoulos National Technical University of Athens 15780 Athens, Greece egpapado@central.ntua.gr Abstract-- Fish-cost teleoperated underwater robotic fish, driven by an oscillating foil. The main principles for the development

Papadopoulos, Evangelos

126

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation  

E-print Network

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation Simon Duquennoy dedicated terminals. A new trend consists in embedding Web servers in small devices, making both access of embedded Web servers, and we introduce a taxonomy of the contents possi- bly served by Web applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Model Selection in Systems Biology Depends on Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis. PMID:24922483

Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D. W.; Barnes, Chris P.; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

2014-01-01

128

Design of a miniature wideband radar experimental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wideband radars have been found more important both in civil and military applications. Micromation is one key technology for radars mounted at missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), satellites, etc. The scheme of a miniature wideband radar experimental system is introduced in this paper, while the design and implementation of a wideband signal generator is analyzed in detail. The radar is

Zhang Xiao-wei; Li Ming; Zuo Lei

2011-01-01

129

Simulation Methods for Optimal Experimental Design in Systems Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a systems-level understanding of a biological system, the authors conducted quantitative dynamic experiments from which the system structure and the parameters have to be deduced. Since biological systems have to cope with different environmental conditions, certain properties are often robust with respect to variations in some of the parameters. Hence, it is important to use optimal ex-perimental design

Daniel Faller; U. Klingmüller; Jens Timmer

2003-01-01

130

Causal Discovery in Social Media Using Quasi-Experimental Designs  

E-print Network

to discover cause-and-effect relationships in social media have taken three basic forms. First, KohaviCausal Discovery in Social Media Using Quasi-Experimental Designs Hüseyin Oktay, Brian J. Taylor observational data, and QEDs can be exploited to discover causal knowl- edge about social media systems

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

131

Long-pulse laser design and experimental work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long pulse laser starts to have a prominent role in many applications. So, How to design and calculate the parameters of the high power long-pulse solid-state laser is illustrated, experimentally and arithmetically. How to design a pumping chamber is illustrated, with a double-ellipse cavity. Optical resonator losses are got experimentally in details. Efficiency factor and system slope efficiency are calculated experimentally. Illustration for how to get the optimum mirror reflectivity is mentioned. Beam waist and beam divergence also studied experimentally. The designed system has 10J output energy with pulse width 20msec for efficiency factor 1.1% and a combined loss 0.181 inside resonator. Average system efficiency, gain coefficient and fluorescence power for four different output mirror reflectivity are 0.328%, 0.00994cm-1 and 144.92W respectively. 6KW/cm2 power density inside resonator is obtained which corresponds to 585W maximum output power. An optimum mirror reflectivity 57% is for 208.2KW input power. The beam waist and beam divergence are recorded to be 0.66cm and 8.86mrad. Calculations show that, 11.7J output energy can be obtained by more optimization based on the designed system.

Helal, Osama; Yong, Tan; Yunfeng, Ding; Cai, HongXing

2013-09-01

132

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

133

Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

1991-01-01

134

Design of two-dimensional recursive filters by using a novel genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel genetic algorithm, which is called a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA), is proposed to solve the design problem of two-dimensional (2D) recursive digital filters. The HTGA approach is a method of combining the traditional genetic algorithm (TGA), which has a powerful global exploration capability, with the Taguchi method, which can exploit the optimum offspring. The Taguchi

Jinn-tsong Tsai; Jyh-horng Chou; Tung-kuan Liu; Chien-han Chen

2005-01-01

135

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

2013-04-01

136

Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

137

Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)] [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

138

Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

Rinehart, Stephen

2011-01-01

139

Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

1992-01-01

140

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental and flight propulsion systems are presented. The following areas are discussed: engine core and low pressure turbine design; bearings and seals design; controls and accessories design; nacelle aerodynamic design; nacelle mechanical design; weight; and aircraft systems design.

1974-01-01

141

Visualization techniques for statistical circuit design  

E-print Network

to the variations in the process or other technological parameters should be as small as possible. Taguchi [I] in his method to build the quality of a, product into it during the de- sign phase, recommends a three stage process for the design of the product...) = 0 otherwise. (2. 4) 2. On Target Design with Variability Minimization The second characteristic information for the optimized design mentioned above refers to the "On target design". Taguchi defines this problem as an optimization problem...

Sengupta, Manidip

2012-06-07

142

An Evaluation of Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Neural Network for Multivariate Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is a diagnosis and predictive method for analyzing patterns in multivariate cases. The goal of this study is to compare the ability of the Mahalanobis- Taguchi System and a neural-network to discriminate using small data sets. We examine the discriminant ability as a function of data set size using an application area where reliable data is publicly

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Jungeui Hong; Rajesh Jugulum; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell; Genichi Taguchi

143

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. Conclusion SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders. PMID:23071200

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2014-01-01

144

Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

2014-04-01

145

Optimum selection of abrasive flow machining conditions during fine finishing of Al\\/15 wt% SiC-MMC using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is gaining widespread application finishing process on difficult to reach surfaces in aviation,\\u000a automobile, and tooling industry. Al\\/SiCp-MMC is a promising material in these industries. Here, AFM has been used to finish conventionally machined cylindrical surface\\u000a of Al\\/15 wt% SiCp-MMC workpiece. This paper presents the utilization of robust design-based Taguchi method for optimization of AFM parameters.\\u000a The

Harlal Singh Mali; Alakesh Manna

2010-01-01

146

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2012-10-01

147

Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

148

Teaching Experimental Design Using an Exercise in Protein Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment, suitable for introductory biochemistry courses, presents the techniques of protein purification as a problem-solving exercise. Students must identify and purify three proteins from an unknown mixture using the techniques of gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, UV and visible spectrophotometry, and gel electrophoresis. To aid construction of a strategy, they are given some information about each of the possible proteins: source, function, molecular weight, pI, and UV and visible spectra. From this they must design their own purification protocols and carry out the experimental work. To develop students' computer skills, the experimental results and the logic used in the identification are presented as a short computer-generated report.

Loke, J. P.; Hancock, D.; Johnston, J. M.; Dimauro, J.; Denyer, G. S.

2001-11-01

149

Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Bt Corn, Lignin, and ANOVAs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case is based on a research paper about the lignin content of genetically modified corn published in the American Journal of Botany. Students are asked to analyze and discuss the paper, focusing on questions related to experimental design and interpretation and a critique of the statistical data presented. Developed for use in an upper-level undergraduate course in plant ecology and a graduate biostatistics course, the case could also be used in courses in plant anatomy, plant physiology, soil ecology, agriculture, or genetics.

Ribbens, Eric

2002-01-01

150

Taguchi OA16 orthogonal array design for the optimization of cloud point extraction for selenium determination in environmental and biological samples by tungsten-modified tube electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Orthogonal array design (OAD) was applied for the first time to optimize cloud point extraction (CPE) conditions for Se(IV) determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in environmental and biological samples. Selenium was reacted with o-phenylenediamine to form piazselenol in an acidic medium (pH 2). Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, piazselenol was quantitatively extracted into small volume (about 30 microL) of the surfactant-rich phase after centrifugation. Five relevant factors, i.e. surfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time and temperature were selected and the effects of each factor were studied at four levels on the extraction efficiency of Se(IV) and optimized. The statistical analysis revealed that the most important factors contributing to the extraction efficiency are ionic strength, pH and percent of surfactant. Based on the results obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the optimum conditions for extraction were established as: pH 6; vial temperature=50 degrees C; extraction time=7 min and 0.3% (w/v) of Triton X-114. The method was permitted to obtain a detection limit of 0.09 ng mL(-1) and two linear calibration ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 and 1.0 to 80.0 ng mL(-1) Se. The precision (%RSD) of the extraction and determination for the six replicates of Se at 20 ng mL(-1) was better than 3.6% and the enrichment factor of 63.5 was achieved. The studied analyte was successfully extracted and determined with high efficiency using cloud point extraction method in water and biological matrices. PMID:19269459

Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Yamini, Yadollah; Saleh, Abolfazl; Shariati, Shahab; Yazdanfar, Najmeh

2009-05-15

151

Design of vibration compensation interferometer for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vibration compensation interferometer (wavelength at 0.532 ?m) has been designed and tested for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). It is designed as a sub-system for EAST far-infrared (wavelength at 432.5 ?m) poloarimeter/interferometer system. Two Acoustic Optical Modulators have been applied to produce the 1 MHz intermediate frequency. The path length drift of the system is lower than 2 wavelengths within 10 min test, showing the system stability. The system sensitivity has been tested by applying a periodic vibration source on one mirror in the system. The vibration is measured and the result matches the source period. The system is expected to be installed on EAST by the end of 2014.

Yang, Y.; Li, G. S.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zhu, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Zeng, L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Wei, X. C.; Lan, T.

2014-11-01

152

Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

2008-10-13

153

A More Rigorous Quasi-Experimental Alternative to the One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple quasi-experimental design is described which may have utility in a variety of applied and laboratory research settings where ordinarily the one-group pretest-posttest pre-experimental design might otherwise be the procedure of choice. The design approaches the internal validity of true experimental designs while optimizing external…

Johnson, Craig W.

1986-01-01

154

The Concept of Fashion Design on the Basis of Color Coordination Using White LED Lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development of fashion design, especially a dress coordinated with White LED Lighting (=LED). As for the design concept a fusion of the advanced science and local culture was aimed for. For such a reason this development is a very experimental one. Here in particular I handled an Imperial Court dinner dress for the last Japanese First Lady, Mrs. Akie Abe who wore it at the Imperial Court dinner for the Indonesian First Couple held on November 2006 to. This dress made by Prof. T. Taguchi and I open up a new field in the dress design.

Mizutani, Yumiko; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

155

Experimental design schemes for learning Boolean network models  

PubMed Central

Motivation: A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein–protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model signaling regulatory circuits in human. Learning such models requires observing the system under a sufficient number of different conditions. To date, the amount of measured data is the main bottleneck in learning informative Boolean models, underscoring the need for efficient experimental design strategies. Results: We developed novel design approaches that greedily select an experiment to be performed so as to maximize the difference or the entropy in the results it induces with respect to current best-fit models. Unique to our maximum difference approach is the ability to account for all (possibly exponential number of) Boolean models displaying high fit to the available data. We applied both approaches to simulated and real data from the EFGR and IL1 signaling systems in human. We demonstrate the utility of the developed strategies in substantially improving on a random selection approach. Our design schemes highlight the redundancy in these datasets, leading up to 11-fold savings in the number of experiments to be performed. Availability and implementation: Source code will be made available upon acceptance of the manuscript. Contact: roded@post.tau.ac.il PMID:25161232

Atias, Nir; Gershenzon, Michal; Labazin, Katia; Sharan, Roded

2014-01-01

156

Purification of d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by a temperature-modulated silica gel column chromatography: use of Taguchi method to optimize purification conditions.  

PubMed

The demand for high purity d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) is increasing with the exploitation of TPGS-related products. Previously, we synthesized a TPGS mixture by esterifying vitamin E succinate with polyethyleneglycol 1000. In this study, a temperature-modulated silica gel chromatographic column was used to purify the synthesized TPGS. Taguchi method was used to optimize purification conditions associated with column temperature, loading amount, feedstock concentration and flow rate of mobile phases. Purification efficacy under the Taguchi optimized conditions was predicted theoretically and the predicted results were verified experimentally. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the unpurified and purified TPGS. The Taguchi-based analysis separately produced an optimum combination of purification conditions for TPGS purity and recovery. Under the optimized conditions, both the theoretical prediction and the confirmatory experiment yielded TPGS purity and recovery approximating to 98% each. Impressively, the study also found that column temperature had a considerable effect on purification efficacy, in particular on TPGS purity, although it was a less influential factor compared to loading amount and feedstock concentration. PMID:21816555

Chang, Yinzi; Cao, Yucheng; Zhang, Jin; Wen, Yangyi; Ren, Qilong

2011-12-01

157

Optimization of a total internal reflection lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optimization of a total internal reflection (TIR) lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm. The conventional simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a method for solving global optimization problems and has also been used in non-imaging systems in recent years. However, the success of SA depends heavily on the annealing schedule and initial parameter setting. In this study, we successfully incorporated the Taguchi method into the SA algorithm. The new hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm provides more precise search results and has lower initial parameter dependence.

Chao, Shih-Min; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chou, Chun-Han; Su, Wei-Shao; Hsieh, Tsung-Heng

2014-03-01

158

Design and fabrication of the multipinch experimental device  

SciTech Connect

The multipinch experimental device was constructed to study the stability and plasma confinement properties of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) with a magnetic well. The magnetic well is created by shaping an RFP configuration into two equal-current lobes in which the poloidal field cancels at the X point of a figure-eight-shaped magnetic separatrix. The design and construction of a 0.525-m major radium modular machine to study this unique plasma configuration is described. A novel construction technique for the noncircular cross-section plasma chamber, incorporating a thin metal skin, phenolic honeycomb, and graphite/epoxy composite bonded sandwich structure, is discussed. Details of the fabrication of the vacuum liner, conducting shell, the toroidal and poloidal coil systems, and the iron core are given.

Curwen, B.; Graumann, D.W.; La Haye, R.J.

1987-09-01

159

A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

1994-04-01

160

Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2010-01-01

161

Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

162

Large-scale experimental design for decentralized SLAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of large scale decentralized SLAM under a variety of experimental conditions to illustrate design trade-offs relevant to multi-robot mapping in challenging environments. As a part of work through the MAST CTA, the focus of these robot teams is on the use of small-scale robots with limited sensing, communication and computational resources. To evaluate mapping algorithms with large numbers (50+) of robots, we developed a simulation incorporating sensing of unlabeled landmarks, line-of-sight blocking obstacles, and communication modeling. Scenarios are randomly generated with variable models for sensing, communication, and robot behavior. The underlying Decentralized Data Fusion (DDF) algorithm in these experiments enables robots to construct a map of their surroundings by fusing local sensor measurements with condensed map information from neighboring robots. Each robot maintains a cache of previously collected condensed maps from neighboring robots, and actively distributes these maps throughout the network to ensure resilience to communication and node failures. We bound the size of the robot neighborhoods to control the growth of the size of neighborhood maps. We present the results of experiments conducted in these simulated scenarios under varying measurement models and conditions while measuring mapping performance. We discuss the trade-offs between mapping performance and scenario design, including robot teams separating and joining, multi-robot data association, exploration bounding, and neighborhood sizes.

Cunningham, Alex; Dellaert, Frank

2012-06-01

163

Computational design of an experimental laser-powered thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thruster. The adopted physical model considers two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the laser power absorption process, geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, and the thermodynamically equilibrium (LTE) assumption for the plasma thermophysical and optical properties. A pressure based Navier-Stokes solver using body-fitted coordinate was used to calculate the laser-supported rocket flow which consists of both recirculating and transonic flow regions. The computer code was used to study the behavior of laser-sustained plasmas within a pipe over a wide range of forced convection and optical arrangements before it was applied to the thruster design, and these theoretical calculations agree well with existing experimental results. Several different throat size thrusters operated at 150 and 300 kPa chamber pressure were evaluated in the numerical experiment. It is found that the thruster performance (vacuum specific impulse) is highly dependent on the operating conditions, and that an adequately designed laser-supported thruster can have a specific impulse around 1500 sec. The heat loading on the wall of the calculated thrusters were also estimated, and it is comparable to heat loading on the conventional chemical rocket. It was also found that the specific impulse of the calculated thrusters can be reduced by 200 secs due to the finite chemical reaction rate.

Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald; Keefer, Dennis

1988-01-01

164

Design, Analysis and Experimental Modal Testing of a Mission Adaptive Wing of  

E-print Network

the structural design, analysis and experimental modal testing of an unmanned aerial vehicle wing having mission presents the structural design, analysis and experimental modal testing of an unmanned aerial vehicle wingDesign, Analysis and Experimental Modal Testing of a Mission Adaptive Wing of an Unmanned Aerial

Yaman, Yavuz

165

Fault identification in chemical processes through a modified mahalanobis-taguchi strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the chemical process industries an appropriate identification of faults has become at present one of the most critical and challenging PSE activities. Recently, Taguchi and Jugulum (2002) described a new data based approach for diagnosis and forecasting using multivariate data, the so-called Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). MTS is considered to be a non-parametric approach, and has been applied with success

Pedro Saraiva; Nuno Faísca; Raquel Costa; Alcides Gonçalves

2004-01-01

166

Taguchi analysis of delamination associated with various drill bits in drilling of composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a prediction and evaluation of delamination factor in use of twist drill, candle stick drill and saw drill. The approach is based on Taguchi’s method and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). An ultrasonic C-Scan to examine the delamination of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate is used in this paper. The experiments were conducted to study the delamination

C. C Tsao; H Hocheng

2004-01-01

167

Experimental designs for testing differences in survival among salmonid populations  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing, habitat are limiting, factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon. Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

Hoffmann, A. [Associated Western Universities, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Busack, C.; Knudsen, C. [Washington Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife (United States)

1995-03-01

168

Experimental Designs for Testing Differences in Survival Among Salmonid Populations.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing habitat are limiting factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha). Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

Hoffman, Annette; Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Craig

1994-11-01

169

Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues.The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

Chen, Zhengsuo; Deng, Hongbo; Chen, Can; Yang, Ying; Xu, Heng

2014-01-01

170

Study of optimal laser parameters for cutting QFN packages by Taguchi's matrix method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the study of optimal laser parameters for cutting QFN (Quad Flat No-lead) packages by using a diode pumped solid-state laser system (DPSSL). The QFN cutting path includes two different materials, which are the encapsulated epoxy and a copper lead frame substrate. The Taguchi's experimental method with orthogonal array of L 9(3 4) is employed to obtain optimal combinatorial parameters. A quantified mechanism was proposed for examining the laser cutting quality of a QFN package. The influences of the various factors such as laser current, laser frequency, and cutting speed on the laser cutting quality is also examined. From the experimental results, the factors on the cutting quality in the order of decreasing significance are found to be (a) laser frequency, (b) cutting speed, and (c) laser driving current. The optimal parameters were obtained at the laser frequency of 2 kHz, the cutting speed of 2 mm/s, and the driving current of 29 A. Besides identifying this sequence of dominance, matrix experiment also determines the best level for each control factor. The verification experiment confirms that the application of laser cutting technology to QFN is very successfully by using the optimal laser parameters predicted from matrix experiments.

Li, Chen-Hao; Tsai, Ming-Jong; Yang, Ciann-Dong

2007-06-01

171

A method of multi-class faults classification based-on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using vibration signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an improved Mahalanobis-Taguchi system based fault diagnosis scheme is presented, vibration signals are used as the signal resource. Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is utilized for fault clustering method in order to classify faults into different categories, Lipschitz Exponents are used to extract characteristic vectors. Firstly, the procedure of implementing Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is introduced, a multi-class faults classification method is

Jiangtao Ren; Yuanwen Cai; Xiaochen Xing; Jing Chen

2011-01-01

172

Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

2010-10-01

173

The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

2006-01-01

174

Department of Mechanical Engineering Experimental Designs Inc. The Bipedal Machine  

E-print Network

Analysis, the existing hip design needed improvement, and a functional pelvis structure needed, thigh, and rotary hydraulic, improving the hip design, developing a pelvis design, and updating the 1 generated concepts for both the new hip and pelvis designs Concept selection performed using concept

Demirel, Melik C.

175

Combining adaptive and designed statistical experimentation : process improvement, data classification, experimental optimization and model building  

E-print Network

Research interest in the use of adaptive experimentation has returned recently. This historic technique adapts and learns from each experimental run but requires quick runs and large effects. The basis of this renewed ...

Foster, Chad Ryan

2009-01-01

176

Bioinspiration: Applying Mechanical Design to Experimental Brooke E. Flammang1,  

E-print Network

in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily for experimental and industrial endeavors. Semantics Research involving bioinspired and biomimetic models has that are meant to operate on the same principles as actual organisms but need not resemble them (Chan et al. 2005

Flammang, Brooke

177

Application of parameter analysis principles in design: an experimental study  

E-print Network

facilitates the generation of creative ideas by identifying key design parameters during the conceptual design stage. An experiment was conducted to test the hypotheses that Parameter Analysis aids the creative process and that there are activities... and factors which positively influence the creative process. The experiment involved evaluating the originality and practicality of the student designs f'rom a five-day senior mechanical engineering design project. Statistical analysis was performed...

Rojanavanich, Vinai

2012-06-07

178

Single-Case Experimental Designs and Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an overview of single-case methodology, the potential utility of A-B-A and multiple baseline designs for evaluating social programs is discussed. Validity factors and cost-effectiveness are considered, showing that these designs are viable alternative methods where traditional randomized group designs are infeasible. (Author/CM)

Horn, Wade F.

1982-01-01

179

Design and construction of an experimental mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

III. Analyzer Design Considerations . . .................. 15 IV. Source Design Considerations . . . .................. 27 V. Summary and Review of Design Considerations . . . . . 55 VI. Gas Plows and Vacuum Technique ...................... 59... Source ................ 41 7. Molecular Beam .................. ................. 52 8. Sample and Vacuum S y s t e m ..................... . . 6 1 9. Magnet Characteristics............................6.3 10. Magnet Performance...

Wall, Robert F.

2013-10-04

180

Accelerated Bayesian experimental design for chemical kinetic models  

E-print Network

The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential in maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. A general ...

Huan, Xun

2010-01-01

181

Formation of ultrafine deferasirox particles via rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS process) using Taguchi approach.  

PubMed

The poor water solubility of many drugs is a challenge in pharmaceutical research. Recently, there have been great interests in finding environmentally friendly methods producing fine particles of pharmaceutical products for applications in pharmaceutical engineering. A promising method to improve the bioavailability of pharmaceutical agents is the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions. Deferasirox (DFS), a tridentate chelator, requires two molecules for iron (III) coordination. The bioavailability (the percentage of the drug absorbed compared to its initial dosage) is limited by this insolubility. The effect of four different RESS parameters including, extraction temperature (308-318K), extraction pressure (140-200 bar), effective nozzle diameter (500-1200 ?m), with and without cosolvents were investigated on the size and morphology of the precipitated particles of deferasirox based on Taguchi design. The results show great reduction in the size of the precipitated particles of deferasirox (50 nm-5 ?m) via RESS process compared with the original particles of deferasirox (5-500 ?m). PMID:22583849

Asghari, Iman; Esmaeilzadeh, Feridun

2012-08-20

182

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER): Design and materials selection  

SciTech Connect

The success of ITER relies on aggressive design of the superconducting magnet systems. This design emphasized high radiation-damage tolerance, acceptance of high nuclear heat loads, and high operational stresses in the Toroidal Field (TF) magnets. The design of the Central Solenoid (CS) magnets, although they will be well shielded from the plasma, is equally aggressive due to the need for very high magnetic fields (14 T) and long term operation at high cyclic stresses. Success of these magnet designs depends, in part, on sound selection and fabrication of materials for structural, superconducting, and insulating components. Here we review the design of ITER and the selection of structural materials for some of the systems that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. In addition we will introduce some of the data that the materials selection is based on and suggest opportunities for future research in support of ITER. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Heim, J.R.

1989-08-08

183

[A review of experimental designs of compound compatibility law of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The paper discussed a variety of experimental designs of compound compatibility law of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): study of whole formula and different ingredients of formula. The latter includes study of single ingredient, study of functional ingredient group, orthogonal design, clustering analysis, homogeneous design, factorial analysis and so on. It was proposed that experimental designs of formula should be based on the theory of TCM, and combined with modern sciences. PMID:15339554

Song, Xiao-Li; Gao, Yan-Qing; Niu, Xin; Si, Yin-Chu

2003-09-01

184

Single case experimental design and empirical clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in clinical psychology is done infrequently by the practicing clinician. A major reason for this seems to be inadequate or cumbersome research tools that are incompatible with clinical realities and assumptions. Time series experimentation is explored as a possible research tool available to clinical practice. Standards of good clinical decision making seem to parallel closely the logic of time

Steven C. Hayes

1981-01-01

185

Accounting for No-Shows in Experimental Evaluation Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how to estimate the effect of a program in the presence of no- shows—persons who are assigned to the program but do not participate. The article briefly discusses the methodological problems involved, describes two current experimental evaluations that are subject to these problems, presents several estimators that overcome these problems, outlines the conditions necessary for these estimators

Howard S. Bloom

1984-01-01

186

Detecting mistakes in engineering models: the effects of experimental design  

E-print Network

This paper presents the results of an experiment with human subjects investigating their ability to discover a mistake in a model used for engineering design. For the purpose of this study, a known mistake was intentionally ...

Savoie, Troy B.

187

Design and experimental analysis of legged locomotive robots  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present the design and motion-capture analysis of two previously well-studied dynamic-walking machines, the rimless wheel and the compass gait robot. These robots were the basis for my undergraduate ...

Villabona, Timothy J

2009-01-01

188

Creativity in advertising design education: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose,\\u000a affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including\\u000a advertising design, are about meaning-making. This study

Ming Cheung

189

Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan  

SciTech Connect

The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales.

DePoorter, G.L.

1981-01-01

190

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Longman, D.E. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-01

191

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Longman, D.E. (Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

192

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF UNMANNED AND SCALED SUPERSONIC EXPERIMENTAL AIRPLANE IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the aerodynamic design of the unmanned and scaled supersonic experimental airplanes promoted by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The main goal of the experimental airplane program is to develop an advanced aerodynamic design technology for the next generation SST. In the program conventional and innovative drag reduction technologies were mainly considered. The first airplane had no propulsion

Kenji Yoshida; Yoshikazu Makino

193

"Using Power Tables to Compute Statistical Power in Multilevel Experimental Designs"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Power computations for one-level experimental designs that assume simple random samples are greatly facilitated by power tables such as those presented in Cohen's book about statistical power analysis. However, in education and the social sciences experimental designs have naturally nested structures and multilevel models are needed to compute the…

Konstantopoulos, Spyros

2009-01-01

194

Application of Multiobjective Optimization in the Design and Operation of Reactive SMB and Its Experimental Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of reactive simulated moving bed (SMBR) process was optimized for an experimentally verified mathematical model for the synthesis of methyl acetate ester. Multi- objective optimization was performed for an existing SMBR experimental setup, and optimum results obtained were subsequently verified experimentally. Thereafter, few other multiobjective optimization studies were performed for both existing setup and at the design stage.

Weifang Yu; K. Hidajat; Ajay K. Ray

2003-01-01

195

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Multi-Stage Axial Turbine Performance at Design and Off-Design Conditions  

E-print Network

D cylindrical blades to 3D bowed blade designs in abating the secondary flow effects which are dominant loss generators.However, comparing experimentally measured performance results to numerically predicted shows a clear deficiency, where the CFD...

Abdelfattah, Sherif Alykadry

2013-08-07

196

A computer aided design tool for robust multichip module package design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel methodology for design assessment of MCM packages is presented using finite element analysis and a Taguchi based design of experiments technique. This methodology enables the design engineer to rapidly estimate the quality of candidate designs and thereby select better designs. The proposed method allows the designer to generate a robust finite element model of the physical process which

Prasanna Katragadda; Sandeepan Bhattacharya; Ian R. Grosse

1994-01-01

197

Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameter identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from indirect concentration measurements in identifying unknown source parameters such as the release time, strength and location. In this approach, the sampling location that gives the maximum relative entropy is selected as the optimal one. Once the sampling location is determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown source parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. Compared with the traditional optimal design, which is based on the Gaussian linear assumption, the method developed in this study can cope with arbitrary nonlinearity. It can be used to assist in groundwater monitor network design and identification of unknown contaminant sources. Contours of the expected information gain. The optimal observing location corresponds to the maximum value. Posterior marginal probability densities of unknown parameters, the thick solid black lines are for the designed location. For comparison, other 7 lines are for randomly chosen locations. The true values are denoted by vertical lines. It is obvious that the unknown parameters are estimated better with the desinged location.

Zhang, J.; Zeng, L.

2013-12-01

198

Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors are summarized. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs by using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated-metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hr in engine-dynamometer tests and more than 38,600 km (24000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as those containing silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

1974-01-01

199

Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes the results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hours in engine dynamometer tests and for more than 38,600 kilimeters (24,000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

1974-01-01

200

WEXTOR: A Web-based tool for generating and visualizing experimental designs and procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

WEXTOR is a Javascript-based experiment generator and teaching tool on the World-Wide Web that can be used to design laboratory\\u000a and Web experiments in a guided step-by-step process. It dynamically creates the customized Web pages and Javascripts needed\\u000a for the experimental procedure and provides experimenters with a print-ready visual display of their experimental design.\\u000a WEXTOR flexibly supportscomplete and incomplete factorial

Ulf-Dietrich Reips; Christoph Neuhaus

2002-01-01

201

Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using

Michael F. W. Festing

1994-01-01

202

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

203

Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

Cheung, Ming

2011-01-01

204

THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization.  

PubMed

Porous fibers have been identified as a means of achieving low losses, low dispersion and high birefringence among THz polymer fibers. By exploiting optical fiber fabrication techniques, two types of THz polymer porous fibers--spider-web and rectangular porous fibers--with 57% and 65% porosity have been fabricated. The effective refractive index measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy shows a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results indicating a lower dispersion for THz porous fiber compared to THz microwires. A birefringence of 0.012 at 0.65 THz is also reported for rectangular porous fiber. PMID:19654813

Atakaramians, Shaghik; Afshar V, Shahraam; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Nagel, Michael; Fischer, Bernd M; Abbott, Derek; Monro, Tanya M

2009-08-01

205

Sex differences in children's speech arising from the experimental design  

E-print Network

in language development. It is possible, however, contrary to their interpretation, that sex differences may occur as a funct1on of the experimental setting. That 1s, non- 11ngu1st1c aspects of the exper1mental setting may elicit differential responses... is a result of di'fferential social1zation patterns of parents. Various studies have agreed that mothers react in sex different1ated ways to their children through vocalizat1on and touch which influences language and social development (Cherry...

Walters, Connie Jo

2012-06-07

206

Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties  

PubMed Central

It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design.

Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

2014-01-01

207

Experimental Design Considerations for In Vitro Microbial Endocrinology Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines and critiques the different methodological approaches, which have been adopted to investigate the interactions\\u000a of catecholamine neurohormones with bacteria. Adrenergic catecholamines have been shown to promote the in vitro growth of\\u000a a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species using growth media, which are designed to mimic the\\u000a hostile bacteriostatic environment in the host. However,

Richard D. Haigh

208

System Design and Experimental Development of the Kalina Cycle Technology  

E-print Network

work. The amount of energy \\~hich may be converted from any form into mechanical energy is referred to as exergy. The ratio of the system's mechanical work to the exergy of the heat source is referred to as exergeti calor thermodynamic efficiency... plagued power plant designers since William Rankine unveiled his new cycle in 1848. These irreversibili ties cause destruction of exergy. EXERGY Exergy is defined as the availability to perform useful work from a given energy source. Amore detailed...

Kalina, A. I.; Leibowitz, H. M.

209

Design and experimental characterization of modern helicopters rotor brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demands on helicopter rotor brakes are given by laws and airworthiness regulations. The systems are designed and certified according to airworthiness demands such as JAR 27\\/29 and FAR 27\\/29. The present paper presents the rotor brake systems of commercial and military helicopters. The rotor brake systems include brake discs made out of steel and brake callipers with two-side-activating pistons.

Andreas Podratzky; Horst Bansemir

2007-01-01

210

A More Rigorous QUASI-Experimental Alternative to the One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple quasi-experimental design is described which may have utility in a variety of applied and laboratory research settings where ordinarily the one-group pretest-posttest pre-experimental design might otherwise be the procedure of choice. The design achieves high levels of internal and external validity and produces independent control groups by independently randomly assigning subjects to measurement occasions. It has superior internal

Craig W. Johnson

1986-01-01

211

Shape optimization of a permanent magnet motor using the experimental design method  

SciTech Connect

The competitive industrial context requires the setting up of synthesis tools for the design of electrical machines. Combining finite element simulations and Experimental Design could be a basis for such tool. Here, a practical methodology to optimize electrical devices, based on a combination of numerical simulation and the Experimental Design method, is illustrated on the shape optimization of a permanent magnet motor. Firstly, significant parameters are identified. Secondly, these parameters are used to improve the performance of the machine.

Gillon, F.; Brochet, P. (Ecole Centrale de Lille, Villeneuve D'Ascq (France))

1999-05-01

212

Designing Klod detector prototypes and results of their experimental tests  

SciTech Connect

The projected KLOD facility is intended for finding and investigating the ultrarare decay K{sub L}{sup 0} {sup {yields} {pi}0{nu}{nu}}-bar; its branching ratio predicted by the Standard Model is Br = (3.0 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -11}. Designing and testing the prototype of the decay-volume veto system and beam veto calorimeter, which are the most important detectors of the facility, are considered. It is shown that the proposed beam veto calorimeter is able to detect {gamma} rays with a high efficiency at the neutron flux of 300 MHz.

Bolotov, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Britvich, G. I.; Gouz, I. P. [Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation); Makarov, A. I., E-mail: makarov@meson1.inr.ac.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ostankov, A. P. [Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

213

Shock-Driven Mixing: Experimental Design and Initial Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Vertical Shock Tube (VST) has been designed to study shock-induced mixing due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) developing on a 3-D multi-mode interface between two gases. These studies characterize how interface contours, gas density difference, and Mach No. affect the ensuing mixing by using simultaneous measurements of velocity/density fields. The VST allows for the formation of a single stably-stratified interface, removing complexities of the dual interface used in prior RMI work. The VST also features a new diaphragmless driver, making feasible larger ensembles of data by reducing intra-shot time, and a larger viewing window allowing new observations of late-time mixing. The initial condition (IC) is formed by a co-flow system, chosen to minimize diffusion at the gas interface. To ensure statistically stationary ICs, a contoured nozzle has been manufactured to form repeatable co-flowing jets that are manipulated by a flapping splitter plate to generate perturbations that span the VST. This talk focuses on the design of the IC flow system and shows initial results characterizing the interface.

Friedman, Gavin; Prestridge, Kathy; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Leftwich, Megan

2011-06-01

214

Shock-driven mixing: Experimental design and initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Vertical Shock Tube (VST) has been designed to study shock-induced mixing due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) developing on a 3-D multi-mode interface between two gases. These studies characterize how interface contours, gas density difference, and Mach No. affect the ensuing mixing by using simultaneous measurements of velocity/density fields. The VST allows for the formation of a single stably-stratified interface, removing complexities of the dual interface used in prior RMI work. The VST also features a new diaphragmless driver, making feasible larger ensembles of data by reducing intra-shot time, and a larger viewing window allowing new observations of late-time mixing. The initial condition (IC) is formed by a co-flow system, chosen to minimize diffusion at the gas interface. To ensure statistically stationary ICs, a contoured nozzle has been manufactured to form repeatable co-flowing jets that are manipulated by a flapping splitter plate to generate perturbations that span the VST. This talk focuses on the design of the IC flow system and shows initial results characterizing the interface.

Friedman, Gavin; Prestridge, Katherine; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Leftwich, Megan

2012-03-01

215

Application of Experimental Design in Preparation of Nanoliposomes Containing Hyaluronidase  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This property is utilized for hypodermoclysis and for treating extravasation injury. Hyaluronidase is further studied for possible application as an adjuvant for increasing the efficacy of other drugs. Development of suitable carrier system for hyaluronidase would help in coadministration of other drugs. In the present study, the hyaluronidase was encapsulated in liposomes. The effect of variables, namely, phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol, temperature during film formation (T1), and speed of rotation of the flask during film formation (SPR) on percentage of protein encapsulation, was first analyzed using factorial design. The study showed that level of phosphatidylcholine had the maximum effect on the outcome. The effect of interaction of PC and SPR required for preparation of nanoliposomes was identified by central composite design (CCD). The dependent variables were percentage protein encapsulation, particle size, and zeta potential. The study showed that ideal conditions for production of hyaluronidase loaded nanoliposomes are PC—140?mg and cholesterol 1/5th of PC when the SPR is 150?rpm and T1 is 50°C.

Kasinathan, Narayanan; Volety, Subrahmanyam Mallikarjuna; Josyula, Venkata Rao

2014-01-01

216

The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

2004-01-01

217

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

Smith, Justin D.

2012-01-01

218

Experimental Investigation of Optimal PID Controller Design using Model Reduction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal PID controller design procedure has formulated for 2nd order systems where the computation of the PID gains is equivalent to a state feedback design problem. As a result, any optimal state feedback control design method can be used. Furthermore, this method can be extended to higher order systems using model reduction techniques. These procedures are investigated experimentally using

J. M. Howe; R. T. O'Brien

2008-01-01

219

Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test  

E-print Network

This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

2012-01-01

220

PhET Teacher Activities: Experimental Design with Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This middle school lesson plan blends a classroom experiment with the interactive PhET simulation Masses and Springs. Students design and conduct an experiment to test their predictions about the behavior of springs with masses attached. The simulation is used to explore kinetic and potential energy of spring motion and to visualize how the spring moves on different planets with varied gravitational constants. The lesson provides extensive background information for both educators and learners along with scripted teacher discussion. The simulation required to complete this activity is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs Simulation. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

Texas, Uteach -.

221

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

222

Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

Ellis, Stephen R.

1990-01-01

223

Experimental design and study of Free Rotor River Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Terrace irrigation along the rivers of Nepal is the vital problem of farmers in the remote villages. The existing turbines and irrigation systems are not feasible without civil structures, and suffer from the lack of resources and financial problems. A simple and inexpensive underwater Free Rotor River Turbine (FRRT) which extracts power ranging from a fraction of a HP up to 25 HP from the velocity of the running water in a river or stream was developed. The power obtained from the turbine can be used to run a pump to lift water for drinking purposes and for irrigation along the river banks during the dry season and early part of the wet season. Various designs of models have been tested in the laboratory to find the optimum pitch angle, shape and size of blades, and optimum number of blades in order to accomplish the cheapest, simplest, and most efficient turbine. The effect of diameter of turbine, velocity of water and torque produced by the turbines were studied,and the effect of simple linear twist on blades is discussed.

Nepali, D.B.

1987-01-01

224

The Optimizing Conditions by Taguchi Method for Fabricating Semi-Solid Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Slurry by Cooling Plate Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize the condition for the semi-solid Al-Zn-Mg aluminium alloy fabricated by cooling plate method, the Taguchi design was used. The cooling plate method effectively separating the grains formed from the mold wall can be used to form a semi-solid material by flowing molten metal over an inclined Cu plate and casting in a mold for the near-net shape component. In Taguchi's design method, the higher signal vs noise (S/N) ratio the better. Therefore, the manufacturing conditions were arranged as a table of orthogonal arrays (L9(34)), and the influence of two factors, pouring temperature and cooling plate angle, was examined. From the observed microstructures, the grain size and aspect ratio were measured by image analyzer. The results indicated that the pouring temperature exerts the main effect on the spherical microstructures since the S/N ratio, which is the sensibility of the surrounding environment, was the highest. The optimum condition for the Al-Zn-Mg alloy was a cooling plate angle of 40° and a pouring temperature of 680°C. The grain size and aspect ratio were 70 ?m and 1.3, respectively.

Shim, Sung-Yong; Park, Hyung-Won; Jeong, In-Sang; Lim, Su-Gun

225

Deterioration diagnosis of insulators for breakers using chemical evaluation and Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a deterioration diagnostic technique of the insulators for power distribution equipments such as breakers using the chemical evaluation and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method. It is possible to diagnose the deterioration degree with great accuracy and nondestructively on-site without the effect of humidity and external noise such as electromagnetic wave. The chemical evaluation items are ion concentration, coloration,

S. Miki; H. Okazawa

2006-01-01

226

Financial Crisis Dynamic Prediction Based on Sliding Window Technology and Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the prediction accuracy of current existing model, the financial crisis prediction dynamic model is proposed. By means of the data streams processing method, the sliding window technology is used for real-time updated samples in this paper, and then the optimal features of samples are selected by Mahalanobis-Taguchi System. The financial crisis prediction dynamic model is built

Jianzhong Shi; Longsheng Cheng

2011-01-01

227

OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOPRESERVATION PROTOCOL FOR STERCULIA CORDATA ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS USING TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADARAJAN, J., STAINES, H. J., BENSON, E. E., MARZALINA, M., KRISHNAPILLAY, B. & HARDING, K. 2006. Optimization of cryopreservation protocol for Sterculia cordata zygotic embryos using Taguchi experiments. Sterculia cordata is a tropical forest tree species bearing intermediate to recalcitrant seeds. This study investigated the effects of seed developmental stage, desiccation time and 6-benzyl aminopurine hormone level in recovery media

J. Nadarajan; H. J. Staines; E. E. Benson; M. Marzalina; B. Krishnapillay; K. Harding

228

Optimization of the electrical discharge machining process based on the Taguchi method with fuzzy logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of the Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for optimizing the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics has been reported. A multi-response performance index is used to solve the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics. The machining parameters (the workpiece polarity, pulse-on time, duty factor, open discharge voltage, discharge current and dielectric

J. L. Lin; K. S. Wang; B. H. Yan; Y. S. Tarng

2000-01-01

229

Buck quasi-resonant converter operating at constant frequency: analysis, design and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to a buck zero-current-switching quasi-resonant converter (buck-PWM-ZCS-QRC) operating at constant frequency. Operation principle and design-oriented analysis are presented, with normalized design curves, design procedure, design example, simulations, and experimental results. The new topology is compared with the well-established Buck-FM-ZCS-QRC proposed by F.C. Lee (Proc. IEEE, vol.76, Apr.1988), which can be considered as a particular topology

I. Barbi; J. C. Bolacell; D. C. Martins; F. B. Libano

1989-01-01

230

Buck quasi-resonant converter operating at constant frequency: analysis, design, and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A buck pulsewidth modulated zero-current switching quasi-resonant converter (buck PWM ZCS QRC) operating at constant frequency is discussed. Operating principle and design-oriented analysis are presented with normalized design curves, design procedure, design example, simulations, and experimental results. The new topology, which can be considered as a particular one, is compared with the well-established buck frequency-modulated zero-current switching quasi-resonant converter (buck

I. Barbi; J. C. O. Bolacell; D. C. Martins; F. B. Libano

1990-01-01

231

Optical metamaterials: Design, simulation and feedback from experimental characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificially structured materials (metamaterials) demonstrating negative index of refraction have opened an entire area of research. Metamaterials are not limited to just negative index metamaterials, but could be extended to artificial magnetism, chirality, etc. Such materials extend the material properties, to beyond what is available in nature. This enables us to control and manipulate light in an unprecedented manner and creates an immense potential for applications. In this work, simulations tools were developed for the study and design of metamaterials. These tools were based on 3D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and Spatial Harmonic Analysis (SHA). In addition to this, a commercial tool based on Finite Element Method was also used. The first negative index material at the optical range was demonstrated, which showed a refractive index of around --0.3 at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 mum. This was followed by the demonstration of a double negative material at the lowest wavelength till date. It showed a refractive index of --0.8 at a wavelength of 725 nm. The negative index material at the shortest wavelength was demonstrated at a wavelength of 710nm. It showed a refractive index of --0.6 at a wavelength of 710 nm. Structures with artificial negative magnetism were also demonstrated across the entire visible range up to a wavelength of 490 nm. Rigorous study was performed on the effect of roughness and size effects on the performance of the nanoscale structures that were used in the metamaterial prototypes. It was concluded that roughness decreases the quality factor of the resonances that are vital for the novel properties. Roughness affects only parts of the spectrum that are close to a resonance. The size effect increases the losses in the metal that makes up the structure and consequently decreases the quality factor of the resonances. Unlike roughness, the size effect does not show a wavelength dependence based on resonances. The parallel 3D FDTD solver was used to numerically study the local field response in semicontinuous metal films (SMFs). These solutions provide insight into the nature of the local field enhancements in SMFs.

Chettiar, Uday Krishnaswamy

232

76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon AGENCY: National Marine...propose to designate the Middle Columbia River (MCR) steelhead (Oncorhynchus...

2011-05-18

233

Optimization of experimental designs and model parameters exemplified by sedimentation in salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weighted least squares estimator for model parameters was presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs was described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account a potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches were combined with two different methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and handling was described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two models for sediment concentration in seawater of different complexity served as application example. The advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches were compared, and an evaluation of the approaches was performed.

Reimer, J.; Schürch, M.; Slawig, T.

2014-09-01

234

The design and implementation of the buffer manager for an experimental relational database management system  

E-print Network

Buffer management is an essential component of database management. This thesis presents a design and implementation of the buffer manager for an experimental relational database management system. The relationship and difference between database...

Li, Zaichun

2012-06-07

235

Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon  

SciTech Connect

This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

Cowan, Ray F. [MIT

2013-11-01

236

Experimental System Design of Wireless Power Transfer Based on Witricity Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless power transfer based on witricity technology is a new technology which energy can be transferred via coupled magnetic resonances in the non- radiative near-field. In order to verify its feasibility, coupled mode theory and power transfer system structure was proposed in this paper. Based on these analysis, The wireless power transfer experimental device is designed. Experimental results shows that

Yang Li; Qingxin Yang; Haiyan Chen; Xian Zhang; Zhuo Yan

2011-01-01

237

A nonlinear controller for pneumatic servo systems: Design and experimental tests  

E-print Network

1 A nonlinear controller for pneumatic servo systems: Design and experimental tests S. Riachy and M. Ghanes Abstract--This paper is dedicated to the problem of pneumatic cylinder control without pressure are illustrated against an experimental setup consisting of a pneumatic cylinder controlled by dSPACE dS1103

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

2013-01-01

239

A Sequence of Games Useful in Teaching Experimental Design to Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a sequence of statistical games is described that were found useful for teaching statistics to agriculture students. The ideas of experimental design tend to be neglected in statistics service courses for agriculturalists because of the practical difficulty of allowing students to learn design by experience. Simulating experiments in the classroom or on the computer console is a

K. H. Pollock; H. M. Ross-Parker; R. Mead

1979-01-01

240

Exploiting Distance Technology to Foster Experimental Design as a Neglected Learning Objective in Labwork in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the design process of a remote laboratory for labwork in chemistry. In particular, it focuses on the mutual dependency of theoretical conjectures about learning in the experimental sciences and technological opportunities in creating learning environments. The design process involves a detailed analysis of the expert task and…

d'Ham, Cedric; de Vries, Erica; Girault, Isabelle; Marzin, Patricia

2004-01-01

241

Design and Experimental Demonstration of Novel Optical Router Controller Capable of Asynchronous, Variable-  

E-print Network

1 Design and Experimental Demonstration of Novel Optical Router Controller Capable of Asynchronous@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper proposes the efficient design and implementation of a hierarchical optical router communications 1. Introduction Switching asynchronous, variable-length packets directly in the optical router

Kolner, Brian H.

242

Compact infrared cryogenic wafer-level camera: design and experimental validation  

E-print Network

Compact infrared cryogenic wafer-level camera: design and experimental validation Florence de la; posted 12 January 2012 (Doc. ID 158765); published 5 March 2012 We present a compact infrared cryogenic, the concept is compatible with both cryogenic constraints and wafer- level fabrication. The design strategy

Boyer, Edmond

243

Numerical Verification and Experimental Validation of Sliding Mode Control Design for  

E-print Network

@inf.uni-due.de Abstract The design of reliable and robust control strategies for the automatized operation of SOFC systemsNumerical Verification and Experimental Validation of Sliding Mode Control Design for Uncertain Thermal SOFC Models Andreas Rauh, Luise Senkel, Thomas D¨otschel , Harald Aschemann Chair of Mechatronics

Kearfott, R. Baker

244

Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO3 decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications

Sung-Deok Hong; Chan-Soo Kim; Yong-Wan Kim; Dong-Un Seo; Goon-Cherl Park

245

A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

2013-01-01

246

Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility  

E-print Network

In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

2014-01-01

247

Thermal-flow techniques for sub-35 nm contact-hole fabrication using Taguchi method in electron-beam lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we demonstrate that 100nm contact-hole resist patterns can successfully and reliably be shrunk to 35nm after a thermal-flow procedure using Taguchi method. Many critical factors such as structure, thermal-flow baking temperature, baking time period and exposure dwell time affecting the critical dimensions (CDs) were optimized and discussed. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi method orthogonal array (OA)

Te-Sheng Li; Szu-Hung Chen; Hsuen-Li Chen

2009-01-01

248

Numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming in order\\u000a to achieve a large reduction in the volume of flash. A titanium TA2 watch-case-like component was used as an example. Sixteen\\u000a different shapes of hollow preforms were specially designed for finite-element simulation. Their diameters of the center-holes\\u000a were designed based on the values

Ting Fai Kong; Luen Chow Chan; Tai Chiu Lee

2008-01-01

249

A Computational/Experimental Study of Two Optimized Supersonic Transport Designs and the Reference H Baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two supersonic transport configurations designed by use of non-linear aerodynamic optimization methods are compared with a linearly designed baseline configuration. One optimized configuration, designated Ames 7-04, was designed at NASA Ames Research Center using an Euler flow solver, and the other, designated Boeing W27, was designed at Boeing using a full-potential method. The two optimized configurations and the baseline were tested in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Supersonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate the non-linear design optimization methodologies. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computational predictions for each of the three configurations from the Enter flow solver, AIRPLANE. The computational and experimental results both indicate moderate to substantial performance gains for the optimized configurations over the baseline configuration. The computed performance changes with and without diverters and nacelles were in excellent agreement with experiment for all three models. Comparisons of the computational and experimental cruise drag increments for the optimized configurations relative to the baseline show excellent agreement for the model designed by the Euler method, but poorer comparisons were found for the configuration designed by the full-potential code.

Cliff, Susan E.; Baker, Timothy J.; Hicks, Raymond M.; Reuther, James J.

1999-01-01

250

Advanced tools for integrated circuit design  

E-print Network

of the mathematical approaches used are described in the following. On- Target Design This approach was used by Taguchi for circuit quality improvement. The main idea behind his approach is the use of the "expected loss" function. This would give a measure... of the mathematical approaches used are described in the following. On- Target Design This approach was used by Taguchi for circuit quality improvement. The main idea behind his approach is the use of the "expected loss" function. This would give a measure...

Dubagunta, Sai Kumar

2012-06-07

251

Thermal-hydraulic design issues and analysis for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) divertor  

SciTech Connect

Critical Heat Flux (CHF), also called burnout, is one of the major design limits for water-cooled divertors in tokamaks. Another important design issue is the correct thermal modeling of the divertor plate geometry where heat is applied to only one side of the plate and highly subcooled flow boiling in internal passages is used for heat removal. This paper discusses analytical techniques developed to address these design issues, and the experimental evidence gathered in support of the approach. Typical water-cooled divertor designs for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are analyzed, and design margins estimated. Peaking of the heat flux at the tube-water boundary is shown to be an important issue, and design concerns which could lead to imposing large design safety margins are identified. The use of flow enhancement techniques such as internal twisted tapes and fins are discussed, and some estimates of the gains in the design margin are presented. Finally, unresolved issues and concerns regarding hydraulic design of divertors are summarized, and some experiments which could help the ITER final design process identified. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Koski, J.A.; Watson, R.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hassanien, A.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Goranson, P.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Fusion Engineering Design Center); Salmonson, J.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Special Projects)

1990-01-01

252

Development of generic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods using experimental design.  

PubMed

Standard approaches to development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods, either ion-pairing or reversed-phase liquid chromatography, have been through trial and error or intentional variation of experimental factors. These approaches to method optimization fail to take into account interactions between experimental factors and therefore the results may not be optimal for the combination of experimental factors. Another approach to optimization is through the use of chemometrics. Chemometric approaches can be more efficient than trial and error or intentional variation because chemometrics make use of multivariate designs; experimental factors are varied simultaneously at the various levels. Therefore chemometrics can take into account interactions between factors. The goal of this study was to develop a generic ion-pair LC-MS method for the analysis of acidic compounds using a chemometric approach called design of experiments (DOE). Four acidic compounds which cover three classes of acidic functional groups: 1-naphthyl phosphate (1), 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (2), 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (3), and (1-naphthoxy)acetic acid (4) were used as model compounds to develop the generic method. This study illustrates that LC-MS conditions can be optimized efficiently with minimal amount of experimentation using a chemometric approach to experimental design. PMID:11777196

Seto, Carmai; Bateman, Kevin P; Gunter, Berton

2002-01-01

253

Tuning the structure and parameters of a neural network by using hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

In this paper, a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA) is applied to solve the problem of tuning both network structure and parameters of a feedforward neural network. The HTGA approach is a method of combining the traditional genetic algorithm (TGA), which has a powerful global exploration capability, with the Taguchi method, which can exploit the optimum offspring. The Taguchi method is inserted between crossover and mutation operations of a TGA. Then, the systematic reasoning ability of the Taguchi method is incorporated in the crossover operations to select the better genes to achieve crossover, and consequently enhance the genetic algorithms. Therefore, the HTGA approach can be more robust, statistically sound, and quickly convergent. First, the authors evaluate the performance of the presented HTGA approach by studying some global numerical optimization problems. Then, the presented HTGA approach is effectively applied to solve three examples on forecasting the sunspot numbers, tuning the associative memory, and solving the XOR problem. The numbers of hidden nodes and the links of the feedforward neural network are chosen by increasing them from small numbers until the learning performance is good enough. As a result, a partially connected feedforward neural network can be obtained after tuning. This implies that the cost of implementation of the neural network can be reduced. In these studied problems of tuning both network structure and parameters of a feedforward neural network, there are many parameters and numerous local optima so that these studied problems are challenging enough for evaluating the performances of any proposed GA-based approaches. The computational experiments show that the presented HTGA approach can obtain better results than the existing method reported recently in the literature. PMID:16526477

Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tung-Kuan

2006-01-01

254

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Neural network algorithm for data-mining in dynamic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-mining analysis has two important processes: searching for patterns and model construction. From previous works finding that the Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) algorithm is successful and effective for data-mining. Conventional research in searching for patterns and modeling in data-mining is typically in a static state. Studies using a dynamic environment for data-mining are scarce. The artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm can

Ching-lien Huang; Tsung-shin Hsu; Chih-ming Liu

2009-01-01

255

Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

2013-01-01

256

Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: Experimental design and physical insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

2014-04-01

257

Optimization of optics with micro diffractive optical element via a hybrid Taguchi genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method for optimization optics with a diffractive optical element (DOE) via a Hybrid Taguchi Genetic Algorithm. A Diffractive Optical Element, based the theory of wave phase difference, takes advantage of the negative Abbe number which might significantly eliminate the axial chromatic aberrations of optics. Following the advanced technology applied to the micro lens and etching process, precisely-made micro DOEs can now be manufactured in large numbers. However, traditional least damping square has its limitations for the optimization of axial and chromatic aberrations with DOE. In this research, we adopted the genetic algorithm (GA) and incorporated the steady Taguchi method into GA. Combining the two methods produced a new hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA). Suitable glass combinations and DOE positions were selected to minimize both axial and lateral chromatic aberration in the optical system. This new method carries out the task of eliminating both axial and lateral chromatic aberration, unlike DOE optimization by LDS, which works for axial aberration only and with less efficiency. Experiments show that the surface position of the DOE could be determined first; in addition, regardless of whether chromatic aberration was axial or longitudinal, issues concerning the optical lens's chromatic aberration could be significantly reduced, compared to results from the traditional least damping square (LDS) method.

Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Wu, Bo-Wen; MacDonald, John; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Wei Teng

2009-08-01

258

Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization  

PubMed Central

Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

2014-01-01

259

Design and experimental study of high-speed low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a design and experimental effort to develop small centrifugal compressors for aircraft air cycle cooling systems and small vapor compression refrigeration systems (20--100 tons). Efficiency improvements at 25% are desired over current designs. Although centrifugal compressors possess excellent performance at high flow rates, low-flow-rate compressors do not have acceptable performance when designed using current approaches. The new compressors must be designed to operate at a high rotating speed to retain efficiency. The emergence of the magnetic bearing provides the possibility of developing such compressors that run at speeds several times higher than current dominating speeds. Several low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors, featured with three-dimensional blades, have been designed, manufactured and tested in this study. An experimental investigation of compressor flow characteristics and efficiency has been conducted to explore a theory for mini-centrifugal compressors. The effects of the overall impeller configuration, number of blades, and the rotational speed on compressor flow curve and efficiency have been studied. Efficiencies as high as 84% were obtained. The experimental results indicate that the current theory can still be used as a guide, but further development for the design of mini-centrifugal compressors is required.

Gui, F.; Reinarts, T.R.; Scaringe, R.P. [Mainstream Engineering Corp., Rockledge, FL (United States); Gottschlich, J.M. [Air Force Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

260

Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court with those assigned to standard probation in Maricopa

Nancy Rodriguez; Vincent J. Webb

2004-01-01

261

Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

2011-01-01

262

Simulation-Based Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Spatially Controllable CVD Reactor  

E-print Network

Simulation-Based Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Spatially Controllable CVD Reactor Jae.interscience.wiley.com). Most conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems do not have the spatial actuation and sensing patterns for single-wafer combinatorial CVD experiments. In an effort to address these limitations, a novel

Rubloff, Gary W.

263

Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children1  

E-print Network

Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children1 Science and Technology Academy, 107 Thackeray St., 15213, Pittsburgh, PA, United States 1 {siler, klahr learners to transfer acquired knowledge to appropriate future situations. For elementary school children

Klahr, David

264

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

265

Improvement organoleptic qualities of fermented caper through an experimental factorial design Capparis spinosa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to describe the physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of Moroccan capers and explore possibilities for improving organoleptic properties of capers that have undergone fermentation in brine of various salt chemical composition, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (lactic acid bacteria). The fermentation tests were performed using a factorial experimental design 24 and the

Hicham Douieb; Mohammed Benlemlih; Ben Abdellah

2010-01-01

266

Supersonic retro-propulsion experimental design for computational fluid dynamics model validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of supersonic retro-propulsion, an enabling technology for heavy payload exploration missions to Mars, is the primary focus for the present paper. A new experimental model, intended to provide computational fluid dynamics model validation data, was recently designed for the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2. Pre-test computations were instrumental for sizing and refining the

Scott A. Berry; Christopher T. Laws; William L. Kleb; Matthew N. Rhode; Courtney Spells; Andrew C. Mccrea; Kerry A. Trumble; Daniel G. Schauerhamer; William L. Oberkampf

2011-01-01

267

An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

1979-01-01

268

Achievement of optimal aluminum flake orientation by the use of special cubic experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, attempts were made to predict the effect of variations in a coating's composition on aluminum flake orientation by means of a special cubic experimental design. The results showed that there seems to be a critical concentration of aluminum flake, above which the surface parallel orientations of these flakes as well as the mechanical properties of the

Ali Karbasi; Siamak Moradian; Nargess Tahmassebi; Payam Ghodsi

2006-01-01

269

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM IN ENGINEERING AND DESIGN DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM IN ENGINEERING AND DESIGN DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DEVELOP A PROPOSED CURRICULUM OUTLINE AND ADMISSION STANDARDS FOR OTHER INSTITUTIONS IN THE PLANNING OF PROGRAMS TO TRAIN COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS. OF THE FIRST CLASS OF 26 STUDENTS, 17 COMPLETED THE PROGRAM AND 12 (INCLUDING ONE WHO DID NOT GRADUATE) WERE…

KOHR, RICHARD L.; WOLFE, GEORGE P.

270

LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE OF OUTCOMES  

E-print Network

LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING about dam removals must be based on sound predictions of expected outcomes. Results of past and ongoing dam removal monitoring are an important source of information that practitioners may utilize to evolve

Tullos, Desiree

271

Glancing at Personal Navigation Devices Can Affect Driving: Experimental Results and Design Implications  

E-print Network

Glancing at Personal Navigation Devices Can Affect Driving: Experimental Results and Design. While such devices are less distracting than paper directions, their graphical display may distract users from their primary task of driving. In experiments conducted with a high fidelity driving

New Hampshire, University of

272

Psychophysiological experimental design for use in human-robot interaction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines key experimental design issues associated with the use of psychophysiological measures in human-robot interaction (HRI) studies and summarizes related studies. Psychophysiological measurements are one tool for evaluating participantspsila reactions to a robot with which they are interacting. A brief review of psychophysiology is provided which includes: physiological activities and response tendencies; common psychophysiological measures; and advantages\\/issues related

Cindy L. Bethel; Jennifer L. Burke; Robin R. Murphy; Kristen Salomon

2007-01-01

273

Experimental Validation of Control Designs for Low-Loss Active Magnetic Bearings  

E-print Network

magnetic bearing FWB flywheel battery CMG control moment gyroscope ESCMG energy storage control momentExperimental Validation of Control Designs for Low-Loss Active Magnetic Bearings Brian C. Wilson by a low-loss active magnetic bearing (AMB). The electromagnets of the AMB are constrained by a generalized

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

274

Design and Experimental Verification of a Model Based Compensator for Rapid Auv Depth Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model based autopilot for rapid depth control of an autonomous underwater vehicle is designed and installed in a small model experimental vehicle. The compensator is evaluated and verified by a series of experiments for a number of depth changing maneuvers. A systematic series of tests is performed to assess the effects of varying hydrodynamic parameters and control gains. The

A. J. Healey; P. A. Papoulias; R. Cristi

1989-01-01

275

Design and Implementation of FAITH, an Experimental System to Intercept and Manipulate Online Social Informatics  

E-print Network

, if they are deceived, users risk the exposure of sensitive and personal data. This paper presents a system dubbed FAITH1 Design and Implementation of FAITH, an Experimental System to Intercept and Manipulate Online vulnerable to privacy risks and devaluation. In Facebook's model, users are asked upon access to grant

California at Davis, University of

276

Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 307318 Experimental measurement of nuclear heating in a  

E-print Network

Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 307­318 Experimental measurement of nuclear heating Blanket Neutronics Experiments', nuclear heating measurements were conducted jointly by the USA and Japan. Introduction Nuclear heating measurements were conducted jointly by the USA and Japan using a micro

Abdou, Mohamed

277

An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

Simpson, Henry; And Others

1991-01-01

278

The British Columbia Watershed Restoration Program: Summary of the Experimental Design, Monitoring and  

E-print Network

The British Columbia Watershed Restoration Program: Summary of the Experimental Design, Monitoring The formatting and images in this document may vary slightly from the printed version. #12;The British Columbia Workshop by E.R. Keeley1 and C.J. Walters1 1 Zoology Department, Fisheries Centre, University of British

Keeley, Ernest R.

279

Poly(vinyl alcohol)–collagen hydrolysate thermoplastic blends: I. Experimental design optimisation and biodegradation behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid blends based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and collagen hydrolysate (CH), an abundant, added value waste product of the leather industry, have been processed by melt blow extrusion to environmentally degradable films. Optimisation of the blend compositions was performed in respect of mechanical properties of the films. The experimental design method (DOE) was used for the understanding of the structure–property

P. Alexy; D. Bakoš; S. Hanzelová; L. Kukolíková; J. Kupec; K. Charvátová; E. Chiellini; P. Cinelli

2003-01-01

280

Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-01-01

281

Solar Power System for experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); design and fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solar Power System for experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed and summarized. For the aircraft represented in this paper, solar cells were used to increase the endurance of the aircraft. Obtaining this goal, an electrical circuit was developed to measure the output power of the batteries of the aircraft during the flight. Flight tests showed that in cruise

H. Bahrami Torabi; M. Sadi; A. Yazdian Varjani

2011-01-01

282

The Differential Phase Experiment: experimental concept, design analysis, and data reduction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the differential phase experiment (DPE) which formed a major part of the ABLE ACE suite of experiments conducted by the Air Force. The work described covers the rationale for the experiment, the basic experimental concept, the analysis of the differential phase, the optical and software design analysis, a discussion of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the optics,

Glenn A. Tyler; Terry J. Brennan; Stephen L. Browne; Robert H. Dueck; Michael S. Lodin; Phillip H. Roberts; Jeffrey L. Vaughn

1997-01-01

283

Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

2013-01-01

284

Controlled experiments for dense gas diffusion: Experimental design and execution, model comparison  

SciTech Connect

An experimental baseline CO2 release experiment at the DOE Spill Test Facility on the Nevada Test Site in Southern Nevada is described. This experiment was unique in its use of CO2 as a surrogate gas representative of a variety of specific chemicals. Introductory discussion places the experiment in historical perspective. CO2 was selected as a surrogate gas to provide a data base suitable for evaluation of model scenarios involving a variety of specific dense gases. The experiment design and setup are described, including design rationale and quality assurance methods employed. Resulting experimental data are summarized. Data usefulness is examined through a preliminary comparison of experimental results with simulations performed using the SLAV and DEGADIS dense gas models.

Egami, R.; Bowen, J.; Coulombe, W.; Freeman, D.; Watson, J.

1995-07-01

285

Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

Huang, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Wan, B.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Shi, Y.; Ye, M.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.

2014-11-01

286

Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

1992-01-01

287

Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999  

SciTech Connect

A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

288

Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.  

SciTech Connect

There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

2005-11-01

289

Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 2: Supporting experimental program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Areas of cryogenic fuel systems were identified where critical experimental information was needed either to define a design criteria or to establish the feasibility of a design concept or a critical aspect of a particular design. Such data requirements fell into three broad categories: (1) basic surface tension screen characteristics; (2) screen acquisition device fabrication problems; and (3) screen surface tension device operational failure modes. To explore these problems and to establish design criteria where possible, extensive laboratory or bench test scale experiments were conducted. In general, these proved to be quite successful and, in many instances, the test results were directly used in the system design analyses and development. In some cases, particularly those relating to operational-type problems, areas requiring future research were identified, especially screen heat transfer and vibrational effects.

Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

1973-01-01

290

Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

2009-01-01

291

D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to mixtures of environmental compounds. A regulatory assumption is that the mixtures of chemicals act in an additive manner. However, this assumption requires experimental validation. Traditional experimental designs (full factorial) require a large number of e...

292

Overview of the TIBER II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design  

SciTech Connect

The TIBER II Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER II can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER II design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort. 9 refs.

Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

1987-10-16

293

Optimal experimental designs for the estimation of thermal properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable estimation of thermal properties is extremely important in the utilization of new advanced materials, such as composite materials. The accuracy of these estimates can be increased if the experiments are designed carefully. The objectives of this study are to design optimal experiments to be used in the prediction of these thermal properties and to then utilize these designs in the development of an estimation procedure to determine the effective thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity). The experiments were optimized by choosing experimental parameters that maximize the temperature derivatives with respect to all of the unknown thermal properties. This procedure has the effect of minimizing the confidence intervals of the resulting thermal property estimates. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional experimental designs were optimized. A heat flux boundary condition is required in both analyses for the simultaneous estimation of the thermal properties. For the one-dimensional experiment, the parameters optimized were the heating time of the applied heat flux, the temperature sensor location, and the experimental time. In addition to these parameters, the optimal location of the heat flux was also determined for the two-dimensional experiments. Utilizing the optimal one-dimensional experiment, the effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibers and the effective volumetric heat capacity were then estimated for an IM7-Bismaleimide composite material. The estimation procedure used is based on the minimization of a least squares function which incorporates both calculated and measured temperatures and allows for the parameters to be estimated simultaneously.

Scott, Elaine P.; Moncman, Deborah A.

1994-01-01

294

RNA-seq Data: Challenges in and Recommendations for Experimental Design and Analysis.  

PubMed

RNA-seq is widely used to determine differential expression of genes or transcripts as well as identify novel transcripts, identify allele-specific expression, and precisely measure translation of transcripts. Thoughtful experimental design and choice of analysis tools are critical to ensure high-quality data and interpretable results. Important considerations for experimental design include number of replicates, whether to collect paired-end or single-end reads, sequence length, and sequencing depth. Common analysis steps in all RNA-seq experiments include quality control, read alignment, assigning reads to genes or transcripts, and estimating gene or transcript abundance. Our aims are two-fold: to make recommendations for common components of experimental design and assess tool capabilities for each of these steps. We also test tools designed to detect differential expression, since this is the most widespread application of RNA-seq. We hope that these analyses will help guide those who are new to RNA-seq and will generate discussion about remaining needs for tool improvement and development. Curr. Protoc. Hum. Genet. 83:11.13.1-11.13.20. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25271838

Williams, Alexander G; Thomas, Sean; Wyman, Stacia K; Holloway, Alisha K

2014-01-01

295

Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

1981-01-01

296

Design and experimental results for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flapped natural laminar flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0215F, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6 series airfoils has been achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge has also been met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show generally good agreement.

Somers, D. M.

1981-01-01

297

D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture are prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. However, recent advances in statistically-based experimental design have made it easier to evaluate interactions involving many chemicals...

298

Designation and Implementation of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology Virtual Experimental Platform Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explicitly discusses the designation and implementation thought and method of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology virtual experimental platform website construction. The instructional design of this platform mainly follows with the students-oriented constructivism learning theory, and the overall structure is subject to the features of teaching aims, teaching contents and interactive methods. Virtual experiment platform production and development should fully take the characteristics of network operation into consideration and adopt relevant technologies to improve the effect and speed of network software application in internet.

Gao, JinYue; Tang, Yin

299

Experimental analysis of the flow in a two stage axial compressor at off-design conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental analysis of the flow that develops in a two-stage axial flow compressor at off-design conditions is presented. The measurements are performed upstream, between, and downstream of the four blade rows of the compressor. The analysis shows the off-design effects on the local conditions of the flow field. Low-energy flow zones are identified, and the development of annulus-boundary-layer, secondary, and tip-clearance flows is shown. The tip-clearance flows are also present in the stator rows with various outlying conditions (stationary or rotating hub).

Massardo, Aristide; Satta, Antonio

1987-05-01

300

Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): Experimental Design and Boundary Conditions (Experiment 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilizes fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.; Stoll, D. K.; Dolan, A. M.; Lunt, D. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.

2011-01-01

301

Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999  

SciTech Connect

A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

302

Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 2)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere-only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilises fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.; Stoll, D. K.; Dolan, A. M.; Lunt, D. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.

2011-01-01

303

Computational/experimental analysis of three low sonic boom configurations with design modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Euler code, designated AIRPLANE, which uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh was used to compute near-field sonic boom pressure signatures on three modern low sonic boom configurations: the Mach 2, Mach 3, and Haglund models. The TEAM code which uses a multi-zoned structured grid was used to calculate pressure signatures for the Mach 2 model. The computational pressure signatures for the Mach 2 and Mach 3 models are compared with recent experimental data. The computed pressure signatures were extracted at distances less than one body length below the configuration and extrapolated to the experimental distance. The Mach 2 model was found to have larger overpressures off-ground-track than on-ground-track in both computational and experimental results. The correlations with the experiment were acceptable where the signatures were not contaminated by instrumentation and model-support hardware. AIRPLANE was used to study selected modifications to improve the overpressures of the Mach 2 model.

Cliff, Susan E.

1992-01-01

304

Optimal Design of Lozenge-shaped Dielectric Elastomer Linear Actuators: Mathematical Procedure and Experimental Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mathematical procedure is presented, which makes it possible to optimize lozenge-shaped dielectric-elastomer-based linear actuators for known materials and desired force\\/stroke requirements. Simulation and experimental results are provided which both demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed optimization procedure with respect to traditional design approaches and show that simpler, cheaper, lighter, and better-behaved lozenge-shaped actuators can be conceived, which do

Rocco Vertechy; Giovanni Berselli; Vincenzo Parenti Castelli; Gabriele Vassura

2010-01-01

305

Design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a flap valve IPMC micropump with a flexibly supported diaphragm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of a flap valve ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) micropump, the diaphragm of which is supported by a flexible material. A multilayered IPMC based on a Nafion\\/layered silicate and Nafion\\/silica nanocomposites was fabricated and used as an actuator for the micropump. To make best use of a flexible IPMC diaphragm, we introduced

Thanh Tung Nguyen; Nam Seo Goo; Vinh Khanh Nguyen; Youngtai Yoo

2008-01-01

306

ANALYSIS OF IRON CONTENTS IN CARBONATE BEDROCK BY SPECTRORADIOMETRIC DETECTION BASED ON EXPERIMENTALLY DESIGNED SUBSTRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study continuous spectral reflectance of experimentally designed substrates, simulating the typical sedimentary fabric of marls and carbonates was measured by an ASD FieldSpec in the range 0.4-2.5 µm. Based on these data direct relationships between reflection features and iron content (total Fe) were calculated. Statistical analysis was done by standard procedures using characteristic primary parameters of iron absorption

Thomas Jarmer; Brigitta Schütt

307

Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

1982-01-01

308

Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults.MethodsWe conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial

Zeena Harakeh; Rutger C M E Engels; Kathleen Vohs; Rick B van Baaren; James Sargent

2009-01-01

309

A Box–Behnken Design for Determining the Optimum Experimental Condition of Cake Batter Mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Box-Behnken design to establish the optimum experimental condition of cake batter mixing is important because\\u000a optimal mixing can ensure the dispersion of ingredients, and the incorporation and retention of air efficiently. A Box-Behnken\\u000a with three factors such as mixing time, mixing speed, and cake loading was selected to observe the effects on batter density,\\u000a cake density, hardness,

Mei C. Tan; Nyuk L. Chin; Yus A. Yusof

310

Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels ( Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found

Thomas Happi Emaga; Sébastien N. Ronkart; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

311

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

2003-08-01

312

Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

2012-12-01

313

Experimental Design for Groundwater Pumping Estimation Using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study optimizes observation well locations and sampling frequencies for the purpose of estimating unknown groundwater extraction in an aquifer system. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to reduce the groundwater flow model, thus reducing the computation burden and data storage space associated with solving this problem for heavily discretized models. This reduced model can store a significant amount of system information in a much smaller reduced state vector. Along with the sensitivity equation method, the proposed approach can efficiently compute the Jacobian matrix that forms the information matrix associated with the experimental design. The criterion adopted for experimental design is the maximization of the trace of the weighted information matrix. Under certain conditions, this is equivalent to the classical A-optimality criterion established in experimental design. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the observation well locations and sampling frequencies for maximizing the collected information from the hydraulic head sampling at the observation wells. We applied the proposed approach to a hypothetical 30,000-node groundwater aquifer system. We studied the relationship among the number of observation wells, observation well locations, sampling frequencies, and the collected information for estimating unknown groundwater extraction.

Siade, A. J.; Cheng, W.; Yeh, W. W.

2010-12-01

314

Controlled experiments for dense gas diffusion: Experimental design and execution, model comparison  

SciTech Connect

An experimental baseline CO{sub 2} release experiment at the DOE Spill Test Facility on the Nevada Test Site in Southern Nevada is described. This experiment was unique in its use of CO{sub 2} as a surrogate gas representative of a variety of specific chemicals. Introductory discussion places the experiment in historical perspective. CO{sub 2} was selected as a surrogate gas to provide a data base suitable for evaluation of model scenarios involving a variety of specific dense gases. Releases were conducted under baseline conditions including a simulated evaporating pool release over flat unobstructed terrain. The experiment design and setup are described, including design rationale and quality assurance methods employed. Design conditions included moderately low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions. Four releases were performed, two of which were during near-neutral conditions and two during slightly stable conditions. Resulting experimental data are summarized. These include CO{sub 2} cloud characteristics measured at 40 m downwind from the release point. Experiment success and effectiveness is discussed in terms of mass balance analyses. For Tests 1, 3, and 4 the measured mass accounted for at least 90% of the released mass. Measured values for Test 2 accounted for only 70% of the released mass. Data usefulness is examined through a preliminary comparison of experimental results with simulations performed using the SLAB and DEGADIS dense gas models.

Egami, R.; Bowen, J.; Coulombe, W. [and others

1995-12-31

315

Demonstration of decomposition and optimization in the design of experimental space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective design strategies for a class of systems which may be termed Experimental Space Systems (ESS) are needed. These systems, which include large space antenna and observatories, space platforms, earth satellites and deep space explorers, have special characteristics which make them particularly difficult to design. It is argued here that these same characteristics encourage the use of advanced computer-aided optimization and planning techniques. The broad goal of this research is to develop optimization strategies for the design of ESS. These strategics would account for the possibly conflicting requirements of mission life, safety, scientific payoffs, initial system cost, launch limitations and maintenance costs. The strategies must also preserve the coupling between disciplines or between subsystems. Here, the specific purpose is to describe a computer-aided planning and scheduling technique. This technique provides the designer with a way to map the flow of data between multidisciplinary analyses. The technique is important because it enables the designer to decompose the system design problem into a number of smaller subproblems. The planning and scheduling technique is demonstrated by its application to a specific preliminary design problem.

Padula, Sharon; Sandridge, Chris A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Walsh, Joanne L.

1989-01-01

316

[Diagnosis of liver diseases by classification of laboratory signal factor pattern findings with the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint method].  

PubMed

There are many autoimmune liver diseases in which diagnosis is difficult so that overlap is accepted, and this negatively affects treatment. The initial diagnosis is therefore important for later treatment and convalescence. We distinguished autoimmune cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis by the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint (MTA) method in the Mahalanobis·Taguchi system and analyzed the pattern of factor effects by the MTA method. As a result, the characteristic factor effect pattern of each disease was classified, enabling the qualitative evaluation of cases including overlapping cases which were difficult to diagnose. PMID:22306542

Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Uetake, Shinichirou; Takagi, Ichiro

2012-02-01

317

The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.  

PubMed

The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. PMID:24902590

Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-09-01

318

Experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed on the basis of plane flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an experimental study of a cylindrical air inlet designed for high flight speeds on the basis of plane flows are reported. For an air inlet intended for Mach number M = 4, the flow-rate characteristics at M = 2.85, 3.83, and 4.95 for angles of attack ranging from 0 to 9 degrees have been measured. The results of tests have shown that at free-stream Mach number M = 3.83, close to the design Mach number, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the air inlet was 96 % of its design value, and this rate increased to 99 % as the Mach number was increased to 4.95. At a lower, in comparison with the design value, free-stream Mach number, M = 2.85, the mass rate of the air flow captured by the inlet installed under zero angle of attack has decreased to 68 %. For all the examined Mach numbers, an increase in the angle of attack from 0 to 9 degrees resulted in an 8-14 % decrease of the mass rate of inlet-captured air flow. For comparison, numerical calculation of the air-inlet flow at Mach number M = 3.83 was performed. The obtained data were found to be in a qualitative agreement with experimental data.

Vnuchkov, D. A.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Nalivaichenko, D. G.

2014-04-01

319

Cost-effective experimental design to support modeling of concentration-response functions.  

PubMed

Modeling concentration-response function became extremely popular in ecotoxicology during the last decade. Indeed, modeling allows determining the total response pattern of a given substance. However, reliable modeling is consuming in term of data, which is in contradiction with the current trend in ecotoxicology, which aims to reduce, for cost and ethical reasons, the number of data produced during an experiment. It is therefore crucial to determine experimental design in a cost-effective manner. In this paper, we propose to use the theory of locally D-optimal designs to determine the set of concentrations to be tested so that the parameters of the concentration-response function can be estimated with high precision. We illustrated this approach by determining the locally D-optimal designs to estimate the toxicity of the herbicide dinoseb on daphnids and algae. The results show that the number of concentrations to be tested is often equal to the number of parameters and often related to the their meaning, i.e. they are located close to the parameters. Furthermore, the results show that the locally D-optimal design often has the minimal number of support points and is not much sensitive to small changes in nominal values of the parameters. In order to reduce the experimental cost and the use of test organisms, especially in case of long-term studies, reliable nominal values may therefore be fixed based on prior knowledge and literature research instead of on preliminary experiments. PMID:18436276

Chèvre, Nathalie; Brazzale, Alessandra R

2008-06-01

320

Development of a Model for Measuring Scientific Processing Skills Based on Brain-Imaging Technology: Focused on the Experimental Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a model for measuring experimental design ability based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during biological inquiry. More specifically, the researchers developed an experimental design task that measures experimental design ability. Using the developed experimental design task, they measured…

Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-shin; Kwon, Yong-Ju

2014-01-01

321

Using an Animal Group Vigilance Practical Session to Give Learners a "Heads-Up" to Problems in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of experimental ecological fieldwork is difficult to teach to classes, particularly when protocols for data collection are normally carefully controlled by the class organiser. Normally, reinforcement of the some problems of experimental design such as the avoidance of pseudoreplication and appropriate sampling techniques does not occur…

Rands, Sean A.

2011-01-01

322

The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Optical Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the optical design for The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an 8-meter far-infrared interferometer designed to fly on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The optical design is separated into warm and cold optics with the cold optics further separated into the far-infrared (FIR) (30-90 microns) and near-infrared (NIR) (1-3 microns). The warm optics are comprised of the twin siderostats, twin telescopes, K-mirror, and warm delay line. The cold optics are comprised of the cold delay line and the transfer optics to the FIR science detector array and the NIR steering array. The field of view of the interferometer is 2’, with a wavelength range of 30-90 microns, 0.5” spectral resolution at 40 microns, 200 spectral resolution, and 1.5” pointing stability.

Veach, Todd; Mentzell, E.; Rinehart, S.; Fixsen, D. J.; Rizzo, M.; Benford, D. J.; Dhabal, A.

2014-01-01

323

Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

1991-01-01

324

An Experimental Design to Determine the Electrostatic Properties of Martian Simulant Dust Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Viking mission and, more recently, the Hubble Space Telescope, provided evidence for the existence of global dust storms on Mars. Several of these dust storms were observed to last for several months. Dust particles striking the surfaces of any equipment used in future Mars missions may create potentials that may compromise the safety of astronauts and equipment in future Mars missions. Experiments that yield information on the electrostatic properties of the Martian soil and its effects on common space materials are needed before any such missions are undertaken. In this project, experimental desi(,ns were constructed and setup to measure the electrostatic properties of small particles derived from Andesitic rocks and to determine the charging characteristics of common space materials exposed to these particles. Andesitic rock was identified by Pathfinder to be the primary type of rock on Mars. These experimental designs should serve as the basis for experiments to be performed in a simulated Mars environment (SME). MARS-1, a simulant prepared from Andesitic rocks by NASA Johnson Space Center was used in this project. Characterization of this simulant was made using using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Spectroscopy (ICAP) coupled with a carbon-sulfur detector, These results were compared to the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer analysis on the Sojourner rover. The simulant was found to be a suitable substitute for Martian soil. Experimental designs to determine the polarization of this simulant were set up. The simulant was observed to acquire a polarization in the presence of electric fields of the order of 2.9 N/C. Initial measurements yielded values of charge polarization densities of the order of 30 nC/g. Two experimental designs and methods to simulate the exposure of different materials to wind-blown dust were made. These designs permit dust particle delivery to samples at different speeds. Initial rough experiments made with these designs to determine their viability were promising. These initial experiments indicated the need for several minor modifications in the designs and in the methods.

Calle, Carlos I.

1999-03-01

325

Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

326

Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide maximum information about unknown groundwater pumping in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design uses a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. The formulated optimization problem is non-convex and contains integer variables necessitating a combinatorial search. Given a realistic large-scale model, the size of the combinatorial search required can make the problem difficult, if not impossible, to solve using traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used to perform the global search; however, because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem still may be infeasible to solve. As a result, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimensionality. Then, the information matrix in the full model space can be searched without solving the full model. Results from a small-scale test case show identical optimal solutions among the GA, integer programming, and exhaustive search methods. This demonstrates the GA's ability to determine the optimal solution. In addition, the results show that a GA with POD model reduction is several orders of magnitude faster in finding the optimal solution than a GA using the full model. The proposed experimental design algorithm is applied to a realistic, two-dimensional, large-scale groundwater problem. The GA converged to a solution for this large-scale problem.

Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

2013-10-01

327

Improving dimensional accuracy of SLS processed part using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental investigations on influence of important process parameters: laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, hatching space along with their interactions on dimensional accuracy of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) processed pro-coated sand mold. It is observed that dimensional error is dominant along length and width direction of built mold. Optimum parameters setting to minimize percentage change in length

Rong Cheng; Xiaoyu Wu; Jianping Zheng

2010-01-01

328

A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

Steeper, T.J. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (Tubal Cain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. (Metco/Perkin-Elmer, Westbury, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

329

A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

Steeper, T.J. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [Tubal Cain Co., Loveland, OH (United States); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. [Metco/Perkin-Elmer, Westbury, NY (United States)

1992-08-01

330

Design oriented simulation for plasma arc cutting consumables and experimental validation of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrode and nozzle erosion mechanisms in plasma arc cutting processes of mild steel have been studied while designing a prototype mono-gas plasma torch, operating in the range 25-160 A. The correlation between the distribution of different quantities inside the plasma chamber and the erosion mechanisms of the hafnium emitter surface and of the nozzle inner surfaces have been investigated by means of a 2D ANSYS FLUENT-based numerical model, with the final aim of optimizing the overall performances of the prototype. Modelling and numerical simulation have allowed better understanding of the physical phenomena evidenced by experimental results and have suggested successful design solutions for consumables (in particular nozzle, electrode and primary gas diffusers). The correlation between the results of experimental tests and numerical simulations has proven useful in overcoming the critical aspects initially pointed out, significantly improving the expected lifetime of consumables. Results have been analyzed with respect to plasma behaviour, and conclusions have been drawn, concerning the powerfulness of numerical simulation as a tool for designing plasma cutting torches.

Colombo, V.; Concetti, A.; Ghedini, E.; Dallavalle, S.

2011-06-01

331

Design and experimental investigations on a small scale traveling wave thermoacoustic engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small scale traveling wave or Stirling thermoacoustic engine with a resonator of only 1 m length was designed, constructed and tested by using nitrogen as working gas. The small heat engine achieved a steady working frequency of 45 Hz. The pressure ratio reached 1.189, with an average charge pressure of 0.53 MPa and a heating power of 1.14 kW. The temperature and the pressure characteristics during the onset and damping processes were also observed and discussed. The experimental results demonstrated that the small engine possessed the potential to drive a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler.

Chen, M.; Ju, Y. L.

2013-02-01

332

Using the Internet to prescreen participants for research on interpersonal violence: experimental design considerations.  

PubMed

Internet-based testing has become increasingly popular in recent years due largely to the availability of computers and the Web to research participants. For researchers studying interpersonal violence, Internet-based methodologies can also be used as a prescreening device to identify a population of interest, such as individuals reporting violence in their relationships. However, several challenges exist with this approach. This article evaluates the use of an Internet-based prescreening device to identify potential participants for a study on interpersonal violence, highlighting challenges encountered with this methodology, and offers suggestions for improvement in experimental design when conducting Internet-based screenings of interpersonal violence. PMID:21846020

Cornelius, Tara L; Truba, Natalie; Bell, Kathryn M

2011-01-01

333

Terahertz metamolecules deposited on thin flexible polymer: design, fabrication and experimental characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamolecules deposited on thin dielectric film using standard optical lithography have been investigated numerically and experimentally in the terahertz regime. The topology of the proposed metamolecules is able to achieve a multiple-band frequency response over a broad frequency range. The analysis of the spectral response of the investigated metamaterial reveals that such a feature arises from coupling effects between its individual constituents. The successful demonstration of a THz flexible metamaterial may open up new perspectives towards achieving complex electromagnetic functions involving non-planar metamaterials with simple design and fabrication.

Yahiaoui, R.; Takano, K.; Miyamaru, F.; Hangyo, M.; Mounaix, P.

2014-09-01

334

The use of grey-based Taguchi methods to determine submerged arc welding process parameters in hardfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of grey-based Taguchi methods for the optimization of the submerged arc welding (SAW) process parameters in hardfacing with considerations of multiple weld qualities is reported. In this new approach, the grey relational analysis is adopted to solve the SAW process with multiple weld qualities. A grey relational grade obtained from the grey relational analysis is

Y. S. Tarng; S. C. Juang; C. H. Chang

2002-01-01

335

Exploring the effects of chemical composition in hot rolled steel product using Mahalanobis distance scale under Mahalanobis–Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of hot rolled steel product from the point of view of reaching the target mechanical property, based on chemical composition of the steel, is a common objective practiced in the industrial rolling mill. After examining the ability of measurement scale of Mahalanobis–Taguchi system in classifying the steel plate as “OK” or “Diverted”, study on the changing nature of Mahalanobis

Prasun Das; Shubhabrata Datta

2007-01-01

336

Introduction of R-LCS and comparative analysis with FSC and Mahalanobis-Taguchi method for Breast Cancer classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification for medical diagnosis is an important problem in the field of pattern recognition. We introduce a new method for classification based on repeated analysis of information tailored to small data sets - the Rote Learning Classifier System. Using the Wisconsin Breast Cancer study, this method was compared to three other methods of classification: Mahalanobis-Taguchi Systems, Finite State Classifiers, and

Benjamin Daniels; Steven M. Corns; Elizabeth A. Cudney

2012-01-01

337

Evaluation of the Deterioration Degree of Insulators for Breakers Using Chemical Analysis and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel evaluation technique of the deterioration degree of insulators for breakers using a chemical analysis and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method. It is possible to evaluate the deterioration degree with great accuracy and nondestructively on-site by this technique without the effect of humidity and external noise such as electromagnetic wave. The mechanism of insulator's surface resistivity reduction

Shinsuke Miki; Hiroshi Okazawa; Hiroshi Inujima

2007-01-01

338

Mahalanobis-Taguchi System as a MultiSensor Based Decision Making Prognostics Tool for Centrifugal Pump Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based fault detection, isolation, and prognostics scheme is presented. The proposed scheme fuses data from multiple sensors into a single system level performance metric using Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and generates fault clusters based on MD values. MD thresholds derived from the clustering analysis are used for fault detection and isolation. When a fault is

Ahmet Soylemezoglu; Sarangapani Jagannathan; Can Saygin

2011-01-01

339

Optimization of the Cryogenic Treatment Process for En 52 Valve Steel Using the Grey-Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the optimization of the deep cryogenic treatment for En 52 valve steel using the Taguchi method in combination with the Grey relational analysis. The factors considered for the optimization are the cooling rate, soaking temperature, soaking period, and tempering temperature, each at three different levels. The mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, hardness, and wear resistance

M. Arockia Jaswin; D. Mohan Lal

2010-01-01

340

Optimization of the GTA Welding Process Using Combination of the Taguchi Method and a Neural-Genetic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parameters affect the quality of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. It is not easy to obtain optimal parameters of the GTA welding process. This paper applies an integrated approach using the Taguchi method, artificial neural network (ANN), and genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the weld bead geometry of GTA welding specimens. The proposed approach consists of two

Hsuan-Liang Lin; Chang-Pin Chou

2010-01-01

341

Trapped Vortex Combustion Chamber: Design and Experimental Investigations Using Hydrogen as Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of trapped vortex combustion chamber was undertaken as a part of ongoing research on micro combustion chamber using hydrogen as fuel. The reacting experimental studies were then carried out on the designed chamber. The fuel was injected directly into the cavity. The combustion was first initiated in the cavity with 3 % of the main flow air supplied in reverse direction to the fuel flow. The combustion in cavity was of rich type. Temperature levels in the range of 900 K were encountered in the cavity. Thereafter, diffusion combustion was initiated using the flame generated in the cavity. The temperature levels in this stage were in the range of 1,800 K. The overall pressure drop for a trapped vortex combustor was less than 5 % at all operating parameters.

Kulshreshtha, D. B.; Channiwala, S. A.

2014-01-01

342

Design of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy for the joint Texas experimental tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old diagnostic neutral beam injector first operated at the University of Texas at Austin is ready for rejoining the joint Texas experimental tokamak (J-TEXT). A new set of high voltage power supplies has been equipped and there is no limitation for beam modulation or beam pulse duration henceforth. Based on the spectra of fully striped impurity ions induced by the diagnostic beam the design work for toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system is presented. The 529 nm carbon VI (n = 8 - 7 transition) line seems to be the best choice for ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements and the considered hardware is listed. The design work of the toroidal CXRS system is guided by essential simulation of expected spectral results under the J-TEXT tokamak operation conditions.

Chi, Y.; Zhuang, G.; Cheng, Z. F.; Hou, S. Y.; Cheng, C.; Li, Z.; Wang, J. R.; Wang, Z. J.

2014-11-01

343

Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER): Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the study on safety for FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. The report consists of two chapters. The first chapter summarizes the FER system and describes FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including purification, isotope separation and storage. Probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA.

Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu

1987-08-01

344

Design and Experimental Performance of a Two Stage Partial Admission Turbine, Task B.1/B.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-inch mean diameter, two-stage turbine with partial admission in each stage was experimentally investigated over a range of admissions and angular orientations of admission arcs. Three configurations were tested in which first stage admission varied from 37.4 percent (10 of 29 passages open, 5 per side) to 6.9 percent (2 open, 1 per side). Corresponding second stage admissions were 45.2 percent (14 of 31 passages open, 7 per side) and 12.9 percent (4 open, 2 per side). Angular positions of the second stage admission arcs with respect to the first stage varied over a range of 70 degrees. Design and off-design efficiency and flow characteristics for the three configurations are presented. The results indicated that peak efficiency and the corresponding isentropic velocity ratio decreased as the arcs of admission were decreased. Both efficiency and flow characteristics were sensitive to the second stage nozzle orientation angles.

Sutton, R. F.; Boynton, J. L.; Akian, R. A.; Shea, Dan; Roschak, Edmund; Rojas, Lou; Orr, Linsey; Davis, Linda; King, Brad; Bubel, Bill

1992-01-01

345

Design and experimental verification for optical module of optical vector-matrix multiplier.  

PubMed

Optical computing is a new method to implement signal processing functions. The multiplication between a vector and a matrix is an important arithmetic algorithm in the signal processing domain. The optical vector-matrix multiplier (OVMM) is an optoelectronic system to carry out this operation, which consists of an electronic module and an optical module. In this paper, we propose an optical module for OVMM. To eliminate the cross talk and make full use of the optical elements, an elaborately designed structure that involves spherical lenses and cylindrical lenses is utilized in this optical system. The optical design software package ZEMAX is used to optimize the parameters and simulate the whole system. Finally, experimental data is obtained through experiments to evaluate the overall performance of the system. The results of both simulation and experiment indicate that the system constructed can implement the multiplication between a matrix with dimensions of 16 by 16 and a vector with a dimension of 16 successfully. PMID:23842187

Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Lin

2013-06-20

346

LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan  

SciTech Connect

The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site.

DePoorter, G.L.

1980-01-01

347

US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield and blanket design activities  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes nuclear-related work in support of the US effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Study. Primary tasks carried out during the past year include design improvements of the inboard shield developed for the TIBER concept, scoping studies of a variety of tritium breeding blanket options, development of necessary design guidelines and evaluation criteria for the blanket options, further safety considerations related to nuclear components, and issues regarding structural materials for an ITER device. The blanket concepts considered are the aqueous/Li salt solution, a water-cooled, solid breeder blanket, a helium-cooled, solid-breeder blanket, a blanket cooled by helium containing lithium-bearing particulates, and a blanket concept based on breeding tritium from He/sup 3/. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

Baker, C.C.

1988-08-01

348

Studying the effects of plant species richness on ecosystem functioning: does the choice of experimental design matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established two parallel greenhouse experiments to empirically test the effect of experimental design on the conclusions made of the effects of plant species richness on ecosystem functioning. The experiments included an identical group of six grassland plants and were performed under identical environmental conditions, but were set up according to two different designs. In the richness design (RD), which

Juha Mikola; Veikko Salonen; Heikki Setälä

2002-01-01

349

Optimization of cavitation peening parameters for fatigue performance of carburized steel using Taguchi methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of surface characteristics on the improvement of fatigue strength of carburized chrome-molybdenum steel subjected to surface treatment by cavitation peening (CP) was investigated. Optimal conditions for the critical factors affecting fatigue strength were sought using design of experiment (DOE). The theoretical optimal values were in agreement with experimental observations. The relation between variables and experimental

Dan O. Macodiyo; Hitoshi Soyama

2006-01-01

350

Design and Development of a Composite Dome for Experimental Characterization of Material Permeability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design and development of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic dome, including a description of the dome fabrication, method for sealing penetrations in the dome, and a summary of the planned test series. This dome will be used for the experimental permeability characterization and leakage validation of composite vessels pressurized using liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen at the Cryostat Test Facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The preliminary design of the dome was completed using membrane shell analysis. Due to the configuration of the test setup, the dome will experience some flexural stresses and stress concentrations in addition to membrane stresses. Also, a potential buckling condition exists for the dome due to external pressure during the leak testing of the cryostat facility lines. Thus, a finite element analysis was conducted to assess the overall strength and stability of the dome for each required test condition. Based on these results, additional plies of composite reinforcement material were applied to local regions on the dome to alleviate stress concentrations and limit deflections. The dome design includes a circular opening in the center for the installation of a polar boss, which introduces a geometric discontinuity that causes high stresses in the region near the hole. To attenuate these high stresses, a reinforcement system was designed using analytical and finite element analyses. The development of a low leakage polar boss system is also investigated.

Estrada, Hector; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

1999-01-01

351

Supersonic Retro-Propulsion Experimental Design for Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of supersonic retro-propulsion, an enabling technology for heavy payload exploration missions to Mars, is the primary focus for the present paper. A new experimental model, intended to provide computational fluid dynamics model validation data, was recently designed for the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2. Pre-test computations were instrumental for sizing and refining the model, over the Mach number range of 2.4 to 4.6, such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separation issues would be minimized. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody, which accommodates up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was developed for this study based on the computational results. The model was designed to allow for a large number of surface pressure measurements on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Some preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, although detailed analyses of the data and uncertainties are still on going.

Berry, Scott A.; Laws, Christopher T.; Kleb, W. L.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Spells, Courtney; McCrea, Andrew C.; Truble, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Oberkampf, William L.

2011-01-01

352

Suitable experimental design for determination of auxin polar transport in space using a spacecraft.  

PubMed

It is necessary to establish a suitable experimental design for the determination of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid: IAA) polar transport in space using a spacecraft in concerning with the role of gravity. Problems in space experiments are as follows: I) Selection of suitable plant species; II) Preservation of integrity of plant segments for activities of auxin polar transport; III) Stop of auxin polar transport of the segments after the transport experiment in space. Segments of etiolated pea epicotyls and etiolated maize coleoptiles showed relatively high activities of auxin polar transport among dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants tested, respectively. The activities decreased dramatically when the segments were pre-stored at 25 degrees C only for 1 day. On the other hand, the storage at low temperature (5 degrees C) in the presence of antioxidants or chelating agents, especially EGTA, maintained relatively high activities of auxin polar transport in pea epicotyl segments. Low temperature (5 degrees C) substantially inhibited the activity of auxin polar transport. Based on the results in this study, a suitable experimental design for the space experiment of auxin polar transport using a spacecraft is also proposed. PMID:11543152

Shimazu, T; Miyamoto, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Ueda, J

2000-03-01

353

Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Sheth, Rubik; Le, Hung

2013-01-01

354

De Novo Peptide Design and Experimental Validation of Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Histones are small proteins critical to the efficient packaging of DNA in the nucleus. DNA–protein complexes, known as nucleosomes, are formed when the DNA winds itself around the surface of the histones. The methylation of histone residues by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) maintains gene repression over successive cell generations. Overexpression of EZH2 can silence important tumor suppressor genes leading to increased invasiveness of many types of cancers. This makes the inhibition of EZH2 an important target in the development of cancer therapeutics. We employed a three-stage computational de novo peptide design method to design inhibitory peptides of EZH2. The method consists of a sequence selection stage and two validation stages for fold specificity and approximate binding affinity. The sequence selection stage consists of an integer linear optimization model that was solved to produce a rank-ordered list of amino acid sequences with increased stability in the bound peptide-EZH2 structure. These sequences were validated through the calculation of the fold specificity and approximate binding affinity of the designed peptides. Here we report the discovery of novel EZH2 inhibitory peptides using the de novo peptide design method. The computationally discovered peptides were experimentally validated in vitro using dose titrations and mechanism of action enzymatic assays. The peptide with the highest in vitro response, SQ037, was validated in nucleo using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This peptide had an IC50 of 13.5 M, demonstrated greater potency as an inhibitor when compared to the native and K27A mutant control peptides, and demonstrated competitive inhibition versus the peptide substrate. Additionally, this peptide demonstrated high specificity to the EZH2 target in comparison to other histone methyltransferases. The validated peptides are the first computationally designed peptides that directly inhibit EZH2. These inhibitors should prove useful for further chromatin biology investigations. PMID:24587223

Smadbeck, James; Peterson, Meghan B.; Zee, Barry M.; Garapaty, Shivani; Mago, Aashna; Lee, Christina; Giannis, Athanassios; Trojer, Patrick; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

2014-01-01

355

Design of an experimental loop for post-LOCA heat transfer regimes in a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to design an experimental thermal-hydraulic loop capable of generating accurate, reliable data in various convection heat transfer regimes for use in the formulation of a comprehensive convection ...

Cochran, Peter A. (Peter Andrew)

2005-01-01

356

Medium optimization of antifungal activity production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using statistical experimental design.  

PubMed

In order to overproduce biofungicides agents by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BLB371, a suitable culture medium was optimized using response surface methodology. Plackett-Burman design and central composite design were employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. Peptone, sucrose, and yeast extract were found to significantly influence antifungal activity production and their optimal concentrations were, respectively, 20 g/L, 25 g/L, and 4.5 g/L. The corresponding biofungicide production was 250 AU/mL, corresponding to 56% improvement in antifungal components production over a previously used medium (160 AU/mL). Moreover, our results indicated that a deficiency of the minerals CuSO(4), FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O, Na(2)MoO(4), KI, ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O, H(3)BO(3), and C(6)H(8)O(7) in the optimized culture medium was not crucial for biofungicides production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BLB371, which is interesting from a practical point of view, particularly for low-cost production and use of the biofungicide for the control of agricultural fungal pests. PMID:22509851

Mezghanni, Héla; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Tounsi, Slim; Zouari, Nabil

2012-01-01

357

Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) toroidal field coils  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the US TIBER concept. The nuclear heating generated during operation is removed from the windings by helium flowing through the conductor. The heat in the coil case is removed through a separate cooling circuit operating at approximately 20 K. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete coil cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

1987-01-01

358

Bioprocess development for production of alkaline protease by Bacillus pseudofirmus Mn6 through statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs, is employed to enhance the production of alkaline protease by a Bacillus pseudofirmus local isolate. To screen the bioprocess parameters significantly influencing the alkaline protease activity, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied. Among 15 variables tested, the pH, peptone, and incubation time were selected based on their high positive significant effect on the protease activity. A nearoptimum medium formulation was then obtained that increased the protease yield by more than 5-fold. Thereafter, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to acquire the best process conditions among the selected variables, where a 3-level Box-Behnken design was utilized to create a polynomial quadratic model correlating the relationship between the three variables and the protease activity. The optimal combination of the major medium constituents for alkaline protease production, evaluated using the nonlinear optimization algorithm of EXCEL-Solver, was as follows: pH of 9.5, 2% peptone, and incubation time of 60h. The predicted optimum alkaline protease activity was 3,213 U/ml/min, which was 6.4 times the activity with basal medium. PMID:19420994

Abdel-Fattah, Y R; El-Enshasy, H A; Soliman, N A; El-Gendi, H

2009-04-01

359

Modeling NIF experimental designs with adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) into Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithms allows for the creation of a highly powerful simulation tool effective for complex target designs with three-dimensional structure. We are developing an advanced modeling tool that includes AMR and traditional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques. Our goal is the accurate prediction of vaporization, disintegration and fragmentation in National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental target elements. Although our focus is on minimizing the generation of shrapnel in target designs and protecting the optics, the general techniques are applicable to modern advanced targets that include three-dimensional effects such as those associated with capsule fill tubes. Several essential computations in ordinary radiation hydrodynamics need to be redesigned in order to allow for AMR to work well with ALE, including algorithms associated with radiation transport. Additionally, for our goal of predicting fragmentation, we include elastic/plastic flow into our computations. We discuss the integration of these effects into a new ALE-AMR simulation code. Applications of this newly developed modeling tool as well as traditional ALE simulations in two and three dimensions are applied to NIF early-light target designs.

Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, R. W.; Wang, P.; Gunney, B. T. N.; Becker, R.; Eder, D. C.; MacGowan, B. J.; Schneider, M. B.

2006-06-01

360

Supersonic, nonlinear, attached-flow wing design for high lift with experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the experimental validation are presented for the three dimensional cambered wing which was designed to achieve attached supercritical cross flow for lifting conditions typical of supersonic maneuver. The design point was a lift coefficient of 0.4 at Mach 1.62 and 12 deg angle of attack. Results from the nonlinear full potential method are presented to show the validity of the design process along with results from linear theory codes. Longitudinal force and moment data and static pressure data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.58, 1.62, 1.66, 1.70, and 2.00 over an angle of attack range of 0 to 14 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Oil flow photographs of the upper surface were obtained at M = 1.62 for alpha approx. = 8, 10, 12, and 14 deg.

Pittman, J. L.; Miller, D. S.; Mason, W. H.

1984-01-01

361

A Systematic Review of Quasi?Experimental Study Designs in the Fields of Infection Control and Antibiotic Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a systematic review of articles published during a 2-year period in 4 journals in the field of infectious diseases to determine the extent to which the quasi-experimental study design is used to evaluate infection control and antibiotic resistance. We evaluated studies on the basis of the following criteria: type of quasi-experimental study design used, justification of the use

Anthony D. Harris; Ebbing Lautenbach; Eli Perencevich

2005-01-01

362

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

2008-01-01

363

Application of Taguchi philosophy for parametric optimization of bead geometry and HAZ width in submerged arc welding using a mixture of fresh flux and fused flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi philosophy has been applied for obtaining optimal parametric combinations to achieve desired weld bead geometry and\\u000a dimensions related to the heat-affected zone (HAZ), such as HAZ width in the present case, in submerged arc welding. The philosophy\\u000a and methodology proposed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi can be used for continuous improvement in products that are produced by submerged\\u000a arc welding.

Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Pradip Kumar Pal

2008-01-01

364

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College;); Mary E. Harrington (Smith College;)

2003-11-01

365

Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange rates are fast relative to stream-water velocity and all solute is exchanged with the storage zone over the experimental reach. As DaI increases, tracer dispersion caused by hyporheic exchange eventually reaches an equilibrium condition and storage-zone exchange parameters become essentially nonidentifiable.

Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

1997-01-01

366

Femtogram dispersive L3-nanobeam optomechanical cavities: design and experimental comparison.  

PubMed

We present the design and experimental comparison of femtogram L3-nanobeam photonic crystal cavities for optomechanical studies. Two symmetric nanobeams are created by placing three air slots in a silicon photonic crystal slab where three holes are removed. The nanobeams' mechanical frequencies are higher than 600 MHz with ultrasmall effective modal masses at approximately 20 femtograms. The optical quality factor (Q) is optimized up to 53,000. The optical and mechanical modes are dispersively coupled with a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g(0)/2? exceeding 200 kHz. The anchor-loss-limited mechanical Q of the differential beam mode is evaluated to be greater than 10,000 for structures with ideally symmetric beams. The influence of variations on the air slot width and position is also investigated. The devices can be used as ultrasensitive sensors of mass, force, and displacement. PMID:23187504

Zheng, Jiangjun; Sun, Xiankai; Li, Ying; Poot, Menno; Dadgar, Ali; Shi, Norman Nan; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Tang, Hong X; Wong, Chee Wei

2012-11-19

367

High-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

Medium composition was optimized for high-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs. Glucose and yeast extract were the most important factors affecting astaxanthin production. Glucose 3.89%, yeast extract 0.29%, KH2PO4 0.25%, MgSO4 0.05%, MnSO4 0.02%, and CaCl2 0.01% were optimum for high-level production of astaxanthin. Under optimized conditions, the maximum concentration of astaxanthin obtained after 7 d of cultivation was 36.06 mg/l. The concentration of astaxanthin predicted by a polynomial model was 36.16 mg/l. PMID:16195593

Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Seong-Woo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

2005-09-01

368

Effects of environmental and experimental design factors on culturing and testing of Ceriodaphnia dubia  

SciTech Connect

EPA has developed a 7-day toxicity test to evaluate effects of effluents on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction. This study evaluated effects of laboratory conditions and culturing and tests procedures on Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction. Temperature, food concentration, chamber size, solution renewal frequency, light quality, illumination, photoperiod, water type, and test organism age were evaluated to determine how these various factors affected individual culturing success and acceptibility and reproducibility of toxicity test results. Test conditions proposed by EPA were evaluated by varying individual environmental or experimental design conditions to determine a range of responses for survival and reproduction under controlled conditions, both with and without a reference toxicant. For those conditions not specified by EPA (e.g., water hardness, light quality), a commonly used range of conditions was evaluated. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

Cooney, J.D.; DeGraeve, G.M.; Moore, E.L.; Lenoble, B.J.; Pollock, T.L.; Smith, G.J. (Battelle Columbus Div., OH (USA))

1989-09-01

369

Plant growth modeling at the JSC variable pressure growth chamber - An application of experimental design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the approach and results of an effort to characterize plant growth under various environmental conditions at the Johnson Space Center variable pressure growth chamber. Using a field of applied mathematics and statistics known as design of experiments (DOE), we developed a test plan for varying environmental parameters during a lettuce growth experiment. The test plan was developed using a Box-Behnken approach to DOE. As a result of the experimental runs, we have developed empirical models of both the transpiration process and carbon dioxide assimilation for Waldman's Green lettuce over specified ranges of environmental parameters including carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity, dew-point temperature, and air velocity. This model also predicts transpiration and carbon dioxide assimilation for different ages of the plant canopy.

Miller, Adam M.; Edeen, Marybeth; Sirko, Robert J.

1992-01-01

370

Design and experimental verification of terahertz wideband filter based on double-layered metal hole arrays.  

PubMed

A terahertz wideband filter based on double layer metal hole arrays is designed in this paper. A metal hole array is perforated on a metal layer with a square array of circular air holes. The transmission characteristics of the electromagnetic waves through the metal hole array can be determined by the accumulation of in-phase scattering, spoof surface plasmon polaritons, and waveguide modes. The transmission spectrum is tuned by adding another identical layer metal hole array, and a wideband filter can be formed accordingly. Samples containing double-layered metal hole arrays were fabricated by micromachining technology. A wideband filter with center frequency located at 0.8 THz and FWHM reaching 400 GHz was experimentally achieved. PMID:22410895

Rao, Lei; Yang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Le; Li, Tao; Xia, Song

2012-03-01

371

Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application  

PubMed Central

Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08). They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 ?g/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy proved an enhanced permeation of coumarin-6-loaded transfersomes, to a depth of approximately160 ?M, as compared with rigid liposomes. These ex vivo findings proved that a raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersome formulation could be a superior alternative to oral delivery of the drug. PMID:25246789

Mahmood, Syed; Taher, Muhammad; Mandal, Uttam Kumar

2014-01-01

372

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #  

PubMed Central

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Perez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Caru, Margarita

2014-01-01

373

Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.  

PubMed

Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

2014-11-01

374

Study of formulation variables influencing the drug release rate from matrix tablets by experimental design.  

PubMed

Experimental design was utilized to simultaneously investigate the effect of varying the type of diluent (insoluble Calcium phosphate or water-soluble arabic gum) and the diluent/matrix ratio on the drug release behaviour from both lipophilic (glyceryl behenate, Compritol) or hydrophilic (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) matrix tablets. Ketoprofen, theophylline and sodium sulphadiazine were selected as model drugs on the basis of their respectively very low, medium and high water-solubility, in order to evaluate the influence of this parameter as well. The selected response variables were the dissolution efficiency (i.e. the area under the dissolution curve) after one and six hours and the time necessary to dissolve 10% drug. Tablets obtained by direct compression of drug-diluent-matrix ternary mixtures prepared according to the experimental plan provided for by an asymmetric screening matrix, were tested for drug release properties using a USP paddle apparatus. Graphic analysis of the effects allowed identification, for each examined drug, of the formulation factors active on the selected responses and determination of the proper level of the variables to be selected for the response improvement. The different results obtained with the three examined drugs pointed out the role of the drug solubility in determining the influence of formulation parameters on drug release rate from matrix tablets. PMID:16154333

Furlanetto, Sandra; Cirri, Marzia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Corti, Giovanna; Mura, Paola

2006-01-01

375

Experimental design and primary data analysis methods for comparing adaptive interventions.  

PubMed

In recent years, research in the area of intervention development has been shifting from the traditional fixed-intervention approach to adaptive interventions, which allow greater individualization and adaptation of intervention options (i.e., intervention type and/or dosage) over time. Adaptive interventions are operationalized via a sequence of decision rules that specify how intervention options should be adapted to an individual's characteristics and changing needs, with the general aim to optimize the long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Here, we review adaptive interventions, discussing the potential contribution of this concept to research in the behavioral and social sciences. We then propose the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART), an experimental design useful for addressing research questions that inform the construction of high-quality adaptive interventions. To clarify the SMART approach and its advantages, we compare SMART with other experimental approaches. We also provide methods for analyzing data from SMART to address primary research questions that inform the construction of a high-quality adaptive intervention. PMID:23025433

Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Qian, Min; Almirall, Daniel; Pelham, William E; Gnagy, Beth; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Yu, Jihnhee; Murphy, Susan A

2012-12-01

376

New Design Study and Related Experimental Program for the LCLS RF Photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector, that lead to the discovery of a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector. The authors consider the emittance compensation regime of a space charge beam: by increasing the solenoid strength, the emittance evolution shows a double minimum behavior in the drifting region. If the booster is located where the relative emittance maximum and the envelope waist occur, the second emittance minimum can be shifted to the booster exit and frozen at a very low level (0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch), to the extent that the invariant envelope matching conditions are satisfied. Standing Wave Structures or alternatively Traveling Wave Structures embedded in a Long Solenoid are both candidates as booster linac. A careful measurement of the emittance evolution as a function of position in the drifting region is necessary to verify the computation and to determine experimentally the proper position of the booster cavities. The new design study and supporting experimental program under way at the SLAC Gun Test Facility are discussed.

Clendenin, James E

2000-07-07

377

Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction-diffusion system design and control  

PubMed Central

In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction–diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries. PMID:23919126

Szalai, Istvan; Cuinas, Daniel; Takacs, Nandor; Horvath, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick

2012-01-01

378

Design and experimental validation of novel optics-based autofocusing microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with both the large linear autofocusing range and the rapid response. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises two optical paths, namely one optical path which provides a short linear autofocusing range but an extremely high focusing accuracy and a second optical path which achieves a long linear autofocusing range but a reduced focusing accuracy. The two optical paths are combined using a self-written autofocus-processing algorithm to realize an autofocusing microscope with a large linear autofocusing range, a rapid response, and a high focusing accuracy. The microscope is characterized numerically using commercial software ZEMAX and is then verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method and a single optical path, the proposed microscope achieves both a longer autofocusing range and a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed microscope provides an ideal solution for automatic optical inspection and industrial applications.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Hu, Pin-Hao; Lin, Yang-Cheng

2012-11-01

379

A magnetic design for a slim type DVD actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an optical disc drive, the Lorentz force, which is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, determines the gain of the closed control loop. The strength and the uniformity of the magnetic field are used as the indicators of merit, and an optimum magnetic design for a slim type CD\\/DVD actuator is completed by applying Taguchi method.

Chau-Yuan Ke; Chi-Lone Chang; Jau-Jiu Ju; Der-Ray Huang; Ruey-Shing Huang

2002-01-01

380

A Generalized Linear Modeling Approach to Robust Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an extension of the response surface approach to Taguchi's parameter design by accommodating generalized linear modeling. The approach of Myers, Khuri, and Vining is taken as a starting point, treating noise variables as fixed effects. It is, however, assumed that process variability is caused not only by the presence of noise factors but also by residual variation.

Jan Engel; A. Freek Huele

1996-01-01

381

Experimental and computational results from the NASA Lewis low-speed centrifugal impeller at design and part-flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Lewis Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) has been investigated with laser anemometry and computational analysis at two flow conditions: the design condition as well as a lower mass flow condition. Previously reported experimental and computational results at the design condition are in the literature (Hathaway et al., 1993). In that paper extensive analysis showed that inducer blade boundary layers

R. M. Chriss; J. R. Wood; M. D. Hathaway

1996-01-01

382

The Propagation of Errors in Experimental Data Analysis: A Comparison of Pre-and Post-Test Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs involving the randomization of cases to treatment and control groups are powerful and under-used in many areas of social science and social policy. This paper reminds readers of the pre-and post-test, and the post-test only, designs, before explaining briefly how measurement errors propagate according to error theory. The…

Gorard, Stephen

2013-01-01

383

Can Small Islands Protect Nearby Coasts From Tsunamis? An Active Experimental Design Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years we have witnessed the dreadful damage tsunamis caused in coastal areas around the globe. In some of these locations, small islands in the vicinity of the mainland offer protection from wind-generated waves and thus communities were developed. But do these islands act as natural barriers to tsunamis? Recent post-tsunami survey data reveal that in certain cases the run-up in coastal areas behind small offshore islands was significantly higher than in neighboring locations. To study the conditions of this run-up amplification, we solve numerically the nonlinear shallow water equations. We use the simplified geometry of a conical island sitting on a flat bed in front of a uniform sloping beach. Hence, the experimental setup is controlled by five physical parameters, namely the island slope, the beach slope, the water depth, the distance between the island and the plane beach and the incoming wavelength, while the wave height was kept fixed. An active experimental design approach was adopted in order to find with the least number of simulations the maximum run-up amplification on the area of the beach behind the island with respect to a lateral location on the beach, not directly affected by the presence of the island. For this purpose, a statistical emulator was built to guide the selection of the query points in the input space and a stopping criterion was used to signal when no further simulations were needed. We have found that in all cases explored, the run-up amplification was larger than unity and in certain occasions reached up to 70% increase. The presence of the island delays the run-up of the wave on the plane beach behind it, while edge waves generated by the run-up in lateral locations on the beach converge towards the center. The synchronous arrival of the three waves (2 edge waves and tsunami from the lee side of the island) is responsible for the run-up amplification in these areas. The use of the active experimental design approach can result in a reduction of the computational cost up to 75%. This approach is not specific to tsunami modeling, but can be applied more generally to optimization problems of convex functions with cost restrictions. In addition, the emulator can be used to quickly predict the run-up amplification for a given set of input parameters, before the actual simulation is ran.

Stefanakis, Themistoklis; Contal, Emile; Vayatis, Nicolas; Dias, Frédéric; Synolakis, Costas

2013-04-01

384

Experimental design in formulation of diazepam nanoemulsions: physicochemical and pharmacokinetic performances.  

PubMed

With the aid of experimental design, we developed and characterized nanoemulsions for parenteral drug delivery. Formulations containing a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides and soybean oil as oil phase, lecithin (soybean/egg) and polysorbate 80 as emulsifiers, and 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) as aqueous phase were prepared by cold high-pressure homogenization. To study the effects of the oil content, lecithin type, and the presence of diazepam as a model drug and their interactions on physicochemical characteristics of nanoemulsions, a three factor two-level full factorial design was applied. The nanoemulsions were evaluated concerning droplet size and size distribution, surface charge, viscosity, morphology, drug-excipient interactions, and physical stability. The characterization revealed the small spherical droplets in the range 195 -220 nm with polydispersity index below 0.15 and zeta potential between -30 and - 60 mV. Interactions among the investigated factors, rather than factors alone, were shown to more profoundly affect nanoemulsion characteristics. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of selected diazepam nanoemulsions with different oil content (20%, 30%, and 40%, w/w) demonstrated fast and intense initial distribution into rat brain of diazepam from nanoemulsions with 20% and 30% (w/w) oil content, suggesting their applicability in urgent situations. PMID:24114833

?or?evi?, Sanela M; Radulovi?, Tamara S; Ceki?, Nebojša D; Ran?elovi?, Danijela V; Savi?, Miroslav M; Krajišnik, Danina R; Mili?, Jela R; Savi?, Snežana D

2013-11-01

385

Optimizing the experimental design of soil columns in saturated and unsaturated transport experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil column experiments in both the saturated and unsaturated regimes are widely used for applied and theoretical studies in such diverse fields as transport model evaluation, fate and transport of pesticides, explosives, microbes, heavy metals and non aqueous phase liquids, and for evapotranspiration studies. The apparent simplicity of constructing soil columns conceals a number of technical issues which can seriously affect the outcome of an experiment, such as the presence or absence of macropores, artificial preferential flow paths, non-ideal infiltrate injection and unrealistic moisture regimes. This review examines the literature to provide an analysis of the state of the art for constructing both saturated and unsaturated soil columns. Common design challenges are discussed and best practices for potential solutions are presented. This article discusses both basic principles and the practical advantages and disadvantages of various experimental approaches. Both repacked and monolith-type columns are discussed. The information in this review will assist soil scientists, hydrogeologists and environmental professionals in optimizing the construction and operation of soil column experiments in order to achieve their objectives, while avoiding serious design flaws which can compromise the integrity of their results.

Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöstrom, Jan

2010-06-01

386

Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K. Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) including two Short Straight Sections and six dipole cryomagnets. Temperature sensors installed at critical locations provide a temperature mapping which allows validation of the calculated and estimated thermal performance of the cryostat components, including efficiency of the heat interceptions.

Bourcey, N.; Capatina, O.; Parma, V.; Poncet, A.; Rohmig, P.; Serio, L.; Skoczen, B.; Tock, J.-P.; Williams, L. R.

2004-06-01

387

How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols  

PubMed Central

Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

2014-01-01

388

Thermal control for space microelectronic equipment via pyroelectric material: Design, characterisation and experimental campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades the development of new satellite platforms from a smaller to a bigger size goes in parallel with the development of the microelectronics equipment boarded on. Avionics, control systems and payloads equipment exploit the microelectronics in order to reduce the overall dimensions and masses and to increase the performances of each unit for the improvement of goals in each mission. A larger use of electronic elements with the relevant components increases the importance of a carefully equipment designed under different points of view. One of them is the thermal management. It is well known that the Joule Effect causes the heat overstocking which in turn reduces the efficiency of the electronic devices and increases the difficulties to manage the thermal power budget on board. A new design philosophy sees a possibility for a simpler and a more efficient thermal control on the use of the pyroelectric materials. Pyroelectrics are a "special" class of materials that demonstrates a spontaneous capacity to convert thermal fluxes in electrical charge and if applied on a "passive" structure they can "actively" reduce the heat overstocking. The electrical charge could be eventually stored for different purposes such as for instance the auto-feeding, or better the energy harvesting. With the reduction of the temperature of each component, and consequently with the reduction of the heat flux that flows through microelectronics, better efficiency and better performances are ensured. In this way the reliability is increased and the goals of the mission could be achieved easier and easier. In this paper the design of a thermal rig made up of pyroelectric devices and dummy electronics components in order to verify the thermo-electric conversion is presented. Furthermore an experimental campaign has been performed to validate the technology here introduced and the relevant results presented. In particular the characterisation of a typical aerospace pyroelectric material via scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a semi-quantitative analysis will be discussed. In order to verify the trustworthiness of the experimental campaign the results will be compared with the ones coming from an in-house-developed numerical code.

Monti, Riccardo; Gasbarri, Paolo; Lecci, Umberto

2012-12-01

389

De Novo Design and Experimental Characterization of Ultrashort Self-Associating Peptides  

PubMed Central

Self-association is a common phenomenon in biology and one that can have positive and negative impacts, from the construction of the architectural cytoskeleton of cells to the formation of fibrils in amyloid diseases. Understanding the nature and mechanisms of self-association is important for modulating these systems and in creating biologically-inspired materials. Here, we present a two-stage de novo peptide design framework that can generate novel self-associating peptide systems. The first stage uses a simulated multimeric template structure as input into the optimization-based Sequence Selection to generate low potential energy sequences. The second stage is a computational validation procedure that calculates Fold Specificity and/or Approximate Association Affinity (K*association) based on metrics that we have devised for multimeric systems. This framework was applied to the design of self-associating tripeptides using the known self-associating tripeptide, Ac-IVD, as a structural template. Six computationally predicted tripeptides (Ac-LVE, Ac-YYD, Ac-LLE, Ac-YLD, Ac-MYD, Ac-VIE) were chosen for experimental validation in order to illustrate the self-association outcomes predicted by the three metrics. Self-association and electron microscopy studies revealed that Ac-LLE formed bead-like microstructures, Ac-LVE and Ac-YYD formed fibrillar aggregates, Ac-VIE and Ac-MYD formed hydrogels, and Ac-YLD crystallized under ambient conditions. An X-ray crystallographic study was carried out on a single crystal of Ac-YLD, which revealed that each molecule adopts a ?-strand conformation that stack together to form parallel ?-sheets. As an additional validation of the approach, the hydrogel-forming sequences of Ac-MYD and Ac-VIE were shuffled. The shuffled sequences were computationally predicted to have lower K*association values and were experimentally verified to not form hydrogels. This illustrates the robustness of the framework in predicting self-associating tripeptides. We expect that this enhanced multimeric de novo peptide design framework will find future application in creating novel self-associating peptides based on unnatural amino acids, and inhibitor peptides of detrimental self-aggregating biological proteins. PMID:25010703

Xue, Bo; Robinson, Robert C.; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

2014-01-01

390

Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

2013-11-01

391

A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system of models for evacuation simulation; (c) to calibrate and validate system of model for evacuation simulation from a real experimentation. In relation to the proposed objectives in this paper: (a) a general framework about risk analysis is reported in the first part, with specific methods and models to analyze urban transportation system performances in emergency conditions when exogenous phenomena occur and for the specification of the risk function; (b) a formulation of the general evacuation problem in the standard simulation context of "what if" approach is specified in the second part with reference to the model considered for the simulation of transportation system in ordinary condition; (c) a set of models specified in the second part are calibrated and validated from a real experimentation in the third part. The experimentation was developed in the central business district of an Italian village and about 1000 inhabitants were evacuated, in order to construct a complete data-base. Our experiment required that socioeconomic information (population, number employed, public buildings, schools, etc.) and ?transport supply characteristics (infrastructures, etc.) be measured before and during experimentation. The real data of evacuation were recorded with 30 video cameras for laboratory analysis. The results are divided into six strictly connected tasks: Demand models; Supply and supply-demand interaction models for users; Simulation of refuge areas for users; Design of path choice models for emergency vehicles; Pedestrian outflow models in a building; Planning process and guidelines.

Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

2009-04-01

392

Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

2014-09-01

393

A computer-simulation-oriented design procedure for a robust and feasible job shop manufacturing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computer-simulation-oriented design procedure for a robust and feasible job shop manufacturing system based on the Taguchi approach and response surface methodology. The procedure includes optimal region investigation, optimal settings determination, and an adjustment procedure. The steepest descent technique finds the optimal region based on a weighted aggregated design measure. Then optimal settings are resolved and examined

Liang-Hsuan Chen; Yiau-Hweui Chen

1995-01-01

394

Real-time detection of grip length during fastening of bolted joints: a Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) based methodology that detects grip length of bolted joints in real-time\\u000a during fastening. Grip length is the length of the unthreaded portion of a bolt shaft. When the total thickness of joining\\u000a members is greater than the grip length of the bolt, it is called under-grip, which compromises the structural integrity of\\u000a a

Can Saygin; Deepak Mohan; Jagannathan Sarangapani

2010-01-01

395

Surface Improvement Using a Combination of Electrical Discharge Machining with Ball Burnish Machining Based on the Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of improving surface integrity via a novel combined process of electrical discharge\\u000a machining (EDM) with ball burnish machining (BBM) using the Taguchi method. To provide burnishing immediately after the EDM\\u000a process, ZrO2 balls were attached to the tool electrode in the experiments. To verify the optimal process, three observed values, i.e.\\u000a material removal rate, surface

Y. C. Lin; B. H. Yan; F. Y. Huang

2001-01-01

396

Examining the Impact of Case Management in Vancouver's Downtown Community Court: A Quasi-Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Background Problem solving courts (PSC) have been implemented internationally, with a common objective to prevent reoffending by addressing criminogenic needs and strengthening social determinants of health. There has been no empirical research on the effectiveness of community courts, which are a form of PSC designed to harness community resources and inter-disciplinary expertise to reduce recidivism in a geographic catchment area. Method We used the propensity score matching method to examine the effectiveness of Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court (DCC). We focused on the subset of DCC participants who were identified as having the highest criminogenic risk and were assigned to a case management team (CMT). A comparison group was derived using one-to-one matching on a large array variables including static and dynamic criminogenic factors, geography, and time. Reductions in offences (one year pre minus one year post) were compared between CMT and comparison groups. Results Compared to other DCC offenders, those triaged to CMT (9.5% of the DCC population) had significantly higher levels of healthcare, social service use, and justice system involvement over the ten years prior to the index offence. Compared to matched offenders who received traditional court outcomes, those assigned to CMT (n?=?249) exhibited significantly greater reductions in overall offending (p<0.001), primarily comprised of significant reductions in property offences (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CMT achieved significantly greater reductions in recidivism than traditional court among offenders with complex needs and high numbers of previous offences. Limitations of this research include a non-experimental design and one year follow up. Strengths include a robust matching process and extensive client level data spanning multiple sectors. Further research is needed to replicate the observed outcomes, to investigate the extension of community courts to settings with divergent offender needs and local resources, and to estimate potential cost avoidance attributable to this intervention. PMID:24599022

Somers, Julian M.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Patterson, Michelle

2014-01-01

397

Design and experimental studies on ceramic port cover for dual pulse motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material and definition of dome-shaped ceramic port cover contour is presented. Two types of ceramic port covers with equal thickness and variable thickness structures are proposed. A group of cold-flow tests was carried out on a reusable dual pulse motor in which the performances of different port covers including sealing, first-pulse pressure bearing and second-pulse broken pressure were experimentally studied. A solid dual pulse motor for hot-firing test was designed, manufactured and statically tested. The feasibility of proposed bulkhead with ceramic port cover employed on actual solid dual pulse motor was proved. It is found that dome-shaped port cover made from machinable glass ceramic withstands a high pressure on its convex side, but is prone to fragmentation while imposing a reasonably low pressure on its concave side. The peripherally thickened port cover that is more robust in machining and assembly process is recommended. Grooves milled on the port cover induce fragmentation and are helpful to produce regular broken aperture shape. The bulkhead assembly consists of retaining ring, port cover and supporting ring can well fulfill the requirements of port cover in fixing, preloading and sealing. The broken fragments are less likely to damage the insulation structures of the combustion chamber and the nozzle unit which had been validated in the test.

Wang, Chang-Hui; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ya-Bing

2011-06-01

398

Experimental Studies of the Heat Transfer to RBCC Rocket Nozzles for CFD Application to Design Methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket thrusters for Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines typically operate with hydrogen/oxygen propellants in a very compact space. Packaging considerations lead to designs with either axisymmetric or two-dimensional throat sections. Nozzles tend to be either two- or three-dimensional. Heat transfer characteristics, particularly in the throat, where the peak heat flux occurs, are not well understood. Heat transfer predictions for these small thrusters have been made with one-dimensional analysis such as the Bartz equation or scaling of test data from much larger thrusters. The current work addresses this issue with an experimental program that examines the heat transfer characteristics of a gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) two-dimensional compact rocket thruster. The experiments involved measuring the axial wall temperature profile in the nozzle region of a water-cooled gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen rocket thruster at a pressure of 3.45 MPa. The wall temperature measurements in the thruster nozzle in concert with Bartz's correlation are utilized in a one-dimensional model to obtain axial profiles of nozzle wall heat flux.

Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

1999-01-01

399

Molecular design, synthesis and physical properties of novel Cytisine-derivatives - Experimental and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presented a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study on the molecular drugs-design, synthesis, isolation, physical spectroscopic and mass spectrometric elucidation of novel functionalization derivatives of Cytisine (Cyt), using nucleosidic residues. Since these alkaloids have established biochemical profile, related the binding affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly ?7 sub-type, the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties allowed to evaluated the highlights of the biochemical hypothesises related the Schizophrenia. The anticancer activity of ?7 subtype agonists and the crucial role of the nucleoside-based medications in the cancer therapy provided opportunity for further study on the biochemical relationship between Schizophrenia and few kinds of cancers, which has been hypothesized recently. The physical electronic absorptions (EAs), circular dichroic (CD) and Raman spectroscopic (RS) properties as well as mass spectrometric (MS) data, obtained using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods under the positive single (MS) and tandem (MS/MS) modes of operation are discussed. Taking into account reports on a fatal intoxication of Cyt, the presented data would be of interest in the field of forensic chemistry, through development of highly selective and sensitive analytical protocols. Quantum chemical method is used to predict the physical properties of the isolated alkaloids, their affinity to the receptor loop and gas-phase stabilized species, observed mass spectrometrically.

Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

2013-02-01

400

Experimental design, validation and computational modeling uncover DNA damage sensing by DNA-PK and ATM.  

PubMed

Reliable and efficient detection of DNA damage constitutes a vital capability of human cells to maintain genome stability. Following DNA damage, the histone variant H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated by the DNA damage response kinases DNA-PKcs and ATM. H2AX phosphorylation plays a central role in signal amplification leading to chromatin remodeling and DNA repair initiation. The contribution of DNA-PKcs and ATM to H2AX phosphorylation is however puzzling. Although ATM is required, DNA-PKcs can substitute for it. Here we analyze the interplay between DNA-PKcs and ATM with a computational model derived by an iterative workflow: switching between experimental design, experiment and model analysis, we generated an extensive set of time-resolved data and identified a conclusive dynamic signaling model out of several alternatives. Our work shows that DNA-PKcs and ATM enforce a biphasic H2AX phosphorylation. DNA-PKcs can be associated to the initial, and ATM to the succeeding phosphorylation phase of H2AX resulting into a signal persistence detection function for reliable damage sensing. Further, our model predictions emphasize that DNA-PKcs inhibition significantly delays H2AX phosphorylation and associated DNA repair initiation. PMID:24833308

Flassig, R J; Maubach, G; Täger, C; Sundmacher, K; Naumann, M

2014-07-01

401

Design tool and its experimental validation for SOA-based photonic signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a unified, accurate and fast simulation tool, able to describe photonic SOA-based digital processing schemes. The model exploits cross gain modulation in SOAs in time resolved analysis in which each amplifier can be thought of as a point amplifier. Simulation and experimental comparisons of the steady state and dynamic amplified spontaneous emission noise behaviour of SOA are carried out. Details of multistage modelling useful for long nonlinear SOA has been described. Implementation of schemes such as combinatorial logic functions may require many cascading SOAs and contribution of ASE noise from each amplifier also been taken into account. A procedure of the extraction of parameters from the commercial SOA utilised in the experiment is laid down. Various sources of degradation have been identified and the method for evaluation of bit error rate for complex SOA based combinatorial network has been outlined. The tool is validated through the implementation of a photonic bit comparator. Important design guidelines are extracted by the proposed tool.

Das Barman, A.; Scaffardi, M.; Debnath, S.; Potì, L.; Bogoni, A.

2009-01-01

402

Design and Experimental Approach to the Construction of a Human Signal-Molecule-Profiling Database  

PubMed Central

The human signal-molecule-profiling database (HSMPD) is designed as a prospective medical database for translational bioinformatics (TBI). To explore the feasibility of low-cost database construction, we studied the roadmap of HSMPD. A HSMPD-oriented tool, called “signal-molecule-profiling (SMP) chip” was developed for data acquisition, which can be employed in the routine blood tests in hospitals; the results will be stored in the HSMPD system automatically. HSMPD system can provide data services for the TBI community, which generates a stable income to support the data acquisition. The small-scale experimental test was performed in the hospital to verify SMP chips and the demo HSMPD software. One hundred and eighty nine complete SMP records were collected, and the demo HSMPD system was also evaluated in the survey study on patients and doctors. The function of SMP chip was verified, whereas the demo HSMPD software needed to be improved. The survey study showed that patients would only accept free tests of SMP chips when they originally needed blood examinations. The study indicated that the construction of HSMPD relies on the self-motivated cooperation of the TBI community and the traditional healthcare system. The proposed roadmap potentially provides an executable solution to build the HSMPD without high costs. PMID:24351788

Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

2013-01-01

403

Factorial experimental designs for enhancement of concurrent poly(hydroxyalkanoate) production and brewery wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The influence of four main process parameters--solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT), anoxic-oxic cycling, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio)--on poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) production, while treating brewery wastewater, was studied. Two sets of two-level, three-factor experimental designs were implemented to (1) determine the effects and interactions among process parameters, (2) assess their significance to PHA production, and (3) approximate optimal operational conditions. The HRT and SRT were found to be the crucial operational parameters affecting PHA production. The highest PHA content of 55% (on a cell-weight basis) was produced at a 4-day HRT and 4-day SRT, whereas a maximum PHA concentration of 907 mg/L was obtained at a 2-day HRT and 12-day SRT. The effect of anoxic conditions on PHA production was insignificant. The C/N ratio played a more important role in the PHA concentration in the system than in the PHA content in the biomass. PMID:21291026

Liu, Hsin-Ying; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Darby, Jeannie L; Thompson, Donald E; Green, Peter G; Loge, Frank J

2011-01-01

404

Design and development of experimental facilities for short duration, low-gravity combustion and fire experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains the results of three projects conducted by undergraduate students from Worcester Polytechnic Institute at the NASA's Lewis Research Center under a NASA Award NCC3-312. The students involved in these projects spent part of the summer of 1993 at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) under the direction of Dr. Howard Ross, head of the Combustion group and other NASA engineers and scientists. The Principal Investigator at Worcester Polytechnic Institute was Professor Vahid Motevalli. Professor Motevalli served as the principal project advisor for two of the three projects which were in Mechanical Engineering. The third project was advised by Professor Duckworth of Electrical and Computer Engineering, while Professor Motevalli acted as the co-advisor. These projects provided an excellent opportunity for the students to participate in the cutting edge research and engineering design, interact with NASA engineers and gain valuable exposure to a real working environment. Furthermore, the combustion group at LeRC was able to forward their goals by employing students to work on topics of immediate use and interest such as experimental research projects planned for the space shuttle, the future space station, or to develop demonstration tools to educate the public about LeRC activities.

Motevalli, Vahid

1994-01-01

405

Experimental and numerical analysis of high resistive coated conductor for conceptual design of fault current limiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive superconducting fault current limiters (FCLs) using coated conductor (CC) have been developed to reduce fault current which exceeds ratings of circuit breaker in power grid. Our group has participated in the development of distribution level non-inductive winding type FCL using stainless steel-stabilized CC, as one of the 21st century Frontier R&D program. Recently, stabilizer-free CC with Hastelloy substrate was developed for FCL application. Since the CC has higher average resistivity than existing CCs with metallic stabilizer, required amount of wire can be reduced. Short-circuit tests were performed by increasing voltage applied to the small-scale FCL coil using stabilizer-free CC in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen of 65 K. Experimental results of the tests were compared with numerical analysis of current limiting characteristics of the CC by using finite element method (FEM). Conceptual design of the FCL was performed using test results and was compared with FCL using existing CC in regards to current limiting characteristics.

Park, Dong Keun; Yang, Seong Eun; Kim, Young Jae; Chang, Ki Sung; Ko, Tae Kuk; Ahn, Min Cheol; Yoon, Yong Soo

2009-06-01

406

Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

407

Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study. PMID:20008155

Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

2013-01-01

408

Optimization of primaquine diphosphate tablet formulation for controlled drug release using the mixture experimental design.  

PubMed

A tablet formulation based on hydrophilic matrix with a controlled drug release was developed, and the effect of polymer concentrations on the release of primaquine diphosphate was evaluated. To achieve this purpose, a 20-run, four-factor with multiple constraints on the proportions of the components was employed to obtain tablet compositions. Drug release was determined by an in vitro dissolution study in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.8. The polynomial fitted functions described the behavior of the mixture on simplex coordinate systems to study the effects of each factor (polymer) on tablet characteristics. Based on the response surface methodology, a tablet composition was optimized with the purpose of obtaining a primaquine diphosphate release closer to a zero order kinetic. This formulation released 85.22% of the drug for 8 h and its kinetic was studied regarding to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, (Adj-R(2) = 0.99295) which has confirmed that both diffusion and erosion were related to the mechanism of the drug release. The data from the optimized formulation were very close to the predictions from statistical analysis, demonstrating that mixture experimental design could be used to optimize primaquine diphosphate dissolution from hidroxypropylmethyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol matrix tablets. PMID:22670808

Duque, Marcelo Dutra; Kreidel, Rogério Nepomuceno; Taqueda, Maria Elena Santos; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga

2013-01-01

409

Design and experimental approach to the construction of a human signal-molecule-profiling database.  

PubMed

The human signal-molecule-profiling database (HSMPD) is designed as a prospective medical database for translational bioinformatics (TBI). To explore the feasibility of low-cost database construction, we studied the roadmap of HSMPD. A HSMPD-oriented tool, called "signal-molecule-profiling (SMP) chip" was developed for data acquisition, which can be employed in the routine blood tests in hospitals; the results will be stored in the HSMPD system automatically. HSMPD system can provide data services for the TBI community, which generates a stable income to support the data acquisition. The small-scale experimental test was performed in the hospital to verify SMP chips and the demo HSMPD software. One hundred and eighty nine complete SMP records were collected, and the demo HSMPD system was also evaluated in the survey study on patients and doctors. The function of SMP chip was verified, whereas the demo HSMPD software needed to be improved. The survey study showed that patients would only accept free tests of SMP chips when they originally needed blood examinations. The study indicated that the construction of HSMPD relies on the self-motivated cooperation of the TBI community and the traditional healthcare system. The proposed roadmap potentially provides an executable solution to build the HSMPD without high costs. PMID:24351788

Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

2013-12-01

410

Single-Case Experimental Designs to Evaluate Novel Technology-Based Health Interventions  

PubMed Central

Technology-based interventions to promote health are expanding rapidly. Assessing the preliminary efficacy of these interventions can be achieved by employing single-case experiments (sometimes referred to as n-of-1 studies). Although single-case experiments are often misunderstood, they offer excellent solutions to address the challenges associated with testing new technology-based interventions. This paper provides an introduction to single-case techniques and highlights advances in developing and evaluating single-case experiments, which help ensure that treatment outcomes are reliable, replicable, and generalizable. These advances include quality control standards, heuristics to guide visual analysis of time-series data, effect size calculations, and statistical analyses. They also include experimental designs to isolate the active elements in a treatment package and to assess the mechanisms of behavior change. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues related to the generality of findings derived from single-case research and how generality can be established through replication and through analysis of behavioral mechanisms. PMID:23399668

Cassidy, Rachel N; Raiff, Bethany R

2013-01-01

411

Shielding analysis and design of the KIPT experimental neutron source facility of Ukraine.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility based on the use of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility [1]. The facility uses the existing electron accelerators of KIPT in Ukraine. The neutron source of the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The electron beam has a uniform spatial distribution and the electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV, [2]. The main functions of the facility are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Reactor physics experiments and material performance characterization will also be carried out. The subcritical assembly is driven by neutrons generated by the electron beam interactions with the target material. A fraction of these neutrons has an energy above 50 MeV generated through the photo nuclear interactions. This neutron fraction is very small and it has an insignificant contribution to the subcritical assembly performance. However, these high energy neutrons are difficult to shield and they can be slowed down only through the inelastic scattering with heavy isotopes. Therefore the shielding design of this facility is more challenging relative to fission reactors. To attenuate these high energy neutrons, heavy metals (tungsten, iron, etc.) should be used. To reduce the construction cost, heavy concrete with 4.8 g/cm{sup 3} density is selected as a shielding material. The iron weight fraction in this concrete is about 0.6. The shape and thickness of the heavy concrete shield are defined to reduce the biological dose equivalent outside the shield to an acceptable level during operation. At the same time, special attention was give to reduce the total shield mass to reduce the construction cost. The shield design is configured to maintain the biological dose equivalent during operation {le} 0.5 mrem/h inside the subcritical hall, which is five times less than the allowable dose for working forty hours per week for 50 weeks per year. This study analyzed and designed the thickness and the shape of the radial and top shields of the neutron source based on the biological dose equivalent requirements inside the subcritical hall during operation. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX is selected because of its capabilities for transporting electrons, photons, and neutrons. Mesh based weight windows variance reduction technique is utilized to estimate the biological dose outside the shield with good statistics. A significant effort dedicated to the accurate prediction of the biological dose equivalent outside the shield boundary as a function of the shield thickness without geometrical approximations or material homogenization. The building wall was designed with ordinary concrete to reduce the biological dose equivalent to the public with a safety factor in the range of 5 to 20.

Zhong, Z.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Naberezhnev, D.; Duo, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-10-31

412

Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.

2014-11-01

413

Design of Experiment Approach to the Study of Parameters in the New Die Set Tube Hydroforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize the effective parameters in forming cylindrical tubes by the new die set of tube hydroforming process. The process parameters evaluated in this research are axial feeding, initial and final forming pressure. The design of experiments based upon L9 orthogonal arrays by Taguchi was used and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the effect of these parameters on the die cavity filling of the deformed tubes. The analysis of the results showed that the optimal condition for getting high precision in die cavity filling is to keep a combination of high initial and final pressure with suitable punch stroke. Finally, the confirmation test was derived based on the optimal combination of parameters and it was shown that the Taguchi method is suitable to examine the optimization.

Elyasi, M.; Hossinzade, M.

2011-08-01

414

Data Processing and Experimental Design for Micrometeorite Impacts in Small Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comets and asteroids have been altered from their original "pristine" state by impacts occurring throughout their 4.5 billion year lives: [1]. Proof of shock deformation has been detected in the crystal structure of several Stardust samples from Comet Wild 2 [2, 3]. Analyses indicated that the planar dislocations in the crystal structure of the minerals had been imparted by impacts sustained during their lives, and not due to the aerogel capture process. Distortions to crystal structure also affect the ideal absorption spectra in the infrared, and [4], thus providing indirect evidence of its impact history and a means of remotely investigating the impact history of small bodies through comparing laboratory spectra with spectra observed by telescopes or spacecraft. -The effects of impacts propagating shock waves through minerals were investigated through laboratory impact experiments. Utilizing NASA Johnson Space Center's Experimental Impact Laboratory, projectiles were fired from the vertical gun at velocities ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 km/sec, projected impact velocities between Kuiper Belt Objects. Two types of projectiles were used, including spherical alumina ceramic, whose density mimics that of rock, and cylinders made from the same material that they impacted. The target materials chosen for testing included: OLIVINES forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite, Fe2SiO4); PYROXENES enstatite (Mg2Si2O6) and diopside (MgCaSi2O6); and CARBONATES magnesite (MgCO3) and siderite (FeCO3). Targets were impacted at either 25 C or cooled to -20 C to examine the effects of temperature, if any, on lattice distortions during the shock propagation. As comets and asteroids can undergo a wide range of temperatures in their orbital lifetimes, the effect of temperature on the equation of state of minerals being shocked needs to be examined for interpreting the results of these experiments. The porosity of the target mineral is varied by either grinding it into a powder/granular texture or as whole mineral rocks to investigate the differences in shock propagation when voids are present. By varying velocity, ambient temperature, and porosity, we can investigate different variables affecting impacts in the solar system. -Data indicates that there is a non-linear relationship between peak shock pressure and the variation in infrared spectral absorbances by the distorted crystal structure. The maximum variability occurs around 37 GPa in enstatite and forsterite. The particle size distribution of the impacted material similarly changes with velocity/peak shock pressure. -The experiments described above are designed to measure the near- to mid-IR effects from these changes to the mineral structure. See Lederer et al., this meeting for additional experimental results.

Jensen, E.; Lederer, S.; Smith, D.; Strojia, C.; Cintala, M.; Zolensky, M.; Keller, L.

2014-01-01

415

Beauty Fades: An Experimental Study of Federal Court Design Patent Aesthetics  

E-print Network

decisions: the law of design. New designs may be protected as design patents, but only if they are “ornamental” in nature. As the U.S. Supreme Court has noted, “a design must present an aesthetically pleasing appearance. . . .” This study uses empirical...

Torrance, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

416

Finding a better drug for epilepsy: preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design.  

PubMed

The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drug-drug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

Simonato, Michele; Löscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J; Dudek, F Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J; Velíšek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

2012-11-01

417

Finding a better drug for epilepsy: Preclinical screening strategies and experimental trial design  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) introduced during the past two decades have provided several benefits: they offered new treatment options for symptomatic treatment of seizures, improved ease of use and tolerability, and lowered risk for hypersensitivity reactions and detrimental drug– drug interactions. These drugs, however, neither attenuated the problem of drug-refractory epilepsy nor proved capable of preventing or curing the disease. Therefore, new preclinical screening strategies are needed to identify AEDs that target these unmet medical needs. New therapies may derive from novel targets identified on the basis of existing hypotheses for drug-refractory epilepsy and the biology of epileptogenesis; from research on genetics, transcriptomics, and epigenetics; and from mechanisms relevant for other therapy areas. Novel targets should be explored using new preclinical screening strategies, and new technologies should be used to develop medium- to high-throughput screening models. In vivo testing of novel drugs should be performed in models mimicking relevant aspects of drug refractory epilepsy and/or epileptogenesis. To minimize the high attrition rate associated with drug development, which arises mainly from a failure to demonstrate sufficient clinical efficacy of new treatments, it is important to define integrated strategies for preclinical screening and experimental trial design. An important tool will be the discovery and implementation of relevant biomarkers that will facilitate a continuum of proof-of-concept approaches during early clinical testing to rapidly confirm or reject preclinical findings, and thereby lower the risk of the overall development effort. In this review, we overview some of the issues related to these topics and provide examples of new approaches that we hope will be more successful than those used in the past. PMID:22708847

Simonato, Michele; Loscher, Wolfgang; Cole, Andrew J.; Dudek, F. Edward; Engel, Jerome; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Loeb, Jeffrey A.; Scharfman, Helen; Staley, Kevin J.; Velisek, Libor; Klitgaard, Henrik

2014-01-01

418

Single-Case Experimental Designs for the Evaluation of Treatments for Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) provide a time- and cost-effective alternative to randomized clinical trials and offer significant advantages in terms of internal and external validity. A brief history and primer on SCEDs is provided, specifically for use in suicide intervention research. Various SCED methodologies, such as AB, ABAB,…

Rizvi, Shireen L.; Nock, Matthew K.

2008-01-01

419

Structural Control with Multi-Subnet Wireless Sensing Feedback: Experimental Validation of Time-Delayed Decentralized H Control Design  

E-print Network

1 Structural Control with Multi-Subnet Wireless Sensing Feedback: Experimental Validation of Time-Delayed Decentralized H Control Design Yang Wang*1 and Kincho H. Law 2 1 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering for structural control applications. A feedback structural control system involves a network of sensors

Stanford University

420

Design of a new multi-phase experimental simulation chamber for atmospheric photosmog, aerosol and cloud chemistry research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new simulation chamber has been built at the Interuniversitary Laboratory of Atmospheric Systems (LISA). The CESAM chamber (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) is designed to allow research in multiphase atmospheric (photo-)chemistry which involves both gas phase and condensed phase processes including aerosol and cloud chemistry. CESAM has the potential to carry out variable temperature and pressure

J. Wang; J.-F. Doussin; S. Perrier; E. Perraudin; Y. Katrib; E. Pangui; B. Picquet-Varrault

2011-01-01

421

Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings from the Experimental Design Study. NCEE 2005-3002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citation: Ricciuti, A.E., R.G. St.Pierre, W. Lee, A. Parsad & T. Rimdzius. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings From the Experimental Design Study. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, D.C., 2004. Background: The Even Start…

Ricciuti, Anne E., St.Pierre, Robert G.; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda

2004-01-01

422

Example of Integrated CFD and Experimental Studies: Design of Flow Control in the FOI-EIC-01 Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes part of the Propulsion Integration project which deal with the design and optimization of the flow control in the FOI-EIC-01 inlet. This part of the project uses both CFD and wind tunnel testing. Both disciplines strongly interact with each other. After the initial CFD\\/experimental phase additional CFD calculations were then performed.

Adam Jirásek

423

Statistical Assistance It is recommended that a statistician be enlisted to assist in developing the experimental design for animal  

E-print Network

the experimental design for animal research projects. Statistical consulting resources at UNL are available from the number of animals needed for each study is required on the Application to Use Animals Form (AUAF of animals should be the minimum number required to obtain statistically valid research results. A power

Farritor, Shane

424

The design and performance of an experimental external fixator with variable axial stiffness and a compressive force transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unilateral external fixator has been designed for controlled experiments into the effects of micromovement on fracture healing. The experimental model used is based on a diaphyseal osteotomy of the right tibia of the sheep. The main bar has linear bearings, which allows free axial movement. This is then controlled by a spring whose stiffness can be varied. The resulting

E. R. C. Draper; R. K. Strachan; S. P. F. Hughes; A. C. Nicol; J. P. Paul

1997-01-01

425

Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.  

PubMed

The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data. PMID:25325152

Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

2014-01-01

426

Engineering Design Education Program for Graduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new educational methods of engineering design have attempted to improve mechanical engineering education for graduate students in a way of the collaboration in education of engineer and designer. The education program is based on the lecture and practical exercises concerning the product design, and has engineering themes and design process themes, i.e. project management, QFD, TRIZ, robust design (Taguchi method) , ergonomics, usability, marketing, conception etc. At final exercise, all students were able to design new product related to their own research theme by applying learned knowledge and techniques. By the method of engineering design education, we have confirmed that graduate students are able to experience technological and creative interest.

Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Iida, Haruhiko

427

A design procedure for a robust job shop manufacturing system under a constraint using computer simulation experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine-step design procedure is presented for a robust job shop manufacturing system under a constraint using computer simulation experiments in this study. The development of the proposed approach is based on the Taguchi's concept and the response surface methodology. The approach first improves the robustness according to the weighted design measure (WDM) from unspecified initial settings. Once further improvements

Liang-Hsuan Chen; Yiau-Hweui Chen

1996-01-01

428

OBSERVATIONS FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COLLABORATIVE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has been based largely on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous

MARY L. MAHER; SIMEON J. SIMOFF; ANNA CICOGNANI

1997-01-01

429

Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.  

PubMed

This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. PMID:23907063

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

2013-09-01

430

Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over-The-Wing (OTW) engine acoustic design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic considerations involved in the low source noise basic engine design and the design procedures followed in the development of the over-the-wing (OTW) nacelle acoustic treatment design are presented. Laboratory experiments, component tests, and scale model and engine tests supporting the OTW engine acoustic design are referenced. Acoustic design features include a near-sonic inlet, low fan and core pressure ratios, low fan tip speed, high and low frequency stacked core treatment, multiple thickness treatment, and fan frame and stator vane treatment.

Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.

1978-01-01

431

78 FR 2893 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project in the Deschutes River Basin, OR AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...the continued release of Middle Columbia River (MCR) steelhead (Oncorhynchus...

2013-01-15

432

The Geometric Design of Spherical Mechanical Linkages with Differential Task Specifications: Experimental Set Up and Applications  

E-print Network

The thesis focuses on the development of an experimental set up for a recently developed failure recovery technique of spatial robot manipulators. Assuming a general configuration of the spatial robot arm, a task is specified. This task contains...

Kapila Bala, Phani Neehar

2012-10-19

433

Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) UTW fan preliminary design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems designed for short-haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is emphasized. The aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of the QCSEE under the wing 1.34 pressure ratio fan with variable blade pitch is presented. Design information is given for two pitch change actuation systems which will provide reverse thrust.

1975-01-01

434

Experimental Design and Analysis of the Fate of Nanoparticulate Titanium Dioxide in Aquatic Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in the production and use of engineered nanomaterials has been considered to result in potential environmental risks and health issues. Of the commonly used nanomaterials, TiO2 has raised intensive concern due to its wide-spread application in food, drugs, cosmetics, catalysis, ultraviolet blocker, and sorbents for water treatment, etc. It is believed that TiO2 nanomaterials possess distinct transport, transfer and toxicity in the aquatic environment. This research applies the design of experiments methodology to investigate the fate of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles with various functional groups in the simulated aquatic environment. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the experimental fate data. The engineered TiO2 NPs with -CH3, -SH, -OH, -COOH and -SO3H functional groups were prepared by the surface silanization, and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface charge, aggregation and surface chemistry of engineered TiO2 NPs were investigated by dynamic (electrophoretic) light scattering. Results obtained from the multiple linear regression model show that the pH, the ionic strength and the cation type affect the surface charge, aggregation, and adsorption capability in individual and associated forms. Moreover, the surface functional group on TiO2 NPs surface dominates the fate in the simulated aquatic environment. Especially, the zeta potential of TiO2 NPs decreased with the increase of pH value in low salt concentration, whereas SO3H-, COOH-, OH- and SH- TiO2 NPs slightly increased when pH increased. The zeta potential of TiO2 NPs also increased with the increasing salt concentration at the whole pH range and COOH-TiO2 NPs are more sensitive to the salt concentration in the zeta potential. Furthermore, the zeta potential of TiO2 NPs in solutions containing CaCl2 is higher than that in NaCl. The hydrodynamic size was little affected by the pH value or had a little decrease with the increasing pH in the low salt concentration while it significantly increased with the increasing pH value at the high salt concentration, except NH 2-TiO2 NPs. The addition of CaCl2 significantly increased the size. The NH2- and COOH-TiO2 NPs showed high sensitivities to the salt concentration in comparison with other engineered TiO2 NPs. Addition of CaCl2 leaded to the larger hydrodynamic size of TiO2 NPs compared to the addition of NaCl. The adsorption efficiency humic acid on TiO2 NPs decreased with the increase of pH value whereas increased with the increase of salt concentration regardless of the surface functional group. More adsorption of humic acid onto TiO 2 NPs in the CaCl2 solution was obtained than that in the NaCl solution. In addition, significant negative correlation between the hydrodynamic size and absolute value of zeta potential and positive correlation between the adsorption efficiency and the zeta potential value were obtained in this research.

Xiang, Chengcheng

435

A quasi-experimental approach to assessing treatment effects in the nonequivalent control group design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluates 4 statistical tests of treatment effect for the nonequivalent control group design. This design consists of pre- and posttreatment measures of a dependent variable with biased assignments to treatment groups. The biased assignment creates a treatment-pretest confounding for which different statistical techniques adjust. The different statistical tests discussed are the analysis of covariance, analysis of covariance with reliability correction,

David A. Kenny

1975-01-01

436

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGY FOR THE WEIBULL DOSE RESPONSE MODEL (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the research was to determine optimum design point allocation for estimation of relative yield losses from ozone pollution when the true and fitted yield-ozone dose response relationship follows the Weibull. The optimum design is dependent on the values of the We...

437

Fusion Engineering and Design 4950 (2000) 605611 Numerical and experimental prediction of the  

E-print Network

of the fusion reactor blanket designs, pebble beds have been proposed for tritium breed- ing and energy conversion as well as neutron multiplication. The packed beds must be stored in a structural container to keep the whole shape and design integrity. During the reactor opera- tion, the bed will undergo thermal

Abdou, Mohamed

438

Benefits applications and data analysis techniques for linewidth multilevel experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to other experimental methods which have just two or three settings per variable, the rationale is presented for using a large number of stepper exposures at poly or active area for certain applications (such as obtaining high correlation to E-TEST variables). How variables (which are dependent on linewidth) relate to each other can also be determined to high correlation; even linear correlation of measured poly linewidth to speed had an R2 value of 0.96. This experimental method is useful for numerous applications such as: process characterization, budgeting of CD linewidths, and correlating process variables to electrical data. Useful data analysis techniques are also shown. The experimental method is also cost- effective, requiring a small number of wafers.

Barbieri, Anthony

1996-05-01

439

Design of the high-resolution soft X-ray imaging system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new soft X-ray diagnostic system has been designed on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) aiming to observe and survey the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities. The system consists of five cameras located at the same toroidal position. Each camera has 16 photodiode elements. Three imaging cameras view the internal plasma region (r/a < 0.7) with a spatial resolution about 2 cm. By tomographic method, heat transport outside from the 1/1 mode X-point during the sawtooth collapse is found. The other two cameras with a higher spatial resolution 1 cm are designed for monitoring local MHD activities respectively in plasma core and boundary.

Li, Jianchao; Ding, Yonghua; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xiao, Zhengyu; Zhuang, Ge

2014-11-01

440

Application of mixture experimental design in the formulation and optimization of matrix tablets containing carbomer and hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose.  

PubMed

Using mixture experimental design, the effect of carbomer (Carbopol((R)) 971P NF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel((R)) K100M or Methocel((R)) K4M) combination on the release profile and on the mechanism of drug liberation from matrix tablet was investigated. The numerical optimization procedure was also applied to establish and obtain formulation with desired drug release. The amount of TP released, release rate and mechanism varied with carbomer ratio in total matrix and HPMC viscosity. Increasing carbomer fractions led to a decrease in drug release. Anomalous diffusion was found in all matrices containing carbomer, while Case - II transport was predominant for tablet based on HPMC only. The predicted and obtained profiles for optimized formulations showed similarity. Those results indicate that Simplex Lattice Mixture experimental design and numerical optimization procedure can be applied during development to obtain sustained release matrix formulation with desired release profile. PMID:20162406

Petrovic, Aleksandra; Cvetkovic, Nebojsa; Ibric, Svetlana; Trajkovic, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Popadic, Dragica; Popovic, Radmila

2009-12-01

441

Preliminary assessment of existing experimental data for validation ofreactor physics codes and data for NGNP design and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a demonstration reactor and hydrogen production facility proposed for construction at the INEEL, is expected to be a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Computer codes used in design and safety analysis for the NGNP must be benchmarked against experimental data. The INEEL and ANL have examined information about several past and present experimental and prototypical facilities based on HTGR concepts to assess the potential of these facilities for use in this benchmarking effort. Both reactors and critical facilities applicable to pebble-bed and prismatic block-type cores have been considered. Four facilities--HTR-PROTEUS, HTR-10, ASTRA, and AVR--appear to have the greatest potential for use in benchmarking codes for pebble-bed reactors. Similarly, for the prismatic block-type reactor design, two experiments have been ranked as having the highest priority--HTTR and VHTRC.

Terry, W. K.; Jewell, J. K.; Briggs, J. B.; Taiwo, T. A.; Park, W.S.; Khalil, H. S.

2005-10-25

442

Optimization of scaffold design for bone tissue engineering: A computational and experimental study.  

PubMed

In bone tissue engineering, the scaffold has not only to allow the diffusion of cells, nutrients and oxygen but also provide adequate mechanical support. One way to ensure the scaffold has the right properties is to use computational tools to design such a scaffold coupled with additive manufacturing to build the scaffolds to the resulting optimized design specifications. In this study a topology optimization algorithm is proposed as a technique to design scaffolds that meet specific requirements for mass transport and mechanical load bearing. Several micro-structures obtained computationally are presented. Designed scaffolds were then built using selective laser sintering and the actual features of the fabricated scaffolds were measured and compared to the designed values. It was possible to obtain scaffolds with an internal geometry that reasonably matched the computational design (within 14% of porosity target, 40% for strut size and 55% for throat size in the building direction and 15% for strut size and 17% for throat size perpendicular to the building direction). These results support the use of these kind of computational algorithms to design optimized scaffolds with specific target properties and confirm the value of these techniques for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24636449

Dias, Marta R; Guedes, José M; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Fernandes, Paulo R

2014-04-01

443

Experimental design for extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and organic acids in white “Vinho Verde” grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction and clean-up processes of phenolic compounds and organic acids from white “Vinho Verde” grapes. The developed analytical method consisted in two steps: first a solid–liquid extraction of both phenolic compounds and organic acids and then a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, phenolic compounds and organic acids were determined

M. S. Dopico-García; P. Valentão; L. Guerra; P. B. Andrade; R. M. Seabra

2007-01-01

444

Packed-bed sorption of copper using spent animal bones: factorial experimental design, desorption and column regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-level factorial experimental design method has been proposed to investigate the influence of the operating parameters in a packed-bed adsorption column. This technique has been applied to quantify the influence of bed-depth, influent flow rate, and influent metal concentration on break-through time during the removal of copper from aqueous solutions using spent animal bones. A factorial model has been

Sameer Al-Asheh; Nabil Abdel-Jabar; Fawzi Banat

2002-01-01

445

Central composite experimental design in the optimization of lignin peroxidase production in shake cultures by free and immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An orthogonal 23-factorial experimental design was employed in the multivariate optimization of lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in shake cultures both as free pellets and as immobilized on nylon-web, and to provide knowledge on the process for scale-up and control. It was observed that a short starving period after the growth of the mycelium and the depletion of the

S. Linko; L.-C. Zhong

1990-01-01

446

Application of mixture experimental design in the formulation and optimization of matrix tablets containing carbomer and hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using mixture experimental design, the effect of carbomer (Carbopol® 971P NF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel®\\u000a K100M or Methocel® K4M) combination on the release profile and on the mechanism of drug liberation from matrix tablet was\\u000a investigated. The numerical optimization procedure was also applied to establish and obtain formulation with desired drug\\u000a release. The amount of TP released, release rate and mechanism

Aleksandra Petrovic; Nebojsa Cvetkovic; Svetlana Ibric; Svetlana Trajkovic; Zorica Djuric; Dragica Popadic; Radmila Popovic

2009-01-01

447

The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

448

Specifications for and preliminary design of a plant growth chamber for orbital experimental experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was proposed that plant experiments be performed on board the space shuttle. To permit the proper execution of most tests, the craft must contain a plant growth chamber which is adequately designed to control those environmental factors which can induce changes in a plant's physiology and morphology. The various needs of, and environmental factors affecting, plants are identified. The permissilbe design, construction and performance limits for a plant-growth chamber are set, and tentative designs were prepared for units which are compatible with both the botanical requirements and the constraints imposed by the space shuttle.

Sweet, H. C.; Simmonds, R. C.

1976-01-01

449

Linear versus Nonlinear Analysis in the Measurement of Effects in a Quasi-Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-stage procedure for the analysis of pretest-posttest data was developed and illustrated. Data were reanalyzed from a quasi-experimental evaluation that assessed the effects of an intervention program to teach elementary school children aged 10 to 12 years to watch violence on television more carefully/critically. The treatment group…

Vooijs, Marcel W.; van der Kamp, Leo J. Th.

450

Experimental Evaluation of Torsional Fatigue Strength of Welded Bellows and Application to Design of Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torsional fatigue strength of the welded bellows was evaluated experimentally, aiming the application to a port of a fusion device.The welded bellows revealed elastic torsional buckling and spiral distorsion even under a small angle of torsion. Twisting load never leads the welded bellows to fracture easily so far as the angle of torsion is not excessively large, and the welded

Hideyuki TAKATSU; Masahiro YAMAMOTO; Masatsugu SHIMIZU; Kazuo SUZUKI; Tadashi SONOBE; Yuzo HAYASHI; Gen-ichiro MIZUNO

1984-01-01

451

The Learner as Designer: Effects on Transfer of an Experimental Curriculum in Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most strategy research, the focus is on ready-made models provided by the teacher or a textbook. However, in this research project the effects are described of an experimental program in primary maths education, concerning the construction and use of models by pupils in guided co-construction. Learning how to construct models is said to enhance…

van Dijk, I. M. A. W.; van Oers, B.; Terwel, J.

452

EPA?s Experimental Stream Facility: Design and Research Supporting Watershed Management  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA?s Experimental Stream Facility (ESF) represents an important tool in research that is underway to further understanding of the relative importance of stream ecosystems and the services they provide for effective watershed management. The ESF is operated under the goal of ...

453

78 FR 63439 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Upper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spring-Run Chinook Salmon in the Okanogan River Subbasin, Washington, and Protective...experimental population (NEP) of Upper Columbia River spring-run (UCR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus...Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the Okanogan River subbasin, and to establish a limited...

2013-10-24

454

Design of a micromachined thermal accelerometer: thermal simulation and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes numerical simulation of a micromachined thermal accelerometer and experimental measurements. The sensor principle consists of a heating resistor, which creates a symmetrical temperature profile, and two temperature detectors symmetrically placed on both sides of the heater. When an acceleration is applied, the free convection is modified, the temperature profile becomes asymmetric and the two detectors measure the

F. Mailly; A. Martinez; A. Giani; F. Pascal-delannoy; A. Boyer

2003-01-01

455