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1

Experimental design for improved ceramic processing, emphasizing the Taguchi Method  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic processing often requires substantial experimentation to produce acceptable product quality and performance. This is a consequence of ceramic processes depending upon a multitude of factors, some of which can be controlled and others that are beyond the control of the manufacturer. Statistical design of experiments is a procedure that allows quick, economical, and accurate evaluation of processes and products that depend upon several variables. Designed experiments are sets of tests in which the variables are adjusted methodically. A well-designed experiment yields unambiguous results at minimal cost. A poorly designed experiment may reveal little information of value even with complex analysis, wasting valuable time and resources. This article will review the most common experimental designs. This will include both nonstatistical designs and the much more powerful statistical experimental designs. The Taguchi Method developed by Grenichi Taguchi will be discussed in some detail. The Taguchi method, based upon fractional factorial experiments, is a powerful tool for optimizing product and process performance.

Weiser, M.W. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Fong, K.B. (John Zink Co., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-12-01

2

Electrodeposition of copper on titanium wires: Taguchi experimental design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition of thin copper layer was carried out on titanium wires in acidic sulphate bath. The influence of titanium surface preparation, cathodic current density, copper sulphate and sulphuric acid concentrations, electrical charge density and stirring of the solution on the adhesion of the electrodeposits was studied using the Taguchi statistical method. A L16 orthogonal array with the six factors of

J. L. Rosa; A. Robin; M. B. Silva; C. A. Baldan; M. P. Peres

2009-01-01

3

Study of plasma- and detonation gun-sprayed alumina coatings using taguchi experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a most versatile thermal spray method for depositing alumina (Al2O3) coatings, and detonation gun (D-gun) spraying is an alternative thermal spray technology for depositing such coatings with\\u000a extremely good wear characteristics. The present study is aimed at comparing the characteristics of Al2O3 coatings deposited using the above techniques by using Taguchi experimental design.\\u000a \\u000a Alumina coating

P. Saravanan; V. Selvarajan; M. P. Srivastava; D. S. Rao; S. V. Joshi; G. Sundararajan

2000-01-01

4

Purification of zinc ammoniacal leaching solution by cementation: Determination of optimum process conditions with experimental design by Taguchi's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taguchi method was used as the experimental design to determine the optimum conditions of purification behavior of the leach solution obtained from ammoniacal ammonium carbonate leaching of nonsulphide zinc ores in Angoran region (Iran). Cementation was performed using zinc dust. The experimental conditions were studied in the range of 25–65°C for reaction temperature (T), one to five series for

J. Moghaddam; R. Sarraf-Mamoory; M. Abdollahy; Y. Yamini

2006-01-01

5

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. [Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)

1992-08-01

6

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. (Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

7

Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.  

PubMed

Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. PMID:23201522

Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

2012-10-26

8

Using Taguchi experimental design to reveal the impact of parameters affecting the abrasion resistance of sol–gel based UV curable nanocomposite films on polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at studying the abrasion resistance of differently formulated organic–inorganic hybrid coatings prepared by\\u000a sol–gel method. The organic phase contained UV curable urethane acrylate oligomers and monomers having different functionalities.\\u000a The inorganic phase was composed of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-methacryloxy propyltrimethoxy silane (MEMO). Through\\u000a a Taguchi experimental design, the impact of influencing parameters such as molar ratio

H. Yahyaei; M. Mohseni; S. Bastani

9

Hydrothermal processing of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles—A Taguchi experimental design approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal processing is conventionally employed in the laboratory-scale synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and extensive information on its processing conditions has therefore been provided in literature. However, the knowledge about the influence of some operating parameters, especially those important for a large-scale production, is yet insufficient. A specific approach based on a Taguchi orthogonal array was therefore used to evaluate these parameters and to optimize them for a more effective synthesis. This approach allowed us to systematically determine the correlation between the operating factors and the powder quality. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratios revealed the great influence of temperature and pH on the characteristic of powder. Additionally, the injection rate of one reagent into another was found to be the most important operating factor affecting the stoichiometric ratio of powders. As-prepared powders were also studied for their in-vitro bioactivity. The SEM images showed the accumulation of a new apatite-like phase on surface of the powder along with an interesting morphological change after a 45-day incubation of powder in SBF, indicating a promising bioactivity. Some results also showed the capability of simple hydrothermal method for the synthesis of a lamellar structure without the help of any templating system.

Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi; Khorasani, Mohammad-Taghi; Jamshidi, Ahmad

2012-12-01

10

Design optimisation of aluminium recycling processes using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a robust design method is developed for reducing cost and improving quality in aluminium recycling. An experimental investigation into the process parameter effects is presented to determine the optimum configuration of design parameters for performance, quality and cost. The Taguchi method is applied initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. Orthogonal array techniques are used to

A. R Khoei; I Masters; D. T Gethin

2002-01-01

11

Optimizing Surface Roughness and Flank Wear on Hard Turning Process Using Taguchi Parameter Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of the Taguchi method parameter design to optimize the surface roughness, tool wear and cutting force by hard turning process. The Taguchi parameter design method is an efficient method in which response variable can be optimized, given various controls and using fewer experimental runs. Hard turning is the latest trend in all manufacturing industries and

S. Thamizhmanii; K. Kamarudin; E. A. Rahim; A. Saparudin; S. Hasan

2007-01-01

12

Taguchi's Orthogonal Arrays Are Classical Designs of Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taguchi's catalog of orthogonal arrays is based on the mathematical theory of factorial designs and difference sets developed by R. C. Bose and his associates. These arrays evolved as extensions of factorial designs and latin squares. The paper (1) descri...

R. N. Kacker E. S. Lagergren J. J. Filliben

1991-01-01

13

Determining optimal operation parameters for reducing PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ values) from the iron ore sintering process by using the Taguchi experimental design.  

PubMed

This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (including sinter, hematite, and limonite), were selected for conducting experiments in a pilot scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt%, Hb = 500 mm, Ps = 1000 mmH2O, and hearth layer = hematite) could decrease the emission factor of total PCDD/Fs (total EF(PCDD/Fs)) up to 62.8% by reference to the current operating condition of the real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and hearth layer = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Wc was the most significant parameter in determining total EF(PCDD/Fs (accounting for 74.7% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). The resultant optimal combination could also enhance slightly in both sinter productivity and sinter strength (30.3 t/m2/day and 72.4%, respectively) by reference to those obtained from the reference operating condition (29.9 t/m (2)/day and 72.2%, respectively). The above results further ensure the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter production without interfering its sinter productivity and sinter strength. PMID:18754384

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

2008-07-15

14

Reducing the effects of weldlines on appearance of plastic products by Taguchi experimental method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weldlines influence not only strength of injection products but also the appearance of the products. This paper studies the\\u000a effects of processing parameters on the appearance of weldlines by Taguchi experimental design method. Weldlines are obtained\\u000a by the right door of copy machine which is modeled with three gates. The pictures of molding products are taken by digital\\u000a camera. The

Hongsheng Li; Zhiying Guo; Dequn Li

2007-01-01

15

Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using carbonized Terminalia chebula-activated carbon: process parametric optimization using conventional method and Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, the phenol removal from wastewater was investigated using agri-based adsorbent: Terminalia chebula-activated carbon (TCAC) produced by carbonization of Terminalia chebula (TC) in air-controlled atmosphere at 600 °C for 4 h. The surface area of TCAC was measured as 364 m2/g using BET method. The surface characteristic of TCAC was analyzed based on the value of point of zero charge. The effect of parameters such as TCAC dosage, pH, initial concentration of phenol, time of contact and temperature on the sorption of phenol by TCAC was investigated using conventional method and Taguchi experimental design. The total adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained as 36.77 mg/g using Langmuir model at the temperature of 30 °C at pH = 5.5. The maximum removal of phenol (294.86 mg/g) was obtained using Taguchi's method. The equilibrium study of phenol on TCAC showed that experimental data fitted well to R-P model. The results also showed that kinetic data were followed more closely the pseudo-first-order model. The results of thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of phenol on TCAC was spontaneous and an exothermic in nature.

Khare, Prateek; Kumar, Arvind

2012-12-01

16

Permeability evaluation through chitosan membranes using taguchi design.  

PubMed

In the present study, chitosan membranes capable of imitating permeation characteristics of diclofenac diethylamine across animal skin were prepared using cast drying method. The effect of concentration of chitosan, concentration of cross-linking agent (NaTPP), crosslinking time was studied using Taguchi design. Taguchi design ranked concentration of chitosan as the most important factor influencing the permeation parameters of diclofenac diethylamine. The flux of the diclofenac diethylamine solution through optimized chitosan membrane (T9) was found to be comparable to that obtained across rat skin. The mathematical model developed using multilinear regression analysis can be used to formulate chitosan membranes that can mimic the desired permeation characteristics. The developed chitosan membranes can be utilized as a substitute to animal skin for in vitro permeation studies. PMID:21179329

Sharma, Vipin; Marwaha, Rakesh Kumar; Dureja, Harish

2010-10-21

17

A robust approach to human-computer interface design using the Taguchi method  

SciTech Connect

The application of Dr. Genichi Taguchi's approach for design optimization, called Robust Design, to the design of human-computer interface software is investigated. The taguchi method is used to select a near optimum set of interface design alternatives to improve user acceptance of the resulting interface software product with minimum sensitivity to uncontrollable noise caused by human behavioral characteristics. Design alternatives for interaction with personal micro-computers are identified. Several important and representative alternatives are chosen as design parameters for the Taguchi matrix experiment. A noise field with three human behavioral characteristics as noise factors were chosen as a representative noise array. Task accomplishment scenarios were developed for demonstration of the design parameters on an interactive human-computer interface. Experimentation was conducted using selected human subjects to study the effect of the various settings of the design parameters on user acceptance of the interface. Using the results of the matrix experiment, a near optimum set of design parameter values was selected.

Reed, B.M.

1991-01-01

18

Using Taguchi robust design method to develop an optimized synthesis procedure of nanocrystalline cancrinite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, perlite was used as a low-cost source of Si and Al to synthesis of nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite. The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite from perlite by using the alkaline hydrothermal treatment under saturated steam pressure was investigated. A statistical Taguchi design of experiments was employed to evaluate the effects of the process variables such as type of aging, aging time and hydrothermal crystallization time on the crystallnity of synthesized zeolite. The optimum conditions for maximum crystallinity of nanocrystalline cancrinite were obtained as microwave-assisted aging, 60 min aging time and 6 h hydrothermal crystallization time from statistical analysis of the experimental results using Taguchi design. The synthetic samples were characterization by XRD, FT-IR and FE-SEM techniques. The results showed that the microwave-assisted aging can shorten the crystallization time and reduced the crystal size to form nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite.

Azizi, Seyed Naser; Asemi, Neda; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolrouf

2012-09-01

19

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Hybrid Nanocarrier for Cancer Therapy: Taguchi Orthogonal Array Based Design  

PubMed Central

Taguchi orthogonal array design is a statistical approach that helps to overcome limitations associated with time consuming full factorial experimental design. In this study, the Taguchi orthogonal array design was applied to establish the optimum conditions for bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanocarrier (ANC) preparation. Taguchi method with L9 type of robust orthogonal array design was adopted to optimize the experimental conditions. Three key dependent factors namely, BSA concentration (% w/v), volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio (v?:?v), and concentration of diluted ethanolic aqueous solution (% v/v), were studied at three levels 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v; 1?:?0.75, 1?:?0.90, and 1?:?1.05?v/v; 40%, 70%, and 100% v/v, respectively. The ethanolic aqueous solution was used to impart less harsh condition for desolvation and attain controlled nanoparticle formation. The interaction plot studies inferred the ethanolic aqueous solution concentration to be the most influential parameter that affects the particle size of nanoformulation. This method (BSA, 4% w/v; volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio, 1?:?0.90?v/v; concentration of diluted ethanolic solution, 70% v/v) was able to successfully develop Gemcitabine (G) loaded modified albumin nanocarrier (M-ANC-G) of size 25.07 ± 2.81?nm (? = ?23.03 ± 1.015?mV) as against to 78.01 ± 4.99?nm (? = ?24.88 ± 1.37?mV) using conventional method albumin nanocarrier (C-ANC-G). Hybrid nanocarriers were generated by chitosan layering (solvent gelation technique) of respective ANC to form C-HNC-G and M-HNC-G of sizes 125.29 ± 5.62?nm (? = 12.01 ± 0.51?mV) and 46.28 ± 2.21?nm (? = 15.05 ± 0.39?mV), respectively. Zeta potential, entrapment, in vitro release, and pH-based stability studies were investigated and influence of formulation parameters are discussed. Cell-line-based cytotoxicity assay (A549 and H460 cells) and cell internalization assay (H460 cell line) were performed to assess the influence on the bioperformance of these nanoformulations.

Tekade, Rakesh K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

2013-01-01

20

A grey-based Taguchi method to optimize design of muzzle flash restraint device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grey-based Taguchi method is proposed to discover the optimal design of the rifle muzzle flash reducer. According to existing research and following interviews with specific domain experts, the critical design factors which influence the reducer’s performance have been ascertained. They are: (1) existence of the front cover, (2) diameter of the outside exhaust hole, (3) location of the exhaust

Chung-Shang Chang; Ren-Chieh Liao; Kun-Li Wen; Wen-Pai Wang

2004-01-01

21

Prediction of surface roughness in CNC face milling using neural networks and Taguchi's design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a neural network modeling approach is presented for the prediction of surface roughness (Ra) in CNC face milling. The data used for the training and checking of the networks’ performance derived from experiments conducted on a CNC milling machine according to the principles of Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) method. The factors considered in the experiment were

P. G Benardos; G. C Vosniakos

2002-01-01

22

Optimal Condition of Happiness: Application of Taguchi Robust Parameter Design on Evidences from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present empirical paper attempts to quantify the optimal condition of happiness, measured in terms of subjective wellbeing (SWB), by using Taguchi Robust Parameter Design. The study uses evidences from survey conducted in New Delhi across various segment of people covering 193 respondents. Responses on a total of 25 sources of happiness pertaining to three broad facets- domain satisfaction, lifetime

Prabhat Pankaj; Roma Mitra Debnath

23

Evaluating performance of a fuel nozzle test stand under varying configurations using Taguchi parameter design - An industrial application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi parameter design is an efficient and effective method for evaluating and optimizing parameters for a given process.\\u000a This article describes a study involving the use of Taguchi parameter design for the evaluation of pressure measurement devices\\u000a used on fuel nozzle test stands. This study examines and compares the performance of a digital display pressure transducer\\u000a device and a mechanical

Joseph Chen; E. Daniel Kirby; James Alvin Zellmer

2008-01-01

24

Optimization design of control charts based on Taguchi's loss function and random process shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm was developed for the optimization design of control charts based on the probability distribution of the random process shifts (e.g. mean shift). The design objective was to minimize the overall mean of Taguchi's loss function per out-of-control case (denoted as ML) by adjusting the sample size, sampling interval and control limits of the chart in an optimal manner.

Z. Wu; M. Shamsuzzaman; E. S. Pan

2004-01-01

25

Economic design of bar X & S control charts based on Taguchi's loss function and its optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much research effort has been devoted to economic design of bar X & S control charts, however, there are some problems in usual methods. On the one hand, it is difficult to estimate the relationship between costs and other model parameters, so the economic design method is often not effective in producing charts that can quickly detect small shifts before substantial losses occur; on the other hand, in many cases, only one type of process shift or only one pair of process shifts are taken into consideration, which may not correctly reflect the actual process conditions. To improve the behavior of economic design of control chart, a cost & loss model with Taguchi's loss function for the economic design of bar X & S control charts is embellished, which is regarded as an optimization problem with multiple statistical constraints. The optimization design is also carried out based on a number of combinations of process shifts collected from the field operation of the conventional control charts, thus more hidden information about the shift combinations is mined and employed to the optimization design of control charts. At the same time, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is developed to solve such an optimization problem in design of bar X & S control charts, IPSO is first tested for several benchmark problems from the literature and evaluated with standard performance metrics. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has significant advantages on obtaining the optimal design parameters of the charts. The proposed method can substantially reduce the total cost (or loss) of the control charts, and it will be a promising tool for economic design of control charts.

Guo, Yu; Yang, Wen'an; Liao, Wenhe; Gao, Shiwen

2012-05-01

26

Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

1993-02-01

27

Taguchi Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to Taguchi's quality engineering ideas and statistical procedures is presented. Taguchi was asked in 1949 to improve productivity in research and development and his ideas and statistical procedures have been used in Japan for decades. Qua...

J. T. M. Wijnen

1991-01-01

28

A Taguchi and experimental investigation into the optimal processing conditions for the abrasive jet polishing of SKD61 mold steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces an abrasive jet polishing (AJP) technique in which the pneumatic air stream carries not only abrasive particles, but also an additive of either pure water or pure water with a specified quantity of machining oil. Taguchi design experiments are performed to identify the optimal AJP parameters when applied to the polishing of electrical discharge machined SKD61 mold

F. C. Tsai; B. H. Yan; C. Y. Kuan; F. Y. Huang

2008-01-01

29

Split-plot designs for robust product experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genichi Taguchi has emphasized the use of designed experiments in several novel and important applications. In this paper we focus on the use of statistical experimental designs in designingproducts to be robust to environmental conditions. The engineering concept of robust product design is very important because it is frequently impossible or prohibitively expensive to control or eliminate variation resulting from

George Box; Stephen Jones

1992-01-01

30

Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the nanoparticle bioproducts. BSA nanoparticles have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery, since they are biodegradable, non-toxic and non antigenic. A statistical experimental design method (Taguchi method with

Mohsen Jahanshahi; Ghasem Najafpour; Mostafa Rahimnejad

31

Optimization of die casting conditions for wear properties of alloy AZ91D components using the Taguchi method and design of experiments analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation applied the Taguchi method and designs of experiments (DOE) approach to optimize parameters for magnesium\\u000a alloy AZ91D. Tribological properties of wear mass loss and friction coefficients were studied. Planning of experiments was\\u000a based on a Taguchi orthogonal array table, and applied signal-to-noise ratios to determine an optimal setting. Furthermore,\\u000a as the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to

Jeong-Lian Wen; Yung-Kuang Yang; Ming-Chang Jeng

2009-01-01

32

A Taguchi approach for determination of optimum design parameters for a heat exchanger having circular-cross sectional pin fins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work submits an investigation about the optimal values of design parameters and performance analysis for a heat exchanger having cylindrical pin fins positioned in a rectangular channel. The experiments covered the following range: Reynolds number 13,500-42,000, the clearance ratio ( C/ H) 0, 0.33 and 1, the interfin spacing ratio ( S y / D) 1.208, 1.944 and 3.417. In the experimentation, Taguchi method was employed, and Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as performance parameters. While the optimum parameters were determined, due to the goals (above aims) more than one being, the trade-off among goals was considered. First of all, each goal was optimized, separately. Then, all goals were optimized together, considering the priority of goals, and the optimum results were found to be Reynolds number of 42,000, fin height of 50 mm and pitch of 3.417. The performance analysis also was made under a constant pumping power constraint, and the results showed that the use of cylindrical pin fins may lead to an advantage on the basis of heat transfer enhancement.

Sahin, Bayram

2007-03-01

33

Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of the array of LED and the semi-cylindrical diffuser in which the intensity distribution of LED is based on Lambertian and the characteristics of diffuser are BTDF: 63%, transmission: 27%, and absorption: 10%. We design the triangular-prism structure at the both sides of the semi-circular diffuser to control the wide-angle light and use the Taguchi method to optimize the parameters of the structure that will control the 10.41% of total flux to light the area between 90 degree and 135 degree and to avoid the total internal reflection. According to the optical simulation results, the 89.59% of total flux is within 90 degree and the 10.41% of total flux is between 90 degree and 135 degree that match with the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Criteria V. 1.1 of ENERGY STAR.

Yu, Jen-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Ma, Chi-Tang

2011-09-01

34

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and its optimization by Taguchi design.  

PubMed

Production of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in 35 different symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains isolated from soil and plant roots was studied and assayed by chromatography and colorimetric methods. These bacteria included Agrobacterium, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Azotobacter. The best general medium and synergism effects of isolates for IAA production were investigated. Effects of different variables containing physical parameters and key media components and optimization of condition for IAA production were performed using the Design of Experiments. Qualitek-4 (W32b) software for automatic design and analysis of the experiments, both based on Taguchi method was used. The results showed that Rhizobium strains, symbiotic, and Paenibacillus non-symbiotic bacteria yielded the highest concentrations of IAA (in the range of 5.23-0.27 and 4.90-0.19 ppm IAA/mg biomass, respectively) and IAA production was increased by synergism effect of them. Yeast Extract Mannitol medium supplemented with L-tryptophan was the best general medium for IAA production. The analysis of experimental data using Taguchi method indicated that nitrogen source is very prominent variable in affecting the yield and mannitol as carbon source, potassium nitrate (1%), and L-tryptophan (3 g/l) as nitrogen sources after 72-h incubation at 30 degrees C were the optimum conditions for production of IAA. 5.89 ppm IAA/mg biomass was produced under these optimal conditions. PMID:20526603

Shokri, Dariush; Emtiazi, Giti

2010-06-05

35

An experimental investigation of cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning process using Taguchi approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Turning processes being especially developed for difficult\\u000a to machine materials. First, the effects of the machining parameters power, voltage, pulse off time, and spindle rotation\\u000a rate on the machining performance, which comprises the material removal rate, the surface roughness, and the roundness, was\\u000a studied. The machining parameters were evaluated by Taguchi's

M. J. Haddad; M. Tajik; A. Fadaei Tehrani; A. Mohammadi; M. Hadi

2009-01-01

36

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This SciGuide addresses how students can improve the design of investigations and understand how scientists do science. The format of this SciGuide is designed to help all precollege teachers (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) design inquiry investigations.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-08-01

37

Multi response optimization of wire EDM operations using robust design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this present study a multi response optimization method using Taguchi’s robust design approach is proposed for wire electrical\\u000a discharge machining (WEDM) operations. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array. Each experiment\\u000a has been performed under different cutting conditions of pulse on time, wire tension, delay time, wire feed speed, and ignition\\u000a current intensity. Three responses namely material

R. Ramakrishnan; L. Karunamoorthy

2006-01-01

38

Experimental Investigation of Parameters of CNC Turning by Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AISI H13, a chromium based hot work tool Steel has a wide variety of applications in aluminum casting and extrusion dies, forging dies, hot nut tools, hot header dies, extrusion mandrels, plastic molds, cores, die holder blocks, hot press dies and specially hot work punches etc. In this study, the optimization of two response parameters (Surface roughness and Material Removal Rate) by three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) is investigated in high speed turning of H13 in dry conditions. Taguchi's L'18 orthogonal array and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used for individual optimization. The simultaneous optimization is done by Grey Relational Analysis approach. The different levels of all machining parameters are used and experiments are done on HMT STALLION-100 HS CNC lathe machine. The optimum condition for combined effects was found V5-F1-D1 and the optimal value of the surface roughness (Ra) comes out to be 0.85 (μm) and of MRR is 488.8 (mm³/sec). The optimum results are also verified with the help of confirmation experiments. Keywords: CNC Turning, O

Sharma, Pankaj; Bhambri, Kamaljeet

2013-03-01

39

Study of Micro Abrasive Tool Making by Pulse Plating Using Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of pulse plating parameters on the extent of incorporation of micro diamond abrasives within metallic binder was performed for a micro abrasive tool. The Taguchi experimental design has been applied to investigate the optimal combination of process parameters to achieve embedment of nominal amount of abrasives in the nickel bond matrix. Analysis of variance was performed and signal-to-noise

Anuj Dabholkar; Murali M. Sundaram

2012-01-01

40

APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF LASER MICRO-ENGRAVING OF PHOTOMASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photomasks are needed to generate various design patterns in the fabrication of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). This paper discusses the use of the Taguchi method of experimental design in optimising process parameters for micro - engraving of iron oxide coated glass using a Q -switched Nd:YAG laser. The effects of five key process parameters - beam expansion ratio, focal length,

Y. H. Chen; S. C. Tam; W. L. Chen; H. Y. Zheng

1996-01-01

41

Optimisation of energy consumption in arsenic electro-removal from groundwater by the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) removal from groundwater (GW) was carried out by electrocoagulation (EC). To define the effects of the main factors involved in As removal by EC on the energy consumption of the treatment, an experimental design based on an orthogonal array (OA) L9(34) proposed by Taguchi was used. Four factors at three different levels were considered for the optimisation, namely

J. F. Martínez-Villafañe; C. Montero-Ocampo

2010-01-01

42

Laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus 1804: Optimization of submerged culture conditions by Taguchi DOE methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged culture conditions for laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus 1804 were optimized by Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) experimental design (DOE) methodology. This approach facilitates the study of interaction of a large number of variables spanned by factors and their settings with a small number of experiments leading to considerable saving in time and cost for the process optimization. The proposed

K. Krishna Prasad; S. Venkata Mohan; R. Sreenivas Rao; Bikas Ranjan Pati; P. N. Sarma

2005-01-01

43

A study on kerf and material removal rate in wire electrical discharge machining based on Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation on the effect and optimization of machining parameters on the kerf (cutting width) and material removal rate (MRR) in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operations. The experimental studies were conducted under varying pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric flushing pressure. The settings of machining parameters were determined by using Taguchi experimental design

Nihat Tosun; Can Cogun; Gul Tosun

2004-01-01

44

Optimisation of parameters for aqueous tape-casting of cordierite-based glass ceramics by Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous suspensions of cordierite-based glass ceramics were prepared by using four types of dispersants and binders and different solids loading. The experiments were designed according to the Taguchi method, which shows great advantages in optimising more than two factors that need to be considered in an experimental design. Different parameters such as the type and concentration of the dispersants and

Sen Mei; Juan Yang; José Maria F Ferreira; Rodrigo Martins

2002-01-01

45

Taguchi Method Implementation in Taper Motion Wire EDM Process Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire EDM) is a non-conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for producing jigs, fixtures, and dies. Among others, the machine is able to cut a workpiece having oblique and taper form. The objective of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of Wire EDM machine, such as no load voltage, capacitor, on-time, off-time, and servo voltage, for machining medium carbon steel ASSAB 760. The Taguchi design of experiments, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to analyze the effects of the input parameters by adopting L18 Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) to conduct experiments using brass wire electrode of 0.2 mm in diameter. In order to achieve the maximum material removal rate (MRR) or the minimum surface roughness (SR), six controllable factors, i.e., the parameters of each at three levels are applied for determining the optimal combination of factors and levels. The results reveal that the MRR and the SR are greatly influenced by the on-time and the taper angle, respectively. Experimental results affirm the effectiveness of the method, and also prove that the Taguchi method is suitable to solving the stated problem within minimum number of experiments as compared to that of a full factorial design.

Martowibowo, S. Y.; Wahyudi, A.

2012-10-01

46

An application of robust parameter design using an alternative to Taguchi methods  

SciTech Connect

The factors of interest in designing a product or process can generally be classified into two categories, controllable and uncontrollable. Controllable (or control) factors represent those factors which can be regulated. Examples of control factors include: the choice of material, flow rates, processing pressures, times and temperatures. Uncontrollable (noise) factors are those that are either difficult, impossible or too expensive to control during actual production or use. Examples of noise factors are: environmental conditions such as ambient temperature or humidity, process parameters which are dictated by an outside source such as end user demand, and usage factors such as how long and at what temperature a consumer stores a product. As compared to the current Tagachi approach, a new design method which provides greater flexibility in the design of the experiment, utilize a more meaningful performance statistic, and lend itself to a better understanding of the product or process is described in this paper.

Abate, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, M.C. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Kuczek, T. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

1996-11-01

47

TAGUCHI APPROACH TO DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR QUALITY AND COST: AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONCalibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establishhuman presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) willrequire resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In orderfor SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost thistime, even with tremendous increases

Resit Unal; Edwin B. Dean

1991-01-01

48

The optimal parameters in a magnetically assisted finishing system using Taguchi’s method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intelligent design system was created that efficiently uses magnetic force to assist in the discharge of dregs from the electrode gap during the electrochemical step of a surface finishing process. In this electrochemical finishing experiment, the author used an electrode mated to the shape of the workpiece and supplied with continuous or pulsed direct current. The study used Taguchi’s Method to analyze the combination of optimal parameters. The experimental parameters include four factors at three levels for the evaluation of surface roughness after the magnetically assisted electrochemical finishing process. These four factors are voltage, magnetic field strength, the distance between the two magnets and the electrode rotation speed. For this design a higher rotation speed of the electrode produced a better finish. A higher voltage with magnetic assistance can alleviate the difficulties of dregs discharge and also reduce the finishing time. Smaller distances between the two magnets, or a larger magnetic field intensity provides more magnetic force, improved discharge and results in a better finish. The average effect of magnetic assistance was greater than that of pulsed current and there is no need to prolong machining time to compensate for off-time.

Pa, P. S.

2010-11-01

49

Study of magnetic abrasive finishing in free-form surface operations using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) to conduct free-form surface abrasion of stainless SUS304 material operations.\\u000a The operations were demonstrated using a permanent magnetic finishing mechanism installed at the CNC machining center. The\\u000a operations were performed using the Taguchi experimental design, considering the effects of magnetic field, spindle revolution,\\u000a feed rate, working gap, abrasive, and lubricant. Furthermore, the experimental

Ching-Tien Lin; Lieh-Dai Yang; Han-Ming Chow

2007-01-01

50

An Experimental Investigation into the Optimal Processing Conditions for the CO2 Laser Cladding of 20 MnCr5 Steel Using Taguchi Method and ANN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of laser clad profile formed by means of CO2 laser applying Taguchi method and the artificial neural network (ANN). Laser cladding is one of the surface modifying technologies in which the desired surface characteristics of any component can be achieved such as good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and hardness etc. Laser is used as a heat source to melt the anti-corrosive powder of Inconel-625 (Super Alloy) to give a coating on 20 MnCr5 substrate. The parametric study of this technique is also attempted here. The data obtained from experiments have been used to develop the linear regression equation and then to develop the neural network model. Moreover, the data obtained from regression equations have also been used as supporting data to train the neural network. The artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the input/output parameters of the process. The established ANN model is then indirectly integrated with the optimization technique. It has been seen that the developed neural network model shows a good degree of approximation with experimental data. In order to obtain the combination of process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate for which the output parameters become optimum, the experimental data have been used to develop the response surfaces.

Mondal, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Asish.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

2010-10-01

51

Experimental design and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim with this tutorial is to give a simple and easily understandable introduction to experimental design and optimization. The screening methods described in the paper are factorial and fractional factorial designs. Identification of significant variables are performed by normal distribution plots as well as by confidence intervals. Refinements of the models are also discussed. For optimization, the simplex method,

Torbjörn Lundstedt; Elisabeth Seifert; Lisbeth Abramo; Bernt Thelin; Åsa Nyström; Jarle Pettersen; Rolf Bergman

1998-01-01

52

Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

Kissel, R.

1992-05-01

53

Performance optimization of Jatropha biodiesel engine model using Taguchi approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology for thermodynamic model analysis of Jatropha biodiesel engine in combination with Taguchi’s optimization approach to determine the optimum engine design and operating parameters. A thermodynamic model based on two-zone Weibe’s heat release function has been employed to simulate the Jatropha biodiesel engine performance. Among the important engine design and operating parameters 10 critical parameters were

T. Ganapathy; K. Murugesan; R. P. Gakkhar

2009-01-01

54

Noise reduction of a high-speed printing system using optimized gears based on Taguchi’s method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the increasing demand for more quiet printers, a noise reduction method is required for high-speed laser beam printing.\\u000a The driving-gear noise is one of the most important components influencing the noise level in laser beam printers. In this\\u000a paper, optimized gear designs based on Taguchi’s method are presented. The proposed optimized gears are applied to a high-speed\\u000a laser

Hak-Kyum Kim; Jin-Young Jeon; Ji-Youp Park; Seongho Yoon; Sungsoo Na

2010-01-01

55

Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design  

PubMed Central

Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 32 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P?0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics.

Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.; Devi, V. Kusum

2012-01-01

56

Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.

Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.

1993-10-01

57

Multi-Response Optimization of Carbidic Austempered Ductile Iron Production Parameters using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbide Austempered Ductile Iron (CADI) is the family of ductile iron containing wear resistance alloy carbides in the ausferrite matrix. This CADI is manufactured by selecting and characterizing the proper material composition through the melting route done. In an effort to arrive the optimal production parameters of multi responses, Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis have been applied. To analyze the effect of production parameters on the mechanical properties signal-to-noise ratio and Grey relational grade have been calculated based on the design of experiments. An analysis of variance was calculated to find the amount of contribution of factors on mechanical properties and their significance. The analytical results of Taguchi method were compared with the experimental values, and it shows that both are identical.

Dhanapal, P.; Mohamed Nazirudeen, S. S.; Chandrasekar, A.

2012-04-01

58

A Taguchi approach for determination of optimum design parameters for a heat exchanger having circular-cross sectional pin fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work submits an investigation about the optimal values of design parameters and performance analysis for a heat\\u000a exchanger having cylindrical pin fins positioned in a rectangular channel. The experiments covered the following range: Reynolds\\u000a number 13,500–42,000, the clearance ratio (C\\/H) 0, 0.33 and 1, the interfin spacing ratio (S\\u000a \\u000a y\\u000a \\/D) 1.208, 1.944 and 3.417. In the experimentation,

Bayram Sahin

2007-01-01

59

An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, some stabilized magnetite based ferrofluids were synthesized using Dextran as a stabilizing agent. In order to achieve optimum experimental conditions for synthesizing ferrofluids as MRI contrast agents, the Taguchi method was used. This approach was employed to design and minimize the number of required experiments. By using the Taguchi orthogonal (L16) array, four parameters including solution temperature and alkalinity, reaction temperature and stirring rate were selected at four predetermined levels for 16 experiments. Synthesizing processes established based on this set of experimental conditions were carried out and the obtained ferrofluids were characterized using PCS, VSM, TEM and FT-IR techniques. The obtained results were used and analyzed through the Qualitek-4 software and the proposed optimum experimental conditions were used for synthesizing the desired sample. Finally, this sample was used as a potential MRI contrast agent for imaging lymph nodes.

Ahmadi, Reza; Hosseini, Hamid Reza Madaah

2013-04-01

60

Optimization of weld bead geometry in laser welding with filler wire process using Taguchi’s approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, laser welding with filler wire was successfully applied to joining a new-type Al-Mg alloy. Welding parameters of laser power, welding speed and wire feed rate were carefully selected with the objective of producing a weld joint with the minimum weld bead width and the fusion zone area. Taguchi approach was used as a statistical design of experimental technique for optimizing the selected welding parameters. From the experimental results, it is found that the effect of welding parameters on the welding quality decreased in the order of welding speed, wire feed rate, and laser power. The optimal combination of welding parameters is the laser power of 2.4 kW, welding speed of 3 m/min and the wire feed rate of 2 m/min. Verification experiments have also been conducted to validate the optimized parameters.

dongxia, Yang; xiaoyan, Li; dingyong, He; zuoren, Nie; hui, Huang

2012-10-01

61

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

Cottrell, Edward B.

62

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

Cottrell, Edward B.

63

Designing an integrated multi-echelon agile supply chain network: a hybrid taguchi-particle swarm optimization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper attempts to explore the integration of production, distribution and logistics activities at the strategic\\u000a decision making level where, the objective is to design a multi-echelon supply chain network considering agility as a key\\u000a design criterion. The design network conceived here addresses a class of five echelons of supply chains including suppliers,\\u000a plants, distribution centers, cross-docks and customer

Manish Bachlaus; Mayank Kumar Pandey; Chetan Mahajan; Ravi Shankar; M. K. Tiwari

2008-01-01

64

Machining Characteristics and Optimization of Machining Parameters of SKH 57 High-Speed Steel Using Electrical-Discharge Machining Based on Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the machining parameters in electrical-discharge machining (EDM) on the machining characteristics of SKH 57 high-speed steel were investigated. A well-designed experimental scheme was used to reduce the total number of experiments. Parts of the experiment were conducted with the L18 orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratios associated with the observed values in

Yan-Cherng Lin; Chao-Hsu Cheng; Bo-Lin Su; Lih-Ren Hwang

2006-01-01

65

Application of the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method to the precision positioning device using combined piezo-VCM actuator.  

PubMed

In this research, the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method was used as design and analysis methods for a high-precision positioning device using the combined piezo-voice-coil motor (VCM) actuator. An experimental investigation into the effects of two input signals and three control factors were carried out to determine the optimum parametric configuration of the positioning device. The double-dynamic Taguchi method, which permits optimization of several control factors concurrently, is particularly suitable for optimizing the performance of a positioning device with multiple actuators. In this study, matrix experiments were conducted with L9(3(4)) orthogonal arrays (OAs). The two most critical processes for the optimization of positioning device are the identification of the nonlinear ideal function and the combination of the double-dynamic signal factors for the ideal function's response. The driving voltage of the VCM and the waveform amplitude of the PZT actuator are combined into a single quality characteristic to evaluate the positioning response. The application of the double-dynamic Taguchi method, with dynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and L9(3(4)) OAs, reduced the number of necessary experiments. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to set the optimum parameters based on the high-precision positioning process. PMID:17328322

Liu, Yung-Tien; Fung, Rong-Fong; Wang, Chun-Chao

2007-02-01

66

The use of Taguchi technique to optimize the compression moulding cycle to process acetabular cup components.  

PubMed

Taguchi technique is a powerful method of solving engineering problems in order to improve the performance of a process and to enhance the productivity. The methodology for the design of the experiment is proposed in order to find the best parameters for better experimental results with less number of experiments as possible. In this study, Taguchi technique was applied to optimize the compression moulding cycle for processing the Acetabular cup prototype. For the design of the experiments, three main factors such as processing temperature, pressure and the time of compaction were identified which directly influence the quality of the final product. For each factor three levels were considered and an orthogonal array L9 was associated. With the L9 orthogonal array, a total of 9 trial experiments have been performed and the optimum parameters were identified. An experimental test was performed in order to validate the founded conditions. The optimized conditions encountered were: processing temperature of 160 degrees C, processing pressure of 1000 psi and the compaction time of 90 s. With these optimized parameters, the acetabular cup prototypes were processed for nanocomposites having ultra-high molecular weight (UHMWPE) reinforced with different volume fractions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the range of 0.2 to 2.0 vol.%. PMID:21770185

Fonseca, A; Inácio, N; Kanagaraj, S; Oliveira, M S A; Simões, J A O

2011-06-01

67

Catalyst performance study using Taguchi methods  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the effects of various factors on the performance characteristics of aged monolithic catalytic converters. The factors that were evaluated were catalyst volume, converter configuration (number of elements), catalyst supplier washcoat technology, rhodium loading, platinum loading, and palladium loading. This study was also designed to evaluate the interactions among the various factors. To improve the efficiency of the study a 2-level fractional experiment was designed using the Taguchi method. That made it possible to study the effects of the seven main factors and six interactions by evaluating only 16 different samples. The study helped sort the factors that had significant effects and helped quantify their effect on catalyst performance. This paper details there methodology used to design the experiment and analyze the results.

Sims, G.S.; Johri, S.

1988-01-01

68

Multi-response analysis in the material characterisation of electrospun poly (lactic acid)/halloysite nanotube composite fibres based on Taguchi design of experiments: fibre diameter, non-intercalation and nucleation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite fibres were prepared by using a simple and versatile electrospinning technique. The systematic approach via Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) was implemented to investigate factorial effects of applied voltage, feed rate of solution, collector distance and HNT concentration on the fibre diameter, HNT non-intercalation and nucleation effects. The HNT intercalation level, composite fibre morphology, their associated fibre diameter and thermal properties were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. HNT non-intercalation phenomenon appears to be manifested as reflected by the minimal shift of XRD peaks for all electrospun PLA/HNT composite fibres. The smaller-fibre-diameter characteristic was found to be sequentially associated with the feed rate of solution, collector distance and applied voltage. The glass transition temperature ( T g) and melting temperature ( T m) are not highly affected by varying the material and electrospinning parameters. However, as the indicator of the nucleation effect, the crystallisation temperature ( T c) of PLA/HNT composite fibres is predominantly impacted by HNT concentration and applied voltage. It is evident that HNT's nucleating agent role is confirmed when embedded with HNTs to accelerate the cold crystallisation of composite fibres. Taguchi DoE method has been found to be an effective approach to statistically optimise critical parameters used in electrospinning in order to effectively tailor the resulting physical features and thermal properties of PLA/HNT composite fibres.

Dong, Yu; Bickford, Thomas; Haroosh, Hazim J.; Lau, Kin-Tak; Takagi, Hitoshi

2013-09-01

69

Application of Taguchi approach to optimize friction stir welding parameters of polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents experimental and numerical results of butt friction stir welding of high density polyethylene. The FSW designed tool insulates the welded samples and preserves the heat gained from friction thus avoiding the appearance of blisters and splits after welding. The experimental tests, conducted according to combinations of process factors such as rotation speed, welding speed, pin diameter and hold time at beginning welding, were carried out according the Taguchi orthogonal table L27 in randomized way. Temperatures in the joint during the welding operation and flow stresses from the tensile tests of welded samples were measured and variances were analyzed. Identified models were used to simulate, by finite elements, the tensile tests performed on specimens having a weld cordon in their active area. The results show coherence between the numerical predictions and experimental observations in different cases of weld cordon mechanical behaviour.

Rezgui, M. A.; Ayadi, M.; Cherouat, A.; Hamrouni, K.; Zghal, A.; Bejaoui, S.

2010-06-01

70

Teaching experimental design to biologists.  

PubMed

The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs. PMID:10644236

Zolman, J F

1999-12-01

71

Investigation Of Tool Wear In Hard Turning Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard turning is a machining process defined of hardness higher than 45 HRC under appropriate cutting tools and cutting speed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum process parameters for a particular work piece-tool material combination. . In this study, three levels of each parameters viz. Hardness (HRC), Speed(mm/min), Feed(mm/rev) and three different tool materials are evaluated for process quality characteristics such as tool wear. The three different tool materials used are High CBN, Low CBN, Mixed ceramic. AISI H 11 was taken as work piece material. The experiment is designed using Taguchi Method. The results obtained from the experiments are transformed into signal to noise (S/N) ratio and used to optimize the value of tool wear. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to indentify the statistical significance of parameters. The final results of experimental investigation are presented in this paper. The conclusions arrived at are critically discussed at the end.

Chaudhari, Y. D.

2013-03-01

72

Modified Artificial Diet for Rearing of Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi Method and Derringer's Desirability Function  

PubMed Central

With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets.

Assemi, H.; Rezapanah, M.; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R.

2012-01-01

73

Modified artificial diet for rearing of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi method and Derringer's desirability function.  

PubMed

With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets. PMID:23425103

Assemi, H; Rezapanah, M; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R; Mehrvar, A

2012-01-01

74

Optimization of novel flux barrier in interior permanent magnet-type brushless dc motor based on modified Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the novel flux barrier by using the modified Taguchi method to reduce the cogging torque. In the optimizing process the modified Taguchi method is utilized to consider multiple objective quality characteristics simultaneously such as the torque ripple and the efficiency as well as the cogging torque. The optimal novel flux barrier can effectively reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple and it is verified through the experimental results.

Yang, Byoung-Yull; Hwang, Kyu-Yun; Rhee, Sang-Bong; Kim, Dae-Kyong; Kwon, Byung-Il

2009-04-01

75

Principles: The need for better experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many experiments could be improved with better experimental design and statistical analysis. Badly designed experiments can lead to incorrect conclusions and wasted time and scientific resources. Such experiments are unethical if they involve animals or humans. Good experimental design requires clearly defined objectives and control of the major sources of variation. In this article, a small mouse experiment involving the

Michael F. W. Festing

2003-01-01

76

From Cookbook to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing expertise, whether from cook to chef or from student to scientist, occurs over time and requires encouragement, guidance, and support. One key goal of an elementary science program should be to move students toward expertise in their ability to design investigative questions. The ability to design a testable question is difficult for…

Flannagan, Jenny Sue; McMillan, Rachel

2009-01-01

77

OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other…

Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

1983-01-01

78

Optimizing multi-machining characteristics through Taguchi's approach and utility concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Taguchi's technique is best suited to optimize a single performance characteristic yielding an optimal setting of process parameters. A single setting of process parameters may be optimal for one quality characteristics but the same setting may yield detrimental results for other quality features. Thus the purpose of this paper is to describe simultaneous optimization of multi-characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Hari Singh; Pradeep Kumar

2006-01-01

79

Quality by design in the nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern statistical quality control has evolved beyond the point at which control charts and sampling plans are sufficient to maintain a competitive position. The work of Genichi Taguchi in the early 1970's has inspired a renewed interest in the application of statistical methods of experimental design at the beginning of the manufacturing cycle. While there has been considerable debate over

Ikle

1988-01-01

80

A conformal Taguchi optimized E-patch antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a cavity-backed E-patch antenna placed conformal to a cylindrical conducting surface is explored numerically using the finite element boundary integral (FE-BI) method. From using rigorous full-wave simulations based on the finite element method, the effects of curvature are assessed for such antenna characteristics as bandwidth and impedance. The necessary changes to the patch geometry to maintain an acceptable impedance match and a desired bandwidth for rectangular cavity-backed E-patch antennas are determined. Cylindrically conformal cavity-backed E-patch antennas are simulated and perform well with many different cylinder radii. A experimental cylindrical conformal cavity-backed E-patch antenna was built to verify simulations and preformed well at the L1 and L2 frequencies. Radiation patterns of both experimental and simulated cylindrically conformal cavity-back E-patch antennas are analyzed and perform well. Taguchi's method of optimization is used to optimize |S 11| of rectangular cavitybacked E-patch antennas. Using Matlab and rigorous full-wave simulations based on the finite element method in combination, the effects of having different fitness functions, level differences, and input parameters in Taguchi's method of optimization are explored and determined.

Gardner, C. M.

81

Experimental design of a waste glass study  

SciTech Connect

A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

1995-04-01

82

Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values, and thereby identify an optimal experimental design. After describing the method, it is demonstrated in two content areas in cognitive psychology in which models are highly competitive: retention (i.e., forgetting) and categorization. The optimal design is compared with the quality of designs used in the literature. The findings demonstrate that design optimization has the potential to increase the informativeness of the experimental method.

Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

83

Taguchi Methods in Electronics: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by a...

R. Kissel

1992-01-01

84

A free lunch in linearized experimental design?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The No Free Lunch (NFL) theorems state that no single optimization algorithm is ideally suited for all objective functions and, conversely, that no single objective function is ideally suited for all optimization algorithms. This paper examines the influence of the NFL theorems on linearized statistical experimental design (SED). We consider four design algorithms with three different design objective functions to examine their interdependency. As a foundation for the study, we consider experimental designs for fitting ellipses to data, a problem pertinent to the study of transverse isotropy in many disciplines. Surprisingly, we find that the quality of optimized experiments, and the computational efficiency of their optimization, is generally independent of the criterion-algorithm pairing. We discuss differences in the performance of each design algorithm, providing a guideline for selecting design algorithms for other problems. As a by-product we demonstrate and discuss the principle of diminishing returns in SED, namely, that the value of experimental design decreases with experiment size. Another outcome of this study is a simple rule-of-thumb for prescribing optimal experiments for ellipse fitting, which bypasses the computational expense of SED. This is used to define a template for optimizing survey designs, under simple assumptions, for Amplitude Variations with Azimuth and Offset (AVAZ) seismics in the specialized problem of fracture characterization, such as is of interest in the petroleum industry. Finally, we discuss the scope of our conclusions for the NFL theorems as they apply to nonlinear and Bayesian SED.

Coles, Darrell; Curtis, Andrew

2011-08-01

85

Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.  

PubMed

The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. PMID:22333438

Hibbert, D Brynn

2012-01-28

86

Application of grey-based Taguchi method for simultaneous optimization of multiple quality characteristics in laser transmission welding process of thermoplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, Taguchi method in combination with grey relational analysis is applied for solving multi-criteria optimization\\u000a problems in laser transmission welding processes. The welding parameters, namely laser power, welding speed and defocal position\\u000a are optimized with respect to weld strength and weld width. Using the Taguchi quality design concept, an L16 orthogonal array\\u000a table is chosen for the

Bappa Acherjee; Arunanshu S. Kuar; Souren Mitra; Dipten Misra

87

Small Sample Experimental Design Optimization and Repair  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of using Design of Experiment (DOEx) methods is to extract the maximum amount of information concerning experimental factors and their interactions from as few observations as possible. DOEx methodology allows an experimenter to selectively and systematically adjust process settings to learn which factors have the greatest impact on process and product performance. Using information about these factors, process settings can be adjusted until optimum performance is obtained.

A. J. Honson; D. DeCarli; S. V. Crowder

1999-04-01

88

True and Quasi-Experimental Designs. ERIC/AE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the different types of experimental design are two general categories: true experimental designs and quasi- experimental designs. True experimental designs include more than one purposively created group, common measured outcomes, and random assignment. Quasi-experimental designs are commonly used when random assignment is not practical or…

Gribbons, Barry; Herman, Joan

89

Choosing an Experimental Design (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Engineering Statistics Handbook, created by authors Alan Heckert and James Filliben of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, describes in detail the process of choosing an experimental design to obtain the results you need. The basic designs an engineer needs to know about are described in detail. Overall, this is a great resource for anyone interested in either engineering or mathematics.

Filliben, James; Heckert, Alan

2008-12-31

90

Experimental Market Mechanism Design for Double Auction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce an experimental approach to the design, analysis and implementation of market mechanisms based\\u000a on double auction. We define a formal market model that specifies the market policies in a double auction market. Based on\\u000a this model, we introduce a set of criteria for the evaluation of market mechanisms. We design and implement a set of

Masabumi Furuhata; Laurent Perrussel; Jean-Marc Thévenin; Dongmo Zhang

2009-01-01

91

Compressed sensing and Bayesian experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We relate compressed sensing (CS) with Bayesian experimental design and provide a novel efficient approximate method for the latter, based on expectation propaga- tion. In a large comparative study about lin- early measuring natural images, we show that the simple standard heuristic of measuring wavelet coefficients top-down systematically outperforms CS methods using random mea- surements; the sequential projection optimi- sation

Matthias W. Seeger; Hannes Nickisch

2008-01-01

92

Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

1983-01-01

93

Design and Experimental Evaluation of a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rule-based, digital controller that incorporates fuzzy logic has been designed and experimentally demonstrated on the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor. The potential value of fuzzy logic to the control of reactor power was assessed by comparing the performance of the fuzzy controller to that of one of identical structure that did not rely upon fuzzy logic. The fuzzy system

John A. Bernard; Asok Ray; Kwan S. Kwok; David D. Lanning

1985-01-01

94

Parameter optimization of nanosecond laser for microdrilling on PVC by Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of cavities having maximum aspect ratio (depth-to-width (D/W) ratio) on PVC during laser drilling has several undesirable outcomes with regard to cavity quality. Hence it is essential to select optimum drilling process parameters to maximize aspect ratio and minimize Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and circularity. This paper presents application of the Taguchi optimization method to obtain cavities possessing maximum aspect ratio influenced by drilling conditions such as wavelength, fluence and frequency. In the present work, the effects of laser processing parameters, including laser fluence, laser frequency and wavelength were investigated in relation to the aspect ratio, HAZ and circularity. Then the optimal values of wavelength, fluence and frequency were determined. According to the result of the confirmation experiment using optimum parameters, it was observed that experimental results were compatible with Taguchi method with 93% rate. The details of experimentation analysis and analysis of variance are presented in this paper.

Canel, Timur; Kaya, A. U?ur; Çelik, Bekir

2012-11-01

95

Determination of optimal experimental conditions for the preparation of lead zirconate titanate via sol-precipitate process by applying statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractional factorial design was implemented to optimize the experimental conditions for the preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) from acetate precursors. The effects of such preparatory conditions as the molar ratio of acetic acid to metal alkoxide, the water to alkoxide ratio, the pH value, reaction temperature and the stirring speed, were systematically studied by using a Taguchi orthogonal

Wein-Duo Yang; Kun-Ming Hung; Ching-Shieh Hsieh

2002-01-01

96

Simultaneous optimization of diesel engine parameters for low emissions using Taguchi methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a study which was conducted to simultaneously optimize several diesel engine design and operating parameters for low exhaust emissions using the Taguchi method. A single cylinder, research, diesel engine equipped with a high pressure, cam-driven, electronic unit injector was used in this optimization experiment. The major effects of key engine design parameters on exhaust emissions were quantified and optimum parameter settings were determined. Measurement of exhaust emissions using the optimum parameter settings showed that particulates and NO{sub x} emissions were significantly lower than those obtained for the baseline engine. The Taguchi method was found to be a useful technique for the simultaneous optimization of several engine parameters and for predicting the effect of various design parameters on diesel exhaust emissions.

Hunter, C.E.; Gardner, T.P.; Zakrajsek, C.E.

1990-01-01

97

SOLUTION TO THE TAGUCHI'S PROBLEM WITH CORRELATED RESPONSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships that may exist between the responses of the Taguchi's problem may mask better conditions or globally preferred values about the process or the product of interest. To overcome this problem, in this study, we suggest a detection tool of correlations between the responses and a method suitable for the analysis of the Taguchi's problem when the relationships exist between

Onur KÖKSOY; F. Zehra MULUK

2004-01-01

98

Simulation as an aid to experimental design  

SciTech Connect

A simulator of chemical reactions can aid the scientist in the design of experimentation. They are of great value when studying enzymatic kinetic reactions. One such simulator is a numerical ordinary differential equation solver which uses interactive graphics to provide the user with the capability to simulate an extremely wide range of enzyme reaction conditions for many types of single substrate reactions. The concentration vs. time profiles of any subset or all nine states of a complex reaction can be displayed with and without simulated instrumental noise. Thus the user can estimate the practicality of any proposed experimentation given known instrumental noise. The experimenter can readily determine which state provides the most information related to the proposed kinetic parameters and mechanism. A general discussion of the program including the nondimensionalization of the set of differential equations is included. Finally, several simulation examples are shown and the results discussed.

Frazer, J.W.; Balaban, D.J.; Wang, J.L.

1983-05-01

99

Taguchi's off line method and Multivariate loss function approach for quality management and optimization of process parameters -A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-line quality control is considered to be an effective approach to improve product quality at a relatively low cost. The Taguchi method is one of the conventional approaches for this purpose. Through this approach, engineers can determine a feasible combination of design parameters such that the variability of a product's response can be reduced and the mean is close to the desired target. The traditional Taguchi method was focused on ensuring good performance at the parameter design stage with one quality characteristic, but most products and processes have multiple quality characteristics. The optimal parameter design minimizes the total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. Several studies have presented approaches addressing multiple quality characteristics. Most of these papers were concerned with maximizing the parameter combination of signal to noise (SN) ratios. The results reveal the advantages of this approach are that the optimal parameter design is the same as the traditional Taguchi method for the single quality characteristic; the optimal design maximizes the amount of reduction of total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. This paper presents a literature review on solving multi-response problems in the Taguchi method and its successful implementation in various industries.

Bharti, P. K.; Khan, M. I.; Singh, Harbinder

2010-10-01

100

Optimization of EDM process for multiple performance characteristics using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most extensively used non-conventional material removal processes. The\\u000a Taguchi method has been utilized to determine the optimal EDM conditions in several industrial fields. The method, however,\\u000a was designed to optimize only a single performance characteristic. To remove that limitation, the Grey relational analysis\\u000a theory has been used to resolve the complicated interrelationships

Jong Hyuk Jung; Won Tae Kwon

2010-01-01

101

Employing the Taguchi method to obtain the optimum conditions of coagulation–flocculation process in tannery wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a series of jar test experiments, designed using Taguchi method, were carried out to determine the optimum conditions for tannery wastewater treatment, and the effects of type and dose of coagulant, type and dose of coagulant aid and pH on the efficiency of coagulation–flocculation process were evaluated. The goal parameters to find the optimum conditions were each

S. Aber; D. Salari; M. R. Parsa

2010-01-01

102

Integrating Taguchi Method with Desirability Function Analysis to Optimize the Laser Transmission Welding Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a hybrid approach based on Taguchi method and desirability function analysis to optimize the laser transmission welding process. The Taguchi L25 orthogonal array, for a four factor five level design, is used for the study. The welding parameters, namely: laser power, welding speed, stand-off distance and clamp pressure are optimized with considerations of multiple quality characteristics including weld strength and weld width. The multiple quality characteristics are then combined into a dimensionless measure of performance called composite desirability function to simplify the optimization procedure. Subsequently, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to determine the significance of parameters and to identify the optimum levels of parameters based on the composite desirability function. The confirmation experiment at the optimal levels shows that the targeted multiple quality characteristics can be significantly improved to achieve more desirable levels.

Acherjee, Bappa; Kuar, Arunanshu S.; Mitra, Souren; Misra, Dipten

2010-10-01

103

Bread Making: Classic Biotechnology and Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bread making activities can help students meet local and national standards for scientific inquiry, experimental design, and problem solving. In the first activity, students make and observe yeast solutions. Then they predict what might happen when the recipe is modified and conduct invesitigations. The subsequent investigations increase the level of student input and encourages students to practice the skills before using them outside of the classroom. The final assignment draws upon and expands the skills practiced in class with an at-home investigation.

Sitzman, Daniel L.

2003-01-01

104

Set membership experimental design for biological systems  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This study shows that our approach is able to 1) identify candidate measurement time points that maximize information corresponding to biologically relevant metrics and 2) determine the number at which additional measurements begin to provide insignificant information. This framework can be used to balance the availability of resources with the addition of one or more measurement time points to improve the predictability of resulting models.

2012-01-01

105

Inulinase production by Geotrichum candidum OC-7 using migratory locusts as a new substrate and optimization process with Taguchi DOE.  

PubMed

Utilization of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria) as a main substrate due to its high protein content for inulinase (2,1-?-d-fructan fructanohydrolase) production by Geotrichum candidum OC-7 was investigated in this study. To optimize fermentation conditions, four influential factors (locust powder (LP) concentration, sucrose concentration, pH and fermentation time) at three levels were investigated using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). Inulinase yield obtained from the designed experiments with regard to Taguchi L9 OA was processed with Minitab 15 software at 'larger is better' as quality character. The results showed that optimal fermentation conditions determined as LP 30 g/l, sucrose 20 g/l, pH 6.0 and time 48 h. Maximum inulinase activity was recorded as 30.12 U/ml, which was closer to the predicted value (30.56 U/ml). To verify the results, analysis of variance test was employed. LP had the greatest contribution (71.96%) among the other factors. Sucrose had lower contribution (13.96%) than LP. This result demonstrated that LP had a strong effect on inulinase activity and can be used for enzyme production. Taguchi DOE application enhanced enzyme activity to about 3.05-fold versus unoptimized condition and 2.34-fold versus control medium. Consequently, higher inulinase production can be achieved by the utilization of an edible insect material as an alternative substrate and Taguchi DOE presents suitable optimization method for biotechnological process. PMID:22495518

Canli, Ozden; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Taskin, Mesut

2012-04-10

106

A Comparative Study on Taguchi’s SN Ratio, Minimising MSD and Variance for Nominal-the-Best Characteristic Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi uses a coefficient of variation for the nominal-the-best characteristic to define its signal-to-noise (SN) ratio.\\u000a Optimisation can be accomplished in two steps: first by maximising the SN ratio; the mean is then adjusted to the target.\\u000a In addition to Taguchi’s traditional SN ratio (?  \\u000a 1\\u000a ), we can minimise the mean square deviation (MSD), (?\\u000a 2\\u000a ), and variance

F.-C. Wu; C.-C. Chyu

2002-01-01

107

Effect of experimental design on sample size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing practical problem in the evaluation of the accuracy of new imaging systems, as well as the effect of modifications in the display of current imaging systems, is the effort entailed in performing the necessary readings. Although some constraints are dictated by the specific evaluation being conducted, some aspects of the experiment can be determined by the investigator. These include, but are not limited to, the method used to select the cases (selected, stratified, or random) and whether continuous variables that are being evaluated (i.e., pixel size, brightness, contrast) are grouped into discrete categories. The selection of the experimental design has an impact on the sample size required to answer the study question and thus impacts on the cost and effort required to do the study.

Rockette, Howard E.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Gur, David; Good, Walter F.

1991-07-01

108

A Novel GA-Taguchi-Based Feature Selection Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a novel GA-Taguchi-based feature selection method. Genetic algorithms are utilized with randomness for\\u000a “global search” of the entire search space of the intractable search problem. Various genetic operations, including crossover,\\u000a mutation, selection and replacement are performed to assist the search procedure in escaping from sub-optimal solutions. In\\u000a each iteration in the proposed nature-inspired method, the Taguchi methods

Cheng-hong Yang; Chi-chun Huang; Kuo-chuan Wu; Hsin-yun Chang

2008-01-01

109

Robust design of nonlinear dynamic problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi's robust design is a popular methodology utilized within many different industries in order to improve product quality and process performance at low cost. The robust design of dynamic system is used to find the optimal control factor settings so that the measured response is closest to the ideal function. Although Taguchi's robust design was effective in improving performance of

Ful-Chiang Wu; Bing-Chang Ouyang; Cheng-Hsiung Chen; Chi-Hao Yeh

2010-01-01

110

Correspondence Analysis of Cumulative Frequencies Using a Decomposition of Taguchi's Statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi's statistic has long been known to be a more appropriate measure of association for ordinal variables than the Pearson chi-squared statistic. Therefore, there is some advantage in using Taguchi's statistic for performing correspondence analysis when a two-way contingency table consists of one ordinal categorical variable. This article will explore the development of correspondence analysis using a decomposition of Taguchi's

Eric J. Beh; Luigi Dambra; Biagio Simonetti

2011-01-01

111

Comparing Taguchi and Anterior Lich-Gregoir Ureterovesical Reimplantation Techniques for Kidney Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urologic complications are common in renal transplant surgery. Numerous innovations have been developed to circumvent ureterovesical anastomotic failure. In addition to the popular modified Lich-Gregoir technique, we evaluated Taguchi’s method which is both quick and easy to perform. One hundred forty four patients were prospectively compared using Taguchi (n = 44) or the modified Lich-Gregoir (n = 100) for anastomotic

M. A. Zargar; H. Shahrokh; M. R. Mohammadi Fallah; H. Zargar

2005-01-01

112

Experimental design of stamping machines and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of hydraulic equipment for locally continuous plastic shaping of a blank is considered. Experimental results\\u000a regarding a technology that combines upsetting with oscillation (rocking) are presented.

E. N. Chumachenko; Yu. A. Zimin; S. A. Bober

2010-01-01

113

Optimization of sol-gel technique for coating of metallic substrates by hydroxyapatite using the Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Taguchi method of design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on various metallic substrates deposited by sol-gel dip-coating technique. The experimental design consisted of five factors including substrate material (A), surface preparation of substrate (B), dipping/withdrawal speed (C), number of layers (D), and calcination temperature (E) with three levels of each factor. An orthogonal array of L18 type with mixed levels of the control factors was utilized. The image processing of the micrographs of the coatings was conducted to determine the percentage of coated area ( PCA). Chemical and phase composition of HA coatings were studied by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDS techniques. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the PCA of HA coatings was significantly affected by the calcination temperature. The optimum conditions from signal-to-noise ( S/N) ratio analysis were A: pure Ti, B: polishing and etching for 24 h, C: 50 cm min-1, D: 1, and E: 300 °C. In the confirmation experiment using the optimum conditions, the HA coating with high PCA of 98.5 % was obtained.

Pourbaghi-Masouleh, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.

2013-08-01

114

Robustness evaluation of cost-optimum sampling plan for in-line wafer inspection by using Taguchi methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robustness of the cost-optimum sampling plan is evaluated by using the robustness evaluation procedure based on Taguchi methods. The procedure is a four-step approach: (1) design, (2) measurement, (3)SN analysis, and (4) analysis of variance (ANOVA) as to the result with the highest SN ratio. The contribution of each factor and the interaction between various factors of an experiment

Ryo Suzuki; Koji Nakamae; Hiromu Fujioka

2005-01-01

115

OPTIMIZATION OF HYDROFORMING PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING OF STAINLESS STEEL CORRUGATED FLEXIBLE HOSE PIPE USING THE TAGUCHI METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study in which the Taguchi method, a powerful tool to design and process optimization for quality, is used to determine the optimal parameters of hydroforming process that is used to produce stainless steel corrugated flexible hose pipes. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the process parameters

Abdullah O. Bafail; Sheikh I. Ishrat; Zahid A. Khan

2007-01-01

116

Experimental design and analysis in functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the experimental diversity of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has grown since introduction of the technique in 1991, the appropriate application of statistical evaluation has become a significant research need. Advances in our understanding of both the dynamics of the underlying neurophysiology and the measurement process make fMRI a fertile ground for novel signal and image processing research. Recent

Thomas M. Talavage

2004-01-01

117

Experimental Foundation Designs on Expansive Clay Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activities reported are identified as 'Construction Coordination', and include all work that is directly related to the construction of the test foundations. The previous effort, involving field investigations and the design of each of the test founda...

1976-01-01

118

ADAPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO AN ERGONOMICS TESTING PROCEDURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms are widely utilized in artifact design. Certain algorithms also lend them- selves well to design of experiments (DOE). Adaptive design refers to experimental design where determining where to sam- ple next is influenced by information from previous experiments. We present a constrained optimization algorithm known as su- perEGO (a variant of the EGO algorithm of Schonlau,

Michael Sasena; Matthew Parkinson; Pierre Goovaerts; Panos Papalambros; Matthew Reed; DAC TOC

2002-01-01

119

Experimental designs and emission rate modeling for chamber experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers some of the statistical aspects of estimating specimen emission rate profiles from chamber concentration level measurements, which is a major step in assessing indoor pollution levels. Parametric and nonparametric modeling approaches are applied to the problem, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The issue of experimental design is also addressed, and the choice of an optimal set of experimental conditions and sampling times is considered. Some simulation results are presented to contrast the efficiencies of various experimental designs.

Hayter, Anthony J.; Dowling, Mary M.

120

Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Lárraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramírez, V.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Paz, C.; Celis, M. A.

2010-12-01

121

Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model  

SciTech Connect

In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Celis, M. A. [Unidad de Radiocirugia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramirez, V.; Paz, C. [Laboratorio de Neurofisiologia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-07

122

Enhancement of process capability for strip force of tight sets of optical fiber using Taguchi's Quality Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip force is the key to identifying the quality of product during manufacturing tight sets of fiber. This study used Integrated computer-aided manufacturing DEFinition 0 (IDEF0) modeling to discuss detailed cladding processes of tight sets of fiber in transnational optical connector manufacturing. The results showed that, the key factor causing an instable interface connection is the extruder adjustment process. The factors causing improper strip force were analyzed through literature, practice, and gray relational analysis. The parameters design method of Taguchi's Quality Engineering was used to determine the optimal experimental combinations for processes of tight sets of fiber. This study employed case empirical analysis to obtain a model for improving the process of strip force of tight sets of fiber, and determines the correlation factors that affect the processes of quality for tight sets of fiber. The findings indicated that, process capability index (CPK) increased significantly, which can facilitate improvement of the product process capability and quality. The empirical results can serve as a reference for improving the product quality of the optical fiber industry.

Lin, Wen-Tsann; Wang, Shen-Tsu; Li, Meng-Hua; Huang, Chiao-Tzu

2012-03-01

123

Collimator design for experimental minibeam radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and optimize a minibeam collimator for minibeam radiation therapy studies using a 250 kVp x-ray machine as a simulated synchrotron source. Methods: A Philips RT250 orthovoltage x-ray machine was modeled using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo software. The resulting machine model was coupled to a model of a minibeam collimator with a beam aperture of 1 mm. Interaperture spacing and collimator thickness were varied to produce a minibeam with the desired peak-to-valley ratio. Results: Proper design of a minibeam collimator with Monte Carlo methods requires detailed knowledge of the x-ray source setup. For a cathode-ray tube source, the beam spot size, target angle, and source shielding all determine the final valley-to-peak dose ratio. Conclusions: A minibeam collimator setup was created, which can deliver a 30 Gy peak dose minibeam radiation therapy treatment at depths less than 1 cm with a valley-to-peak dose ratio on the order of 23%.

Babcock, Kerry; Sidhu, Narinder; Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ali, Kaiser [Saskatoon Cancer Centre, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 4H4 (Canada)

2011-04-15

124

Taguchi Approach to Quality Control and Enhancement: A Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quiet revolution in the field of quality control and enhancement has been in progress in Japan for some 25 years, and has recently come ashore to the US. It has been identified with the name of G. Taguchi, an engineer cum statistician, who advocated a r...

S. E. Elmaghraby Y. Fathi W. G. Ferell

1986-01-01

125

Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we propose a new method, a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA), for optics and zoom optics with a diffractive optical element (DOE) in order to eliminate chromatic aberration more efficiently than traditional damped least squares (DLS) does. By researching and validating a set of optical designs using a DOE, we have derived an optimal theory for the specific elimination of chromatic aberrations. Following the advanced technology applied to microlenses and the etching process, precisely made microDOE elements may now be manufactured on a large scale. We adopted the genetic algorithm (GA) and incorporated the steady Taguchi method into it. Combining these two methods produced a new hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA). Suitable glass combinations and best positions for the DOE, which could not be properly achieved with DLS, were carefully selected to minimize the chromatic aberration in the optical system. We used an optical system with a fixed-focus and complicated 4 × zoom optics with a DOE to compare the optimization results of traditional DLS for optics with a DOE. Experiments show that, whether the chromatic aberration was axial or longitudinal, the values of the measurements involving the chromatic aberration of the optical lens could be significantly reduced.

Fang, Yi Chin; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Wei Teng

2009-04-01

126

Experimental Demonstration Package Program. Canister Final Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Experimental Demonstration Package Program objective was to design and qualify a canister for encapsulating spent lightwater reactor fuel assemblies and the support equipment necessary for sealing the canister. These items will be used in preparing fu...

D. H. Kurasch D. F. Moran J. B. Wright

1980-01-01

127

Simultaneous Optimisation of Multiple Quality Characteristics in Manufacturing Processes Using Taguchi's Quality Loss Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi methods have proved to be successful over the last fifteen years or so for the improvement of product quality and\\u000a process performance. Most Taguchi experiments are concerned with the optimisation of a single quality characteristic. Optimisation\\u000a of multiple quality characteristics in manufacturing processes is not common and has received very little attention among\\u000a the Taguchi practitioners. Many engineers using

J. Antony

2001-01-01

128

DESIGN, CONTROL, AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF A MORPHING AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the design and construction of a fully adaptive aircraft configuration used as an experimental testbed for aerodynamic modeling and flight control. The adaptive model is designed to achieve large scale shape changes in order to investigate morphing for multi-mission UAVs. There are five independent planform changes along with independent twist control for each wing. Wind tunnel testing

David A. Neal; Harry Robertshaw

129

An Application of Variational Methods to Experimental Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variational methods are applied to the determination of experimental designs for estimation of parameters in nonlinear regression models. The performance of one of the designs is illustrated by a nonlinear of Langmuir isotherm type and is shown to be a co...

P. I. Feder R. Mezaki

1969-01-01

130

Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

2002-07-01

131

Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

2013-01-01

132

Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

Lee, Jang Ho

2012-01-01

133

Microelectronics package design using experimentally-validated modeling and simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Packaging high power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) in low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) presents many challenges. Within the constraints of LTCC fabrication, the design must provide the usual electrical isolation and interconnections required to package the IC, with additional consideration given to RF isolation and thermal management. While iterative design and prototyping is an option for developing RFIC packaging, it would be expensive and most likely unsuccessful due to the complexity of the problem. To facilitate and optimize package design, thermal and mechanical simulations were used to understand and control the critical parameters in LTCC package design. The models were validated through comparisons to experimental results. This paper summarizes an experimentally-validated modeling approach to RFIC package design, and presents some results and key findings.

Johnson, Jay Dean; Young, Nathan Paul; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory

2010-11-01

134

Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

135

Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

2012-01-01

136

Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

2012-01-01

137

Causal discovery in social media using quasi-experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media systems have become increasingly attractive to both users and companies providing those systems. Efficient management of these systems is essential and requires knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships within the system. Online experimentation can be used to discover causal knowledge; however, this ignores the observational data that is already being collected for operational purposes. Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are commonly used

Hüseyin Oktay; Brian J. Taylor; David D. Jensen

2010-01-01

138

Computer-Generated Experimental Designs for Irregular-Shaped Regions  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the construction of computer-generated designs on irregularly-shaped, constrained regions. Overviews of the Fedorov exchange algorithm (FEA) and other exchange algorithms for the construction of D-optimal designs are given. A faster implementation of the FEA is presented, which is referred to as fast-FEA (denoted FFEA). The FFEA was applied to construct D-optimal designs for several published examples with constrained experimental regions. Designs resulting from the FFEA are more D-efficient than published designs, and provide benchmarks for future comparisons of design construction algorithms. The construction of G-optimal designs for constrained regions is also discussed and illustrated with a published example.

Nguyen, Nam K.; Piepel, Gregory F.

2005-09-01

139

Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Reaction Analysis with 3He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

von Toussaint, Udo; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio

2008-11-01

140

Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Reaction Analysis with {sup 3}He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-11-06

141

Contract design and insurance fraud: An experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of insurance contract design on the behavior of filing fraudulent claims in an experimental setup. We test how fraud behavior varies for insurance contracts with full coverage, a straight deductible or variable premiums (bonus-malus contract). In our experiment, filing fraudulent claims is a dominant strategy for selfish participants, with no psychological costs of committing fraud.

Frauke Lammers; Jörg Schiller

2010-01-01

142

Bands to Books: Connecting Literature to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an interdisciplinary unit of study on the inquiry process and experimental design that seamlessly integrates math, science, and reading using a rubber band cannon. This unit was conducted over an eight-day period in two sixth-grade classes (one math and one science with each class consisting of approximately 27 students and…

Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara Delano

2004-01-01

143

Long-pulse laser design and experimental work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long pulse laser starts to have a prominent role in many applications. So, How to design and calculate the parameters of the high power long-pulse solid-state laser is illustrated, experimentally and arithmetically. How to design a pumping chamber is illustrated, with a double-ellipse cavity. Optical resonator losses are got experimentally in details. Efficiency factor and system slope efficiency are calculated experimentally. Illustration for how to get the optimum mirror reflectivity is mentioned. Beam waist and beam divergence also studied experimentally. The designed system has 10J output energy with pulse width 20msec for efficiency factor 1.1% and a combined loss 0.181 inside resonator. Average system efficiency, gain coefficient and fluorescence power for four different output mirror reflectivity are 0.328%, 0.00994cm-1 and 144.92W respectively. 6KW/cm2 power density inside resonator is obtained which corresponds to 585W maximum output power. An optimum mirror reflectivity 57% is for 208.2KW input power. The beam waist and beam divergence are recorded to be 0.66cm and 8.86mrad. Calculations show that, 11.7J output energy can be obtained by more optimization based on the designed system.

Helal, Osama; Yong, Tan; Yunfeng, Ding; Cai, HongXing

2013-09-01

144

Experimental Determination of Optimal Scales for Usability Questionnaire Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimentally derived recommendations for the optimal number of scale intervals that should be used for subjective usability and workload questionnaires and shows the results of preliminary work investigating the effects of la nguage understanding on fully labelled or partially labelled questionnaire designs.

Robert Bierton; Richard Bates

145

Multivariate statistical regression methods for process modelling and experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification for multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

146

Multivariate Statistical Regression Methods for Process Modelling and Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification tor multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

147

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

148

Design, control, and experimental performance of a teleoperated robotic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish-like propulsion is a challenging alternative to propellers in small underwater vehicles. This paper presents the analysis, the design stages, the development and the experimental evaluation of a small low-cost teleoperated underwater robotic fish, driven by an oscillating foil. The main principles for the development of efficient thrust by oscillating foils are presented, and implemented. Essential mechatronic subsystems of the

Evangelos Papadopoulos; Efthymios Apostolopoulos; Petros Tsigkourakos

2009-01-01

149

Design and implementation of an experimental GSM based passive radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive radar is a special kind of radar system that utilizes electromagnetic radiation already present in the environment to detect targets as well as estimate target parameters. This paper discusses the use of GSM base station as a non-cooperative illuminator for bistatic passive radar operation. The design and implementation of this novel passive radar system is introduced. Some initial experimental

Hongbo Sun; Danny K. P. Tan; Yilong Lu

2003-01-01

150

Solar cooker with latent heat storage: Design and experimental testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A box-type solar cooker with latent heat storage has been designed and fabricated for the composite climatic conditions of India. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using a phase change material as the storage medium in solar cookers, i.e. it is possible to cook the food even in the evening with a solar cooker having latent heat storage. It

D. Buddhi; L. K. Sahoo

1997-01-01

151

Experimental design for single point diamond turning of silicon optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of these experiments is to determine optimum cutting factors for the machining of silicon optics. This report describes experimental design, a systematic method of selecting optimal settings for a limited set of experiments, and its use in the si...

D. A. Krulewich

1996-01-01

152

Experimental design for single point diamond turning of silicon optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of these experiments is to determine optimum cutting factors for the machining of silicon optics. This report describes experimental design, a systematic method of selecting optimal settings for a limited set of experiments, and its use in the silcon-optics turning experiments. 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Krulewich

1996-01-01

153

Multiobjective Time-Dependent Optimal Experimental Design of Sampling Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the application of optimal experimental design (OED) for obtaining groundwater sampling data in an efficient manner. The OED finds application here in developing designs for a complex reactive transport scenario. In this context, monitoring networks can be used for multiple purposes, such as for collecting samples that improve the accuracy of reaction parameters and for reliably monitoring contaminant transport. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to develop the Pareto surface of these objectives and their tradeoff with design cost. Costs explicitly include the designer's discount rate, a factor which can significantly influence the selection of well installation and sampling times. As the temporal domain is of interest to both design cost and reaction kinetics, the methodology explicitly addresses the time dependency of the OED problem.

Thomas, B.; Yeh, W. W.

2005-12-01

154

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

2013-04-01

155

Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

156

Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

157

Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 ?m) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution ( 0.5'')) in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

Rinehart, Stephen; Barry, R.; Benford, D.; Danchi, W.; Fixsen, D.; Jhabvala, C.; Leisawitz, D.; Mundy, L.; Silverberg, R.; Staguhn, J.

2011-05-01

158

TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

1985-11-01

159

Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

1992-12-01

160

Component analyses using single-subject experimental designs: a review.  

PubMed

A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of component analysis is discussed, and a notation system for evaluating the experimental designs of component analyses is described. Thirty articles that included a component analysis were identified via a literature search. The majority of the studies successfully identified a necessary component; however, most of these studies did not evaluate the sufficiency of the necessary component. The notation system may be helpful in developing experimental designs that best suit the purpose of studies aimed at conducting component analyses of treatment packages. PMID:21541152

Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter

2010-01-01

161

Conceptual Design Study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER). Reactor Configuration/Structure Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of the reactor configuration/structure design for the fusion experimental reactor (FER) performed in FY 1986. The design was intended to meet the physical and engineering mission of the next step device which was decided ...

T. Kobayashi M. Yamada T. Mizoguchi

1987-01-01

162

Experimental design considerations for pulsed holographic particle tracking velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using far-field holographic recording to study velocity fields. Several important experimental design features are discussed and resolution and inherent signal-to-noise ratio problems are presented. Seeding requirements for determining velocity scales down to the Kolmogorov range are presented based on a Poisson distribution of seed particles. The source density, a measure

J. Mark Barker; James A. Liburdy

1993-01-01

163

Optimization of chitinase production using statistics based experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics based experimental designs were used to optimize the medium components and environmental factors for chitinase production. Considering the industrial importance of enzymes active at extremes of pH, the optimization studies were performed on strains of Streptomyces sp. NK1057, NK528 and NK951 which produce chitinases active at acidic and alkaline pH. Preliminary studies on the factors enabled identification of eight

N. N. Nawani; B. P. Kapadnis

2005-01-01

164

Epistasis in Genetic Algorithms: An Experimental Design Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper we examined the relationshipbetween genetic algorithms (GAs)and traditional methods of experimental design.This was motivated by an investigationinto the problems caused by epistasis inthe implementation and application of GAsto optimization problems. We showed howthis viewpoint enables us to gain further insightsinto the determination of epistatic effects,and into the value of different forms ofencoding a problem for a

Colin R. Reeves; Christine C. Wright

1995-01-01

165

Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO and NBCO using experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) and NdBa2Cu3O7-x (NBCO) were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The experiment was planned using experimental design to investigate the relative importance of the individual growth parameters for the properties of the films. For both materials critical temperatures close to 90 K were obtained. The electrical and morphological properties of the films were correlated to

A. Eulenburg; E. J. Romans; C. M. Pegrum

1999-01-01

166

Bands to Books: Connecting Literature to Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit of study on the inquiry process and experimental design that seamlessly integrates math, science, and reading using a rubber band cannon. The authors begin by describing a series of interrelated curricular engagements that make up the unit. Throughout, they share samples of student work. Lastly, they describe some lessons learned and discuss both problems and pleasures of creating and implementing an interdisciplinary curriculum at the middle level.

Moore, Sara D.; Bintz, William P.

2004-11-01

167

Computational procedures for optimal experimental design in biological systems.  

PubMed

Mathematical models of complex biological systems, such as metabolic or cell-signalling pathways, usually consist of sets of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which depend on several non-measurable parameters that can be hopefully estimated by fitting the model to experimental data. However, the success of this fitting is largely conditioned by the quantity and quality of data. Optimal experimental design (OED) aims to design the scheme of actuations and measurements which will result in data sets with the maximum amount and/or quality of information for the subsequent model calibration. New methods and computational procedures for OED in the context of biological systems are presented. The OED problem is formulated as a general dynamic optimisation problem where the time-dependent stimuli profiles, the location of sampling times, the duration of the experiments and the initial conditions are regarded as design variables. Its solution is approached using the control vector parameterisation method. Since the resultant nonlinear optimisation problem is in most of the cases non-convex, the use of a robust global nonlinear programming solver is proposed. For the sake of comparing among different experimental schemes, a Monte-Carlo-based identifiability analysis is then suggested. The applicability and advantages of the proposed techniques are illustrated by considering an example related to a cell-signalling pathway. PMID:18681746

Balsa-Canto, E; Alonso, A A; Banga, J R

2008-07-01

168

Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, combinatorial and high throughput experimental methods have revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing researchers to conduct more experiments in a week than was previously possible in a year. Now high throughput experimentation is rapidly spreading from its origins in the pharmaceutical world to larger industrial research establishments such as GE and DuPont, and even to smaller companies and universities. Consequently, researchers need to know the kinds of problems, desired outcomes, and appropriate patterns for these new strategies. Editor James Cawse's far-reaching study identifies and applies, with specific examples, these important new principles and techniques. Experimental Design for Combinatorial and High Throughput Materials Development progresses from methods that are now standard, such as gradient arrays, to mathematical developments that are breaking new ground. The former will be particularly useful to researchers entering the field, while the latter should inspire and challenge advanced practitioners. The book's contents are contributed by leading researchers in their respective fields. Chapters include: -High Throughput Synthetic Approaches for the Investigation of Inorganic Phase Space -Combinatorial Mapping of Polymer Blends Phase Behavior -Split-Plot Designs -Artificial Neural Networks in Catalyst Development -The Monte Carlo Approach to Library Design and Redesign This book also contains over 200 useful charts and drawings. Industrial chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and physicists working in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry will find James Cawse's study to be an invaluable resource.

Cawse, James N.

2002-12-01

169

Experimental designs for a Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo model  

PubMed Central

Background The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A statistical model based on a new maneuver has been developed in order to calculate the volume of endolymph displaced after the maneuver. Methods A simplification of the Navier?Stokes problem from the fluids theory has been used to construct the model. In addition, the same cubic splines that are commonly used in kinematic control of robots were used to obtain an appropriate description of the different maneuvers. Then experimental designs were computed to obtain an optimal estimate of the model. Results D?optimal and c?optimal designs of experiments have been calculated. These experiments consist of a series of specific head turns of duration ?t and angle ? that should be performed by the clinician on the patient. The experimental designs obtained indicate the duration and angle of the maneuver to be performed as well as the corresponding proportion of replicates. Thus, in the D?optimal design for 100 experiments, the maneuver consisting of a positive 30° pitch from the upright position, followed by a positive 30° roll, both with a duration of one and a half seconds is repeated 47 times. Then the maneuver with 60° /6° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 16 times and the maneuver 90° /90° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 37 times. Other designs with significant differences are computed and compared. Conclusions A biomechanical model was derived to provide a quantitative basis for the detection of BPPV. The robustness study for the D?optimal design, with respect to the choice of the nominal values of the parameters, shows high efficiencies for small variations and provides a guide to the researcher. Furthermore, c?optimal designs give valuable assistance to check how efficient the D?optimal design is for the estimation of each of the parameters. The experimental designs provided in this paper allow the physician to validate the model. The authors of the paper have held consultations with an ENT consultant in order to align the outline more closely to practical scenarios.

2013-01-01

170

Laser spark plug numerical design process with experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the numerical modeling design procedure for a miniaturized laser spark plug. In previous work both side pumped and end pumped laser spark plugs were empirically designed and tested. Experimental data from the previous laser spark plug development cycles is compared to the output predicted by a known set of rate equations. The rate equations are used to develop interrelated inter cavity time dependent waveforms that are then used to identify key variables. These variables are then input to a set of secondary equations for determining the output pulse energy, output power, and output pulse width of the simulated laser system. The physical meaning and the operation of the rate equations is explained in detail. This paper concentrates on the process and decision points needed to successfully design a solid state passively Q-switched laser system, either side pumped or end pumped, that produces the appropriate output needed for use as a laser spark plug for internal combustion engines.

McIntyre, D.; Woodruff, S.

2011-01-01

171

78 FR 63439 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Upper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Upper Columbia Spring-Run Chinook...release of a nonessential experimental population (NEP) of Upper Columbia River spring-run...Information Relevant to Experimental Population Designation The UCR Chinook salmon...

2013-10-24

172

Experimental Verification of Structural-Acoustic Modelling and Design Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of papers have been published on the simulation of structural-acoustic design optimization. However, extensive work is required to verify these results in practical applications. Herein, a steel box of 1.0×1.1×1.5 m with an external beam structure welded on three surface plates was investigated. This investigation included experimental modal analysis and experimental measurements of certain noise transfer functions (sound pressure at points inside the box due to force excitation at beam structure). Using these experimental data, the finite element model of the structure was tuned to provide similar results. With a first structural mode at less than 20 Hz, the reliable frequency range was identified up to about 60 Hz. Obviously, the finite element model could not be further improved only by mesh refinement. The tuning process will be explained in detail since there was a number of changes that helped to improve the structure. Other changes did not improve the structure. Although this model of the box could be expected as a rather simple structure, it can be considered to be a complex structure for simulation purposes. A defined modification of the physical model verified the simulation model. In a final step, the optimal location of stiffening beam structures was predicted by simulation. Their effect on the noise transfer function was experimentally verified. This paper critically discusses modelling techniques that are applied for structural-acoustic simulation of sedan bodies. . All rights reserved.

Marburg, S.; Beer, H.-J.; Gier, J.; Hardtke, H.-J.; Rennert, R.; Perret, F.

2002-05-01

173

Reliability improvement of deformation tools with the Taguchi robust design  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we are moving to more emerging global markets, one of the most important goals of a manufacturer is to improve the reliability of its products. While the reliability may be affected by many potentially factors, some factors are more important and that they have to be identified. The values of the significant factors that can improve reliability are also

Calin Florin Baban; Marius Baban; I. E. Radu

2008-01-01

174

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

2003-02-25

175

Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing studentsâ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring studentsâ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

2008-09-24

176

Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-12-01

177

Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

178

Dynamic absorber design for experimental two storey building model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an experimental and a numerical analysis to decrease the effect of vibrations on buildings. A small two storey building model has been prepared in laboratory for study, consisting of steel plates and columns. Free vibration tests have been performed on the model. After interpreting the results of free vibration tests, a simulation model has been used to compare with the test results. Then, a dynamic absorber was designed for suppressing the vibrations on the model. The experimental and simulation results were compared. It is observed that the dynamic absorber suppresses vibrations on buildings. The results show that the buildings with dynamic absorber are effective in decreasing the undesired exterior effects such as earthquakes.

Ozer, Hasan Omur; Yagiz, Nurkan

2012-09-01

179

Study of cryopreservation of articular chondrocytes using the Taguchi method.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of control factors on cryopreservation of articular cartilage chondrocytes using the Taguchi method. Freeze-thaw experiments based on the L(8)(2(7)) two-level orthogonal array of the Taguchi method are conducted, and ANOVA (analysis of variables) is adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the viability of the cell. Results show that the type of cryoprotectant, freezing rate, thawing rate, and concentration of cryoprotectant (listed in the order of influence) are the statistically significant control factors that affect the post-thaw viability. The end temperature and durations of the first and second stages of freezing do not affect the post-thaw viability. Within the ranges of the control factors studied in this work, the optimal test condition is found to be a freezing rate of 0.61+/-0.03 degrees C/min, a thawing rate of 126.84+/-5.57 degrees C/min, Me(2)SO cryoprotectant, and a cryoprotectant concentration of 10% (v/v) for maximum cell viability. In addition, this study also explores the effect of cryopreservation on the expression of type II collagen using immunocytochemical staining and digital image processing. The results show that the ability of cryopreserved chondrocytes to express type II collagen is reduced within the first five days of monolayer culture. PMID:19857480

Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Wu, Wei Te; Hou, Chien Chih; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin

2009-10-24

180

Experimentally demonstrated a unidirectional electromagnetic cloak designed by topology optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic invisible devices usually designed by transformation optics are rather complicated in material parameters and not suitable for general applications. Recently, a topology optimized cloak based on level-set method was proposed to realize nearly perfect cloaking [Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251106 (2013)]. In this work, we experimentally implemented this idea and fabricated a unidirectional cloak with a relative large invisible region made of single dielectric material. Good cloaking performance was verified through measurement which consists very well with numerical simulation. The advantages and disadvantages of this optimization method are also discussed.

Lan, Lu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Yichao; Ong, C. K.; Ma, Yungui

2013-09-01

181

Structure reduction and robust experimental design for distributed parameter identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing an experiment for identifying a distributed parameter is a very challenging problem when the spatial variability of the parameter is unknown. First, we need to determine an appropriate structure complexity for the unknown parameter. A more complicated structure needs more data for identification. Second, we need to evaluate the sufficiency of an experiment design before it is actually conducted. In this paper, the complexity of parameter structure is determined by the accuracy requirement of model application, and the sufficiency of data is evaluated by solving a generalized inverse problem. The worst-case parameter (WCP) defined in this paper is the one that causes the maximum deviation in model application when its structure is simplified. The WCP of a structure can be found by solving a discrete optimization problem with the genetic algorithm. Quantitative relationships between structure complexity, parameter identifiability, data sufficiency and model reliability are derived. For example, it has been proven that if an experimental design is sufficient for identifying the WCP then it must be sufficient for identifying all other parameters with the same structure or simplified structures in the admissible region, and thus, it is a robust design. Based on the theoretical results and algorithms presented in this paper, we may develop a cost-effective methodology for constructing reliable distributed parameter models.

Sun, Ne-Zheng

2005-04-01

182

Experimental vertical stability studies for ITER performance and design guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modelling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be severe. This work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment (MDC-13) on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement and several common disturbances which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analysed.

Humphreys, D. A.; Casper, T. A.; Eidietis, N.; Ferrara, M.; Gates, D. A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Kolemen, E.; Leuer, J. A.; Lister, J.; Lo Destro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Portone, A.; Sartori, F.; Walker, M. L.; Welander, A. S.; Wolfe, S. M.

2009-11-01

183

Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

2008-10-13

184

Probing pictorial relief: from experimental design to surface reconstruction.  

PubMed

The perception of pictorial surfaces has been studied quantitatively for more than 20 years. During this time, the "gauge figure method" has been shown to be a fast and intuitive method to quantify pictorial relief. In this method, observers have to adjust the attitude of a gauge figure such that it appears to lie flat on a surface in pictorial space. Although the method has received substantial attention in the literature and has become increasingly popular, a clear, step-by-step description has not been published yet. In this article, a detailed description of the method is provided: stimulus and sample preparation, performing the experiment, and reconstructing a 3-D surface from the experimental data. Furthermore, software (written in PsychToolbox) based on this description is provided in an online supplement. This report serves three purposes: First, it facilitates experimenters who want to use the gauge figure task but have been unable to design it, due to the lack of information in the literature. Second, the detailed description can facilitate the design of software for various other platforms, possibly Web-based. Third, the method described in this article is extended to objects with holes and inner contours. This class of objects have not yet been investigated with the gauge figure task. PMID:21789733

Wijntjes, Maarten W A

2012-03-01

185

Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

2007-12-13

186

Use of Flow and Transport Models for Experimental Design for Model Calibration and Monitoring Network Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater flow and contaminant transport in subsurface are governed by partial differential equations. With appropriate initial and boundary conditions specified, the governing equations are solved by either the finite-difference or the finite-element method. Groundwater models can be used for prediction as well as for guiding field data collection. This paper reviews the use of such models for experimental design for

W. Yeh

2002-01-01

187

Design and numerical optimization of an easy-to-fabricate photon-to-plasmon coupler for quantum plasmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We design an on-chip single mode photon to surface-plasmon coupler. Our coupler consists of a tapered dielectric waveguide and a V-shaped plasmonic part. In contrast to other concepts designated to minimized-loss coupling into long-ranging waveguides, we focus on an easy-to-fabricate structure working in the visible spectral range. The air-cladded design provides full experimental access to the evanescent fields emerging from the plasmonic stripe guide. An adaptive finite element method for full three dimensional simulations is used combined with the Taguchi method for optimization, which makes our procedure extremely time-efficient and executable on standard personal computers.

Kewes, Günter; Schell, Andreas W.; Henze, Rico; Simon Schönfeld, Rolf; Burger, Sven; Busch, Kurt; Benson, Oliver

2013-02-01

188

OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR MAGNESIUM ALLOY SHEETS USING THE FUZZY BASED TAGUCHI METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the fuzzy-logic method and Taguchi method, this study investigates the optimum parameters for the multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI) of the hot-extrusion process for magnesium alloy sheets of AZ31 and AZ61. Process parameters include billet heating temperature, initial extrusion speed, container temperature, and lubricant. Depending on individual quality characteristics, the optimal parameter combination for the Taguchi method would

Su-Hai Hsiang; Yi-Wei Lin

189

Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is extensively used in machining of conductive materials when precision is of prime\\u000a importance. Rough cutting operation in WEDM is treated as a challenging one because improvement of more than one machining\\u000a performance measures viz. metal removal rate (MRR), surface finish (SF) and cutting width (kerf) are sought to obtain a precision\\u000a work. Using Taguchi’s

S. S. Mahapatra; Amar Patnaik

2007-01-01

190

Design Study of Superconducting Magnets for Tokamak Experimental Fusion Reactor, (1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design study has been made of superconducting magnets for a Tokamak experimental fusion reactor: toroidal field magnet design, poloidal field magnet design, refrigeration system design, magnet safety analysis, and magnet assembling and disassembling syste...

1980-01-01

191

Optimizing NRA depth profiling using Bayesian experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear reaction analysis with 3He holds the promise to derive Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths from a set of measurements with different energies. Unfortunately, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is very sensitive to the quality of the data and the commonly chosen set of equispaced energies is in hindsight often noticeably inferior to other choices. However, recent advances in Bayesian experimental design together with increased computing power allow to optimize the measurement strategy ‘on-the-fly’, taking into account the results of previous measurements to select the best energy for the next measurement and to compute the expected information gain from further measurements. As example depth profiling of Deuterium in tungsten is presented and the results of the different measurement strategies are compared.

von Toussaint, U.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Mayer, M.; Gori, S.

2010-06-01

192

Large-scale experimental design for decentralized SLAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of large scale decentralized SLAM under a variety of experimental conditions to illustrate design trade-offs relevant to multi-robot mapping in challenging environments. As a part of work through the MAST CTA, the focus of these robot teams is on the use of small-scale robots with limited sensing, communication and computational resources. To evaluate mapping algorithms with large numbers (50+) of robots, we developed a simulation incorporating sensing of unlabeled landmarks, line-of-sight blocking obstacles, and communication modeling. Scenarios are randomly generated with variable models for sensing, communication, and robot behavior. The underlying Decentralized Data Fusion (DDF) algorithm in these experiments enables robots to construct a map of their surroundings by fusing local sensor measurements with condensed map information from neighboring robots. Each robot maintains a cache of previously collected condensed maps from neighboring robots, and actively distributes these maps throughout the network to ensure resilience to communication and node failures. We bound the size of the robot neighborhoods to control the growth of the size of neighborhood maps. We present the results of experiments conducted in these simulated scenarios under varying measurement models and conditions while measuring mapping performance. We discuss the trade-offs between mapping performance and scenario design, including robot teams separating and joining, multi-robot data association, exploration bounding, and neighborhood sizes.

Cunningham, Alex; Dellaert, Frank

2012-05-01

193

Optimization of Membrane Formulation and Process Variables via Crossed-Design Concept in Design of Experimental (DOE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture-process design methodology, i.e., the crossed design, is proposed for experimental analysis and optimization. Five mixture materials for membrane formulation and two process factors for casting condition were fixed in the design methodology. The study was to generate a regression model for each of the responses, based on the experimental data and analysis variance of the study. Based on

A. L. Ahmad; S. C. Low; S. R. Abd Shukor; A. Ismail

2009-01-01

194

Optimal experimental design with the sigma point method.  

PubMed

Using mathematical models for a quantitative description of dynamical systems requires the identification of uncertain parameters by minimising the difference between simulation and measurement. Owing to the measurement noise also, the estimated parameters possess an uncertainty expressed by their variances. To obtain highly predictive models, very precise parameters are needed. The optimal experimental design (OED) as a numerical optimisation method is used to reduce the parameter uncertainty by minimising the parameter variances iteratively. A frequently applied method to define a cost function for OED is based on the inverse of the Fisher information matrix. The application of this traditional method has at least two shortcomings for models that are nonlinear in their parameters: (i) it gives only a lower bound of the parameter variances and (ii) the bias of the estimator is neglected. Here, the authors show that by applying the sigma point (SP) method a better approximation of characteristic values of the parameter statistics can be obtained, which has a direct benefit on OED. An additional advantage of the SP method is that it can also be used to investigate the influence of the parameter uncertainties on the simulation results. The SP method is demonstrated for the example of a widely used biological model. PMID:19154081

Schenkendorf, R; Kremling, A; Mangold, M

2009-01-01

195

Experimental Designs for Testing Differences in Survival Among Salmonid Populations.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing habitat are limiting factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha). Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

Hoffman, Annette; Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Craig

1994-11-01

196

Flowcharts versus program design languages: an experimental comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed to assess the relative merits of program design languages (PDLs) and flowcharts as techniques for the development and documentation of detailed designs for computer programs. The use of a PDL by a software designer, for the development and description of a detailed program design, produced better results than did the use of flowcharts. Specifically, the designs

H. Rudy Ramsey; Michael E. Atwood; James R. Van Doren

1983-01-01

197

A Clinical-Experimental Analysis of Design Problem Solving.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies of design problem solving are reported. Experiment 1 presents an observational study of an actual client-designer work session. Analysis of the session transcript reveals a systematically structured interaction. The client and the designer dec...

A. Malhotra J. C. Thomas J. M. Carroll

1978-01-01

198

[Experimental design and data handling in food microbiology].  

PubMed

A discussion on the problems associated with designing experiments in Food Microbiology research is presented. After defining what is meant by Design of an Experiment, a series of questions are raised that, once answered, will help in properly designing the experiment. It is emphasized the chain research-design-model-analysis-design and the danger in blindly using well-known designs and canned programs. PMID:8484911

Carbonell, E A

1993-02-01

199

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: Optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology  

PubMed Central

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011 under solid state fermentation was optimized following Taguchi design of experiment. An orthogonal array layout of L18 (21 × 37) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with eight most influensive factors on laccase production. At individual level pH contributed higher influence, whereas, corn steep liquor (CSL) accounted for more than 50% of the severity index with biotin and KH2PO4 at the interactive level. The optimum conditions derived were; temperature 30°C, pH 5.0, wheat bran 5.0?g, inoculum size 0.5?ml (fungal cell mass = 0.015?g dry wt.), biotin 0.5% w/v, KH2PO4 0.013% w/v, CSL 0.1% v/v and 0.5?mM xylidine as an inducer. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in enzyme production by 58.01%. The laccase production to the level of 1623.55?Ugds?1 indicates that the fungus C. caperata RCK2011 has the commercial potential for laccase.

Nandal, Preeti; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-01-01

200

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology.  

PubMed

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011 under solid state fermentation was optimized following Taguchi design of experiment. An orthogonal array layout of L18 (2(1) × 3(7)) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with eight most influensive factors on laccase production. At individual level pH contributed higher influence, whereas, corn steep liquor (CSL) accounted for more than 50% of the severity index with biotin and KH2PO4 at the interactive level. The optimum conditions derived were; temperature 30°C, pH 5.0, wheat bran 5.0?g, inoculum size 0.5?ml (fungal cell mass = 0.015?g dry wt.), biotin 0.5% w/v, KH2PO4 0.013% w/v, CSL 0.1% v/v and 0.5?mM xylidine as an inducer. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in enzyme production by 58.01%. The laccase production to the level of 1623.55?Ugds(-1) indicates that the fungus C. caperata RCK2011 has the commercial potential for laccase. PMID:23463372

Nandal, Preeti; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-01-01

201

Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

2010-06-01

202

Controller Design of Hybrid Experimental System for Seismic Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid experimental system is one of powerful tools to perform various seismic tests for unknown and\\/or huge structures, where an actuator-excited experimental vibratory system and a computational response analysis are online combined and are simultaneously conducted. This paper presents a control methodology for high performance hybrid experimental systems. A 2-degrees-of-freedom compensator is applied from the view point of control techniques,

K. Seki; M. Iwasaki; M. Kawafuku; H. Hirai; K. Kishida

2007-01-01

203

Practical Controller Design of Hybrid Experimental System for Seismic Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid experimental system is one of the powerful tools to perform various seismic tests for unknown and\\/or huge structures, where an actuator-excited experimental vibratory system and a computational response analysis are simultaneously combined and implemented. This paper presents a control methodology for high-performance hybrid experimental systems. A 2-DOF control framework is applied from the viewpoint of control techniques, where

Kenta Seki; Makoto Iwasaki; Motohiro Kawafuku; Hiromu Hirai; Kazuyoshi Kishida

2009-01-01

204

Modelling of electrical power distribution systems by application of experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the method of experimental design to the analysis of electrical power distribution systems. The theory of experimental design allows us to construct and experimentally verify the qualitative model of a power distribution system in order to analyse a significance of each component in distribution system modelling. The paper presents

Josnicjusz Nazarko

2000-01-01

205

Managing Experimentation in the Design of New Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentation, a form of problem-solving, is a fundamental innovation activity and accounts for a significant part of total innovation cost and time. In many fields, the economics of experimentation are being radically affected by the use of new and greatly improved versions of methods such as computer simulation, mass screening, and rapid prototyping. This paper shows that a given experiment

Stefan H. Thomke

1998-01-01

206

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Longman, D.E. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-01

207

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Longman, D.E. (Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

208

Multifactorial experimental design and the transitivity of ratios with spotted DNA microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multifactorial experimental designs using DNA microarrays are becoming increasingly common, but the extent of the transitivity of cDNA microarray expression measurements across multiple samples has yet to be explored. RESULTS: A strong correlation between direct and transitive inference for significantly differentially expressed genes is demonstrated, using subsets of a dye-swap loop design. CONCLUSIONS: In experimental design, opportunities for transitive

Jeffrey P Townsend

2003-01-01

209

A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring with application to ultrasonic guided waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation will present the application of a Bayesian experimental design framework to structural health monitoring (SHM). When applied to SHM, Bayesian experimental design (BED) is founded on the minimization of the expected loss, i.e., Bayes Risk, of the SHM process through the optimization of the detection algorithm and system hardware design parameters. This expected loss is a function of

Eric Brian Flynn

2010-01-01

210

User-Assisted Automated Experimental (TEST) Design Program (AED): Version II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The large number of factors commonly encountered in simulation and live field test programs dictates that a large (and costly) experimental (test) program be run if the classical full factorial experimental design is employed. Through the use of a screeni...

E. G. Meyer W. H. Rickels R. G. Mills

1983-01-01

211

The User-Assisted Automated Experimental (TEST), Design Program (AED): Version I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The large number of factors commonly encountered in simulation and live field test programs dictates that a large (and costly) experimental program be run if the classical full factorial experimental design is employed. Through the use of a screening proc...

E. G. Meyer C. M. Hoyland R. G. Mills

1982-01-01

212

Heat treatment optimization of alumina/aluminum metal matrix composites using the Taguchi approach  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the use of the Taguchi approach for optimizing the heat treatment process of alumina-reinforced Al-6061 metal-matrix composites (MMCs). It is shown that the use of the Taguchi method makes it possible to test a great number of factors simultaneously and to provide a statistical data base that can be used for sensitivity and optimization studies. The results of plotting S/N values versus vol pct, solutionizing time, aging time, and aging temperature showed that the solutionizing time and the aging temperature significantly affect both the yield and the ultimate tensile strength of alumina/Al MMCs. 11 refs.

Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. (Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States))

1992-03-01

213

Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

Banwart, Steve

2010-05-01

214

Introduction to Experimental Design: Can You Smell Fear?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to design appropriate experiments in order to interrogate a research question is an important skill for any scientist. The present article describes an interactive lecture-based activity centred around a comparison of two contrasting approaches to investigation of the question "Can you smell fear?" A poorly designed experiment (a…

Willmott, Chris J. R.

2011-01-01

215

Mission-Based Scenario Research: Experimental Design and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we discuss a neuroimaging experiment that employed a mission-based scenario (MBS) design, a new approach for designing experiments in simulated environments for human subjects. This approach aims to enhance the realism of the Soldier-task-e...

B. J. Lance C. Manteuffel J. M. Vettel K. S. Oie M. Cannon M. Jaswa T. Johnson V. Paul

2011-01-01

216

Mission-based Scenario Research: Experimental Design And Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we discuss a neuroimaging experiment that employed a mission-based scenario (MBS) design, a new approach for designing experiments in simulated environments for human subjects. This approach aims to enhance the realism of the Soldier-task-e...

B. Lance C. Manteuffel J. Vettel M. Cannon M. Jaswa

2012-01-01

217

Design of JT-60SA Magnets and Associated Experimental Validations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the JT-60SA project, aiming at upgrading the present JT-60U tokamak toward a fully supercon- ducting configuration, the detailed design phase led to adopt for the three main magnet systems a brand new design. Europe (EU) is expected to provide to Japan (JA) the totality of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system, while JA will provide both

L. Zani; P. Barabaschi; D. Duglue; L. Meunier; M. Peyrot; V. Tomarchio; M. Verrecchia; P. Decool; J.-L. Marechal; A. Torre; A. Cucchiaro; A. della Corte; A. Di Zenobio; L. Muzzi; S. Turtu; S. Ishida; K. Yoshida; K. Tsuchiya; K. Kizu; H. Murakami

2011-01-01

218

Repair/Maintenance Design for Tokamak Experimental Fusion Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Repair and maintenance design for JXFR has been studied. The reactor is in eight modules so that a damaged module alone can be separated from the other modules and transferred from the reactor room to a repair shop. Design work covers overhaul procedure, ...

1978-01-01

219

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

220

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER): Design and materials selection  

SciTech Connect

The success of ITER relies on aggressive design of the superconducting magnet systems. This design emphasized high radiation-damage tolerance, acceptance of high nuclear heat loads, and high operational stresses in the Toroidal Field (TF) magnets. The design of the Central Solenoid (CS) magnets, although they will be well shielded from the plasma, is equally aggressive due to the need for very high magnetic fields (14 T) and long term operation at high cyclic stresses. Success of these magnet designs depends, in part, on sound selection and fabrication of materials for structural, superconducting, and insulating components. Here we review the design of ITER and the selection of structural materials for some of the systems that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. In addition we will introduce some of the data that the materials selection is based on and suggest opportunities for future research in support of ITER. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Heim, J.R.

1989-08-08

221

Optimal experimental design for a nonlinear response in environmental toxicology.  

PubMed

A start-stop experiment in environmental toxicology provides a backdrop for this design discussion. The basic problem is to decide when to sample a nonlinear response in order to minimize the generalized variance of the estimated parameters. An easily coded heuristic optimization strategy can be applied to this problem to obtain optimal or nearly optimal designs. The efficiency of the heuristic approach allows a straightforward exploration of the sensitivity of the suggested design with respect to such problem-specific concerns as variance heterogeneity, time-grid resolution, design criteria, and interval specification of planning values for parameters. A second illustration of design optimization is briefly presented in the context of concentration spacing for a reproductive toxicity study. PMID:16984332

Wright, Stephen E; Bailer, A John

2006-09-01

222

Using introductory labs to engage students in experimental design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) engages students in processes mirroring the practice of science. Laboratories play a central role in this learning environment. Students in ISLE laboratories design their own experiments to investigate new phenomena, test hypotheses, and solve realistic problems. We discuss various issues associated with implementing these labs in large enrollment introductory physics courses. We present examples of experiments that students design, include a sample of student work, and discuss issues related to the choice of experiments for design and practical implementation. We also review assessment techniques and show results of students' acquisition and transfer of some laboratory-related abilities.

Etkina, Eugenia; Murthy, Sahana; Zou, Xueli

2009-04-13

223

ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION IN PRODUCT DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide competition and rapid technological innovation have revitalized interest in efficient techniques for product design for quality and manufacturability. The Japanese approach, popularized by G. Taguchi, uses outcomes of statistical experiments to select settings for design parameters which yield desirable process mean and variance. In this paper we present mathematical models for incorporating the results of statistical performance models along

RONALD G. ASKIN; JEFFREY B. GOLDBERG

1988-01-01

224

Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

2010-01-01

225

Single case experimental design and empirical clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in clinical psychology is done infrequently by the practicing clinician. A major reason for this seems to be inadequate or cumbersome research tools that are incompatible with clinical realities and assumptions. Time series experimentation is explored as a possible research tool available to clinical practice. Standards of good clinical decision making seem to parallel closely the logic of time

Steven C. Hayes

1981-01-01

226

Consistent Structural Integrity in Preliminary Design Using Experimentally Validated Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling analytical methods to experimental results forms the basis of consistent structural integrity by analysis. By establishing repeatable statistical variance from building block test data for unique failure modes, it is possible to identify correlation factors (CFs) that account not only for analysis inaccuracy, but also observed scatter in test results. Industry accepted failure analysis predictions then can be used

Craig Collier; Phil Yarrington

227

Creativity in advertising design education: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose,\\u000a affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including\\u000a advertising design, are about meaning-making. This study

Ming Cheung

228

Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition\\u000a was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant\\u000a charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance\\u000a were described, and problem

Heng Xue; Chunlan Jiang; Zaicheng Wang

2009-01-01

229

Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-01-01

230

Randomization Tests for Extensions and Variations of ABAB Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Rejoinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization tests have been developed for several single-case experimental designs. It is argued, however, that the randomization tests developed by Levin, Marascuilo, and Hubert (1978) for the ABAB design and by Marascuilo and Busk (1988) for replicated ABAB designs across subjects are inappropriate. An alternative randomization procedure for the ABAB design is presented, and the appropriate corresponding randomization test is

PATRICK ONGHENA

1992-01-01

231

Using a hybrid approach to optimize experimental network design for aquifer parameter identification.  

PubMed

This research develops an optimum design model of groundwater network using genetic algorithm (GA) and modified Newton approach, based on the experimental design conception. The goal of experiment design is to minimize parameter uncertainty, represented by the covariance matrix determinant of estimated parameters. The design problem is constrained by a specified cost and solved by GA and a parameter identification model. The latter estimates optimum parameter value and its associated sensitivity matrices. The general problem is simplified into two classes of network design problems: an observation network design problem and a pumping network design problem. Results explore the relationship between the experimental design and the physical processes. The proposed model provides an alternative to solve optimization problems for groundwater experimental design. PMID:19757116

Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chen, Yu-Wen

2009-09-16

232

Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element.  

PubMed

We propose an optical design for miniature 2.5x zoom fold optics with liquid elements. First, we reduce the volumetric size of the system. Second, this newly developed design significantly reduces the number of moving groups for this 2.5x miniature zoom optics (with only two moving groups compared with the four or five groups of the traditional zoom lens system), thanks to the assistance of liquid lens elements in particular. With regard to the extended optimization of this zoom optics, relative illuminance (RI) and the modulation transfer function (MTF) are considered because the more rays passing through the edge of the image, the lower will be the MTF, at high spatial frequencies in particular. Extended optimization employs the integration of the Taguchi method and the robust multiple criterion optimization (RMCO) approach. In this approach, a Pareto optimal robust design solution is set with the aid of a certain design of the experimental set, which uses analysis of variance results to quantify the relative dominance and significance of the design factors. It is concluded that the Taguchi method and RMCO approach is successful in optimizing the RI and MTF values of the fold 2.5x zoom lens system and yields better and more balanced performance, which is very difficult for the traditional least damping square method to achieve. PMID:19305473

Sun, Jung-Hung; Hsueh, Bo-Ren; Fang, Yi-Chin; MacDonald, John; Hu, Chao-Chang

2009-03-20

233

Numerical and Experimental Design Study of a Regenerative Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code to simulate the flow-field within the regenerative pump and compare the CFD results with new experimental data. Regenerative pumps are the subject of increased interest in industry as these pumps are low cost, low specific speed, compact and able to deliver high heads with stable performance characteristics. The complex flow-field within the regenerative pump represents a considerable challenge to detailed mathematical modelling. This paper also presents a novel rapid manufacturing process used to consider the effect of impeller geometry changes on the pump efficiency. Ten modified impeller blade profiles, relative to a standard radial configuration, were evaluated. The CFD performance results demonstrate reasonable agreement with the experimental tests. The CFD results also demonstrate that it is possible to represent the helical flow field for the pump which has only been witnessed in experimental flow visualisation until now. The ability to use CFD modelling in conjunction with rapid manufacturing techniques has meant that more complex impeller geometry configurations can now be assessed with better understanding of the flow-field and resulting efficiency.

Quail, Francis J.; Stickland, Matthew; Scanlon, Thomas

2010-03-01

234

OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS BY INCORPORATING NIF FACILITY IMPACTS  

SciTech Connect

For experimental campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to be successful, they must obtain useful data without causing unacceptable impact on the facility. Of particular concern is excessive damage to optics and diagnostic components. There are 192 fused silica main debris shields (MDS) exposed to the potentially hostile target chamber environment on each shot. Damage in these optics results either from the interaction of laser light with contamination and pre-existing imperfections on the optic surface or from the impact of shrapnel fragments. Mitigation of this second damage source is possible by identifying shrapnel sources and shielding optics from them. It was recently demonstrated that the addition of 1.1-mm thick borosilicate disposable debris shields (DDS) block the majority of debris and shrapnel fragments from reaching the relatively expensive MDS's. However, DDS's cannot stop large, faster moving fragments. We have experimentally demonstrated one shrapnel mitigation technique showing that it is possible to direct fast moving fragments by changing the source orientation, in this case a Ta pinhole array. Another mitigation method is to change the source material to one that produces smaller fragments. Simulations and validating experiments are necessary to determine which fragments can penetrate or break 1-3 mm thick DDS's. Three-dimensional modeling of complex target-diagnostic configurations is necessary to predict the size, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel fragments. The tools we are developing will be used to set the allowed level of debris and shrapnel generation for all NIF experimental campaigns.

Eder, D C; Whitman, P K; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B T; Parham, T G; Koerner, J G; Dixit, S N; . Suratwala, T I; Blue, B E; Hansen, J F; Tobin, M T; Robey, H F; Spaeth, M L; MacGowan, B J

2005-08-31

235

AN OPTIMIZATION OF CALCITE GRINDING USING THE TAGUCHI METHOD WITH MULTIPLE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demostrate how the application of Taguchi method can be used to develop an effective optimization process for calcite grinding. In order to observe the influencing degree of contol factors in dry calcite grinding, three control factors namely mill speed, ball size and grinding time on lowest product 80% passing size (d80) were studied

N. Aslan

236

Determination of submerged arc welding process parameters using Taguchi method and regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the application of Taguchi technique and regression analysis to determine the optimal process parameters for submerged arc welding (SAW). The planned experiments are conducted in the semiautomatic submerged arc welding machine and the signal-to-noise ratios are computed to determine the optimum parameters. The percentage contribution of each factor is validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Multiple

S Kumanan; J Edwin; Raja Dhas; K Gowthaman

2007-01-01

237

Biodegradation of dye solution containing Malachite Green: Optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, optimization of biological decolorization of synthetic dye solution containing Malachite Green was investigated. The effect of temperature, initial pH of the solution, type of algae, dye concentration and time of the reaction was studied and optimized using Taguchi method. Sixteen experiments were required to study the effect of parameters on biodegradation of the dye. Each of experiments

N. Daneshvar; A. R. Khataee; M. H. Rasoulifard; M. Pourhassan

2007-01-01

238

Improving the quality of an optimal power flow solution by Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at improving the quality of an OPF (optimal power flow solution including power demand uncertainty. The goal is to obtain a best setting of the input which results in a performance characteristic of the output close to target with minimum variability. Here, a post-optimality procedure which incorporates the philosophv and the method of Taguchi is applied. Power

X. Dai Do

1995-01-01

239

Optimization of microwave frying of potato slices by using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of microwave frying for food products may be considered as a new way of improving the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effects of microwaves on quality of fried potatoes (moisture content, oil absorption, color and hardness) were studied and the process was optimized by using Taguchi Technique. Microwave power level (400W, 550W and 700W), frying

Mecit Halil Oztop; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

2007-01-01

240

Ureteral Complications in Renal Transplantation: A Comparison of the Lich-Gregoir Versus the Taguchi Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveModifications of the Lich-Gregoir extravesical ureteroneocystostomy have become the standard technique for management of the ureter during renal transplantation. We performed a comparative outcome examination of the standard Lich-Gregoir technique and the Taguchi or “one-stitch” technique.

R. S. Lee; R. Bakthavatsalam; C. L. Marsh; C. S. Kuhr

2007-01-01

241

Optimization of mechanical properties of recycled plastic products via optimal processing parameters using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amount of plastic products presently produced necessitates recycling and reuse of these non-biodegradable materials. However, the degradation in the mechanical properties of products made from recycled plastic is a major drawback that limits their use. This study aims to improve the mechanical properties of products made from recycled plastic by utilizing the Taguchi optimization method, instead of coupling

Nik Mizamzul Mehat; Shahrul Kamaruddin

2011-01-01

242

SIMULTANEOUS OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF WEDM BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC AND TAGUCHI TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents, the use of fuzzy logic in the Taguchi method to optimize Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) process with multiple quality characteristics. Rough machining with EDM gives poor surface finish and has micro cracks and pores. Finish machining gives better surface finish but with very poor machining speed (MRR). Hence achieving higher cutting speed along with better surface finish

Y. M. Puri; N. V. Deshpande

2004-01-01

243

Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is extensively used in machining of conductive materials when precision is of prime importance. Rough cutting operation in WEDM is treated as a challenging one because improvement of more than one machining performance measures viz. metal removal rate (MRR), surface finish (SF) and cutting width (kerf) are sought to obtain a precision work. Using Taguchi's

S. S. Mahapatra; Amar Patnaik

2006-01-01

244

Using Propensity Scores in Quasi-Experimental Designs to Equate Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education research rarely lends itself to large scale experimental research and true randomization, leaving the researcher to quasi-experimental designs. The problem with quasi-experimental research is that underlying factors may impact group selection and lead to potentially biased results. One way to minimize the impact of non-randomization is…

Lane, Forrest C.; Henson, Robin K.

2010-01-01

245

The logical structure and validity of experimental designs in pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology.  

PubMed

Much of the literature on research design in clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics emphasizes statistical concerns, thus suggesting that a primary ingredient of a valid research design is an appropriate plan for statistical analysis of data. However, statistical validity is only one of several ways to evaluate an experimental study. The present paper reviews the underlying logic and sources of invalidity of experimental drug research suggesting influences and factors which may deceive or lure an experimenter into erroneous conclusions. PMID:2667651

Mason, E J; Bialer, M

246

The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

2010-01-01

247

An Experimental Hydrodynamic Study of Innovative Trawl Board Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major source of trawl system inefficiency is the poor hydrodynamic qualities of the trawl boards commonly used by U.S. fishermen. A family of trawl board configurations was developed consisting of 24 different models. All designs were low aspect ratio, ...

C. A. Goudey

1978-01-01

248

Cooperative learning techniques in CS1: design and experimental evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of cooperative learning exercises were designed for use in a Java-based CS1 course. The exercises used specific roles to focus students' attention on key concepts of the Java language, and on key mental processes of programming and problem solving. A controlled experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. The results show that the cooperative learning

Leland L. Beck; Alexander W. Chizhik; Amy C. McElroy

2005-01-01

249

Computational Design of an Experimental Laser-Powered Thruster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thru...

S. Jeng R. Litchford D. Keefer

1988-01-01

250

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

251

Segmented Capacitance Tomography Electrodes: A Design and Experimental Verifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A segmented capacitance tomography system for real-time imaging of multiphase flows is developed and presented in this work. The earlier research shows that the electrical tomography (ECT) system is applicable in flow visualization (image reconstruction). The acquired concentration profile obtained from capacitance measurements able to imaged liquid and gas mixture in pipelines meanwhile the system development is designed to attach

Elmy Johana Mohamad; Ruzairi Abdul Rahim; Leow Pei Ling; Mohd. Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman; Omar Mohd. Faizan Bin Marwah; Nor Muzakkir Nor Ayob

2012-01-01

252

Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

Cheung, Ming

2011-01-01

253

Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using

Michael F. W. Festing

1994-01-01

254

Tocorime Apicu: design and validation of an experimental search engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the development of an integrated, experimental search engine, Tocorime Apicu, the incorporation and emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the chosen biological model (honeybees) and the field of high-performance knowledge discovery in databases results in the coupling of diverse fields of research: evolutionary computations, biological modeling, machine learning, statistical methods, information retrieval systems, active networks, and data visualization. The use of computer systems provides inherent sources of self-similarity traffic that result from the interaction of file transmission, caching mechanisms, and user-related processes. These user-related processes are initiated by the user, application programs, or the operating system (OS) for the user's benefit. The effect of Web transmission patterns, coupled with these inherent sources of self-similarity associated with the above file system characteristics, provide an environment for studying network traffic. The goal of the study was client-based, but with no user interaction. New methodologies and approaches were needed as network packet traffic increased in the LAN, LAN+WAN, and WAN. Statistical tools and methods for analyzing datasets were used to organize data captured at the packet level for network traffic between individual source/destination pairs. Emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the biological model equips the experimental search engine with an adaptive system model which will eventually have the capability to evolve with an ever- changing World Wide Web environment. The results were generated using a LINUX OS.

Walker, Reginald L.

2001-07-01

255

Engineering design of a throat valve experimental facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the design of a gas dynamic test facility. The facility studied is a medium-scale blast simulator. The primary use of the facility would be to test fast-acting, computer-controlled valves. The valve would be used to control nuclear blast simulation by controlling the release of high pressure gas from drivers into an expansion tunnel to form a shock

Irving B. Osofsky; Duane T. Hove; William C. Derbes

1995-01-01

256

Design and experimental evaluation of a piezoelectric XY stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positioning instruments offering a submicrometric accuracy within a restricted mass budget will become indispensable in future planetary exploration missions. Among the technologies known to date, only the combination of piezoelectric actuators with capacitive displacement sensors meets such specifications. This solution has the advantages of providing a rugged, frictionless, solid-state mechanism, which can be finely controlled due to the high signal to noise ratio that can obtained with the drive electronics. This actuator-sensor combination was applied to the design of an XY stage that could offer 100 X 100 micrometer strokes in a total mass budget of 400 g. Since the required stroke was too large to be achieved directly with the piezoelectric material, the amplification technique developed at Cedrat Recherche was employed. Their Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators were chosen over other techniques, such as Hertzian pivots, because of the mass requirement on the system. The design of the stage made it necessary to address issues such as the guiding functions, especially important to reduce parasitic degrees of freedom. Finite element analysis was used intensively. The engineering model built includes eight APA50S actuators and two capacitive displacement sensors. The operating performance was tested and shown to be close to the predicted results. The strokes and parasitic degrees of freedom were measured using a laser interferometer. The stage was tested over the temperature range (-20 degrees + 50 degrees Celsius), submitted to random vibrations tests, and its lifetime was tested over more than one million strokes. The results of these tests and other parameters, such as piezoelectric drift and gravity effects on the functional performances, are discussed. This paper focuses on the design aspects of the XY stage, the tools used for this design and the lessons learned from its development.

Barillot, Francois; Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Lhermet, Nicolas; Yorck, Mickael; Bouchilloux, Philippe

2000-06-01

257

High-power CMUTs: design and experimental verification.  

PubMed

Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with piezoelectric transducers in high-power applications. As the output pressures increase, nonlinearity of CMUT must be reconsidered and optimization is required to reduce harmonic distortions. In this paper, we describe a design approach in which uncollapsed CMUT array elements are sized so as to operate at the maximum radiation impedance and have gap heights such that the generated electrostatic force can sustain a plate displacement with full swing at the given drive amplitude. The proposed design enables high output pressures and low harmonic distortions at the output. An equivalent circuit model of the array is used that accurately simulates the uncollapsed mode of operation. The model facilities the design of CMUT parameters for high-pressure output, without the intensive need for computationally involved FEM tools. The optimized design requires a relatively thick plate compared with a conventional CMUT plate. Thus, we used a silicon wafer as the CMUT plate. The fabrication process involves an anodic bonding process for bonding the silicon plate with the glass substrate. To eliminate the bias voltage, which may cause charging problems, the CMUT array is driven with large continuous wave signals at half of the resonant frequency. The fabricated arrays are tested in an oil tank by applying a 125-V peak 5-cycle burst sinusoidal signal at 1.44 MHz. The applied voltage is increased until the plate is about to touch the bottom electrode to get the maximum peak displacement. The observed pressure is about 1.8 MPa with -28 dBc second harmonic at the surface of the array. PMID:22718878

Yamaner, F Yalçin; Olçum, Selim; O?uz, H Ka?an; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Köymen, Hayrettin; Atalar, Abdullah

2012-06-01

258

Analysis, design and experimental characterization of electrostatically actuated gas micropumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work goal is to realize a high-performance, multi-stage micropump integrated within a wireless micro gas chromatograph (muGC) for measuring airborne environment pollutants. The work described herein focuses on the development of high-fidelity mathematical and physical design models, and the testing and validation of the most promising models with large-scale and micro-scale (MEMS) pump prototypes. It is shown that an

Aaron A. Astle

2006-01-01

259

Water markets design and evidence from experimental economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market mechanisms are gaining increasing acceptance all over the world as a way of making more efficient use of scarce water\\u000a resources. Designing regulatory frameworks that ensure both inter- and intra-temporal efficient allocations is a daunting\\u000a task, especially if supply is stochastic and there is ample storage capacity. In addition to defining tradable rights, specific\\u000a provisions must regulate the use

Alberto Garrido

2007-01-01

260

Miniature underwater glider: Design, modeling, and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of gliding robotic fish combines gliding and fin-actuation mechanisms to realize energy-efficient locomotion and high maneuverability, and holds strong promise for mobile sensing in versatile aquatic environments. In this paper we present the modeling and design of a miniature fish-like glider, a key enabling component for gliding robotic fish. The full dynamics of the glider is first derived

Feitian Zhang; John Thon; Cody Thon; Xiaobo Tan

2012-01-01

261

Analysis, design and experimental characterization of electrostatically actuated gas micropumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work goal is to realize a high-performance, multi-stage micropump integrated within a wireless micro gas chromatograph (muGC) for measuring airborne environment pollutants. The work described herein focuses on the development of high-fidelity mathematical and physical design models, and the testing and validation of the most promising models with large-scale and micro-scale (MEMS) pump prototypes. It is shown that an electrostatically-actuated, multistage, diaphragm micropump with active valve control provides the best expected performance for this application. A hierarchy of models is developed to characterize the various factors governing micropump performance. This includes a thermodynamic model, an idealized reduced-order model and a reduced-order model that incorporates realistic valve flow effects and accounts for fluidic load. The reduced-order models are based on fundamental fluid dynamic principles and allow predictions of flow rate and pressure rise as a function of geometric design variables, and drive signal. The reduced order models are validated in several tests. Two-stage, 20x scale pump results reveal the need to incorporate realistic valve flow effects and the output load for accurate modeling. The more realistic reduced order model is then validated using micropumps with two and four pumping stages. The reduced order model captures the micropump performance accurately, provided that separate measurements of valve pressure losses and pump geometry are used. The four-stage micropump fabricated using theoretical model guidelines from this research provides a maximum flow rate and pressure rise of 3 cm 3/min and 1.75 kPa/stage respectively with a power consumption of only 4 mW per stage. The four-stage micropump occupies and area of 54 mm 2. Each pumping cavity has a volume of 6x10-6 m 3. This performance indicates that this pump design will be sufficient to meet the requirements for extended field operation of a wireless integrated muGC. During the course of these investigations, a new phenomenon referred to as "microvalve pumping" was discovered. A single microvalve pump occupies an area of 4 mm2 and has been shown to produce a maximum flow rate and pressure rise of 0.48 cm3/min and 520 Pa respectively. The implications of this novel finding for creating even more compact and power efficient micropump designs is discussed.

Astle, Aaron A.

262

A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis  

SciTech Connect

A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

1993-08-01

263

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

Smith, Justin D.

2012-01-01

264

Materials selection and design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program is a multinational effort to design and develop the technology for a superconducting magnetic fusion energy reactor that can achieve long burn times using a deuterium-tritium fuel. During the recently completed Conceptual Design Activity (CDA), teams from the U.S., Japan, Soviet Union, and EC generated a baseline design useful for physics and component

Leonard T. Summers

1992-01-01

265

Environmental sex determination in reptiles: ecology, evolution, and experimental design.  

PubMed

Sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles can be divided into two convenient classifications: genotypic (GSD) and environmental (ESD). While a number of types of GSD have been identified in a wide variety of reptilian taxa, the expression of ESD in the form of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in three of the five major reptilian lineages has drawn considerable attention to this area of research. Increasing interest in sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles has resulted in many data, but much of this information is scattered throughout the literature and consequently difficult to interpret. It is known, however, that distinct sex chromosomes are absent in the tuatara and crocodilians, rare in amphisbaenians (worm lizards) and turtles, and common in lizards and snakes (but less than 20% of all species of living reptiles have been karyotyped). With less than 2 percent of all reptilian species examined, TSD apparently is absent in the tuatara, amphisbaenians and snakes; rare in lizards, frequent in turtles, and ubiquitous in crocodilians. Despite considerable inter- and intraspecific variation in the threshold temperature (temperature producing a 1:1 sex ratio) of gonadal sex determination, this variation cannot confidently be assigned a genetic basis owing to uncontrolled environmental factors or to differences in experimental protocol among studies. Laboratory studies have identified the critical period of development during which gonadal sex determination occurs for at least a dozen species. There are striking similarities in this period among the major taxa with TSD. Examination of TSD in the field indicates that sex ratios of hatchlings are affected by location of the nests, because some nests produce both sexes whereas the majority produce only one sex. Still, more information is needed on how TSD operates under natural conditions in order to fully understand its ecological and conservation implications. TSD may be the ancestral sex-determining condition in reptiles, but this result remains tentative. Physiological investigations of TSD have clarified the roles of steroid hormones, various enzymes, and H-Y antigen in sexual differentiation, whereas molecular studies have identified several plausible candidates for sex-determining genes in species with TSD. This area of research promises to elucidate the mechanism of TSD in reptiles and will have obvious implications for understanding the basis of sex determination in other vertebrates. Experimental and comparative investigations of the potential adaptive significance of TSD appear equally promising, although much work remains to be performed. The distribution of TSD within and among the major reptilian lineages may be related to the life span of individuals of a species and to the biogeography of these species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1891591

Janzen, F J; Paukstis, G L

1991-06-01

266

XT-ADS Windowless spallation target thermohydraulic design & experimental setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the European 6th framework Integrated Project (IP) EUROTRANS (EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) is to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste using subcritical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The spallation target represents the most challenging new component in an ADS since it is the component coupling the accelerator and the nuclear core and is subjected to very high thermal load in a high radiation field. In this document the thermal hydraulic activities which led to reliable design rules for a windowless target are presented and the status of the heavy liquid metal target mock-up experiment at the KArlsruhe Liquid metal LAboratory (KALLA) are reported.

Class, A. G.; Angeli, D.; Batta, A.; Dierckx, M.; Fellmoser, F.; Moreau, V.; Roelofs, F.; Schuurmans, P.; van Tichelen, K.; Wetzel, T.

2011-08-01

267

Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. STUDY DESIGN: Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P < .003). CONCLUSIONS: BMC was underestimated through standard analysis, which demonstrates the importance of accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. PMID:23312535

Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

2013-01-01

268

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

269

Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.  

PubMed

Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus report by submitting written comments during the review process and oral comments during two forum presentations at the ISPOR 16th and 17th Annual International Meetings held in Baltimore (2011) and Washington, DC (2012). PMID:23337210

Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

270

Patient reactions to personalized medicine vignettes: An experimental design  

PubMed Central

Purpose Translational investigation on personalized medicine is in its infancy. Exploratory studies reveal attitudinal barriers to “race-based medicine” and cautious optimism regarding genetically personalized medicine. This study describes patient responses to hypothetical conventional, race-based, or genetically personalized medicine prescriptions. Methods Three hundred eighty-seven participants (mean age = 47 years; 46% white) recruited from a Baltimore outpatient center were randomized to this vignette-based experimental study. They were asked to imagine a doctor diagnosing a condition and prescribing them one of three medications. The outcomes are emotional response to vignette, belief in vignette medication efficacy, experience of respect, trust in the vignette physician, and adherence intention. Results Race-based medicine vignettes were appraised more negatively than conventional vignettes across the board (Cohen’s d = ?0.51?0.57?0.64, P < 0.001). Participants rated genetically personalized comparably with conventional medicine (? 0.14?0.15?0.17, P = 0.47), with the exception of reduced adherence intention to genetically personalized medicine (Cohen’s d = ?0.38?0.41?0.44, P = 0.009). This relative reluctance to take genetically personalized medicine was pronounced for racial minorities (Cohen’s d =?0.38?0.31?0.25, P = 0.02) and was related to trust in the vignette physician (change in R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a relative reluctance to embrace personalized medicine technology, especially among racial minorities, and highlights enhancement of adherence through improved doctor-patient relationships.

Butrick, Morgan; Roter, Debra; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Erby, Lori H.; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Levy, Howard P.

2011-01-01

271

Experimental design and study of Free Rotor River Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Terrace irrigation along the rivers of Nepal is the vital problem of farmers in the remote villages. The existing turbines and irrigation systems are not feasible without civil structures, and suffer from the lack of resources and financial problems. A simple and inexpensive underwater Free Rotor River Turbine (FRRT) which extracts power ranging from a fraction of a HP up to 25 HP from the velocity of the running water in a river or stream was developed. The power obtained from the turbine can be used to run a pump to lift water for drinking purposes and for irrigation along the river banks during the dry season and early part of the wet season. Various designs of models have been tested in the laboratory to find the optimum pitch angle, shape and size of blades, and optimum number of blades in order to accomplish the cheapest, simplest, and most efficient turbine. The effect of diameter of turbine, velocity of water and torque produced by the turbines were studied,and the effect of simple linear twist on blades is discussed.

Nepali, D.B.

1987-01-01

272

Parametric design methodology for chemical processes using a simulator  

SciTech Connect

Parameter design is a method popularized by the Japanese quality expert G. Taguchi, for designing products and manufacturing processes that are robust in the face of uncontrollable variations. At the design stage, the goal of parameter design is to identify design settings that make the product performance less sensitive to the effects of manufacturing and environmental variations and deterioration. Because parameter design reduces performance variation by reducing the influence of the sources of variation rather than by controlling them, it is a cost-effective technique for improving quality. A recent study on the application of parameter design methodology for chemical processes reported that the use of Taguchi's method was not justified and a method based on Monte Carlo simulation combined with optimization was shown to be more effective. However, this method is computationally intensive as a large number of samples are necessary to achieve the given accuracy. Additionally, determination of the number of sample runs required is based on experimentation due to a lack of systematic sampling methods. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the use of a stochastic modeling capability combined with an optimizer is presented in this paper. The objective is that of providing an effective means for application of parameter design methodologies to chemical processes using the ASPEN simulator. This implementation not only presents a generalized tool for use by chemical engineers at large but also provides systematic estimates of the number of sample runs required to attain the specified accuracy. The stochastic model employs the technique of Latin hypercube sampling instead of the traditional Monte Carlo technique and hence has a great potential to reduce the required number of samples. The methodology is illustrated via an example problem of designing a chemical process.

Diwekar, U.M.; Rubin, E.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-02-01

273

Optical design and extended multi-objective optimization of miniature L-type optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ordinary optical design and optimization, it is difficult to strike a balance between relative illuminance (RI) and the modulation transfer function (MTF); this is even more difficult for special fold optical zoom lenses. We propose a thinning L-type zoom lens design that exploits the reflecting and refracting surfaces that constitute a prismatic lens. However, in L-type designs, the lens RI is comparatively low compared with that in its coaxial counterparts. Attempts to improve the RI also cause MTF degradation. We propose a combination of the Taguchi method and principal component analysis to improve both the RI and MTF in L-type zoom systems. We analysed an orthogonal array L9 using the Taguchi method. The resulting experimental values of the orthogonal array L9 were used as inputs for principal component analysis to obtain the total point value. The total point value was then analysed by variance, revealing that the two most significant factors were (1) the semi-aperture of the front element and (2) the surface 7 to image length. Our proposed method increased the MTF and RI by 0.16% and 0.44%, respectively, in system wide-angle ends.

Sun, Jung-Hung; Hsueh, Bo-Ren; Fang, Yi-Chin; MacDonald, John

2009-10-01

274

Buck quasi-resonant converter operating at constant frequency: analysis, design, and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A buck pulsewidth modulated zero-current switching quasi-resonant converter (buck PWM ZCS QRC) operating at constant frequency is discussed. Operating principle and design-oriented analysis are presented with normalized design curves, design procedure, design example, simulations, and experimental results. The new topology, which can be considered as a particular one, is compared with the well-established buck frequency-modulated zero-current switching quasi-resonant converter (buck

I. Barbi; J. C. O. Bolacell; D. C. Martins; F. B. Libano

1990-01-01

275

Buck quasi-resonant converter operating at constant frequency: analysis, design and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to a buck zero-current-switching quasi-resonant converter (buck-PWM-ZCS-QRC) operating at constant frequency. Operation principle and design-oriented analysis are presented, with normalized design curves, design procedure, design example, simulations, and experimental results. The new topology is compared with the well-established Buck-FM-ZCS-QRC proposed by F.C. Lee (Proc. IEEE, vol.76, Apr.1988), which can be considered as a particular topology

I. Barbi; J. C. Bolacell; D. C. Martins; F. B. Libano

1989-01-01

276

Bayesian experimental design of a multichannel interferometer for Wendelstein 7-X  

SciTech Connect

Bayesian experimental design (BED) is a framework for the optimization of diagnostics basing on probability theory. In this work it is applied to the design of a multichannel interferometer at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator experiment. BED offers the possibility to compare diverse designs quantitatively, which will be shown for beam-line designs resulting from different plasma configurations. The applicability of this method is discussed with respect to its computational effort.

Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, D-174891 Greifswald (Germany); Fischer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-10-15

277

Experimental investigation of passive micromixers conceptual design using the layout optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the novel efficient passive micromixers conceptual design using the flexible layout optimization method. Utilizing the layout optimization method when designing passive micromixers results in decreased reliance on the experience and intuition of designers. The detailed layout of passive micromixers is obtained by solving a variational optimization problem, in which the manufacturability and periodicity of passive micromixers can be considered by adding the corresponding design constraints. The obtained micromixers are fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques. The mixing performance is evaluated by stereoscopic and confocal microscopes. The effectiveness of the layout optimization method is confirmed by a comparison of the numerical and experimental results.

Liu, Yongshun; Deng, Yongbo; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihui

2013-07-01

278

Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

2009-09-15

279

Experimental Evaluation of the Battelle Accelerated Test Design for the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical eval...

P. O. Frickland J. Repar

1982-01-01

280

On the way to an active terahertz camera: Optic design and its experimental verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the simulation of a terahertz optics setup with the commercial, optic-design software package Zemax. We show that the analysis of both diffraction and abberation effects are well corroborated by the experimental results.

C. am Weg; T. May; B. Hils; T. Loffler; H. G. Roskos

2007-01-01

281

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes.  

PubMed

The design of functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neural changes that support treatment-based recovery of targeted language functions in acquired aphasia faces a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and focus on experimental tasks and experimental designs that can be used to address the challenges, facilitate the interpretation of results and promote integration of findings across studies. PMID:22974976

Rapp, Brenda; Caplan, David; Edwards, Susan; Visch-Brink, Evy; Thompson, Cynthia K

2012-09-10

282

Experimental design to optimize the degradation of the synthetic dye Orange II using Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental design methodology was applied having in mind the optimization of the azo dye Orange II degradation using the Fenton's reagent (mixture of H2O2 and Fe2+). The variables considered were the temperature, H2O2 concentration and Fe2+:H2O2 ratio, for a dye concentration of 0.3mM and pH 3. The multivariate experimental design allowed to develop quadratic models for: (i) color removal

J. Herney Ramirez; Carlos A. Costa; Luis M. Madeira

2005-01-01

283

Normalization of two-channel microarrays accounting for experimental design and intensity-dependent relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normalizing two-channel expression arrays, the ANOVA approach explicitly incorporates the experimental design in its model, and the MA plot-based approach accounts for intensity-dependent biases. However, both approaches can lead to inaccurate normalization in fairly common scenarios. We propose a method called efficient Common Array Dye Swap (eCADS) for normalizing two-channel microarrays that accounts for both experimental design and intensity-dependent

Alan R Dabney; John D Storey

2007-01-01

284

Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

2013-01-01

285

Experimental System Design of Wireless Power Transfer Based on Witricity Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless power transfer based on witricity technology is a new technology which energy can be transferred via coupled magnetic resonances in the non- radiative near-field. In order to verify its feasibility, coupled mode theory and power transfer system structure was proposed in this paper. Based on these analysis, The wireless power transfer experimental device is designed. Experimental results shows that

Yang Li; Qingxin Yang; Haiyan Chen; Xian Zhang; Zhuo Yan

2011-01-01

286

Invited review: Assessing experimental designs for research conducted on commercial dairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of increasing constraints placed on conduct- ing large studies at universities, more research is being conducted on commercial dairies, thereby raising some implications for experimental designs and data analysis. For example, experimental units are often specified to be pens of animals in on-farm studies, thereby requiring that at least 2 pens be used per treatment group in a single-dairy

R. J. Tempelman

2009-01-01

287

Design of the control system for hydraulic experimental bench based on LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic experimental benches are indispensable in teaching process. In order to improve the experiment effect, establish the concept of hydraulic online testing, a control system was designed, which mainly consist of computer, data acquisition card (DAQ), and several sensors. The experimental software is developed on the famous virtual instrument (VI) develop platform—LabVIEW, and provides several functions such as control, measure,

Cui Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Zhigang Wang

2011-01-01

288

Design studies for the transmission simulator method of experimental dynamic substructuring.  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, a successful method for generating experimental dynamic substructures has been developed using an instrumented fixture, the transmission simulator. The transmission simulator method solves many of the problems associated with experimental substructuring. These solutions effectively address: (1) rotation and moment estimation at connection points; (2) providing substructure Ritz vectors that adequately span the connection motion space; and (3) adequately addressing multiple and continuous attachment locations. However, the transmission simulator method may fail if the transmission simulator is poorly designed. Four areas of the design addressed here are: (1) designating response sensor locations; (2) designating force input locations; (3) physical design of the transmission simulator; and (4) modal test design. In addition to the transmission simulator design investigations, a review of the theory with an example problem is presented.

Mayes, Randall Lee; Arviso, Michael

2010-05-01

289

An optimization system for LED lens design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposed a two-stage LED lens design optimization system, and used the viewing angle and the luminance uniformity as the optical quality objective. Optical design software (TracePro) and the orthogonal table of Taguchi method were used for simulation experiment. In the first stage, the viewing angle was used as the optical quality objective to find out the preliminary optimization

Wen-Chin Chen; Tung-Tsan Lai; Min-Wen Wang; Hsiao-Wen Hung

2011-01-01

290

THE DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR THE PLUTONIUM RECYCLE PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the reactor for the Plutonium Recycle Program is an experimental ; tool, the bases for its design stem directly from the incentives, the unknowns, ; and objectives ef the program. The incentives of the program including the ; peaceful use ef plutonium produced in both power and other reactors, the design ; fiexibility and cycle economy from enrichment with

Fryar

1958-01-01

291

Exploiting Distance Technology to Foster Experimental Design as a Neglected Learning Objective in Labwork in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the design process of a remote laboratory for labwork in chemistry. In particular, it focuses on the mutual dependency of theoretical conjectures about learning in the experimental sciences and technological opportunities in creating learning environments. The design process involves a detailed analysis of the expert task and…

d'Ham, Cedric; de Vries, Erica; Girault, Isabelle; Marzin, Patricia

2004-01-01

292

Experimental Design for Clinical Research: A Student-Centered Problem-Based Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A graduate pharmacy course in experimental design for clinical research is described. Students work in groups to design clinically feasible, statistically valid studies on assigned problems. Individual students also perform statistical analyses on data sets generated from similar clinical studies conducted by faculty. Observations about grading…

Lush, Richard M., III; And Others

1993-01-01

293

Summary of Conceptual Design Study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). FY 1984 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 FER design is now...

1985-01-01

294

Mixture experiments with process variables: d-optimal orthogonal experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blending experiments with mixture in the presence of process variables are considered. We present an experimental design for quadratic (or linear) blending. The design in two orthogonal blocks is D-optimized in the case where there are no restrictions on the blending in two orthogonal blocks is presented when there are arbitrary restrictions on the blending components. The pair of orthogonal

Veronica Czitrom

1988-01-01

295

Experimental studies on optimal operating conditions for different flow field designs of PEM fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the main focus is to measure the optimal cathode fuel flow rate effects with different flow field designs. In addition, the effects of different flow field designs (flow channel number, flow channel length, corner numbers and baffle effects) on the cell performance of the PEM fuel cells under the different operating conditions are examined. The experimental results

Wei-Mon Yan; Ching-Hung Yang; Chyi-Yeou Soong; Falin Chen; Sheng-Chin Mei

2006-01-01

296

Application of Taguchi techniques to study dry sliding wear behaviour of metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with SiC and graphite (Gr) particles was prepared by liquid metallurgy route. Dry sliding wear behaviour of the composite was tested and compared with Al\\/SiCp composite. A plan of experiments based on Taguchi technique was used to acquire the data in a controlled way. An orthogonal array and analysis of variance was employed to investigate

S. Basavarajappa; G. Chandramohan; J. Paulo Davim

2007-01-01

297

Taguchi techniques-based study on the effect of mobile phone conversation on drivers' reaction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate application of the Taguchi method-based conceptual signal-to-noise (S\\/N) approach and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine optimum level of three important factors related to mobile phone conversation during driving, namely time of drive (day or night), distance between cars, and mobile phone call duration that minimizes drivers' reaction time

Zahid A. Khan; Ibrahim A. Al-Darrab

2010-01-01

298

Enhancement of water-repellent performance on functional coating by using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work investigates the enhancement of water-repellency on rough surfaces using nanoscale roughness inherent in metal-oxide nanoparticles together with a hydrophobic fluoromethylic copolymer coating via the Taguchi and analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodologies. Based on the concepts of nanocoating processing, seven operating factors including type of nanoparticle, solid ratio, dispersion time, F-binder ratio, distance between nozzle and substrate, spray

Ta-Sen Lin; Chu-Fu Wu; Chien-Te Hsieh

2006-01-01

299

Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

2013-01-01

300

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of end milling parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize cutting parameters in end milling when machining hardened steel AISI H13 with TiN coated P10 carbide insert tool under semi-finishing and finishing conditions of high speed cutting. The milling parameters evaluated are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio and Pareto

J. A Ghani; I. A Choudhury; H. H Hassan

2004-01-01

301

Functional Representations in Conceptual Design: A First Study in Experimental Design and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional modeling is an abstraction technique intended to help engineering designers perform conceptual design. Functions are constructs that describe a transformation between an input flow and an output flow. A primary characteristic of functions is their independence from the physical aspects of a device or artifact. In this sense, functions are form independent and deliberately lack reference to geometry that

Julie S. Linsey; Matthew G. Green; Michael Van Wie; Kristin L. Wood; Robert Stone

2005-01-01

302

Conceptual Design Study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER). Magnet Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the FER magnet design which was conducted last year (1986). Main objective of the new FER design is to have better cost performance of the machine. The physics assumptions are reviewed to reduce risks. Optimization of the physics de...

N. Miki F. Iida S. Suzuki Y. Wachi K. Toyoda

1987-01-01

303

A knowledge-based experimental design system for nucleic acid engineering.  

PubMed

Presented in this paper is a knowledge-based experimental design system that incorporates the domain expertise used in nucleic acid engineering, thus automating the processing of error-prone, laborious low-level work, and many decision-making steps, and guiding the biologist toward a workable plan. This allows the biologist to work at a higher abstraction level, concentrating on more fundamental, difficult and challenging problems directly related to protein structure - function relationships. Cassette-based site-directed mutagenesis and synthetic gene designs are used as examples to illustrate the utility of the knowledge-based system approach to experimental design. PMID:2207744

Jiang, K; Zheng, J; Higgins, S B; Watterson, D M; Craig, T A; Lukas, T J; Van Eldik, L J

1990-07-01

304

Optimization of parameters by Taguchi method for controlling purity of carbon nanotubes in chemical vapour deposition technique.  

PubMed

The process parameters (viz. temperature of synthesis, type of catalyst, concentration of catalyst and type of catalyst-support material) for controlling purity of carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic chemical vapour deposition of acetylene have been optimized by analyzing the experimental results using Taguchi method. It has been observed that the catalyst-support material has the maximum (59.4%) and the temperature of synthesis has the minimum effect (2.1%) on purity of the nanotubes. At optimum condition (15% ferrocene supported on carbon black at the synthesis temperature of 700 degrees C) the purity of nanotubes was found out to be 96.2% with yield of 1900%. Thermogravimetry has been used to assess purity of nanotubes. These nantubes have been further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Small angle neutron scattering has been used to find out their average inner and outer diameter using an appropriate model. The nanotubes are well crystallized but with wide range of diameter varying between 20-150 nm. PMID:20355409

Dasgupta, K; Sen, D; Mazumder, S; Basak, C B; Joshi, J B; Banerjee, S

2010-06-01

305

Design Rules for Quantum Imaging Devices: Experimental Progress Using CMOS Single Photon Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We continue our previous program, where we introduced a set of quantum-based design rules directed at quantum engineers who design single-photon quantum communications and quantum imaging devices. Here, we report on experimental progress using SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) arrays of our design and fabricated in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Emerging high-resolution imaging techniques based on SPAD

Edoardo Charbon; Neil J. Gunther; Dmitri L. Boiko; Giordano B. Beretta

2006-01-01

306

DESIGN FEATURES OF BREST REACTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK TO ADVANCE THE CONCEPT OF BREST REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principle design features of BREST-300 (300 MWe) and BREST-1200 (1200 MWe) lead?cooled fast reactors are presented in this paper. Several experimental works have been performed or under way in order to justify lead-cooled reactor design concepts. BREST reactor designs of different outputs have been developed using the same principles. In conjunction with the increased output and the implement of inherent

A. I. FILIN; V. V. ORLOV; V. N. LEONOV; A. G. SILA-NOVITSKI; V. S. SMIRNOV; V. S. TSIKUNOV

307

D-optimal experimental designs for Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, D-optimal experimental designs are derived for three common adsorption isotherm models: the 2-parameter Freundlich, the 2-parameter Langmuir, and the 3-parameter Langmuir. For each of these liquid-solid adsorption models, the D-optimal design equations are derived from the information matrix and then solved numerically to determine the specific design values as a function of the model parameters. The variation

Aravind Mannarswamy; Stuart H. Munson-McGee; Robert Steiner; Paul K. Andersen

2009-01-01

308

Experimental library screening demonstrates the successful application of computational protein design to large structural ensembles  

PubMed Central

The stability, activity, and solubility of a protein sequence are determined by a delicate balance of molecular interactions in a variety of conformational states. Even so, most computational protein design methods model sequences in the context of a single native conformation. Simulations that model the native state as an ensemble have been mostly neglected due to the lack of sufficiently powerful optimization algorithms for multistate design. Here, we have applied our multistate design algorithm to study the potential utility of various forms of input structural data for design. To facilitate a more thorough analysis, we developed new methods for the design and high-throughput stability determination of combinatorial mutation libraries based on protein design calculations. The application of these methods to the core design of a small model system produced many variants with improved thermodynamic stability and showed that multistate design methods can be readily applied to large structural ensembles. We found that exhaustive screening of our designed libraries helped to clarify several sources of simulation error that would have otherwise been difficult to ascertain. Interestingly, the lack of correlation between our simulated and experimentally measured stability values shows clearly that a design procedure need not reproduce experimental data exactly to achieve success. This surprising result suggests potentially fruitful directions for the improvement of computational protein design technology.

Allen, Benjamin D.; Nisthal, Alex; Mayo, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

309

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

PubMed Central

We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ, known to exhibit distinct behavioral traits. The group then employs histological techniques to prepare brain sections for observing neuroanatomical variation between strains (for example, 129S1/SvImJ mice are occasionally acallosal). In the final laboratory exercise, they assay the acetylcholinesterase activity in fore- and hindbrains from each strain. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format. The course concludes with pairs of students conducting self-designed independent projects using the acquired behavioral, histological or neurochemical techniques. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience is proving particularly successful as it is relatively straightforward for students to design interesting experiments, gain experience in neuroscience experimentation without excessive use of animals, gather substantial data sets, and develop skills in scientific report writing and presentation at an early stage in their neuroscience curricula. Furthermore, the course has emerged as a centralizing focus for our neuroscience program and is suitable for transfer to and adaptation by other institutions.

Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

2003-01-01

310

Experimental design methodologies in the optimization of chiral CE or CEC separations: an overview.  

PubMed

In this chapter, an overview of experimental designs to develop chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) methods is presented. Method development is generally divided into technique selection, method optimization, and method validation. In the method optimization part, often two phases can be distinguished, i.e., a screening and an optimization phase. In method validation, the method is evaluated on its fit for purpose. A validation item, also applying experimental designs, is robustness testing. In the screening phase and in robustness testing, screening designs are applied. During the optimization phase, response surface designs are used. The different design types and their application steps are discussed in this chapter and illustrated by examples of chiral CE and CEC methods. PMID:23283793

Dejaegher, Bieke; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan

2013-01-01

311

Innovation in Pharmaceutical Experimentation Part 1: Review of Experimental Designs Used in Industrial Pharmaceutics Research and Introduction to Bayesian D-Optimal Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of design space, as described in the ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline Q8 for Pharmaceutical Development (Q8\\u000a Pharmaceutical development, ICH harmonized tripartite guidelines, in International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, 2005), was introduced to justify regulatory flexibility in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The basis for this concept\\u000a is that advanced understanding of

Phillip D. Lunney; Robert P. Cogdill; James K. Drennen

2008-01-01

312

Thermal-hydraulic design issues and analysis for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) divertor  

SciTech Connect

Critical Heat Flux (CHF), also called burnout, is one of the major design limits for water-cooled divertors in tokamaks. Another important design issue is the correct thermal modeling of the divertor plate geometry where heat is applied to only one side of the plate and highly subcooled flow boiling in internal passages is used for heat removal. This paper discusses analytical techniques developed to address these design issues, and the experimental evidence gathered in support of the approach. Typical water-cooled divertor designs for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are analyzed, and design margins estimated. Peaking of the heat flux at the tube-water boundary is shown to be an important issue, and design concerns which could lead to imposing large design safety margins are identified. The use of flow enhancement techniques such as internal twisted tapes and fins are discussed, and some estimates of the gains in the design margin are presented. Finally, unresolved issues and concerns regarding hydraulic design of divertors are summarized, and some experiments which could help the ITER final design process identified. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Koski, J.A.; Watson, R.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hassanien, A.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Goranson, P.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Fusion Engineering Design Center); Salmonson, J.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Special Projects)

1990-01-01

313

Conceptual Design Study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY87FER). Magnet Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the FER magnet design which was conducted last year (1987). Based on a large uncertainty of the physics assumption, two sets of FER concepts have been developed. One is based on the best existing physics data bases and another is bas...

N. Miki F. Iida Y. Wachi K. Toyoda T. Hashizume

1988-01-01

314

Optimization of multi machining characteristics in WEDM of WC-5.3%Co composite using integrated approach of Taguchi, GRA and entropy method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a well known process for generating intricate and complex geometries in hard metal alloys and metal matrix composites with high precision. In present work, intricate machining of WC-5.3%Co composite on WEDM has been reported. Taguchi's design of experiment has been utilised to investigate the process parameters for four machining characteristics namely material removal rate, surface roughness, angular error and radial overcut. In order to optimize the four machining characteristics simultaneously, grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with entropy measurement method has been employed. Through GRA, grey relational grade has been computed as a performance index for predicting the optimal parameters setting for multi machining characteristics. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on grey relational grade, significant parameters affecting the multi-machining characteristics has been determined. Confirmatory results prove the potential of present approach.

Jangra, Kamal; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Aman

2012-09-01

315

Amplification of intermethylated sites experimental design and results analysis with AIMS in silico computer software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of intermethylated sites (AIMS) is a powerful tool for differential methylation screening of genomes. Its applications\\u000a have nevertheless been limited until recently for the absence of systemic approach to AIMS experimental design and of appropriate\\u000a computer software for the analysis of AIMS results. We have developed AIMS in silico computer suggestion tool capable of predicting possible experimental outcomes, which

A. S. Tanas; V. V. Shkarupo; E. B. Kuznetsova; D. V. Zaletayev; V. V. Strelnikov

2010-01-01

316

The consequences of consumer diversity loss: different answers from different experimental designs.  

PubMed

Predators are often the most vulnerable group to extinction, yet the consequences of changing predator diversity are poorly understood. One source of confusion has been different experimental designs. The multiple-predator effects literature typically employs an additive design, while the biodiversity ecosystem function literature typically uses a replacement design. Separately, these designs each detect only a subset of the changes in food web interactions caused by predator loss. Here, we measure the impact of consumer diversity on sessile marine invertebrates using a combination additive-replacement design. We couple this with a meta-analysis of previous combination experiments. We use these two approaches to explore how each design can detect different types of interactions among predators. We find that, while high diversity does lead to more negative interspecific interactions, the strength of these interactions is often weaker than negative intraspecific interactions caused by increasing the density of a single species alone. We conclude that a hybrid design is the optimal method to explore the mechanisms behind the effects of changing predator diversity. If researchers merely want to know the consequences of changing predator diversity, at a bare minimum, the experimental design must mimic the actual changes in both predator density and diversity in their system of interest. However, only a hybrid design can distinguish the consequences of shifting the balance of interspecific and intraspecific interactions within a community, an issue of great importance when considering both natural diversity loss and pest biocontrol. PMID:19886496

Byrnes, Jarrett E; Stachowicz, John J

2009-10-01

317

Effect of metal layout design on passivation crack occurrence using both experimental and simulation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermo-mechanical reliability is one of the concerns for semiconductor developments due to miniaturization, introduction of new materials, and higher application temperatures. FE modeling techniques are developed to predict the effect of IC interconnect metal designs on the thermo-mechanically-induced cracking of passivation layers. Experimental techniques on specially designed IC packages are developed to verify the predicted passivation cracks. With the verified

R. B. R. van Silfhout; W. D. van Driel; Y. Li; M. A. J. van Gils; J. H. J. Janssen; G. Q. Zhang; G. Tao; J. Bisschop; L. J. Ernst

2004-01-01

318

Nuclear design of the blanket\\/shield system for a Tokamak experimental power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering design options and trade-offs in the design of a blanket\\/shield for a Tokamak experimental fusion power reactor (TEPR) are studied. Blanket\\/shield thickness on the inner side of the torus affects TEPR size and cost appreciably. Lower limits on blanket\\/shield thickness are imposed by refrigeration power requirements and by radiation damage suffered by superconducting magnet components. Wall loading, duty cycle,

M. A. Abdou

1976-01-01

319

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

2006-08-03

320

Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court with those assigned to standard probation in Maricopa

Nancy Rodriguez; Vincent J. Webb

2004-01-01

321

Experimental design of FPD made of all-ceramics and fibre-reinforced composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was carried out to combine flexural properties of FRC materials with aesthetic values of ceramics.Methods. The bonding strength of fibre-reinforced composite to ceramic was determined. Afterwards, 8 three unit and 8 four unit FPDs (fixed partial dentures) were manufactured based on the experimental design and were then adhesively luted onto human molars. After thermal cycling and mechanical

M Rosentritt; M Behr; R Lang; G Handel

2000-01-01

322

Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

2013-01-01

323

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

324

Teaching Experimental Design in Ecology, or How to Do Statistics Without a Bikini  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article emphasizes that when teaching statistics and experimental design, the subject must be communicated in such a way that the general concepts are well understood, even at the expense of mathematical details. A lesson plan for an entire course is outlined, applying this teaching philosophy.

Magnusson, William E.

2010-02-16

325

Design of radial neutron spectrometer array for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed the radial neutron spectrometer using a new type DT neutron spectrometer base on a recoil proton counter-telescope technique aiming ion temperature measurement for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The neutron spectrometer will be installed on the well collimated neutron beam line. A large area recoil proton emitter is placed parallel to the incident neutron beam and microchannel

T. Nishitani; S. Kasai; T. Iguchi; E. Takada; K. Ebisawa; Y. Kita

1997-01-01

326

Xylanase production in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger mutant using statistical experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The initial moisture content, cultivation time, inoculum size and concentration of basal medium were optimized in solid state fermentation (SSF) for the production of xylanase by an Aspergillus niger mutant using statistical experimental designs. The cultivation time and concentration of basal medium were the most important factors affecting xylanase activity. An inoculum size of 5쎹 spores\\/g, initial moisture content

Y. S. Park; S. W. Kang; J. S. Lee; S. I. Hong; S. W. Kim

2002-01-01

327

Experimental and theoretical investigations for the design of scrubbers in heat recovery from paper machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the energy consumption in paper machines takes place in the dryer section. The purpose of the heat recovery system is to reduce the consumption of primary energy in the paper machine by utilising waste energy from the process in an economically profitable way. To provide the necessary information and computer tools to aid engineering designers, experimental and theoretical

Nenad Milosavljevic; Pekka Malinen; Pertti Heikkilä; Ilkka Jokioinen; Kari Edelmann

1997-01-01

328

Psychophysiological experimental design for use in human-robot interaction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines key experimental design issues associated with the use of psychophysiological measures in human-robot interaction (HRI) studies and summarizes related studies. Psychophysiological measurements are one tool for evaluating participantspsila reactions to a robot with which they are interacting. A brief review of psychophysiology is provided which includes: physiological activities and response tendencies; common psychophysiological measures; and advantages\\/issues related

Cindy L. Bethel; Jennifer L. Burke; Robin R. Murphy; Kristen Salomon

2007-01-01

329

Experimental design for optimizing drug release from silicone elastomer matrix and investigation of transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicone elastomers are commonly used for medical devices and external prosthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in silicone-based medical devices with enhanced function that release drugs from the elastomer matrix. In the current study, an experimental design approach was used to optimize the release properties of the model drug diclofenac from medical silicone elastomer matrix, including a combination of

Bergthóra S. Snorradóttir; Pálmar I. Gudnason; Freygardur Thorsteinsson; Már Másson

2011-01-01

330

Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

2011-01-01

331

Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of...

D. M. Somers

1981-01-01

332

Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)|

Stallings, William M.

1993-01-01

333

Computationally Efficient Comparison of Experimental Designs for System Reliability Studies with Binomial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common practical problem in experimental design is that of quantitatively determining how to best use a fixed amount of resources to supplement an existing analysis with additional data. We address this problem in the context of the second-stage in Bayesian system reliability studies; this second-stage data is aimed at obtaining a more precise estimate of the system's reliability. The

Jessica L. Chapman; Max D. Morris; Christine M. Anderson-Cook

2012-01-01

334

Design of a Solar Power Management System for an Experimental UAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a solar power management system (SPMS) for an experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is summarized. The system will provide power required for the on-board electronic systems on the UAV. The power management system mainly consists of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT), the battery management, and the power conversion stages. The MPPT stage attempts to obtain the

Jaw-Kuen Shiau; Der-Ming Ma; Pin-Ying Yang; Geng-Feng Wang; Jhij Hua Gong

2009-01-01

335

Experimental Design in Caecilian Systematics: Phylogenetic Information of Mitochondrial Genomes and Nuclear rag1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced

DIEGO SAN MAURO; DAVID J. GOWER; T IM MASSINGHAM; M ARK WILKINSON; R AFAEL ZARDOYA; JAMES A. COTTON

2009-01-01

336

A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

2009-01-01

337

Experimental Evaluation of Design Features of a Cryostat for an IronLess Costheta SSC Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design for an iron-less cos\\/theta\\/ SSC magnet cryostat has identified several areas for experimental study. Included are bowing of thermal radiation shields due to cooldown and warmup; thermal performance of the suspension systems; cryostat thermal performance; structural responses to decentering forces between the coil and the steel vacuum vessel; and response of thermal shields to forces due to

R. C. Niemann; J. A. Carson; N. H. Engler; H. E. Fisk; J. D. Gonczy; R. H. Hanft; M. Kuchnir; P. M. Mantsch; P. O. Mazur; A. D. McInturff; T. H. Nicol; J. Otavka; R. J. Powers; E. E. Schmidt; A. Szymulanski

1985-01-01

338

Design of an experimental electric arc furnace. Report of investigations\\/1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instabilities in electric steelmaking furnace arcs cause electrical and acoustical noise, reduce operating efficiency, increase refractory erosion, and increase electrode usage. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has an ongoing research project investigating methods to stabilize these arcs to improve productivity in steel production. To perform experiments to test new hypotheses, researchers designed and instrumented an advanced, experimental single-phase furnace. The

A. D. Hartman; T. L. Ochs

1992-01-01

339

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

340

Experimental Investigation of Two 15 Percent-Scale Wind Tunnel Fan-Blade Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and mo...

D. B. Signor

1988-01-01

341

An evaluation of modified R -change effect size indices for single-subject experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study describes modification of change in R (?R ) indices used to describe a treatment's effect on the level and linear growth in outcome measures in single-subject experimental designs. A description of how to calculate each index, its standard error and associated test statistic is provided. A small simulation study was conducted to evaluate the Type I error

S. Natasha Beretvas; Hyewon Chung

2008-01-01

342

Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.  

PubMed

We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system. PMID:17591178

Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

2007-05-01

343

Design considerations and experimental results of a 100 W, 500 000 rpm electrical generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale gas turbine generator systems are a promising solution for high energy and power density portable devices. This paper focuses on the design of a 100 W, 500 000 rpm generator suitable for use with a gas turbine. The design procedure selects the suitable machine type and bearing technology, and determines the electromagnetic characteristics. The losses caused by the high frequency operation are minimized by optimizing the winding and the stator core material. The final design is a permanent-magnet machine with a volume of 3 cm3 and experimental measurements from a test bench are presented.

Zwyssig, C.; Kolar, J. W.

2006-09-01

344

Efficient experimental design and analysis strategies for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a powerful approach for the detection of differential gene expression with both high-throughput and high resolution capabilities possible depending upon the experimental design chosen. Multiplex experimental designs are now readily available, these can be utilised to increase the numbers of samples or replicates profiled at the cost of decreased sequencing depth generated per sample. These strategies impact on the power of the approach to accurately identify differential expression. This study presents a detailed analysis of the power to detect differential expression in a range of scenarios including simulated null and differential expression distributions with varying numbers of biological or technical replicates, sequencing depths and analysis methods. Results Differential and non-differential expression datasets were simulated using a combination of negative binomial and exponential distributions derived from real RNA-Seq data. These datasets were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used differential expression analysis algorithms and to quantify the changes in power with respect to true and false positive rates when simulating variations in sequencing depth, biological replication and multiplex experimental design choices. Conclusions This work quantitatively explores comparisons between contemporary analysis tools and experimental design choices for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Seq. We found that the DESeq algorithm performs more conservatively than edgeR and NBPSeq. With regard to testing of various experimental designs, this work strongly suggests that greater power is gained through the use of biological replicates relative to library (technical) replicates and sequencing depth. Strikingly, sequencing depth could be reduced as low as 15% without substantial impacts on false positive or true positive rates.

2012-01-01

345

Experimental design and desirability function approach for development of novel anticancer nanocarrier delivery systems.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effects of anticancer drugs would highly improve if problems with low water solubility and toxic adverse reactions could be solved. In this work, a full factorial experimental design was used to develop a polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system as an alternative technique for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and characterized using an O/W emulsification-solvent evaporation technique and different analytical methods. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used for characterization of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles' characteristics including size, size distribution, drug loading and the efficiency of encapsulation were optimized by means of a full factorial experimental design over the influence of four different independent variables and desirability function using Design-Expert software. The resulting tamoxifen loaded nanoparticles showed the best response with particle sizes less than 200 nm, improved encapsulation efficiency of more than 80% and the optimum loading of above 30%. The overall results demonstrate the implication of desirability functionin experimental design as a beneficial approach in nanoparticle drug delivery design. PMID:21391432

Rafati, H; Mirzajani, F

2011-01-01

346

Near-optimal experimental design for model selection in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Motivation:?Biological systems are understood through iterations of modeling and experimentation. Not all experiments, however, are equally valuable for predictive modeling. This study introduces an efficient method for experimental design aimed at selecting dynamical models from data. Motivated by biological applications, the method enables the design of crucial experiments: it determines a highly informative selection of measurement readouts and time points. Results:?We demonstrate formal guarantees of design efficiency on the basis of previous results. By reducing our task to the setting of graphical models, we prove that the method finds a near-optimal design selection with a polynomial number of evaluations. Moreover, the method exhibits the best polynomial-complexity constant approximation factor, unless P = NP. We measure the performance of the method in comparison with established alternatives, such as ensemble non-centrality, on example models of different complexity. Efficient design accelerates the loop between modeling and experimentation: it enables the inference of complex mechanisms, such as those controlling central metabolic operation. Availability:?Toolbox ‘NearOED’ available with source code under GPL on the Machine Learning Open Source Software Web site (mloss.org). Contact:?busettoa@inf.ethz.ch Supplementary information:?Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Hauser, Alain; Krummenacher, Gabriel; Sunnaker, Mikael; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Ong, Cheng Soon; Stelling, Jorg; Buhmann, Joachim M.

2013-01-01

347

Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999  

SciTech Connect

A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

348

Experimental investigation of two transonic linear turbine cascades at off-design conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed measurements have been made of the mid-span aerodynamic performance of two transonic turbine cascades at off-design conditions. The cascades investigated were a baseline cascade, designated HS1A, and a cascade with a modified leading edge design, designated HS1B. The measurements were for exit Mach numbers ranging from about 0.5 to about 1.2 and for Reynolds numbers from 4 x 105 to 106. The turbulence intensity in the test section and upstream of the cascade test section was about 4%. The profile losses were measured for the incidence values of -10°, 0.0°, +4.5°, +10.0°, and +14.5° relative to design. To aid in understanding the loss behaviour and to provide other insights into the flow physics, measurements of the blade loading, exit flow angles, trailing-edge base pressures, and the Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR) were also made. The results showed that the profile losses at transonic Mach numbers can be closely related to the behaviour of the base pressure. The losses were also found to be affected by the AVDR. The AVDRs were found to decrease with increasing positive incidence. Moreover the results from both cascades showed that the modifications to the leading edge geometry of HS1B cascade were not successful in improving the blade performance at positive off-design incidence. Comparisons between the present experimental data and the available correlations in the open literature were also made. These comparisons included mid-span losses at design and off-design, and exit flow angles. It was found that further improvements can still be made to the existing correlations. Furthermore, the present experimental data represents a significant contribution to the data base of results available in the open literature for the development of new and improved correlations, particularly at transonic flow conditions, at both design and off-design conditions.

Jouini, Dhafer Ben Mahmoud

349

Aspects of experimental design for plant metabolomics experiments and guidelines for growth of plant material.  

PubMed

Experiments involve the deliberate variation of one or more factors in order to provoke responses, the identification of which then provides the first step towards functional knowledge. Because environmental, biological, and/or technical noise is unavoidable, biological experiments usually need to be designed. Thus, once the major sources of experimental noise have been identified, individual samples can be grouped, randomised, and/or pooled. Like other 'omics approaches, metabolomics is characterised by the numbers of analytes largely exceeding sample number. While this unprecedented singularity in biology dramatically increases false discovery, experimental error can nevertheless be decreased in plant metabolomics experiments. For this, each step from plant cultivation to data acquisition needs to be evaluated in order to identify the major sources of error and then an appropriate design can be produced, as with any other experimental approach. The choice of technology, the time at which tissues are harvested, and the way metabolism is quenched also need to be taken into consideration, as they decide which metabolites can be studied. A further recommendation is to document data and metadata in a machine readable way. The latter should also describe every aspect of the experiment. This should provide valuable hints for future experimental design and ultimately give metabolomic data a second life. To facilitate the identification of critical steps, a list of items to be considered before embarking on time-consuming and costly metabolomic experiments is proposed. PMID:22351168

Gibon, Yves; Rolin, Dominique

2012-01-01

350

Single-case experimental designs: a systematic review of published research and current standards.  

PubMed

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support among those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design, and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

Smith, Justin D

2012-07-30

351

Optimization of conversion coatings: study of the influence of parameters with experimental designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of conversion treatment parameters on the characteristics of conversion coatings was studied in order to determine the optimal elaboration conditions, using statistical experimental designs. These conversion coatings must be characterised by strong interfacial adhesion, high roughness and high real surface area, which were measured by an electrochemical method. The influence of all the elaboration factors (temperature, time and bath composition: sulphuric acid, thiosulphate (accelerator), propargyl alcohol (inhibitor)) and also the interactions between these factors were evaluated, using 2 5-1 fractional factorial design. A polynomial model was deducted from statistical analysis of the experiments. The evaluation showed, by using a designed experimental procedure, that the most important factors were sulphuric acid, thiosulphate and alcohol concentrations. But the growth of the conversion coating is also influenced by the interaction effects between the bath compounds. With such optimised conditions, the real surface area of conversion coating obtained was about 200 m 2 m -2. This conversion coating modified by alumina deposit increases the thermal oxidation resistance of the Fe-C alloy. A discussion of the use of experimental designs for increased understanding and optimisation of conversion coating process is also given.

El Hajjaji, S.; Lgamri, A.; Puech-Costes, E.; Guenbour, A.; Ben Bachir, A.; Aries, L.

2000-09-01

352

Optimization of sputtering parameters for SmCo thin films using design of experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design of experiments (DOE) study on the optimization of DC magnetron sputtering parameters for SmCo films was carried out using a Taguchi-fractional factorial, L8 (24-1) design methodology. Four important sputtering parameters, viz., sputtering pressure, DC power, substratetarget distance and sputtering time were considered in their upper, standard and lower levels of their predefined range in order to investigate the range of processing conditions and their effect on the film quality. The attributes of SmCo thin films were quantified with respect to surface roughness, thickness, crystallite size, phase composition and coercivity. The significance of each process parameter as well as the optimal combination of sputtering parameters to achieve the desired film characteristics such as finer crystallite size, low surface roughness and high coercivity was obtained using statistical analysis of the experimental results by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method.

Venkata Ramana, G.; Saravanan, P.; Kamat, S. V.; Aparna, Y.

2012-11-01

353

A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

Steeper, T.J. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [Tubal Cain Co., Loveland, OH (United States); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. [Metco/Perkin-Elmer, Westbury, NY (United States)

1992-08-01

354

A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

Steeper, T.J. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (Tubal Cain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. (Metco/Perkin-Elmer, Westbury, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

355

Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

Schur, W. W.

2004-01-01

356

Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999  

SciTech Connect

A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

357

Biological destruction of CCl[sub 4]: I -- Experimental design and data  

SciTech Connect

A denitrifying consortium capable of transforming carbon tetrachloride (CCl[sub 4]) was cultured from aquifer sediment from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. To understand the kinetics of the biological destruction of CCl[sub 4] by these microbes, a set of experiments, the conditions of which were chosen according to a fractional factorial experimental design, were completed. This article reports on the experimental design along with the results for CCl[sub 4], biomass, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations. These data indicate that growth is inhibited by high nitrite concentrations, whereas CCl[sub 4] degradation is slowed by the presence of nitrate and/or nitrite.

Petersen, J.N.; Amos, K.M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Skeen, R.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Waste Treatment Technology Center); Hooker, B.S. (Tri-State Univ., Angola (India). Chemical and Engineering Dept.)

1994-03-15

358

Design and construction of an experimental pervious paved parking area to harvest reusable rainwater.  

PubMed

Pervious pavements are sustainable urban drainage systems already known as rainwater infiltration techniques which reduce runoff formation and diffuse pollution in cities. The present research is focused on the design and construction of an experimental parking area, composed of 45 pervious pavement parking bays. Every pervious pavement was experimentally designed to store rainwater and measure the levels of the stored water and its quality over time. Six different pervious surfaces are combined with four different geotextiles in order to test which materials respond better to the good quality of rainwater storage over time and under the specific weather conditions of the north of Spain. The aim of this research was to obtain a good performance of pervious pavements that offered simultaneously a positive urban service and helped to harvest rainwater with a good quality to be used for non potable demands. PMID:22020491

Gomez-Ullate, E; Novo, A V; Bayon, J R; Hernandez, Jorge R; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

2011-01-01

359

Microstructural design and experimental validation of elastic metamaterial plates with anisotropic mass density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microstructure design of anisotropic resonant inclusions is investigated for the elastic metamaterial plate with the aid of the numerically based effective medium model. Experimental validation is then conducted in the anisotropic metamaterial plate through both harmonic and transient wave testing, from which the anisotropic effective dynamic mass density, group, and phase velocities are determined as functions of frequency. The strongly anisotropic mass density along two principal orientations is observed experimentally and the prediction from the experimental measurements agrees well with that from the numerical simulation. Finally, based on the numerically obtained effective dynamic properties, a continuum theory is developed to simulate different guided wave modes in the elastic metamaterial plate. Particularly, high-order guided wave coupling and repulsion as well as the preferential energy flow in the anisotropic elastic metamaterial plate are discussed.

Zhu, R.; Liu, X. N.; Huang, G. L.; Huang, H. H.; Sun, C. T.

2012-10-01

360

Optimization of the Cryogenic Treatment Process for En 52 Valve Steel Using the Grey-Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the optimization of the deep cryogenic treatment for En 52 valve steel using the Taguchi method in combination with the Grey relational analysis. The factors considered for the optimization are the cooling rate, soaking temperature, soaking period, and tempering temperature, each at three different levels. The mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, hardness, and wear resistance

M. Arockia Jaswin; D. Mohan Lal

2010-01-01

361

Mahalanobis-Taguchi System as a MultiSensor Based Decision Making Prognostics Tool for Centrifugal Pump Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based fault detection, isolation, and prognostics scheme is presented. The proposed scheme fuses data from multiple sensors into a single system level performance metric using Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and generates fault clusters based on MD values. MD thresholds derived from the clustering analysis are used for fault detection and isolation. When a fault is

Ahmet Soylemezoglu; Sarangapani Jagannathan; Can Saygin

2011-01-01

362

Taguchi's approach for reliability and safety assessments in the stage separation process of a multistage launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in brief the formulation for lateral and longitudinal dynamics associated with the separation and pull out of an ongoing functional stage from the spent stage of a multistage launch vehicle using separation motors as jettisoning system. Taguchi method is employed to understand the influencing parameters in the separation process. It is possible to minimize the number of

J. Singaravelu; D. Jeyakumar; B. Nageswara Rao

2009-01-01

363

Adaptive Adjustment of Injection Molding Process for Mechanical Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is analyzed variations of mechanical characteristics that depend on the injection molding techniques during the blending of short glass fiber (SGF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reinforced polycarbonate (PC) composites. Planning of experiment is based on a Taguchi orthogonal array table, and applied signal-to-noise ratios to determine an optimal setting. Simultaneously, applying response surface methodology (RSM) analysis, a mathematical predictive

Chorng-Jyh Tzeng; Yung-Kuang Yang; Ming-Hua Hsieh; Chun-Yuan Chen

2011-01-01

364

High-power high-speed photodetectors-design, analysis, and experimental demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel velocity-matched distributed photodetector (VMDP) is proposed to simultaneously achieve high saturation photocurrent and broad bandwidth. Theoretical analysis on the tradeoff between saturation power and bandwidth shows that the VMDP offers fundamental advantages over conventional photodetectors. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed for the design and simulation of the VMDP. Experimentally, the VMDP with very high saturation (56-mA)

L. Y. Lin; M. C. Wu; T. Itoh; T. A. Vang; R. E. Muller; D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho

1997-01-01

365

Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults.MethodsWe conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial

Zeena Harakeh; Rutger C M E Engels; Kathleen Vohs; Rick B van Baaren; James Sargent

2009-01-01

366

Optimal Design of Lozenge-shaped Dielectric Elastomer Linear Actuators: Mathematical Procedure and Experimental Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mathematical procedure is presented, which makes it possible to optimize lozenge-shaped dielectric-elastomer-based linear actuators for known materials and desired force\\/stroke requirements. Simulation and experimental results are provided which both demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed optimization procedure with respect to traditional design approaches and show that simpler, cheaper, lighter, and better-behaved lozenge-shaped actuators can be conceived, which do

Rocco Vertechy; Giovanni Berselli; Vincenzo Parenti Castelli; Gabriele Vassura

2010-01-01

367

Design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a flap valve IPMC micropump with a flexibly supported diaphragm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of a flap valve ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) micropump, the diaphragm of which is supported by a flexible material. A multilayered IPMC based on a Nafion\\/layered silicate and Nafion\\/silica nanocomposites was fabricated and used as an actuator for the micropump. To make best use of a flexible IPMC diaphragm, we introduced

Thanh Tung Nguyen; Nam Seo Goo; Vinh Khanh Nguyen; Youngtai Yoo

2008-01-01

368

Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incor- porates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (b-Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been

F. P. Casey; D. Baird; Q. Feng; R. N. Gutenkunst; J. J. Waterfall; C. R. Myers; K. S. Brown; R. A. Cerione; J. P. Sethna

2007-01-01

369

Design study of a neutral injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor \\/JXFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design study of a 33-MW, 200-keV deuterium neutral beam injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor is presented. The NBI system consists of high current ion sources, neutralizing cells, direct energy converters, an evacuating system with cryo-pumps and drift tubes. Neutral beams are injected for 310 seconds along four beamlines. Some optimizations and parameter studies of neutralizing cell

H. Yamato; K. Shinya; O. Morimiya; A. Miura; Y. Murakami; S. Matsuda; K. Sako

1977-01-01

370

Design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration of a microscale monolithic modular absorption heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first ever conceptualization, design, fabrication and successful experimental demonstration of a thermally activated microscale absorption heat pump for miniaturized or mobile applications is reported here. Several-fold enhancements in coupled heat and mass transfer possible in microscale passages remove significant hurdles that have hindered the implementation of thermally activated heat pumps. Cooling capacities of 100 W–10 s of kW are possible through

Matthew D. Determan; Srinivas Garimella

371

A Box–Behnken Design for Determining the Optimum Experimental Condition of Cake Batter Mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Box-Behnken design to establish the optimum experimental condition of cake batter mixing is important because\\u000a optimal mixing can ensure the dispersion of ingredients, and the incorporation and retention of air efficiently. A Box-Behnken\\u000a with three factors such as mixing time, mixing speed, and cake loading was selected to observe the effects on batter density,\\u000a cake density, hardness,

Mei C. Tan; Nyuk L. Chin; Yus A. Yusof

372

Experimental study on the dynamic response of gravity-designed reinforced concrete connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an experimental programme aiming to shed some light on the response of non-seismic RC beam–column joints to excitations of different frequencies. The RC connections tested were designed only for gravity loads, thus rendering the joint cores weaker than the adjoining members when subjected to a lateral load. Altogether, six tests were conducted on full-scale specimens, which were

Rajesh Prasad Dhakal; Tso-Chien Pan; Paulus Irawan; Keh-Chyuan Tsai; Ker-Chun Lin; Chui-Hsin Chen

2005-01-01

373

Xylanase recovery: effect of extraction conditions on the AOT-reversed micellar systems using experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanase recovery using AOT-reversed micelles was evaluated under different experimental conditions. A full factorial design with centre point was employed to verify the influence of different factors on the recovery. A mathematical model represented xylanase yield (Y) as a function of pH and temperature: Y=8·75?4·31A2?3·13C2, where A=pH and C=temperature. The highest xylanase recovery, indicated by the model (10·2%), was attained

E. M. G. Rodrigues; A. M. F. Milagres; A. Pessoa Jr.

1999-01-01

374

Training for Shainin’s approach to experimental design using a catapult  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the quest for continuous quality improvement of both products and processes, experimental design (ED) based on Shainin’s variables search method is still playing a major role in the manufacturing community. This article presents a simple methodology in a step-by-step manner for Shainin’s variables search method, in terms of uncovering the key process variables or factors which influence a response

Jiju Antony; Alfred Ho Yuen Cheng

2003-01-01

375

Optimization of a UV-curable acrylate-based protective coating by experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of composition and processing parameters controlling the properties of UV-cured films was studied by the screening and quantification tools of experimental design methodology. Various formulations including acrylated prepolymers based on a polyurethane or a bis-phenol A core were blended with mono- and difunctional reactive diluents, isobornyl acrylate and hexanediol diacrylate, respectively. The influence of photo-initiator content and UV-dose

Loïc Pichavant; Xavier Coqueret

2008-01-01

376

A review of meta-analyses of single-subject experimental designs: Methodological issues and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several metrics have been suggested for summarizing results from single-subject experimental designs. This study briefly reviews the most commonly used metrics, noting their methodological limitations. This study also includes a synthesis of recent meta-analyses, describing which metrics were used and how meta-analysts handled dependence in the form of multiple treatments, outcomes, and participants per study. Guidelines for future methodological research

S. Natasha Beretvas; Hyewon Chung

2008-01-01

377

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

2003-08-01

378

Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

Ventrice, Carl

2009-04-01

379

A Resampling Based Approach to Optimal Experimental Design for Computer Analysis of a Complex System  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of a complex system is often performed using computer generated response data supplemented by system and component test results where possible. Analysts rely on an efficient use of limited experimental resources to test the physical system, evaluate the models and to assure (to the extent possible) that the models accurately simulate the system order investigation. The general problem considered here is one where only a restricted number of system simulations (or physical tests) can be performed to provide additional data necessary to accomplish the project objectives. The levels of variables used for defining input scenarios, for setting system parameters and for initializing other experimental options must be selected in an efficient way. The use of computer algorithms to support experimental design in complex problems has been a topic of recent research in the areas of statistics and engineering. This paper describes a resampling based approach to form dating this design. An example is provided illustrating in two dimensions how the algorithm works and indicating its potential on larger problems. The results show that the proposed approach has characteristics desirable of an algorithmic approach on the simple examples. Further experimentation is needed to evaluate its performance on larger problems.

Rutherford, Brian

1999-08-04

380

Optimisation of carbomer viscous eye drops: an in vitro experimental design approach using rheological techniques.  

PubMed

The optimisation of the in vitro interaction between several poly(acrylic acid) derivatives (Carbopol 1342P NF, Carbopol 974P and Carbopol 980 NF) and mucin was performed by an analysis technique combining oscillatory shear rheology and experimental design in order to improve the formulation of carbomer viscous eye drops.First, standard oscillation procedures were used to characterise the polyacrylic acid and mucin dispersions, and to investigate the influence of several polymer-related factors (concentration, preparation, type of polymer used) on the rheological properties. Second, an experimental plan design was developed to investigate the effect of polymer-related factors on the mucoadhesive indexes (MAI(G') and MAI(G")) which were calculated using the viscoelastic data obtained from polymer/mucin, polymer/tearfluid and mucin/tearfluid mixtures. Optimal mucoadhesive interactions were determined based on the experimental design results. Finally, the optima were fully characterised rheologically to further verify the mucoadhesive capacity. The main conclusion is that the factor influencing most explicitly the mucoadhesive interaction of the viscous eye drop is the mucin concentration and neither the type of polyacrylic acid, nor its concentration. PMID:12084501

Ceulemans, Jens; Ludwig, Annick

2002-07-01

381

Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods.  

PubMed

In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs) was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations) was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution. PMID:21556348

Hadidi, Naghmeh; Kobarfard, Farzad; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Aboofazeli, Reza

2011-04-08

382

Statistical issues in quality control of proteomic analyses: good experimental design and planning.  

PubMed

Quality control is becoming increasingly important in proteomic investigations as experiments become more multivariate and quantitative. Quality control applies to all stages of an investigation and statistics can play a key role. In this review, the role of statistical ideas in the design and planning of an investigation is described. This involves the design of unbiased experiments using key concepts from statistical experimental design, the understanding of the biological and analytical variation in a system using variance components analysis and the determination of a required sample size to perform a statistically powerful investigation. These concepts are described through simple examples and an example data set from a 2-D DIGE pilot experiment. Each of these concepts can prove useful in producing better and more reproducible data. PMID:21298792

Cairns, David A

2011-02-07

383

An Experimental Design to Determine the Electrostatic Properties of Martian Simulant Dust Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Viking mission and, more recently, the Hubble Space Telescope, provided evidence for the existence of global dust storms on Mars. Several of these dust storms were observed to last for several months. Dust particles striking the surfaces of any equipment used in future Mars missions may create potentials that may compromise the safety of astronauts and equipment in future Mars missions. Experiments that yield information on the electrostatic properties of the Martian soil and its effects on common space materials are needed before any such missions are undertaken. In this project, experimental desi(,ns were constructed and setup to measure the electrostatic properties of small particles derived from Andesitic rocks and to determine the charging characteristics of common space materials exposed to these particles. Andesitic rock was identified by Pathfinder to be the primary type of rock on Mars. These experimental designs should serve as the basis for experiments to be performed in a simulated Mars environment (SME). MARS-1, a simulant prepared from Andesitic rocks by NASA Johnson Space Center was used in this project. Characterization of this simulant was made using using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Spectroscopy (ICAP) coupled with a carbon-sulfur detector, These results were compared to the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer analysis on the Sojourner rover. The simulant was found to be a suitable substitute for Martian soil. Experimental designs to determine the polarization of this simulant were set up. The simulant was observed to acquire a polarization in the presence of electric fields of the order of 2.9 N/C. Initial measurements yielded values of charge polarization densities of the order of 30 nC/g. Two experimental designs and methods to simulate the exposure of different materials to wind-blown dust were made. These designs permit dust particle delivery to samples at different speeds. Initial rough experiments made with these designs to determine their viability were promising. These initial experiments indicated the need for several minor modifications in the designs and in the methods.

Calle, Carlos I.

1999-03-01

384

Identifying Effective Treatments from a Brief Experimental Analysis: Using Single-Case Design Elements to Aid Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental analysis refers to the manipulation of an independent variable while observing its effects on behavior. In the 1980s, researchers began conducting brief experimental analyses to identify the variables maintaining severe problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. By adapting certain design elements, brief experimental analyses have been used in school and clinical settings to compare quickly two or more

Brian K. Martens; Tanya L. Eckert; Tracy A. Bradley; Scott P. Ardoin

1999-01-01

385

Impact design methods for ceramic components in gas turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

Garrett Auxiliary Power Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company is developing methods to design ceramic turbine components with improved impact resistance. In an ongoing research effort under the DOE/NASA-funded Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP), two different modes of impact damage have been identified and characterized: local damage and structural damage. Local impact damage to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] impacted by spherical projectiles usually takes the form of ring and/or radial cracks in the vicinity of the impact point. Baseline data from Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] test bars impacted by 1.588-mm (0.0625-in.) diameter NC-132 projectiles indicates the critical velocity at which the probability of detecting surface cracks is 50 percent equaled 130 m/s (426 ft/sec). A microphysics-based model that assumes damage to be in the form of microcracks has been developed to predict local impact damage. Local stress and strain determine microcrack nucleation and propagation, which in turn alter local stress and strain through modulus degradation. Material damage is quantified by a damage parameter related to the volume fraction of microcracks. The entire computation has been incorporated into the EPIC computer code. Model capability is being demonstrated by simulating instrumented plate impact and particle impact tests. Structural impact damage usually occurs in the form of fast fracture caused by bending stresses that exceed the material strength. The EPIC code has been successfully used to predict radial and axial blade failures from impacts by various size particles. This method is also being used in conjunction with Taguchi experimental methods to investigate the effects of design parameters on turbine blade impact resistance. It has been shown that significant improvement in impact resistance can be achieved by using the configuration recommended by Taguchi methods.

Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States). Garrett Auxilliary Power Division)

1993-01-01

386

Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

387

Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

2009-10-30

388

Application of Taguchi approach to optimize friction stir welding parameters of polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and numerical results of butt friction stir welding of high density polyethylene. The FSW designed tool insulates the welded samples and preserves the heat gained from friction thus avoiding the appearance of blisters and splits after welding. The experimental tests, conducted according to combinations of process factors such as rotation speed, welding speed, pin diameter and

M. A. Rezgui; M. Ayadi; A. Cherouat; K. Hamrouni; A. Zghal; S. Bejaoui

2010-01-01

389

Introducing Third-Year Chemistry Students to the Planning and Design of an Experimental Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and planning of an experimental program is often an important aspect of the job description of recent graduate employees in chemical industry and time should therefore be devoted to this activity in an undergraduate course. This paper describes a pencil and paper activity which involves the design and planning of an experimental programme which may lead to the solution of the problem. These skills are an essential pre-requisite to any experimental activity. We provide the students with a list of problems similar to those that a new graduate could encounter on commencing employment in chemical industry. They are real problems, which the Inorganic Chemistry staff of the School have been previously asked to solve for local industry. A staff member acts as the "client", and the students is the "consultant". The aim is that by a series of interviews between the client and the consultant, the students can refine a vague problem statement into a quantitative statement, and then from this develop a proposal to investigate the problem in order to confirm the cause. This proposal is submitted to the client for assessment. The students are expected to arrange one meeting with the supervisor in each week. This activity is highly commended by the School of Applied Chemistry's Advisory Board, which is primarily comprised of industrial chemists.

Dunn, Jeffrey G.; Phillips, David Norman; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm

1997-10-01

390

Application of Taguchi philosophy for parametric optimization of bead geometry and HAZ width in submerged arc welding using a mixture of fresh flux and fused flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi philosophy has been applied for obtaining optimal parametric combinations to achieve desired weld bead geometry and\\u000a dimensions related to the heat-affected zone (HAZ), such as HAZ width in the present case, in submerged arc welding. The philosophy\\u000a and methodology proposed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi can be used for continuous improvement in products that are produced by submerged\\u000a arc welding.

Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Pradip Kumar Pal

2008-01-01

391

Combined quality loss (CQL) concept in WPCA-based Taguchi philosophy for optimization of multiple surface quality characteristics of UNS C34000 brass in cylindrical grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA)\\u000a coupled with Taguchi method through a case study in cylindrical grinding of UNS C34000 Medium Leaded Brass. The study aimed\\u000a at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements of surface quality. In\\u000a view of the fact that traditional Taguchi method fails

Bharat Chandra Routara; Saumya Darsan Mohanty; Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

2010-01-01

392

Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. Simultaneous maximization of aerodynamic efficiency and aggressive flight load carrying capacity are chosen as two design objectives. The design points on the Pareto optimal front thus achieved are compared with a baseline design to observe some designs with improved performance both aerodynamically and structurally. Reliability based optimization concludes the work where uncertainties in design variables, design parameters and modeling are considered to achieve designs satisfying specified reliability constraint.

Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

393

Model Structure Identification: From the Reliability of Model Prediction to the Robustness of Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces a new methodology for identifying a distributed parameter system when the structure of the system is complex and unknown. The basic idea of the new methodology is to solve a generalized inverse problem (GIP) to find the simplest model structure for given model applications. In the theoretical part of the presentation, the identifiability of model parameters, the reliability of model applications, and the sufficiency of observation data are rigorously defined for the case of existing model structure errors. Some quantitative relationships of them are derived. Sufficient conditions for assuring the reducibility of a model structure are given. When model structure is unknown, to find a robust experimental design for model calibration is a very challenging problem because a more complex structure needs more data to identify. The worst-case-parameter (WCP) of a model structure is defined as such a parameter that produces the largest structure error when the model structure is simplified. We can prove that if a design is sufficient for identifying the WCP, it must be a robust one. Based on these theoretical results, the paper gives the following algorithms: (1) Using GA to Find the WCP, and (2) Judging the robustness of an experimental design before it is actually conducted in the field. A numerical example shows how this methodology is used for identifying the structure of hydraulic conductivity of a heterogeneous aquifer.

Sun, N.; Yeh, W.; Tsai, F.

2002-12-01

394

Sampling flies or sampling flaws? Experimental design and inference strength in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Forensic entomology is an inferential science because postmortem interval estimates are based on the extrapolation of results obtained in field or laboratory settings. Although enormous gains in scientific understanding and methodological practice have been made in forensic entomology over the last few decades, a majority of the field studies we reviewed do not meet the standards for inference, which are 1) adequate replication, 2) independence of experimental units, and 3) experimental conditions that capture a representative range of natural variability. Using a mock case-study approach, we identify design flaws in field and lab experiments and suggest methodological solutions for increasing inference strength that can inform future casework. Suggestions for improving data reporting in future field studies are also proposed. PMID:22308765

Michaud, J-P; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, G

2012-01-01

395

Design, Simulation and Experimental Characteristics of Hydrogel-based Piezoresistive pH Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the investigations of a novel type of piezoresistive pH sensors exploiting the chemo-mechanical energy conversion due to hydrogel swelling. pH-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) (PVA-PAA) hydrogel is used for this aim. The pH sensor has been designed including a commercial piezoresistive pressure sensor chip, a hydrogel layer, and a rigid grid. Behaviour of pH sensor under swelling of polymer hydrogel has been simulated using finite element method (ANSYS). The sensor simulations have been performed using the experimental material parameters of PVA-PAA hydrogel. The sensor characteristics including the silicon diaphragm deflection and output voltage have been measured. There were good relative agreements between simulations and experimental results.

Trinh, Thong Quang; Sorber, Jorge; Gerlach, Gerald

396

Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) magnet systems: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now completing a definition phase as a beginning of a three-year design effort. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide further and more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been of prime importance, since it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. The major levels of mechanical stress in the structure appear in the cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The cases of the poloidal-field (PF) coils must be made thin or segmented to minimize eddy current heating during inductive plasma operation. As a result, the winding packs of both the TF and PF coils includes significant fractions of steel. The TF winding pack provides support against in-plane separating loads but offers little support against out-of-plane loads, unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. The removal of heat due to nuclear and ac loads has not been a fundamental limit to design, but certainly has non-negligible economic consequences. We present here preliminary ITER magnet systems design parameters taken from trade studies, designs, and analyses performed by the Home Teams of the four ITER participants, by the ITER Magnet Design Unit in Garching, and by other participants at workshops organized by the Magnet Design Unit. The work presented here reflects the efforts of many, but the responsibility for the opinions expressed is the authors'. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

1988-10-09

397

Optimum experimental design for extended Gaussian disorder modeled organic semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply optimum experimental design (OED) to organic semiconductors modeled by the extended Gaussian disorder model (EGDM) which was developed by Pasveer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 206601 (2005)]. We present an extended Gummel method to decouple the corresponding system of equations and use automatic differentiation to get derivatives with the required accuracy for OED. We show in two examples, whose parameters are taken from Pasveer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 206601 (2005)] and Mensfoort and Coehoorn [Phys. Rev. B 78, 085207 (2008)] that the linearized confidence regions of the parameters can be reduced significantly by applying OED resulting in new experiments with a different setup.

Weiler, C. K. F.; Körkel, S.

2013-03-01

398

Remote nitrogen plasma treatment of a polyethylene powder - Optimisation of the process by composite experimental designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupling between fluidised bed and far cold remote nitrogen plasma technologies is used to treat a polyethylene powder in order to increase its wettability evaluated from capillarity rising measurements. An optimisation of the process is performed thanks to face-centred central composite experimental designs. It is shown that treatment duration and oxygen rate added to nitrogen are the more influent parameters. Electron spin resonance analyses revealed the presence of a mixture of alkyl and allyl radicals on the treated powder. Reactions leading to the incorporations of new chemical functions on the polyethylene surface are proposed.

Mutel, Brigitte; Bigan, Muriel; Vezin, Hervé

2004-12-01

399

System engineering and design of a pulsed homopolar generator power supply for the Texas Experimental Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The design of a homopolar generator power supply for the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) is presented. Four series-connected disk type homopolar machines serve as inertial energy storage and conversion devices to supply 50 to 70 MW peak power to the toroidal field coil and ohmic heating coil circuits. The system is nominally operated at 150 MJ, 430 V to provide a 0.5 sec flat top, 160 kA TF current pulse and a 0.3 sec, 10 kA OH current pulse every 2.0 min on a continuous basis. The system has a maximum capacity of 200 MJ at a maximum open circuit voltage of 500 V. The homopolar machine design is described.

Bird, W.L.; Grant, G.B.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

1977-01-01

400

Design and experimental verification for optical module of optical vector-matrix multiplier.  

PubMed

Optical computing is a new method to implement signal processing functions. The multiplication between a vector and a matrix is an important arithmetic algorithm in the signal processing domain. The optical vector-matrix multiplier (OVMM) is an optoelectronic system to carry out this operation, which consists of an electronic module and an optical module. In this paper, we propose an optical module for OVMM. To eliminate the cross talk and make full use of the optical elements, an elaborately designed structure that involves spherical lenses and cylindrical lenses is utilized in this optical system. The optical design software package ZEMAX is used to optimize the parameters and simulate the whole system. Finally, experimental data is obtained through experiments to evaluate the overall performance of the system. The results of both simulation and experiment indicate that the system constructed can implement the multiplication between a matrix with dimensions of 16 by 16 and a vector with a dimension of 16 successfully. PMID:23842187

Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Lin

2013-06-20

401

Experimental design and analysis for piezoelectric circular actuators in flow control applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow control can lead to saving millions of dollars in fuel costs each year by making an aircraft more efficient. Synthetic jets, a device for active flow control, operate by introducing small amounts of energy locally to achieve non-local changes in the flow field with large performance gains. These devices consist of a cavity with an oscillating diaphragm that divides it into active and passive sides. The active side has a small opening where a jet is formed, while the passive side does not directly participate in the fluidic jet. Over the years, research has shown that synthetic jet behavior is dependent on the active diaphragm and the cavity design; hence, the focus of this work. The performance of the synthetic jet is studied under various factors related to the diaphragm and the cavity geometry. Three diaphragms, manufactured from piezoelectric composites, were selected for this study: Bimorph, Thunder® and Lipca. The overall factors considered are the driving signals, voltage, frequency, cavity height, orifice size, and passive cavity pressure. Using the average maximum jet velocity as the response variable, these factors are individually studied for each actuator, and statistical analysis tools are used to select the relevant factors in the response variable. The factors are divided into two experimental fractional factorial design matrices, with five and four factors, respectively. Both experiments are chosen to be of resolution V, where main factors are confounded with three-factor interactions. In the first experimental design, the results show that frequency is not a significant factor, while waveform is significant for all the actuators. In addition, the magnitude of the regression coefficients suggests that a model that includes the diaphragm as a factor may be possible. These results are valid within the ranges tested, that is low frequencies and sawtooth and sine waveform as driving signals. In the second experimental design, cavity dimensions are kept constant and four factors including back pressure are considered. In this case, each diaphragm produces different results with only one diaphragm, Thunder, showing a definite relationship between the studied factors. The other two diaphragms do not show conclusive results, indicating that there may be other factors that need to be considered when pressure is a concern. In summary, independently of the diaphragm utilized in a synthetic jet actuator, applied waveform is an important factor when maximizing peak jet velocity. In addition, frequency is found not to be significant in all cases within the limits of the study. This indicates that the diaphragm and the driving signal should be included in any optimization design of a piezoelectric synthetic jet actuator.

Mane, Poorna; Mossi, Karla; Bryant, Robert

2008-02-01

402

Virtual kinetics: using statistical experimental design for rapid analysis of enzyme inhibitor mechanisms.  

PubMed

Modern automated drug-screening can generate hundreds of inhibitor leads from diverse chemical sources in a short period of time. Traditional methods of inhibitor analysis are resource intensive and limit the number of inhibitors that can be analyzed for their mechanism of inhibition. This paper presents methods we have developed for rapid estimation of both potency and mechanism of potential inhibitor leads for a biochemically complex screening target (protein kinase C) using commercially available computer programs for statistical experimental design. Our findings indicate that, with careful choice of factor levels, statistical experimental design clearly identifies the various interactions of the assay components with inhibitors. Suitably plotted, the data can be used to examine the competitive nature of the inhibitor and can provide estimates of IC50 and Michaelis constants useful for planning further kinetic work. The techniques used are amenable to automation and should be useful for identifying inhibitors that may have only marginal potency, but exhibit desirable mechanistic profiles suitable for structural analoging efforts. PMID:7575644

Bronson, D D; Daniels, D M; Dixon, J T; Redick, C C; Haaland, P D

1995-09-01

403

Experimental design optimization for electrochemical removal of gentamicin: toxicity evaluation and degradation pathway.  

PubMed

Electrochemical degradation of gentamicin was achieved using a laboratory scale electrochemical reactor by optimizing pH, current density and treatment time. A two step statistical optimization was performed as per factorial design and center composite design (CCD). A Pareto chart was used for selecting statistically significant effects and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) table indicated significant curvature. Thus adding additional experimental runs improved the model fitting through a second order model. Maximum degradation was predicted at a pH of 6.7, 70 A m(-2) and 45 min. The experimental data fitted well through a reduced quadratic model with R(2) equal to 0.945. The toxicity of degradation products as determined by disc diffusion assay employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was found to be reduced by 55%. The degradation pathway of gentamicin was studied using mass spectral (MS) analysis. Pure gentamicin showed a molecular ion peak at m/z 478 ([M + 1](+)), and after addition of NaCl as electrolyte, the mass peak was observed at m/z 523. After 15 min of electrochemical treatment, a new peak appeared at m/z 316 due to the loss of one pyran moiety. After 45 min of electrochemical treatment, another peak appeared at m/z of 478 due to loss of two Na(+) from gentamicin. PMID:23656945

Dhuria, Radhey S; Bhatti, Rajbir; Bhatti, Manpreet S; Singh, Palwinder; Whitcomb, Patrick J; Thukral, Ashwani K

2013-01-01

404

Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance  

PubMed Central

Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance.

Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

2010-01-01

405

An innovative magnetorheological damper for automotive suspension: from design to experimental characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a powerful new magnetorheological fluid (MRF), together with recent progress in the understanding of the behavior of such fluids, has convinced researchers and engineers that MRF dampers are among the most promising devices for semi-active automotive suspension vibration control, because of their large force capacity and their inherent ability to provide a simple, fast and robust interface between electronic controls and mechanical components. In this paper, theoretical and experimental studies are performed for the design, development and testing of a completely new MRF damper model that can be used for the semi-active control of automotive suspensions. The MR damper technology presented in this paper is based on a completely new approach where, in contrast to in the conventional solutions where the coil axis is usually superposed on the damper axis and where the inner cylindrical housing is part of the magnetic circuit, the coils are wound in a direction perpendicular to the damper axis. The paper investigates approaches to optimizing the dynamic response and provides experimental verification. Both experimental and theoretical results have shown that, if this particular model is filled with an 'MRF 336AG' MR fluid, it can provide large controllable damping forces that require only a small amount of energy. For a magnetizing system with four coils, the damping coefficient could be increased by up to three times for an excitation current of only 2 A. Such current could be reduced to less than 1 A if the magnetizing system used eight small cores. In this case, the magnetic field will be more powerful and more regularly distributed. In the presence of harmonic excitation, such a design will allow the optimum compromise between comfort and stability to be reached over different intervals of the excitation frequencies.

Sassi, Sadok; Cherif, Khaled; Mezghani, Lotfi; Thomas, Marc; Kotrane, Asma

2005-08-01

406

Synthesis of designed materials by laser-based direct metal deposition technique: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct metal deposition (DMD), a laser-cladding based solid freeform fabrication technique, is capable of depositing multiple materials at desired composition which makes this technique a flexible method to fabricate heterogeneous components or functionally-graded structures. The inherently rapid cooling rate associated with the laser cladding process enables extended solid solubility in nonequilibrium phases, offering the possibility of tailoring new materials with advanced properties. This technical advantage opens the area of synthesizing a new class of materials designed by topology optimization method which have performance-based material properties. For better understanding of the fundamental phenomena occurring in multi-material laser cladding with coaxial powder injection, a self-consistent 3-D transient model was developed. Physical phenomena including laser-powder interaction, heat transfer, melting, solidification, mass addition, liquid metal flow, and species transportation were modeled and solved with a controlled-volume finite difference method. Level-set method was used to track the evolution of liquid free surface. The distribution of species concentration in cladding layer was obtained using a nonequilibrium partition coefficient model. Simulation results were compared with experimental observations and found to be reasonably matched. Multi-phase material microstructures which have negative coefficients of thermal expansion were studied for their DMD manufacturability. The pixel-based topology-optimal designs are boundary-smoothed by Bezier functions to facilitate toolpath design. It is found that the inevitable diffusion interface between different material-phases degrades the negative thermal expansion property of the whole microstructure. A new design method is proposed for DMD manufacturing. Experimental approaches include identification of laser beam characteristics during different laser-powder-substrate interaction conditions, an investigation of extended solubility in multi-material laser cladding, and a study of DMD manufacturing technology for its impact on energy and environment with the comparison of traditional machining process. Experimental results show the feasibility of depositing multiple materials at arbitrary compositions and forming clad with unlimited solubility and uniform distribution in DMD process. DMD technology presents great potential for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact in parts repairing/remanufacturing and situations where the part to be built has small solid-to-cavity volume ratio.

Qi, Huan

407

Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community's desire for large capacity, constant altitude, long duration stratospheric platforms is not likely going to be met by un-reinforced spherical super-pressure balloons. More likely, the pneumatic envelope for the large-scale super-pressure balloon of the future will be a tendon reinforced structure in which the tendons perform the primary pressure load confining function and the skin serves as a gas barrier and transfers the local pressure load to the tendons. NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which is currently under development, is of that type. By separating the load carrying function of the tendons and the skin a number of advantages are gained. Perhaps most important is the fact that the required skin strength remains to first order independent of the balloon size. Only the size and number of tendons are dictated by the balloon size. By designing the balloon to be at least quasi statically determinate, the stress distributions are more certain, and stress raisers due to fabrication imperfections are more easily controlled and it becomes unnecessary to account for load path uncertainties by providing everywhere excessive strength and structural weight. Furthermore, it becomes possible to use for the envelope skin a visco-elastic film (polyethylene) that has proven performance in the stratospheric environment. The silhouette shape of this balloon type has prompted early researchers to name this design a "pumpkin" shape balloon. Later investigators accepted this terminology. The pumpkin shape balloon concept was adopted by NASA for its ULDB design at the end of 1998 when advantages of that design over a spherical shape design were convincingly demonstrated. Two stratospheric test flights of large-scale super-pressure balloons demonstrated the functioning of this balloon type. In the second successful flight the switch was made from an excessively strong and heavy skin, a holdover from the earlier concept of a spherical design, to a visco-elastic film. The balloons of a third and fourth full-scale test flights experienced structural problems during a campaign in Australia in 2001. Post-flight investigations identified two problems. The first problem was apparently caused by lack of dynamic strength of the film material in its transverse direction, a property that has theretofore not been tested in balloon films. The second problem was identified through photographic evidence on the second of the two balloons. Images of the launch spool configuration and of the balloon at float altitude, indicated that excess gore-width might prevent full deployment to the design shape. This is a dangerous situation, as the proper functioning of the design requires full deployment. Search in the literature confirmed one other case of flawed but stable deployment of a pumpkin shape balloon that has been investigated by researchers. This balloon is the "Endeavor", which is an adventurer balloon that was intended for manned circumnavigation. The experimental work documented in this paper sought to identify what design aspects of pumpkin shape balloons promote faulty deployment into undesired stable equilibria and w at design aspects assure full deployment ofh pumpkin type balloons. It is argued that the features of a constant bulge shape design (the apparent design of the "Endeavor") make it unnecessarily prone to flawed deployment. The constant bulge radius design is a superior choice, but could be improved by using a smaller bulge radius between the "tropics" of the quasi-spheroid while using a larger bulge radius for the remainder of the balloon when deployment issue become critical. In that case, of course, the strength critical region is the one with the larger bulge radius. Adequate understanding of these aspects is required to design pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons with confidence. Results from studies and tests conducted as a part of the ULDB Project are discussed.

Schur, W.

408

Design and experimental validation of a robust-CFAR distributed multifrequency radar data fusion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust constant false alarm rate (CFAR) distributed detection system that operates in heavy clutter with unknown distribution is presented. The system is designed to provide CFARness under clutter power fluctuations and robustness under unknown clutter and noise distributions. The system is also designed to operate successfully under unbalanced power distributions among sensors, and exhibits fault-tolerance in the presence of sensor power fluctuations. The test statistic at each sensor is a robust (in terms of signal-to-noise ratio distribution across sensors) CFAR t-statistic. In addition to the primary binary decisions, confidence levels are generated with each decision and used in the fusion logic to robustify the fusion performance and eliminate weaknesses of the Boolean fusion logic. The test statistic and the fusion logic are analyzed theoretically for Weibull and lognormal clutter. The theoretical performance is compared against Monte-Carlo simulations that verify that the system exhibits the desired characteristics of CFARness, robustness, insensitivity to power fluctuations, and fault- tolerance. The system is tested with experimental target-in-clear and target-in-clutter data. The experimental performance agrees with the theoretically predicted behavior when the target is visible by all three radars. When the target is not visible in two out of the three radars, due to a possible undetected misalignment, the fusion performance is compromised. Robustification of the fusion performance against unpredictable and undetectable degradation of data quality in the majority of the sensors is then achieved using geometric filtering. Geometrical filtering is accomplished by using the Hough transform and additional information in the fusion design about the shape of the target trajectory(ies).

Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Okello, Nickens N.

1995-07-01

409

A review of robust optimal design and its application in dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of robust design is to optimise the mean and minimize the variability that results from uncertainty represented by noise factors. The various objective functions and analysis techniques used for the Taguchi based approaches and optimisation methods are reviewed. Most applications of robust design have been concerned with static performance in mechanical engineering and process systems, and applications in

C. Zang; M. I. Friswell; J. E. Mottershead

2005-01-01

410

Robust design of multilayer optical coatings by means of evolutionary algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robustness is an important requirement for almost all kinds of products. This article shows how evolutionary algorithms can be applied for robust design based on the approach of Taguchi. To achieve a better understanding of the consequences of this approach, we first present some analytical results gained from a toy problem. As a nontrivial industrial application we consider the design

Dirk Wiesmann; Ulrich Hammel; Thomas Bäck

1998-01-01

411

Rotor Burst Protection Program: Experimentation to Provide Guidelines for the Design of Turbine Rotor Burst Fragment Containment Rings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the results of a program of rotor burst containment experimentation that provides guidelines for the design of optimum weight turbine rotor disk fragment containment rings. These guidelines were derived by establishing the relationships betw...

G. J. Mangano J. T. Salvino R. A. DeLucia

1977-01-01

412

Experimental studies on the optimization design of a low specific speed centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Start your abstract here... For a low specific speed centrifugal pump with the requirement of high efficiency of 68% and non-overload power characteristics, series experimental studies, by matching 9 volutes with 19 impellers were done. By combining the former research results about the splitters and the non-overload theory in centrifugal pump, the theoretical conditions to achieve the property of non-overload in a centrifugal pump with splitters was analyzed, and formulas to estimate the maximum shaft power and its position are derived. Based on the requirement of high efficiency and non-overload, blade outlet angle ?2, blade outlet width b2, volute throat area Ft and the inlet diameter of splitters Di were chosen with three levels to design a normal L9 (34) orthogonal test scheme. Meanwhile, the optimized design scheme was determined, and corresponding test was done also, it demonstrates that the experiment purpose was reached, the design method to combine the splitters and non-overload theory is reasonable, which can get the property of high efficiency and non-overload.

Zhang, J. F.; Yuan, Y.; Yuan, S. Q.; Lu, W. G.; Yuan, J. P.

2012-11-01

413

Nonmedical influences on medical decision making: an experimental technique using videotapes, factorial design, and survey sampling.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study nonmedical influences on the doctor-patient interaction. A technique using simulated patients and "real" doctors is described. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of physicians, stratified on such characteristics as demographics, specialty, or experience, and selected from commercial and professional listings. STUDY DESIGN: A medical appointment is depicted on videotape by professional actors. The patient's presenting complaint (e.g., chest pain) allows a range of valid interpretation. Several alternative versions are taped, featuring the same script with patient-actors of different age, sex, race, or other characteristics. Fractional factorial design is used to select a balanced subset of patient characteristics, reducing costs without biasing the outcome. DATA COLLECTION: Each physician is shown one version of the videotape appointment and is asked to describe how he or she would diagnose or treat such a patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two studies using this technique have been completed to date, one involving chest pain and dyspnea and the other involving breast cancer. The factorial design provided sufficient power, despite limited sample size, to demonstrate with statistical significance various influences of the experimental and stratification variables, including the patient's gender and age and the physician's experience. Persistent recruitment produced a high response rate, minimizing selection bias and enhancing validity. CONCLUSION: These techniques permit us to determine, with a degree of control unattainable in observational studies, whether medical decisions as described by actual physicians and drawn from a demographic or professional group of interest, are influenced by a prescribed set of nonmedical factors.

Feldman, H A; McKinlay, J B; Potter, D A; Freund, K M; Burns, R B; Moskowitz, M A; Kasten, L E

1997-01-01

414

Learning from our GWAS mistakes: from experimental design to scientific method  

PubMed Central

Many public and private genome-wide association studies that we have analyzed include flaws in design, with avoidable confounding appearing as a norm rather than the exception. Rather than recognizing flawed research design and addressing that, a category of quality-control statistical methods has arisen to treat only the symptoms. Reflecting more deeply, we examine elements of current genomic research in light of the traditional scientific method and find that hypotheses are often detached from data collection, experimental design, and causal theories. Association studies independent of causal theories, along with multiple testing errors, too often drive health care and public policy decisions. In an era of large-scale biological research, we ask questions about the role of statistical analyses in advancing coherent theories of diseases and their mechanisms. We advocate for reinterpretation of the scientific method in the context of large-scale data analysis opportunities and for renewed appreciation of falsifiable hypotheses, so that we can learn more from our best mistakes.

Lambert, Christophe G.; Black, Laura J.

2012-01-01

415

Experimental design affects social behavior outcomes in adult zebrafish developmentally exposed to lead.  

PubMed

Abstract Lead (Pb(2+)) affects neuronal and endocrine systems that influence social interactions. By providing potential hiding locations, spatial heterogeneity may affect Pb(2+)-induced behavioral outcomes. Therefore, a test chamber was designed into which a refuge could be inserted. The refuge allowed test subjects to escape from the mirror image that stimulated agonistic interactions. Behaviors with a mirror were compared with baseline activity patterns without a mirror. Adult (12-month old) male and female zebrafish, exposed to Pb(2+) (0-10??M) as embryos (2-24 hours post fertilization), were tested individually for 5?min in each chamber design within 2?h of feeding. Behaviors were evaluated for % time in mirror zone, distance traveled (=activity level), and attacks on the mirror image. When there was no refuge, significant concentration-dependent increases occurred in male % time in mirror zone, activity level, and number of attacks. Increases in these variables were less pronounced in females. When there was a refuge, there were significant differences for males only in activity level and attacks at the higher developmental exposure concentrations; % time in mirror zone followed a similar pattern and level as without refuge. Females displayed Pb(2+)-induced behavioral changes only for attacks on mirror. Since the presence of refuges that is, environmental enrichment, reduced Pb(2+)-induced agonistic behavior in both sexes, experimental spatial design can be considered an important factor when interpreting behavioral outcomes. PMID:23672286

Weber, Daniel N; Ghorai, Jugal K

2013-05-14

416

Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17 eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1 ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400 ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50 atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 1010 neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50 atm of D3He are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production.

Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F.

2008-01-01

417

Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement  

SciTech Connect

A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17 eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1 ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400 ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50 atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 10{sup 10} neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50 atm of D{sup 3}He are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production.

Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2008-01-15

418

Design and experimental evidence of a flat graded-index photonic crystal lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design and the experimental evidence of a flat graded index photonic crystal lens. The gradient has been designed so that the flat slab focuses a plane wave and so that it converts the wave issued from a point source into a plane wave. This graded-index photonic crystal lens operates as a convex lens. The gradient of index results from varying the filling factor of the photonic crystal in the direction perpendicular to that of the propagation of the electromagnetic field. The shape of the gradient of index has been designed by engineering the iso-frequency curves of the photonic crystal. As only a few layers were necessary and as graded photonic crystals may be fabricated by a variety of processes, this shows the ability of graded photonic crystals to efficiently apply for various photonic devices, from microwave range to the optical domain. 42.70.Qs Photonic bandgap materials, 78.67.Pt Optical properties of photonic structures, 41.20.Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation 84.40.Ba Antennas.

Gaufillet, F.; Akmansoy, É.

2013-08-01

419

Data Processing System (DPS) software with experimental design, statistical analysis and data mining developed for use in entomological research.  

PubMed

Abstract? A comprehensive but simple-to-use software package called DPS (Data Processing System) has been developed to execute a range of standard numerical analyses and operations used in experimental design, statistics and data mining. This program runs on standard Windows computers. Many of the functions are specific to entomological and other biological research and are not found in standard statistical software. This paper presents applications of DPS to experimental design, statistical analysis and data mining in entomology. PMID:23955865

Tang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2012-06-01

420

Optimization of quality characteristics parameters in a pulsed metal inert gas welding process using grey-based Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of a manufacturing process has to take into accounts all of the factors that influence the product quality and\\u000a productivity. Optimization of welding process parameters is considerably complex because welding is a multi-variable process,\\u000a which is influenced by a lot of process uncertainties. In this paper, a grey-based Taguchi method has been adopted to optimize\\u000a the pulsed metal inert

Sukhomay Pal; Santosh K. Malviya; Surjya K. Pal; Arun K. Samantaray

2009-01-01

421

Optimization of testing parameters on the wear behaviour of metal matrix composites based on the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight loss model of aluminium alloy composites with 10wt.% SiC particles by molten metal mixing method was developed in terms of abrasive grain size, reinforcement size used in the composite, applied load and sliding distance using the Taguchi method. The two-body abrasive wear behaviour of the specimen was investigated using pin-on-disc method where the samples slid against various size

Y. Sahin

2005-01-01

422

The optimum Ga-67-citrate gamma camera imaging quality factors as first calculated and shown by the Taguchi's analysis.  

PubMed

In this work gallium-67 ((67)Ga) gamma camera imaging quality was optimized using the Taguchi's analysis and a planar phantom. The acrylic planar phantom was LASER-cut to form groups of slits 1mm wide and 5mm deep, to determine the spatial resolution and contrast ratio that could be achieved in a (67)Ga citrate nuclear medicine examination. The (67)Ga-citrate solution was injected into the slits to form an active radioactive line source which was placed between regular acrylic plates for optimization. Then, nine combinations of four operating factors: L9 (3((4)), of the gamma camera imaging system were used and followed the Taguchi's analysis. The four operating factors were: a) the type of collimator in front of the NaI(Tl) detector, b) the region of interest of (67)Ga gamma rays spectrum, c) the scanning speed of NaI(Tl) detector head and d) the activity of (67)Ga. The original judged grade of the planar phantom image quality was increased 36% and factors a) and b) were confirmed to dominate. The cross interaction among factors was also discussed. Our results showed that the optimal factor settings of the gamma camera imaging system were verified by performing a routine nuclear medicine examination in ten cases. Nine cases showed the same optimal settings as estimated by three highly trained radio-diagnostic physicians. Additionally, the optimal setting yielded clearer images with greater contrast than did the conventional settings. In conclusion, this work suggests for practical use an optimized process for determining both the spatial resolution and the contrast ratio of a gamma camera imaging system using Taguchi's optimal analysis and a planar phantom. The Taguchi's method is most effective in targeting a single quality characteristic but can also be extended to satisfy multiple requirements under specific conditions by revising the definition of signal to noise ratio. PMID:23529390

Yeh, Da Ming; Chang, Pai Jung; Pan, Lung Kwang

2013-03-26

423

Real-time detection of grip length during fastening of bolted joints: a Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) based methodology that detects grip length of bolted joints in real-time\\u000a during fastening. Grip length is the length of the unthreaded portion of a bolt shaft. When the total thickness of joining\\u000a members is greater than the grip length of the bolt, it is called under-grip, which compromises the structural integrity of\\u000a a

Can Saygin; Deepak Mohan; Jagannathan Sarangapani

2010-01-01

424

A New Simulation Facility for Atomic Explosions-Project FAX. Phase II-Definition and Design of Experimental Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study defines the user requirements for a fuel-air explosive test facility for nuclear blast simulation. It details an experimental program and provides the design for an initial experimental fuel-air explosive facility with a capacity of 10,000 poun...

R. B. Morrison R. W. Oliver

1976-01-01

425

The Effectiveness of New York City's Career Magnet Schools: An Evaluation of Ninth Grade Performance Using an Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The career magnet high school programs of the New York City (NYC) public school system were evaluated in an experimental study. The experimental design compared the ninth-grade performance of students randomly selected for magnet schools with those who "lost the lottery." It included 91 pools of students: 3,272 with average reading scores and 986…

Crain, Robert L.; And Others

426

Spatial Distribution of Fluence Rate from Upper Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation: Experimental Validation of a Computer-Aided Design Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial computer-aided design (CAD) tool used by the lighting industry was modified to predict fluence rate for upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). Experimental validation based on more than 1600 measurements and three types of commercial UV fixtures, which was done in an experimental chamber and in a homeless shelter having fixtures in continuous use for over seven years, showed

Stephen N. Rudnick; Melvin W. First; Tim Sears; Richard L. Vincent; Philip W. Brickner; Peter Y. Ngai; John Zhang; Robert E. Levin; Kenneth Chin; Ronald O. Rahn; Shelly L. Miller; Edward A. Nardell

2012-01-01

427

A simulation study comparing the impact of experimental error on the performance of experimental designs and artificial neural networks used for process screening.  

PubMed

Many variables and their interactions can affect a biotechnological process. Testing a large number of variables and all their possible interactions is a cumbersome task and its cost can be prohibitive. Several screening strategies, with a relatively low number of experiments, can be used to find which variables have the largest impact on the process and estimate the magnitude of their effect. One approach for process screening is the use of experimental designs, among which fractional factorial and Plackett-Burman designs are frequent choices. Other screening strategies involve the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The advantage of ANNs is that they have fewer assumptions than experimental designs, but they render black-box models (i.e., little information can be extracted about the process mechanics). In this paper, we simulate a biotechnological process (fed-batch growth of baker's yeast) to analyze and compare the effect of random experimental errors of different magnitudes and statistical distributions on experimental designs and ANNs. Except for the situation in which the error has a normal distribution and the standard deviation is constant, it was not possible to determine a clear-cut rule for favoring one screening strategy over the other. Instead, we found that the data can be better analyzed using both strategies simultaneously. PMID:15480940

Soria, Marcelo Abel; Gonzalez Funes, Jose Luis; Garcia, Augusto Fernando

2004-10-06

428

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College;); Mary E. Harrington (Smith College;)

2003-11-01

429

Design, characterization, and experimental use of the second generation MEMS acoustic emission device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, fabrication, testing and application (in structural experiments) of our 2004 (second generation) MEMS device, designed for acoustic emission sensing based upon experiments with our 2002 (first generation) device. Both devices feature a suite of resonant-type transducers in the frequency range between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The 2002 device was designed to operate in an evacuated housing because of high squeeze film damping, as confirmed in our earlier experiments. In additional studies involving the 2002 device, experimental simulation of acoustic emissions in a steel plate, using pencil lead break or ball impact loading, showed that the transducers in the frequency range of 100 kHz-500 kHz presented clearer output signals than the transducers with frequencies higher than 500 kHz. Using the knowledge gained from the 2002 device, we designed and fabricated our second generation device in 2004 using the multi-user polysilicon surface micromachining (MUMPs) process. The 2004 device has 7 independent capacitive type transducers, compared to 18 independent transducers in the 2002 device, including 6 piston type transducers in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 500 kHz and 1 piston type transducer at 1 MHz to capture high frequency information. Piston type transducers developed in our research have two uncoupled modes so that twofold information can be acquired from a single transducer. In addition, the piston shape helps to reduce residual stress effect of surface micromachining process. The center to center distance between etch holes in the vibrating plate was reduced from 30 ?m to 13 ?m, in order to reduce squeeze film damping. As a result, the Q factor under atmospheric pressure for the 100 kHz transducer was increased to 2.37 from 0.18, and therefore the vacuum housing has been eliminated from the 2004 device. Sensitivities of transducers were also increased, by enlarging transducer area, in order to capture significant small amplitude acoustic emission events. The average individual transducer area in the 2004 device was increased to 6.97 mm2 as compared to 2.51 mm2 in the 2002 device. In this paper, we report the new experimental results on the characterization of the 2004 device and compare them with analytical results. We show improvements in sensitivity as measured by capacitance and as measured by pencil lead break experiments. Improvement in damping is also evaluated by admittance measurement in atmosphere. Pencil lead break experiments also show that transducers can operate in atmospheric pressure. Finally, we apply the device to acoustic emission experiments on crack propagation in a steel beam specimen, precracked in fatigue, in a four-point bending test.

Ozevin, Didem; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Pessiki, Stephen

2005-05-01

430

Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange rates are fast relative to stream-water velocity and all solute is exchanged with the storage zone over the experimental reach. As DaI increases, tracer dispersion caused by hyporheic exchange eventually reaches an equilibrium condition and storage-zone exchange parameters become essentially nonidentifiable.

Wagner, B. J.; Harvey, J. W.

1997-01-01

431

All-optical WDM-based IP router experimental architectural design and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many kinds of media converge to the Internet, the backbone will face new demands not only in terms of bandwidth, but also in terms of services. Therefore it is certain that Internet will evolve into IP-over-WDM based all-optical network. Obviously, the optical router will be a crucial network device. In the paper, we propose a practical architecture of optical router. Based on all-optical labeled burst switching, this architecture supports all-optical edge-to-edge data routing and transport services with transparent data rate and format, and simplifying protocol and operations. From the viewpoint of practicality, some key issues during the design have been studied and analyzed, and corresponding feasible solutions to them are put forward respectively. Finally an experimental system and results are shown.

Yang, Xiaolong; Mao, Youju; Dang, Mingrui; Zhang, Min; Li, Lemin

2002-09-01

432

Design of organic scintillators for non-standard radiation field dosimetry: Experimental setup.  

PubMed

This paper describes an experimental setup designed for sensing the luminescent light coming from an organic plastic scintillator stimulated with ionizing radiation. This device is intended to be a part of a complete dosimeter system for characterization of small radiation fields which is the project of the doctoral thesis of the medical physicist at the Radiation Oncology facility of Hospital San Vicente Fundación in conjunction with the Universidad de Antioquia of Medellín Colombia. Some preliminary results predict a good performance of the unit, but further studies must be conducted in order to have a completed evaluation of the system. This is the first step in the development of an accuracy tool for measurement of non-standard fields in the Radiotherapy or Radiosurgery processes. PMID:24110369

Norman H, Machado R; Maximiliano, Trujillo T; Javier E, Garcia G; Diana C, Narvaez G; Paula A, Marin M; Robinson A, Torres V

2013-07-01

433

Theoretical design and experimental verification of a tunable floating vibration isolation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fluid-type floating vibration isolation system was developed based on anti-resonance mechanism. The mathematical model was derived for theoretical analysis. The system enables completely isolate vibration at any specific frequency, when the frequency of anti-resonance of the floating vibration isolation system is adjusted to the vibration frequency by tuning the added mass of flowing fluid. Since the approach only alters the inertial force of added mass rather than changing the entire system stiffness, the robustness of the system's static stability remains during a tuning process, and the system can perform vibration isolation superbly at very low frequencies. A prototype of fluid-type floating vibration isolation system was designed, built and tested to validate the mathematical model. The experimental results illustrated a good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

Liu, Chunrong; Xu, Daolin; Ji, Jianfei

2012-10-01

434

Deployment of RFID in healthcare facilities-experimental design in MRI department.  

PubMed

Patient safety has become an important issue due to medical errors. Some health care systems use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to identify patients during medical procedures. However, the RFID data readability especially depends upon the environment, an investigation of data reliability and signal loss is essential to making an effective deployment plan. The operation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the major source of electromagnetic interference in the hospital. Therefore, this research conducts an experimental design of reading performance considering various notable factors in the MRI department. In addition to the readability experiment, this paper also measures the efficiency and reliability of implementing RFID technology in the MRI department using a simulation approach and helps hospitals by providing the measured outcomes. PMID:22072278

Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chai, Jyh-Wen

2011-11-10

435

Experimental design to generate strong shear layers in a high-energy-density plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new experimental system for generating a strong shear flow in a high-energy-density plasma is described in detail. The targets were designed with the goal of producing a diagnosable Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which plays an important role in the transition turbulence but remains relatively unexplored in the high-energy-density regime. To generate the shear flow the Nike laser was used to drive a flow of Al plasma over a low-density foam surface with an initial perturbation. The interaction of the Al and foam was captured with a spherical crystal imager using 1.86 keV X-rays. The selection of the individual targets components is discussed and results are presented.

Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Visco, A.; Ditmar, J. R.

2010-06-01

436

Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.  

PubMed

The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating. PMID:19748938

Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

2009-09-11

437

Design and experimental verification of terahertz wideband filter based on double-layered metal hole arrays.  

PubMed

A terahertz wideband filter based on double layer metal hole arrays is designed in this paper. A metal hole array is perforated on a metal layer with a square array of circular air holes. The transmission characteristics of the electromagnetic waves through the metal hole array can be determined by the accumulation of in-phase scattering, spoof surface plasmon polaritons, and waveguide modes. The transmission spectrum is tuned by adding another identical layer metal hole array, and a wideband filter can be formed accordingly. Samples containing double-layered metal hole arrays were fabricated by micromachining technology. A wideband filter with center frequency located at 0.8 THz and FWHM reaching 400 GHz was experimentally achieved. PMID:22410895

Rao, Lei; Yang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Le; Li, Tao; Xia, Song

2012-03-01

438

Optimization of experimental design parameters for high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation studies.  

PubMed

High-throughput, microarray-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) technology allows in vivo elucidation of transcriptional networks. However this complex is not yet readily accessible, in part because its many parameters have not been systematically evaluated and optimized. We address this gap by systematically assessing experimental-design parameters including antibody purity, dye-bias, array-batch, inter-day hybridization bias, amplification method and choice of hybridization control. The combined performance of these optimized parameters shows a 90% validation rate in ChIP-chip analysis of Myc genomic binding in HL60 cells using two different microarray platforms. Increased sensitivity and decreased noise in ChIP-chip assays will enable wider use of this methodology to accurately and affordably elucidate transcriptional networks. PMID:18940864

Ponzielli, Romina; Boutros, Paul C; Katz, Sigal; Stojanova, Angelina; Hanley, Adam P; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Bros, Christina; Jurisica, Igor; Penn, Linda Z

2008-10-21

439

Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

NONE

1997-04-18

440

Multilevel meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs: a simulation study.  

PubMed

One way to combine data from single-subject experimental design studies is by performing a multilevel meta-analysis, with unstandardized or standardized regression coefficients as the effect size metrics. This study evaluates the performance of this approach. The results indicate that a multilevel meta-analysis of unstandardized effect sizes results in good estimates of the effect. The multilevel meta-analysis of standardized effect sizes, on the other hand, is suitable only when the number of measurement occasions for each subject is 20 or more. The effect of the treatment on the intercept is estimated with enough power when the studies are homogeneous or when the number of studies is large; the power of the effect on the slope is estimated with enough power only when the number of studies and the number of measurement occasions are large. PMID:22648696

Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S Natasha; Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2012-12-01

441

SCREENING FOR OPTIMAL OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR THE POWERED ROLL GIN STAND USING TAGUCHI'S ROBUST DESIGN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The powered roll gin stand (PRGS) is a new saw-type ginning technology that has shown increased production and turnout without adversely affecting fiber properties. In some cases, improvements in fiber properties over a conventional gin stand were demonstrated. The new gin stand has three primary co...

442

Surface roughness prediction in micromilling using neural networks and Taguchi's design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research is to analyze the effects of spindle speed (n), feedrate (f) and axial depth of cut (ap) on average surface roughness parameters (Ra) in the micromilling operation. Compared with the conventional milling operation, the non-linearity of micromilling is more obviously, because of the minimum chip thickness, tool radial error motion and workpiece inhomogeneous inherent. In this work,

Jinsheng Wang; Yadong Gong; Jiashun Shi; G. Abbay

2009-01-01

443

Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establish human presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In or...

E. B. Dean R. Unal

1990-01-01

444

Experimental design of diffusion and desorption of contaminant in heterogeneous media.  

PubMed

Storage of contaminants in low permeability media (LPM) presents a great challenge for prediction of remediation effectiveness and efficiency. The reason lies in the contaminants' complex behaviors within heterogeneous media. Both interparticle and intraparticle diffusion contribute to the difficulty of precise site assessment. Sorption of contaminants--especially within LPM--may sequester the contaminants from active treatment, while desorption over a long period of time leads to contaminant release from storage and consequent re-contamination. Research has been conducted toward better understanding of contaminant diffusion and sorption/desorption processes to better predict contaminant response to site treatment. However, most of the research has been carried out within homogeneous media, while real scenarios in environmental problems feature media whose permeability and other characteristics vary significantly over the treatment volume. Further, few efforts have combined the interparticle/intraparticle diffusion and sorption/desorption processes together. This research aims at a feasible experimental design of diffusion and desorption of contaminant in heterogeneous media to address the gaps in previous research. A 2-D experimental system was designed to evaluate interparticle/intraparticle diffusion processes of trichloroethylene (TCE) in heterogeneous media. The 2-D system was modified to include organic matter in media for simulation of sorption/desorption processes. Results of the research will improve the understanding of how these different transport processes act together within heterogeneous media. Results will also allow for the evaluation of the impact of contaminant mass transport from within low permeability media at a potential treatment site and can support the development of mathematical tools/models combining interparticle/intraparticle and sorption/desorption processes. Such a model will promote more accurate site assessment and provide more confidence in the choice of an effective, economically optimized remediation strategy. PMID:22097089

Jiang, Guannan; Crimi, Michelle; Fowler, Kathleen; Fu, Xiaojing

2011-01-01

445

Tracer design for Magnetic Particle Imaging: modeling, synthesis, and experimental optimization of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a revolutionary medical imaging platform that uses safe iron oxide nanoparticle tracers to offer fundamentally new capabilities for medical imaging, in applications such as vascular imaging, and ultra-sensitive cancer therapeutics. MPI is the first medical imaging platform to intrinsically exploit nanoscale material properties: in MPI, images are formed from direct measurements of magnetic nanoparticle tracers, whose tunable, size-dependent magnetic properties must be optimized for imaging, by selecting a particular particle size and narrow size-distribution. We have developed an approach to optimize tracers for an arbitrary imaging system, by: (1) modeling of nanoparticle magnetization in applied AC fields to guide tracer design and interpret experimental results, (2) tailoring of chemical nanoparticle synthesis and preparation to carefully tune particle size while minimizing size distribution, and to coat the synthesized particles with a biocompatible polymer shell, and (3) experimental optimization of biocompatible nanoparticle tracers for MPI, using an MPI magnetometer built to characterize tracer performance. The MPI magnetometer is a zero-dimensional MPI system designed to measure the derivative of time-varying tracer magnetization, M, the critical metric for tracer performance, under applied field conditions similar to MPI imaging. Particular attention will be paid to measurements acquired using this system. We determined that optimized tracers, with core magnetic diameter of 19nm, narrow size distribution, and hydrodynamic diameter of 44nm, showed 30% better spatial resolution and 3x greater signal intensity than Resovist, a commercial nanoparticle tracer developed for MRI, when the frequency of the applied field was 25 kHz. Finally, while we demonstrated improvements in measurements of intrinsic tracer performance, further improvements are required to achieve theoretical tracer performance; our approach provides a template for future work.

Ferguson, Richard Matthew

446

Fuzzy logic control algorithms for MagneShock semiactive vehicle shock absorbers: design and experimental evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive ride quality and handling performance remain challenging design tradeoffs for modern, passive automobile suspension systems. Despite extensive published research outlining the benefits of active vehicle suspensions in addressing this tradeoff, the cost and complexity of these systems frequently prohibit commercial adoption. Semi-active suspensions can provide performance benefits over passive suspensions without the cost and complexity associated with fully active systems. This paper outlines the development and experimental evaluation of a fuzzy logic control algorithm for a commercial semi-active suspension component, Carrera's MagneShock™ shock absorber. The MagneShock™ utilizes an electromagnet to change the viscosity of magnetorheological (MR) fluid, which changes the damping characteristics of the shock. Damping for each shock is controlled by manipulating the coil current using real-time algorithms. The performance capabilities of fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithms are demonstrated through experimental evaluations on a passenger vehicle. Results show reductions of 25% or more in sprung mass absorbed power (U.S. Army 6 Watt Absorbed Power Criterion) as compared to typical passive shock absorbers over urban terrains in both simulation and experimentation. Average sprung-mass RMS accelerations were also reduced by as much as 9%, but usually with an increase in total suspension travel over the passive systems. Additionally, a negligible decrease in RMS tire normal force was documented through computer simulations. And although the FLC absorbed power was comparable to that of the fixed-current MagneShock™, the FLC revealed reduced average RMS sprung-mass accelerations over the fixed-current MagneShocks by 2-9%. Possible means for improvement of this system include reducing the suspension spring stiffness and increasing the dynamic damping range of the MagneShock™.

Craft, Michael J.; Buckner, Gregory D.; Anderson, Richard D.

2003-07-01

447

Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A.; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M.

2012-11-01

448

Toward efficient computation of the expected relative entropy for nonlinear experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expected relative entropy between prior and posterior model-parameter distributions is a Bayesian objective function in experimental design theory that quantifies the expected gain in information of an experiment relative to a previous state of knowledge. The expected relative entropy is a preferred measure of experimental quality because it can handle nonlinear data-model relationships, an important fact due to the ubiquity of nonlinearity in science and engineering and its effects on post-inversion parameter uncertainty. This objective function does not necessarily yield experiments that mediate well-determined systems, but, being a Bayesian quality measure, it rigorously accounts for prior information which constrains model parameters that may be only weakly constrained by the optimized dataset. Historically, use of the expected relative entropy has been limited by the computing and storage requirements associated with high-dimensional numerical integration. Herein, a bifocal algorithm is developed that makes these computations more efficient. The algorithm is demonstrated on a medium-sized problem of sampling relaxation phenomena and on a large problem of source-receiver selection for a 2D vertical seismic profile. The method is memory intensive but workarounds are discussed.

Coles, Darrell; Prange, Michael

2012-05-01

449

Experimental design and primary data analysis methods for comparing adaptive interventions.  

PubMed

In recent years, research in the area of intervention development has been shifting from the traditional fixed-intervention approach to adaptive interventions, which allow greater individualization and adaptation of intervention options (i.e., intervention type and/or dosage) over time. Adaptive interventions are operationalized via a sequence of decision rules that specify how intervention options should be adapted to an individual's characteristics and changing needs, with the general aim to optimize the long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Here, we review adaptive interventions, discussing the potential contribution of this concept to research in the behavioral and social sciences. We then propose the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART), an experimental design useful for addressing research questions that inform the construction of high-quality adaptive interventions. To clarify the SMART approach and its advantages, we compare SMART with other experimental approaches. We also provide methods for analyzing data from SMART to address primary research questions that inform the construction of a high-quality adaptive intervention. PMID:23025433

Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Qian, Min; Almirall, Daniel; Pelham, William E; Gnagy, Beth; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Yu, Jihnhee; Murphy, Susan A

2012-10-01

450

Design and experimental validation of novel optics-based autofocusing microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with both the large linear autofocusing range and the rapid response. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises two optical paths, namely one optical path which provides a short linear autofocusing range but an extremely high focusing accuracy and a second optical path which achieves a long linear autofocusing range but a reduced focusing accuracy. The two optical paths are combined using a self-written autofocus-processing algorithm to realize an autofocusing microscope with a large linear autofocusing range, a rapid response, and a high focusing accuracy. The microscope is characterized numerically using commercial software ZEMAX and is then verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method and a single optical path, the proposed microscope achieves both a longer autofocusing range and a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed microscope provides an ideal solution for automatic optical inspection and industrial applications.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Hu, Pin-Hao; Lin, Yang-Cheng

2012-11-01

451

Vehicles for lipophilic drugs: implications for experimental design, neuroprotection, and drug discovery.  

PubMed

The delivery of some classes of drugs is challenging. Solubility, absorption, distribution, and duration of action may all be altered by combination with vehicle molecules. It has already been discovered that polyethylene glycol - which is used as a stabiliser in peptide drug formulations - has biological activity in its own right, including potential neuroprotective properties. In this article we review the evidence for confounding activity for four distinct compounds that have been used as solvents and/or carrier molecules for the delivery of lipophilic drugs under investigation for potential neuroprotective properties. We discuss the evidence that cyclodextrins, ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide, and a castor oil derivative - Cremophor™ EL - have all been found to have mild to moderate neuroprotective effects. We argue that this has probably reduced the statistical power and increased the Type II error rates of neuroprotection experiments that have employed these vehicles, and suggest experimental design considerations to help correct the problem. However, we also note that the properties of these compounds may represent an opportunity for drug development, particularly for the newer compounds that have been subject to only limited experimental investigation. PMID:23937198

Rivers-Auty, Jack; Ashton, John C

2013-11-01

452

Experimental evaluation and set-up of a new apparatus designed for transitional flow experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental exercise has been conducted to validate the capability of a new test apparatus. The test stand has been designed and constructed at the laboratory of aerodynamics, University of Defence to carry out the experimental investigation of transitional flow prediction and development over flat plate. The test facility consists of a rectangular duct set on the suction side of air source apparatus. The working section is 2 m long with a cross section of 0.44 m in width and 0.25 m in height. The exercise is performed into two stages. In the first stage, the basic parameters such as freestream velocity, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient in streamwise direction were measured and manipulated to setup acceptable values. Second stage of the exercise, the bottom wall of the test section was used as a flat plate model to conduct turbulent boundary-layer experiment. The characteristics of the boundary layer obtained by using the apparatus are represented by a qualitative and quantitative agreement with those predicted by boundary-layer theory for turbulent boundary layer while more improvements seems to be required to satisfy the rules of boundary layer stability experiments. The results are show a fair agreement for mean velocity profile, U?, boundary layer thickness, ?, momentum thickness, ?, and skin friction coefficient, Cf.

Abu-darag, Sakhr; Rozehnal, Dalibor

2012-04-01

453

Electropolishing of 304 stainless steel: Surface roughness control using experimental design strategies and a summarized electropolishing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electropolishing (EP) settings for obtaining 304 stainless steel (304SS) with variable surface roughness factors (Ra) in a mixture containing phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and glycerol were achieved using experimental design strategies, including the fractional factorial design (FFD) coupled with the response surface methodology (RSM) and the path of the steepest ascent. The bath temperature and polishing time were found

Chi-Cheng Lin; Chi-Chang Hu

2008-01-01

454

Is That Outcome Different or Not? The Effect of Experimental Design and Statistics on Neurobehavioral Outcome Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

xperimental design and statistics are two different but related arts. The art of experimental design is how you ask the question, and how you ask the question dictates which statistics you use to answer the question. How you phrase the question depends upon your assumptions. For example, if your question is: \\

David A. Stump; Robert L. James; John M. Murkin

2010-01-01

455

Citric acid production by a novel Aspergillus niger isolate: II. Optimization of process parameters through statistical experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical designs, was employed to enhance the production of citric acid in submerged culture. For screening of fermentation medium composition significantly influencing citric acid production, the two-level Plackett–Burman design was used. Under our experimental conditions, beet molasses and corn steep liquor were found to be the major factors of the acid production.

Walid A. Lotfy; Khaled M. Ghanem; Ehab R. El-Helow

2007-01-01

456

Experimental design in formulation of diazepam nanoemulsions: physicochemical and pharmacokinetic performances.  

PubMed

With the aid of experimental design, we developed and characterized nanoemulsions for parenteral drug delivery. Formulations containing a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides and soybean oil as oil phase, lecithin (soybean/egg) and polysorbate 80 as emulsifiers, and 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) as aqueous phase were prepared by cold high-pressure homogenization. To study the effects of the oil content, lecithin type, and the presence of diazepam as a model drug and their interactions on physicochemical characteristics of nanoemulsion