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1

Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

Weiser, Martin W.

1993-01-01

2

OPTIMIZATION OF ?-AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY Bacillus subtilis RSKK96: USING THE TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the Taguchi experimental design was applied to optimize the conditions for ?-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis RSKK96, which was purchased from Refik Saydam Hifzissihha Industry (RSHM). Four factors, namely, carbon source, nitrogen source, amino acid, and fermentation time, each at four levels, were selected, and an orthogonal array layout of L16 (4) was performed. The model equation

Ersin Uysal; Nurullah Akcan; Zübeyde Baysal; Fikret Uyar

2010-01-01

3

Study of Plasma- and Detonation Gun-Sprayed Alumina Coatings Using Taguchi Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a most versatile thermal spray method for depositing alumina (Al2O3) coatings, and detonation gun (D-gun) spraying is an alternative thermal spray technology for depositing such coatings with extremely good wear characteristics. The present study is aimed at comparing the characteristics of Al2O3 coatings deposited using the above techniques by using Taguchi experimental design. Alumina coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial (L8) design parametric study to optimize the spray process parameters for both APS and D-gun. The Taguchi design evaluated the effect of four APS and D-gun spray variables on the measured coating attributes. The coating qualities evaluated were surface roughness, porosity, microhardness, abrasion, and sliding wear. The results show that the coating quality is directly related to the corresponding coating microstructure, which is significantly influenced by the spray parameters employed. Though it is evident that the D-gun-sprayed coatings consistently exhibit dense and uniform microstructure, higher hardness, and superior tribological performance, the attainment of suitable plasma-sprayed coatings can be improved by employing the Taguchi analysis.

Saravanan, P.; Selvarajan, V.; Srivastava, M. P.; Rao, D. S.; Joshi, S. V.; Sundararajan, G.

2000-12-01

4

Spacecraft design optimization using Taguchi analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality engineering methods of Dr. Genichi Taguchi, employing design of experiments, are important statistical tools for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. The Taguchi method was utilized to study several simultaneous parameter level variations of a lunar aerobrake structure to arrive at the lightest weight configuration. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the unique experimental aerobrake configurations selected by Taguchi method. Important design parameters affecting weight and global buckling were identified and the lowest weight design configuration was selected.

Unal, Resit

1991-01-01

5

Study of plasma- and detonation gun-sprayed alumina coatings using taguchi experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a most versatile thermal spray method for depositing alumina (Al2O3) coatings, and detonation gun (D-gun) spraying is an alternative thermal spray technology for depositing such coatings with\\u000a extremely good wear characteristics. The present study is aimed at comparing the characteristics of Al2O3 coatings deposited using the above techniques by using Taguchi experimental design.\\u000a \\u000a Alumina coating

P. Saravanan; V. Selvarajan; M. P. Srivastava; D. S. Rao; S. V. Joshi; G. Sundararajan

2000-01-01

6

Molecular assay optimized by Taguchi experimental design method for venous thromboembolism investigation.  

PubMed

Two mutations - Factor V Leiden (1691G > A) and the 20210G > A on the Prothrombin gene - are key risk factors for a frequent and potentially fatal disorder called Venous Thromboembolism. These molecular alterations can be investigated using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) probes and distinct DNA pools for both factors. The objective of this paper is to present an application of Taguchi Experimental Design Method to determine the best parameters adjustment of a Molecular Assays Process in order to obtain the best diagnostic result for Venous Thromboembolism investigation. The complete process contains six three-level factors which usually demands 729 experiments to obtain the final result, if using a Full Factorial Array. In this research, a Taguchi L27 Orthogonal Array is chosen to optimize the analysis and reduce the number of experiments to 27 without degrading the final result accuracy. The application of this method can lessen the time and cost necessary to achieve the best operation condition for a required performance. The results is proven in practice and confirmed that the Taguchi method can really offer a good approach for clinical assay efficiency and effectiveness improvement even though the clinical diagnostics can be based on the use of qualitative techniques. PMID:21867748

Celani de Souza, Helder Jose; Moyses, Cinthia B; Pontes, Fabrício J; Duarte, Roberto N; Sanches da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Alberto, Fernando Lopes; Ferreira, Ubirajara R; Silva, Messias Borges

2011-01-01

7

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. PMID:19635663

Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

2009-12-01

8

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. (Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

9

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. [Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)

1992-08-01

10

Spacecraft Design Optimization Using Taguchi Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality engineering methods of Dr. Genichi Taguchi, employing design of experiments, are important statistical tools for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. The Taguchi method was utilized to study several simultaneous parameter level vari...

R. Unal

1991-01-01

11

Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.  

PubMed

'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

2012-09-01

12

Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.  

PubMed

Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. PMID:23201522

Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

2013-01-01

13

Application of the taguchi experimental design to the optimisation of a photo-oxidation procedure for trace metal analysis in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A UV photo-oxidation device was constructed for the destruction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwater samples in order to determine traces of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper bound to DOM as inert species, by anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV). The photodigestor performance was optimised by means of the Taguchi experimental design. Four control factors (or

M. Vega; R. Pardo; E. Barrado; M. A. Fuente; J. L. Valle

1994-01-01

14

Hydrothermal processing of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles—A Taguchi experimental design approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal processing is conventionally employed in the laboratory-scale synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and extensive information on its processing conditions has therefore been provided in literature. However, the knowledge about the influence of some operating parameters, especially those important for a large-scale production, is yet insufficient. A specific approach based on a Taguchi orthogonal array was therefore used to evaluate these parameters and to optimize them for a more effective synthesis. This approach allowed us to systematically determine the correlation between the operating factors and the powder quality. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratios revealed the great influence of temperature and pH on the characteristic of powder. Additionally, the injection rate of one reagent into another was found to be the most important operating factor affecting the stoichiometric ratio of powders. As-prepared powders were also studied for their in-vitro bioactivity. The SEM images showed the accumulation of a new apatite-like phase on surface of the powder along with an interesting morphological change after a 45-day incubation of powder in SBF, indicating a promising bioactivity. Some results also showed the capability of simple hydrothermal method for the synthesis of a lamellar structure without the help of any templating system.

Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi; Khorasani, Mohammad-Taghi; Jamshidi, Ahmad

2012-12-01

15

A FUZZY TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTAL METHOD FOR PROBLEMS WITH MULTI-ATTRIBUTE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS APPLICATION ON PLASMA ARC WELDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a modified Taguchi experimental method for handling problems with fuzzy multi-attribute quality characteristics. In this method, grey relationship analysis and fuzzy theory are integrated with Taguchi method for dealing with respectively multi-attribute quality characteristics and fuzzy semantic judgments to product quality in experimental design. To verify the feasibility and merits of the proposed method, the

Sheng-Chai Chi; Li-Chang Hsu

2001-01-01

16

Taguchi's Orthogonal Arrays Are Classical Designs of Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Taguchi's catalog of orthogonal arrays is based on the mathematical theory of factorial designs and difference sets developed by R. C. Bose and his associates. These arrays evolved as extensions of factorial designs and latin squares. The paper (1) descri...

R. N. Kacker E. S. Lagergren J. J. Filliben

1991-01-01

17

The application of Taguchi’s method in the experimental investigation of the laser sintering process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective laser sintering (SLS) of iron powder has been investigated through a number of experiments statistically planned\\u000a as per Taguchi L8 design. Seven input parameters, namely, laser peak power density, laser pulse on-time, laser scan speed,\\u000a stepping distance (distance traveled between pulses), interval–spot ratio (ratio of laser scan line interval and laser spot\\u000a diameter), size range of iron powder

S. Dingal; T. R. Pradhan; J. K. Sarin Sundar; A. Roy Choudhury; S. K. Roy

2008-01-01

18

Determining optimal operation parameters for reducing PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ values) from the iron ore sintering process by using the Taguchi experimental design.  

PubMed

This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (including sinter, hematite, and limonite), were selected for conducting experiments in a pilot scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt%, Hb = 500 mm, Ps = 1000 mmH2O, and hearth layer = hematite) could decrease the emission factor of total PCDD/Fs (total EF(PCDD/Fs)) up to 62.8% by reference to the current operating condition of the real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and hearth layer = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Wc was the most significant parameter in determining total EF(PCDD/Fs (accounting for 74.7% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). The resultant optimal combination could also enhance slightly in both sinter productivity and sinter strength (30.3 t/m2/day and 72.4%, respectively) by reference to those obtained from the reference operating condition (29.9 t/m (2)/day and 72.2%, respectively). The above results further ensure the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter production without interfering its sinter productivity and sinter strength. PMID:18754384

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

2008-07-15

19

Robust PID Parameter Design for Embedded Temperature Control System Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a robust PID parameter design scheme using Taguchi's robust design method. This scheme is applied to an embedded PID temperature control system which is affected by outside (room) temperature. The effectiveness of this scheme is verified experimentally with a cooking household appliance.

Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

20

A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

1991-01-01

21

Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using carbonized Terminalia chebula-activated carbon: process parametric optimization using conventional method and Taguchi's experimental design, adsorption kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, the phenol removal from wastewater was investigated using agri-based adsorbent: Terminalia chebula-activated carbon (TCAC) produced by carbonization of Terminalia chebula (TC) in air-controlled atmosphere at 600 °C for 4 h. The surface area of TCAC was measured as 364 m2/g using BET method. The surface characteristic of TCAC was analyzed based on the value of point of zero charge. The effect of parameters such as TCAC dosage, pH, initial concentration of phenol, time of contact and temperature on the sorption of phenol by TCAC was investigated using conventional method and Taguchi experimental design. The total adsorption capacity of phenol was obtained as 36.77 mg/g using Langmuir model at the temperature of 30 °C at pH = 5.5. The maximum removal of phenol (294.86 mg/g) was obtained using Taguchi's method. The equilibrium study of phenol on TCAC showed that experimental data fitted well to R-P model. The results also showed that kinetic data were followed more closely the pseudo-first-order model. The results of thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption of phenol on TCAC was spontaneous and an exothermic in nature.

Khare, Prateek; Kumar, Arvind

2012-12-01

22

Permeability Evaluation Through Chitosan Membranes Using Taguchi Design  

PubMed Central

In the present study, chitosan membranes capable of imitating permeation characteristics of diclofenac diethylamine across animal skin were prepared using cast drying method. The effect of concentration of chitosan, concentration of cross-linking agent (NaTPP), crosslinking time was studied using Taguchi design. Taguchi design ranked concentration of chitosan as the most important factor influencing the permeation parameters of diclofenac diethylamine. The flux of the diclofenac diethylamine solution through optimized chitosan membrane (T9) was found to be comparable to that obtained across rat skin. The mathematical model developed using multilinear regression analysis can be used to formulate chitosan membranes that can mimic the desired permeation characteristics. The developed chitosan membranes can be utilized as a substitute to animal skin for in vitro permeation studies.

Sharma, Vipin; Marwaha, Rakesh Kumar; Dureja, Harish

2010-01-01

23

Tribo-performance of polyester hybrid composites: Damage assessment and parameter optimization using Taguchi design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the solid particle erosion wear performance of a multi component hybrid composite consisting of polyester, glass fibers and alumina particles. A mathematical model for damage assessment in erosion is developed and validated by a well designed set of experiments. For this, the design of experiments approach using Taguchi’s orthogonal arrays is used. The study reveals that glass–polyester

Amar Patnaik; Alok Satapathy; S. S. Mahapatra; R. R. Dash

2009-01-01

24

Taguchi design-based optimization of sandwich immunoassay microarrays for detecting breast cancer biomarkers.  

PubMed

Taguchi design, a statistics-based design of experiment method, is widely used for optimization of products and complex production processes in many different industries. However, its use for antibody microarray optimization has remained underappreciated. Here, we provide a brief explanation of Taguchi design and present its use for the optimization of antibody sandwich immunoassay microarray with five breast cancer biomarkers: CA15-3, CEA, HER2, MMP9, and uPA. Two successive optimization rounds with each 16 experimental trials were performed. We tested three factors (capture antibody, detection antibody, and analyte) at four different levels (concentrations) in the first round and seven factors (including buffer solution, streptavidin-Cy5 dye conjugate concentration, and incubation times for five assay steps) with two levels each in the second round; five two-factor interactions between selected pairs of factors were also tested. The optimal levels for each factor as measured by net assay signal increase were determined graphically, and the significance of each factor was analyzed statistically. The concentration of capture antibody, streptavidin-Cy5, and buffer composition were identified as the most significant factors for all assays; analyte incubation time and detection antibody concentration were significant only for MMP9 and CA15-3, respectively. Interactions between pairs of factors were identified, but were less influential compared with single factor effects. After Taguchi optimization, the assay sensitivity was improved between 7 and 68 times, depending on the analyte, reaching 640 fg/mL for uPA, and the maximal signal intensity increased between 1.8 and 3 times. These results suggest that Taguchi design is an efficient and useful approach for the rapid optimization of antibody microarrays. PMID:21667934

Luo, Wen; Pla-Roca, Mateu; Juncker, David

2011-07-15

25

Robust Design of Dual Band\\/Polarization Patch Antenna Using Sensitivity Analysis and Taguchi's Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, sensitivity analysis and Taguchi's method are applied to the design of dual band patch antenna using gap coupling. The proposed structure uses T-slotted aperture coupling between patch and feed line of ground plane. Using sensitivity analysis, optimum dimensions of patch and coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed line are first sought. Then the optimized values are modified by Taguchi's

Jae-Hyeong Ko; Jin-Kyu Byun; Jun-Seok Park; Hyeong-Seok Kim

2011-01-01

26

Taguchi design and equilibrium modeling for fluoride adsorption on cerium loaded cellulose nanocomposite bead.  

PubMed

The cooperative influence of operational variables for fluoride adsorption on cerium loaded cellulose nanocomposite bead (CCNB) was assessed using Taguchi design tool. The percentage contribution of each operational variable was determined. The solution pH, with a maximum contribution of 80.78%, indicates its highest influence on the response, the adsorption percent of fluoride. The quality and validity of the experimental design were assessed from ANOVA and subsequently by the confirmation experiment. The equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Temkin isotherm is the most suited one compared to the Langmuir and Freundlich model. It is found that almost 90% adsorbed fluoride can be eluted with 0.01 (N) NaOH and the regenerated bead can successively be reused for at least three times. PMID:25037420

Santra, Dhiman; Joarder, Rajib; Sarkar, Mitali

2014-10-13

27

The optimisation of neural network parameters using Taguchi's design of experiments approach: an application in manufacturing process modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks have been widely used in manufacturing industry, but they suffer from a lack of structured method to determine the settings of NN design and training parameters, which are usually set by trial and error. This article presents an application of Taguchi’s Design of Experiments, to identify the optimum setting of NN parameters in a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network

Wimalin Sukthomya; James Tannock

2005-01-01

28

Modeling a Dynamic Design System Using the Mahalanobis Taguchi System - Two-Step Optimal Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work presents a novel algorithm, the Mahalanobis Taguchi System- Two Step Optimal algorithm (MTS-TSO), which combines\\u000a the Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) and Two-Step Optimal (TSO) algorithm for parameter selection of product design, and parameter\\u000a adjustment under the dynamic service industry environments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a From the results of the confirm experiment, a service industry company is adopted to applies in the methodology,

Tsung-Shin Hsu; Ching-Lien Huang

2010-01-01

29

Design of a DC power supply with power factor corrector by Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop a study of Taguchi optimization method for a switching mode DC power supply with power factor corrector (PFC). Power factor and efficiency are the basic indicators for both of power quality and power saving. To attain these two factors in switching mode power supply design is the goal for power engineers. The

Po-Jen Cheng; Chin-Hsing Cheng; Yao-An Lee

2011-01-01

30

Optimization of Gear Blank Casting Process by Using Taguchi's Robust Design Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates optimization of the gear blank casting process by using Taguchi's Robust Design technique. The metal casting process involves a large number of parameters affecting the various casting quality features of the product. Some of the parameters are controllable and some are uncontrollable, e.g., noise factors. In order to optimize the process, six control factors—namely, clay content, moisture

Mohd. Muzammil; Prem Pal Singh; Faisal Talib

2003-01-01

31

Optimization design of a CUSUM control chart based on taguchi’s loss function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CUSUM charts have been widely used in statistical process control (SPC) across industries for monitoring process shifts\\u000a and supporting online measurement and distributed computing. This paper proposes an algorithm for the optimimal design of\\u000a a CUSUM control chart detecting process shifts in the mean value. The algorithm optimizes the sample size, sampling interval,\\u000a control limit and reference parameter of

Jianxin Roger Jiao; Petri T. Helo

2008-01-01

32

Application of Taguchi method to robust design of BLDC motor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to the design of brushless dc motors considering cogging torque reduction and running torque optimization to enhance the product robustness. The approach is based on the Taguchi method and utilizes the orthogonal array for design of `'experiments', i.e. the scheme for numerical simulations using a finite element method. The concept of signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio is

H. T. Wang; Z. J. Liu; S. X. Chen; J. P. Yang

1999-01-01

33

Evaluating performance of a fuel nozzle test stand under varying configurations using Taguchi parameter design - An industrial application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi parameter design is an efficient and effective method for evaluating and optimizing parameters for a given process.\\u000a This article describes a study involving the use of Taguchi parameter design for the evaluation of pressure measurement devices\\u000a used on fuel nozzle test stands. This study examines and compares the performance of a digital display pressure transducer\\u000a device and a mechanical

Joseph Chen; E. Daniel Kirby; James Alvin Zellmer

2008-01-01

34

Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establish human presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In order for SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost this time, even with tremendous increases in quality and performance requirements, such as extremely high reliability. This implies that both government and industry must change the way they do business. Therefore, new philosophy and technology must be employed to design and produce reliable, high quality space systems at low cost. In recognizing the need to reduce cost and improve quality and productivity, Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is a revolutionary management strategy in quality assurance and cost reduction. TQM requires complete management commitment, employee involvement, and use of statistical tools. The quality engineering methods of Dr. Taguchi, employing design of experiments (DOE), is one of the most important statistical tools of TQM for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. Taguchi methods provide an efficient and systematic way to optimize designs for performance, quality, and cost. Taguchi methods have been used successfully in Japan and the United States in designing reliable, high quality products at low cost in such areas as automobiles and consumer electronics. However, these methods are just beginning to see application in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the Taguchi methods for improving quality and reducing cost, describe the current state of applications and its role in identifying cost sensitive design parameters.

Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.

1990-01-01

35

Application of the fuzzy-based Taguchi method for the structural design of drawing dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sheet metal stamping process for automobiles, the drawing process requires the greatest stamping force, and thus the\\u000a structure of the drawing dies is the thickest and heaviest among all stamping dies. This study describes how the fuzzy-based\\u000a Taguchi method can be applied to explore multi-objective optimization in the structural design of drawing dies. Using the\\u000a lower die of

Bor-Tsuen Lin; Chun-Chih Kuo

2011-01-01

36

Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the Taguchi method, a powerful tool to design optimization for quality, is used to find the optimal cutting parameters for turning operations. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the cutting characteristics of S45C steel bars using tungsten carbide cutting tools. Through this study, not only can

W. H. Yang; Y. S. Tarng

1998-01-01

37

Taguchi Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to Taguchi's quality engineering ideas and statistical procedures is presented. Taguchi was asked in 1949 to improve productivity in research and development and his ideas and statistical procedures have been used in Japan for decades. Qua...

J. T. M. Wijnen

1991-01-01

38

Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

1993-01-01

39

Grey–Taguchi method to optimize the milling parameters of aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grey–Taguchi method was adopted in this study to optimize the milling parameters of A6061P-T651 aluminum alloy with multiple\\u000a performance characteristics. A grey relational grade obtained from the grey relational analysis is used as the performance\\u000a characteristic in the Taguchi method. Then, the optimal milling parameters are determined using the parameter design proposed\\u000a by the Taguchi method. Experimental results indicate

C. C. Tsao

2009-01-01

40

Analysis of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Red Mud Filled Polyester Composites using the Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud is an industrial waste generated during the production of alumina by Bayer's process. Using this red mud as the filler, particulate reinforced polyester composites have been prepared and their dry sliding wear behavior has been studied experimentally. For this a standard pin- on-disc test set-up and Taguchi's orthogonal arrays were used. Taguchi's experimental design method eliminates the need

ALOK SATAPATHY; AMAR PATNAIK

2008-01-01

41

Application of Taguchi Design and Response Surface Methodology for Improving Conversion of Isoeugenol into Vanillin by Resting Cells of Psychrobacter sp. CSW4.  

PubMed

For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, Box-Behnken design experiments under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for further optimization. Four factors (isoeugenol, NaCl, biomass and tween 80 initial concentrations), which have significant effects on vanillin yield, were selected from ten variables by Taguchi experimental design. With the regression coefficient analysis in the Box-Behnken design, a relationship between vanillin production and four significant variables was obtained, and the optimum levels of the four variables were as follows: initial isoeugenol concentration 6.5 g/L, initial tween 80 concentration 0.89 g/L, initial NaCl concentration 113.2 g/L and initial biomass concentration 6.27 g/L. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum predicted concentration of vanillin was 2.25 g/L. These optimized values of the factors were validated in a triplicate shaking flask study and an average of 2.19 g/L for vanillin, which corresponded to a molar yield 36.3%, after a 24 h bioconversion was obtained. The present work is the first one reporting the application of Taguchi design and Response surface methodology for optimizing bioconversion of isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell conditions. PMID:24250648

Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Amini, Jahanshir

2013-01-01

42

Applying Taguchi Methods To Brazing Of Rocket-Nozzle Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental study in which Taguchi Methods applied with view toward improving brazing of coolant tubes in nozzle of main engine of space shuttle. Dr. Taguchi's parameter design technique used to define proposed modifications of brazing process reducing manufacturing time and cost by reducing number of furnace brazing cycles and number of tube-gap inspections needed to achieve desired small gaps between tubes.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Bellows, William J.; Deily, David C.; Brennan, Alex; Somerville, John G.

1995-01-01

43

Robust Design of Credit Scoring System by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit scoring is widely used to make credit decisions, to reduce the cost of credit analysis and enable faster decisions. However, traditional credit scoring models do not account for the influence of noises. This study proposes a robust credit scoring system based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). The MTS, primary proposed by Taguchi, is a diagnostic and forecasting method using multivariate

Chao-Ton su; Huei-Chun Wang

2004-01-01

44

Optimization of surface roughness in an end-milling operation using nested experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study to optimize the surface quality of an end-milled surface on a Vertical Machining\\u000a Centre using Taguchi’s nested experimental design. The effect of various machining parameters on surface roughness was investigated\\u000a on two different work piece materials, Aluminium alloy and Plain Carbon Steel. Other control factors, namely, feed rate and\\u000a spindle speed, depth of cut

Kandarp Patel; Ajay Batish; Anirban Bhattacharya

2009-01-01

45

Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of the array of LED and the semi-cylindrical diffuser in which the intensity distribution of LED is based on Lambertian and the characteristics of diffuser are BTDF: 63%, transmission: 27%, and absorption: 10%. We design the triangular-prism structure at the both sides of the semi-circular diffuser to control the wide-angle light and use the Taguchi method to optimize the parameters of the structure that will control the 10.41% of total flux to light the area between 90 degree and 135 degree and to avoid the total internal reflection. According to the optical simulation results, the 89.59% of total flux is within 90 degree and the 10.41% of total flux is between 90 degree and 135 degree that match with the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Criteria V. 1.1 of ENERGY STAR.

Yu, Jen-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Ma, Chi-Tang

2011-09-01

46

The alpha risk of the Taguchi method for STB type quality characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the basic assumptions of experimental design is that the error variances are equal for all treatment combinations. On the contrary, one of the basic assumptions of Taguchi’s parameter design is that the error variances are not equal for the treatment combinations. Thus, the significant parameter levels are found by maximising the signal-to-noise ratio of the quality characteristic. In

Ming-Hsien Caleb Li

2005-01-01

47

Optimization design on salient pole rotor of BDFRM using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it proposed a novel test method, which combined the Taguchi method with the finite element analysis, to optimize the average electromagnetic torque and coupling ability of a salient pole rotor of BDFRM. According to practical situations, four controllable factors' level, such as the air-gap length, rotor pole arc coefficient, lateral radius, the diameter of the shaft are

Ji Liangzhou; Yang Xiangyu

2011-01-01

48

An exploratory exercise in Taguchi analysis of design parameters: Application to a shuttle-to-space station automated approach control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chief goals of the summer project have been twofold - first, for my host group and myself to learn as much of the working details of Taguchi analysis as possible in the time allotted, and, secondly, to apply the methodology to a design problem with the intention of establishing a preliminary set of near-optimal (in the sense of producing a desired response) design parameter values from among a large number of candidate factor combinations. The selected problem is concerned with determining design factor settings for an automated approach program which is to have the capability of guiding the Shuttle into the docking port of the Space Station under controlled conditions so as to meet and/or optimize certain target criteria. The candidate design parameters under study were glide path (i.e., approach) angle, path intercept and approach gains, and minimum impulse bit mode (a parameter which defines how Shuttle jets shall be fired). Several performance criteria were of concern: terminal relative velocity at the instant the two spacecraft are mated; docking offset; number of Shuttle jet firings in certain specified directions (of interest due to possible plume impingement on the Station's solar arrays), and total RCS (a measure of the energy expended in performing the approach/docking maneuver). In the material discussed here, we have focused on single performance criteria - total RCS. An analysis of the possibility of employing a multiobjective function composed of a weighted sum of the various individual criteria has been undertaken, but is, at this writing, incomplete. Results from the Taguchi statistical analysis indicate that only three of the original four posited factors are significant in affecting RCS response. A comparison of model simulation output (via Monte Carlo) with predictions based on estimated factor effects inferred through the Taguchi experiment array data suggested acceptable or close agreement between the two except at the predicted optimum point, where a difference outside a rule-of-thumb bound was observed. We have concluded that there is most likely an interaction effect not provided for in the original orthogonal array selected as the basis for our experimental design. However, we feel that the data indicates that this interaction is a mild one and that inclusion of its effect will not alter the location of the optimum.

Deal, Don E.

1991-01-01

49

Taguchi Experimental Design for Cleaning PWAs with Ball Grid Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball grid arrays (BGAs), and other area array packages, are becoming more prominent as a way to increase component pin count while avoiding the manufacturing difficulties inherent in processing quad flat packs (QFPs)...Cleaning printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) with BGA components mounted on the surface is problematic...Currently, a low flash point semi-aqueous material, in conjunction with a batch cleaning unit, is being used to clean PWAs. The approach taken at JPL was to investigate the use of (1) semi-aqueous materials having a high flash point and (2) aqueous cleaning involving a saponifier.

Bonner, J. K.; Mehta, A.; Walton, S.

1997-01-01

50

Taguchi-based Methodology for Determining\\/Optimizing Robot Process Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi-based methodology is implemented to determine and to optimize a robot's process capability (RPC). This low-cost solution optimizes a robot's operational conditions. The experiment determines the RPC (i.e., accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility and stability) and considers seven operational factors (i.e., load, speed, distance, orientation, direction, height, and starting point) with three levels each. The results from Taguchi experimental design and data

BERNARD C. JUNG; J. T. BLACK; DAVID W. H. CHEN; JAMES N. HOOL

1991-01-01

51

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is Experimental Design? How Do I conduct an experiment? Is there a process to follow? This interactive lesson will allow for you to explore the questions above and many more Assignment #1: Scroll down to the link entitled "Steps of the Scientific Method " click on the link and go through the the Powerpoint on the Scientific Method.Scientific Method PowerPoint Assignment #2: This assisgnment has two parts. a) Click on " What is the Scientific Method" link and using the scientific method, solve the mystry. Please write your ...

Lunt, Mrs.

2010-06-07

52

Use of Taguchi design of experiments to determine ALPLS ascent delta-5 sensitivities and total mass sensitivities to release conditions and vehicle parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of Taguchi's Design of Experiment Methods to improve the effectiveness of this and future parametric studies. Taguchi Methods will be applied in addition to the typical approach to provide a mechanism for comparing the results and the cost or effort necessary to complete the studies. It is anticipated that results of this study should include an improved systematic analysis process, an increase in information obtained at a lower cost, and a more robust, cost effective vehicle design.

Carrasco, Hector Ramon

1991-01-01

53

Evaluating space transportation sensitivities with Taguchi methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar and Mars transportation system sensitivities and their effect on cost is discussed with reference to several design concepts using Taguchi analysis. The general features of the approach are outlined, and the selected Taguchi matrix (L18) is described. The modeling results are displayed in a Design of Experiments format to aid the evaluation of sensitivities.

Brown, Norman S.; Patel, Saroj

1992-01-01

54

Design of retrodiffraction gratings for polarization-insensitive and polarization-sensitive characteristics by using the Taguchi method.  

PubMed

We present the design of retrodiffraction gratings that utilize total internal reflection (TIR) in a lamellar configuration to achieve high performance for both TE and TM polarized light and polarization-sensitive performance for gratings behaving as polarizer filters; the design was based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and the Taguchi method. The components can thus be fabricated from a single dielectric material and do not have to be coated with a metallic or dielectric film layer to enhance the reflectance. The effects of the structural and optical parameters of lamellar gratings were investigated, and the TIR gratings in a lamellar configuration were structurally and optically optimized in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the refractive index, grating period, filling factor, and grating depth as control factors and the estimated efficiency by RCWA as a noise factor. For more accurate robustness, a two-step optimization process was used for each purpose. For TIR gratings designed to perform similarly for TE and TM incident polarization, the -1st-order efficiencies were estimated to be up to 92.0% and 88.5% for TE and TM polarization, respectively. Also, for the TIR gratings designed to achieve polarization-sensitive performance when behaving as a polarizer filters, the -1st-order diffraction efficiencies for TE and TM polarization were estimated to be up to 95.5% and 2.7%, respectively. From these analysis results, it was confirmed that the Taguchi method shows feasibility for an optimization approach to a technique for designing optical devices. PMID:18566618

Lee, ChaBum; Hane, Kazuhiro; Kim, WanSoo; Lee, Sun-Kyu

2008-06-20

55

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This SciGuide addresses how students can improve the design of investigations and understand how scientists do science. The format of this SciGuide is designed to help all precollege teachers (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) design inquiry investigations.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-08-01

56

Application of the nonlinear, double-dynamic taguchi method to the precision positioning device using combined piezo-vcm actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method was used as design and analysis methods for a high-precision positioning device using the combined piezo-voice-coil motor (VCM) actuator. An experimental investigation into the effects of two input signals and three control factors were carried out to determine the optimum parametric configuration of the positioning device. The double-dynamic Taguchi method, which permits

Yung-Tien Liu; Rong-Fong Fung; Chun-Chao Wang

2007-01-01

57

Use of Taguchi design of experiments to optimize and increase robustness of preliminary designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed this summer includes the completion of work begun last summer in support of the Air Launched Personnel Launch System parametric study, providing support on the development of the test matrices for the plume experiments in the Plume Model Investigation Team Project, and aiding in the conceptual design of a lunar habitat. After the conclusion of last years Summer Program, the Systems Definition Branch continued with the Air Launched Personnel Launch System (ALPLS) study by running three experiments defined by L27 Orthogonal Arrays. Although the data was evaluated during the academic year, the analysis of variance and the final project review were completed this summer. The Plume Model Investigation Team (PLUMMIT) was formed by the Engineering Directorate to develop a consensus position on plume impingement loads and to validate plume flowfield models. In order to obtain a large number of individual correlated data sets for model validation, a series of plume experiments was planned. A preliminary 'full factorial' test matrix indicated that 73,024 jet firings would be necessary to obtain all of the information requested. As this was approximately 100 times more firings than the scheduled use of Vacuum Chamber A would permit, considerable effort was needed to reduce the test matrix and optimize it with respect to the specific objectives of the program. Part of the First Lunar Outpost Project deals with Lunar Habitat. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module as well as consumables to support 34 extra vehicular activities during a 45 day mission. The objective for the proposed work was to collaborate with the Habitat Team on the development and reusability of the Logistics Modules.

Carrasco, Hector R.

1992-01-01

58

Use of Taguchi design of experiments to optimize and increase robustness of preliminary designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research performed this summer includes the completion of work begun last summer in support of the Air Launched Personnel Launch System parametric study, providing support on the development of the test matrices for the plume experiments in the Plume Model Investigation Team Project, and aiding in the conceptual design of a lunar habitat. After the conclusion of last years Summer Program, the Systems Definition Branch continued with the Air Launched Personnel Launch System (ALPLS) study by running three experiments defined by L27 Orthogonal Arrays. Although the data was evaluated during the academic year, the analysis of variance and the final project review were completed this summer. The Plume Model Investigation Team (PLUMMIT) was formed by the Engineering Directorate to develop a consensus position on plume impingement loads and to validate plume flowfield models. In order to obtain a large number of individual correlated data sets for model validation, a series of plume experiments was planned. A preliminary 'full factorial' test matrix indicated that 73,024 jet firings would be necessary to obtain all of the information requested. As this was approximately 100 times more firings than the scheduled use of Vacuum Chamber A would permit, considerable effort was needed to reduce the test matrix and optimize it with respect to the specific objectives of the program. Part of the First Lunar Outpost Project deals with Lunar Habitat. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module as well as consumables to support 34 extra vehicular activities during a 45 day mission. The objective for the proposed work was to collaborate with the Habitat Team on the development and reusability of the Logistics Modules.

Carrasco, Hector R.

1992-12-01

59

Optimization of heat sink EMI using Design of Experiments with numerical computational investigation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for the minimization of electromagnetic radiation from the flat plate heat sink by optimizing the heat sink geometry parameters using Taguchi Design of Experiments technique. The heat sink is modelled and simulated using numerical method via Ansoft HFSS software. Experimental investigation on the heat sink was performed in a shielded semi anechoic chamber confirming to

S. Manivannan; R. Arumugam; S. Prasanna Devi; S. Paramasivam; P. Salil; B. Subbarao

2010-01-01

60

Applying the Mahalanobis-Taguchi strategy for software defect diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) strategy combines mathematical and statistical concepts like Mahalanobis distance, Gram-Schmidt\\u000a orthogonalization and experimental designs to support diagnosis and decision-making based on multivariate data. The primary\\u000a purpose is to develop a scale to measure the degree of abnormality of cases, compared to “normal” or “healthy” cases, i.e.\\u000a a continuous scale from a set of binary classified cases. An

Dimitris Liparas; Lefteris Angelis; Robert Feldt

61

Multi-response optimization using Taguchi design and principle component analysis for removing binary mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solution by nano ?-alumina.  

PubMed

The nanostructure of ?-alumina was used as an effective adsorbent for simultaneous removing of a mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solutions. The Taguchi design and principle component analysis were applied to explore effective parameters for achieving a higher adsorption capacity and removal percentage of the binary mixture containing alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Seven factors including temperature, contact time, initial pH value, the shaker rate, the sorbent dose, and initial concentrations of alizarin red and alizarin yellow in three levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. A L27 orthogonal array was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio. Then, the removal percentage (R%) and adsorption capacity (q) of the above-mentioned dyes were transformed into an accurate S/N ratio. The Taguchi method indicates that the solution pH has the most contribution in controlling the removal percentage of alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Under optimal condition, the maximum removal percentages of 99% and 78.5%, and the capacity uptake of 54.4 and 39.0mg g(-1) were obtained for both alizarin red and alizarin yellow, respectively. Isotherm modeling and kinetic investigations showed that Langmuir, modified Langmuir, and pseudo-second-order models describe both the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic behavior well. The Fourier transform infrared analysis also firmly confirmed the involving active sites of nano ?-alumina in the adsorption process. PMID:24608013

Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjrani, Neda; Bagtash, Maryam; Azimi, Gholamhasan

2014-05-21

62

Multi-response optimization using Taguchi design and principle component analysis for removing binary mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solution by nano ?-alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanostructure of ?-alumina was used as an effective adsorbent for simultaneous removing of a mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solutions. The Taguchi design and principle component analysis were applied to explore effective parameters for achieving a higher adsorption capacity and removal percentage of the binary mixture containing alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Seven factors including temperature, contact time, initial pH value, the shaker rate, the sorbent dose, and initial concentrations of alizarin red and alizarin yellow in three levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. A L27 orthogonal array was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio. Then, the removal percentage (R%) and adsorption capacity (q) of the above-mentioned dyes were transformed into an accurate S/N ratio. The Taguchi method indicates that the solution pH has the most contribution in controlling the removal percentage of alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Under optimal condition, the maximum removal percentages of 99% and 78.5%, and the capacity uptake of 54.4 and 39.0 mg g-1 were obtained for both alizarin red and alizarin yellow, respectively. Isotherm modeling and kinetic investigations showed that Langmuir, modified Langmuir, and pseudo-second-order models describe both the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic behavior well. The Fourier transform infrared analysis also firmly confirmed the involving active sites of nano ?-alumina in the adsorption process.

Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjrani, Neda; Bagtash, Maryam; Azimi, Gholamhasan

63

Microwave assisted extraction of curcumin by sample-solvent dual heating mechanism using Taguchi L9 orthogonal design.  

PubMed

The present work reports on a novel extraction method using microwaves based on solvent-sample duo-heating synergism, for the extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa L. The duo-heating mechanism is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol soaked plant material was used as a modifier to bring about selective and effective heating of the sample under microwave. Acetone was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent curcumin solubilizing capacity and heats up under microwave owing to its good dissipation factor. Extraction conditions, namely microwave power, irradiation time, particle size and modifier volume were optimized using Taguchi design approach and curcumin was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The optimum conditions as obtained from signal-to-noise ratio analysis and interaction studies between factors were as follows: 20% microwave power, 4 min irradiation time, particles screened through sieve 20 and 8 ml of modifier. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) under the influence of dual heating mechanism showed better precision and dramatically higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions, when compared to conventional approaches. PMID:18309573

Mandal, Vivekananda; Mohan, Yogesh; Hemalatha, Siva

2008-01-22

64

Operational design of a supply chain system using the Taguchi method, response surface methodology, simulation, and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing a supply chain to meet an organization's objectives is a challenge to many firms. It involves collaboration in multiple dimensions, such as cooperation, information sharing, and capacity planning. In this research, we focus on identifying the ‘best’ operating conditions for a supply chain. We propose a hybrid approach that incorporates simulation, Taguchi techniques, and response surface methodology to examine

Jen S. Shang; Shanling Li; Pandu Tadikamalla

2004-01-01

65

Taguchi Method Implementation in Taper Motion Wire EDM Process Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire EDM) is a non-conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for producing jigs, fixtures, and dies. Among others, the machine is able to cut a workpiece having oblique and taper form. The objective of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of Wire EDM machine, such as no load voltage, capacitor, on-time, off-time, and servo voltage, for machining medium carbon steel ASSAB 760. The Taguchi design of experiments, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to analyze the effects of the input parameters by adopting L18 Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) to conduct experiments using brass wire electrode of 0.2 mm in diameter. In order to achieve the maximum material removal rate (MRR) or the minimum surface roughness (SR), six controllable factors, i.e., the parameters of each at three levels are applied for determining the optimal combination of factors and levels. The results reveal that the MRR and the SR are greatly influenced by the on-time and the taper angle, respectively. Experimental results affirm the effectiveness of the method, and also prove that the Taguchi method is suitable to solving the stated problem within minimum number of experiments as compared to that of a full factorial design.

Martowibowo, S. Y.; Wahyudi, A.

2012-10-01

66

Optimisation of parameters for aqueous tape-casting of cordierite-based glass ceramics by Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous suspensions of cordierite-based glass ceramics were prepared by using four types of dispersants and binders and different solids loading. The experiments were designed according to the Taguchi method, which shows great advantages in optimising more than two factors that need to be considered in an experimental design. Different parameters such as the type and concentration of the dispersants and

Sen Mei; Juan Yang; José Maria F Ferreira; Rodrigo Martins

2002-01-01

67

Workbook for Taguchi Methods for Product Quality Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taguchi methods are methods of product quality improvement that analyze major contributions and how they can be controlled to reduce variability of poor performance. In this approach, knowledge is used to shorten testing. Taguchi methods are concerned with process improvement rather than with process measurement. This manual is designed to be used…

Zarghami, Ali; Benbow, Don

68

TAGUCHI APPROACH TO DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR QUALITY AND COST: AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONCalibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establishhuman presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) willrequire resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In orderfor SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost thistime, even with tremendous increases

Resit Unal; Edwin B. Dean

1991-01-01

69

Robust Design of a Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Inspection Tool using the Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of a natural gas transmission pipeline inspection tool to detect cracks and corrosion is affected by a number of factors, namely, magnetization level, sensor spacing, radial liftoff, and circumferential alignment of the sensors relative to a defect. The first two factors are design parameters and are controllable factors. The last two factors are hard to control on site

Zhiwei Zeng; Lalita Udpa; Satish Udpa

2006-01-01

70

Optimization in MAF operations using Taguchi parameter design for AISI304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic pole is an important finishing tool in magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF). This study used finite element method\\u000a to analyze magnetic field characteristics for three different magnetic poles such as solid cylindrical pole, hollow cylindrical\\u000a pole, and hollow cylindrical pole with grooves design. The results showed that the hollow cylindrical with grooves can generate\\u000a the better surface roughness in

Lieh-Dai Yang; Ching-Tien Lin; Han-Ming Chow

2009-01-01

71

The optimal parameters in a magnetically assisted finishing system using Taguchi’s method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intelligent design system was created that efficiently uses magnetic force to assist in the discharge of dregs from the electrode gap during the electrochemical step of a surface finishing process. In this electrochemical finishing experiment, the author used an electrode mated to the shape of the workpiece and supplied with continuous or pulsed direct current. The study used Taguchi’s Method to analyze the combination of optimal parameters. The experimental parameters include four factors at three levels for the evaluation of surface roughness after the magnetically assisted electrochemical finishing process. These four factors are voltage, magnetic field strength, the distance between the two magnets and the electrode rotation speed. For this design a higher rotation speed of the electrode produced a better finish. A higher voltage with magnetic assistance can alleviate the difficulties of dregs discharge and also reduce the finishing time. Smaller distances between the two magnets, or a larger magnetic field intensity provides more magnetic force, improved discharge and results in a better finish. The average effect of magnetic assistance was greater than that of pulsed current and there is no need to prolong machining time to compensate for off-time.

Pa, P. S.

2010-11-01

72

Multiobjective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters on Aluminum Alloy AA 5083 Using Taguchi-Based Grey Relation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the optimization of process parameters in friction stir welding (FSW) of Aluminum Alloy AA 5083 with multiple responses based on orthogonal array with grey relational analysis. The L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi experimental design is used for optimizing the FSW process parameters on tensile strength of FSW welds and total input power required for the process. The

Sundaravel Vijayan; R. Raju; S. R. K Rao

2010-01-01

73

Study of magnetic abrasive finishing in free-form surface operations using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) to conduct free-form surface abrasion of stainless SUS304 material operations.\\u000a The operations were demonstrated using a permanent magnetic finishing mechanism installed at the CNC machining center. The\\u000a operations were performed using the Taguchi experimental design, considering the effects of magnetic field, spindle revolution,\\u000a feed rate, working gap, abrasive, and lubricant. Furthermore, the experimental

Ching-Tien Lin; Lieh-Dai Yang; Han-Ming Chow

2007-01-01

74

An Experimental Investigation into the Optimal Processing Conditions for the CO2 Laser Cladding of 20 MnCr5 Steel Using Taguchi Method and ANN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of laser clad profile formed by means of CO2 laser applying Taguchi method and the artificial neural network (ANN). Laser cladding is one of the surface modifying technologies in which the desired surface characteristics of any component can be achieved such as good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and hardness etc. Laser is used as a heat source to melt the anti-corrosive powder of Inconel-625 (Super Alloy) to give a coating on 20 MnCr5 substrate. The parametric study of this technique is also attempted here. The data obtained from experiments have been used to develop the linear regression equation and then to develop the neural network model. Moreover, the data obtained from regression equations have also been used as supporting data to train the neural network. The artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the input/output parameters of the process. The established ANN model is then indirectly integrated with the optimization technique. It has been seen that the developed neural network model shows a good degree of approximation with experimental data. In order to obtain the combination of process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate for which the output parameters become optimum, the experimental data have been used to develop the response surfaces.

Mondal, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Asish.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

2010-10-01

75

Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

Kissel, R.

1992-01-01

76

Taguchi Method Applied in Optimization of Shipley 5740 Positive Resist Deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taguchi Methods of Robust Design Presents a way to optimize output process performance through organized experiments, by using orthogonal arrays for the evaluation of the process controlleable parameters.

Hui, Allan; Wiberg, Dean V.; Blosiu, Julian

1997-01-01

77

Experimental Design (Industrial DOE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by StatSoft, Inc., provides detailed discussions of many different types of experimental designs and examples with tables, graphs, and links to other detailed sites. The page combines text and images to help users better understand the theories presented. Overall, this is a complex website with many different areas to explore in the world of statistics.

2008-12-22

78

Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design  

PubMed Central

Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 32 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P?0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics.

Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.; Devi, V. Kusum

2012-01-01

79

Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.

Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.

1993-01-01

80

The Alpha Risk of Taguchi Method for LTB Type Quality Characteristic with L 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taguchi’s parameter design, the significant parameter levels are found by maximising the signal-to-noise ratio of the quality\\u000a characteristic. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of signal-to-noise ratio, the combination of column effects to better\\u000a estimate error variance is referred to as pooling. Taguchi has suggested the strategy of pooling up. When using the pooling-up\\u000a strategy, there will be a

Ming-Hsien Caleb Li; Hsiu-Wei Kuo; Ching-Ching Yang

2007-01-01

81

Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

1992-01-01

82

Laser Doppler vibrometer: unique use of DOE\\/Taguchi methodologies in the arena of pyroshock (10 to 100,000 HZ) response spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed is the unique application of design of experiment (DOE) to structure and test a Taguchi L9 (32) factorial experimental matrix (nine tests to study two factors, each factor at three levels), utilizing an HeNe laser Doppler vibrometer and piezocrystal accelerometers to monitor the explosively induced vibrations through the frequency range of 10 to 105 Hz on a flat steel

C. J. Litz

1994-01-01

83

Application of Taguchi Method to the Optimization of Detonation Spraying Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with an application of the Taguchi method to the optimization of a detonation spray process for alumina coatings. Coating experiments were conducted using the TaguchUfractional factorial (L8) design parametric study to optimize spray process parameters. The Taguchi design evaluated the effects of four detonation spray process parameters: acetylene to oxygen ratio, carrier gas flow rate, frequency

P. Saravanan; V. Selvarajan; D. Srinivasa Rao; S. V. Joshi; G. Sundararajan

2000-01-01

84

Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values. PMID:20590424

Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

2010-10-01

85

Friction performance optimization of electroless Ni P coatings using the Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study of friction characteristics of electroless Ni-P (EN) coatings sliding against steel and optimization of coating process parameters based on the Taguchi method. Experiments are carried out by utilizing the combination of process parameters based on the L27 Taguchi orthogonal design with four process parameters, namely, bath temperature, concentration of nickel source solution, concentration of reducing agent and annealing temperature. It is observed that concentration of nickel source solution has the most significant influence in controlling friction characteristics of EN coating. The optimum combination of process parameters for minimum friction coefficient is obtained from the analysis. The surface morphology and composition of coatings are also studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis.

Sahoo, Prasanta

2008-05-01

86

Robust PID controllers by Taguchi's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is the fine-tuning of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers under model parameter uncertainties (noise). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The fine-tuning of PID controllers achieved using the Taguchi method following the steps given: selection of the control factors of the PID with their levels; identification of the noise factors that cause undesirable variation on the quality

John G. Vlachogiannis; Ranjit K. Roy

2005-01-01

87

Development of a hybrid methodology for dimensionality reduction in Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using Mahalanobis distance and binary particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern recognition method applied to classify data into categories – “healthy” and “unhealthy” or “acceptable” and “unacceptable”. MTS has found applications in a wide range of problem domains. Dimensionality reduction of the input set of attributes forms an important step in MTS. The current practice is to apply Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE) and orthogonal

Avishek Pal; J. Maiti

2010-01-01

88

Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24749379

Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

2012-04-01

89

Multi-response design of Nd:YAG laser drilling of Ni-based superalloy sheets using Taguchi’s quality loss function, multivariate statistical methods and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid design strategy for the determination of the optimum laser drilling parameters which simultaneously\\u000a meets the requirements for seven quality characteristics (responses) of the holes produced during pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling\\u000a of a thin sheet of nickel-based superalloy Nimonic 263. The process was designed using two approaches based on the experimental\\u000a data. In the first approach,

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Sanja Z. Petronic; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Radica Prokic-Cvetkovic; Andjelka Milosavljevic

2011-01-01

90

An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, some stabilized magnetite based ferrofluids were synthesized using Dextran as a stabilizing agent. In order to achieve optimum experimental conditions for synthesizing ferrofluids as MRI contrast agents, the Taguchi method was used. This approach was employed to design and minimize the number of required experiments. By using the Taguchi orthogonal (L16) array, four parameters including solution temperature and alkalinity, reaction temperature and stirring rate were selected at four predetermined levels for 16 experiments. Synthesizing processes established based on this set of experimental conditions were carried out and the obtained ferrofluids were characterized using PCS, VSM, TEM and FT-IR techniques. The obtained results were used and analyzed through the Qualitek-4 software and the proposed optimum experimental conditions were used for synthesizing the desired sample. Finally, this sample was used as a potential MRI contrast agent for imaging lymph nodes.

Ahmadi, Reza; Hosseini, Hamid Reza Madaah

2013-04-01

91

Predicting the financial crisis by Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Examples of Taiwan's electronic sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past researches of financial crisis early-warning model, multiple regression, linear probability model, and multiple discriminate analysis are commonly adopted, all of which have generated good discrimination effects, with over 90% accuracy. Dr. Taguchi, well known for his robust design, has lately brought up a new method – Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS), which is mainly used to conduct multivariate diagnoses

Yu-cheng Lee; Hsiao-lin Teng

2009-01-01

92

Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force on tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy, Taguchi parametric design and

A. K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

2008-01-01

93

EDS: The Experimental Design Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program was developed to realistically simulate a broad variety of experiments with established factors and response models. The program, entitled the 'Experimental Design Simulator' (EDS) is a 32-bit Microsoft WindowsTM application that simulates experiments for the purpose of evaluating experimental parameters and experimental designs. EDS is applied to teaching experimental statistics and experimental design, while improving cost effectiveness. The program was developed to demonstrate the application of stochastic simulation methods to experimental design evaluation. EDS simulates ten different data distributions so that complex multi-factor, multi-distribution systems can be evaluated where propagation of error methods can not be applied. Multiple responses can be simulated for dependent and independent functions, and response values can be used as factors in subsequent response models. Covariant and interacting factors may be incorporated as multiple factor based responses and applied in secondary responses. Complex experimental systems can be simulated, and data can be processed and evaluated realistically. Complex experiments can be examined and evaluated with minimal cost. Results from actual experiments can be compared to simulated experimental results. The stochastic approach to experimental system and design evaluation as demonstrated by EDS is a powerful tool in improving the utilization, effectiveness and efficiency of experimental design in research and has an application in improving teaching methods.

Cunningham, David Philip

94

Modeling and optimizing of threshold voltage of 32nm NMOS transistor using L18 orthogonal array Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes our investigation of the effect of seven processes' parameters on threshold voltage (VTH) in the fabrication of a 32nm CMOS transistor. The parameters are HALO implantation, S/D Implantation, Compensation implantations, SiO2 thickness, VTH adjustment implantation, polysilicon thickness and silicide annealing time. The setting of process parameters were determined by Taguchi method L18 experimental design. From there, the level of importance of each of the process parameters on threshold voltage was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Transistor fabrication was performed by using Silvaco ATHENA module. Silvaco ATLAS module takes care of electrical characterization for the device. These two simulators results were analyzed with Taguchi method to aid in design and optimizing process parameters. Threshold voltage (VTH) results were used as the evaluation parameters. The results show that the VTH value 0.1099 V for NMOS can be achieved respectively, much closer to the ITRS prediction than our previous L9 experiment result. As the conclusion, by utilizing L18 Taguchi Method shown that process parameters can adjust threshold voltage (VTH) to a stable value of 0.1099 V that is well within ITRS 2003 prediction for 32nm transistor

Elgomati, Husam Ahmed; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Ahmad, Ibrahim

2012-09-01

95

Strength Characteristics on Resistance SPOT Welding of al Alloy Sheets by Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal welding condition in resistance spot welding of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy sheets with the thickness of 0.4mm was investigated by the tensile-shear strength tests and Taguchi method in experimental design with changing various welding conditions respectively. The tensile-shear tests were carried out at cross-head speeds of 0.1mm/min in accordance with the KS B0851. Design methods were systematically performed using an L27(39) orthogonal array table. In the experimental design, three control factors of resistance spot welding conditions were electrode force, welding current and welding time. Electrode force conditions were 882N, 1323N and 1764N, and welding current were 13.5kA, 14kA and 14.5kA, and welding time were 3cycle, 4cycle and 5cycle.

Yoon, Han-Ki; Min, Byeong-Hyeon; Lee, Chil-Soon; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Youn-Kyoum; Park, Won-Jo

96

Multi-response analysis in the material characterisation of electrospun poly (lactic acid)/halloysite nanotube composite fibres based on Taguchi design of experiments: fibre diameter, non-intercalation and nucleation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite fibres were prepared by using a simple and versatile electrospinning technique. The systematic approach via Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) was implemented to investigate factorial effects of applied voltage, feed rate of solution, collector distance and HNT concentration on the fibre diameter, HNT non-intercalation and nucleation effects. The HNT intercalation level, composite fibre morphology, their associated fibre diameter and thermal properties were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. HNT non-intercalation phenomenon appears to be manifested as reflected by the minimal shift of XRD peaks for all electrospun PLA/HNT composite fibres. The smaller-fibre-diameter characteristic was found to be sequentially associated with the feed rate of solution, collector distance and applied voltage. The glass transition temperature ( T g) and melting temperature ( T m) are not highly affected by varying the material and electrospinning parameters. However, as the indicator of the nucleation effect, the crystallisation temperature ( T c) of PLA/HNT composite fibres is predominantly impacted by HNT concentration and applied voltage. It is evident that HNT's nucleating agent role is confirmed when embedded with HNTs to accelerate the cold crystallisation of composite fibres. Taguchi DoE method has been found to be an effective approach to statistically optimise critical parameters used in electrospinning in order to effectively tailor the resulting physical features and thermal properties of PLA/HNT composite fibres.

Dong, Yu; Bickford, Thomas; Haroosh, Hazim J.; Lau, Kin-Tak; Takagi, Hitoshi

2013-09-01

97

Taguchi methods in LSI fabrication process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of robust engineering is based on the principles of Taguchi methods. Genichi Taguchi derived these principles after several years of research. The concept systematically evolved starting from 1950s. These principles are aimed at providing the companies with a cost effective methodology to enhance their competitive position in the global market. Three case studies related to semiconductor fabrication process

G. Taguchi

2001-01-01

98

Application of Taguchi approach to optimize friction stir welding parameters of polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents experimental and numerical results of butt friction stir welding of high density polyethylene. The FSW designed tool insulates the welded samples and preserves the heat gained from friction thus avoiding the appearance of blisters and splits after welding. The experimental tests, conducted according to combinations of process factors such as rotation speed, welding speed, pin diameter and hold time at beginning welding, were carried out according the Taguchi orthogonal table L27 in randomized way. Temperatures in the joint during the welding operation and flow stresses from the tensile tests of welded samples were measured and variances were analyzed. Identified models were used to simulate, by finite elements, the tensile tests performed on specimens having a weld cordon in their active area. The results show coherence between the numerical predictions and experimental observations in different cases of weld cordon mechanical behaviour.

Rezgui, M. A.; Ayadi, M.; Cherouat, A.; Hamrouni, K.; Zghal, A.; Bejaoui, S.

2010-06-01

99

Investigation Of Tool Wear In Hard Turning Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard turning is a machining process defined of hardness higher than 45 HRC under appropriate cutting tools and cutting speed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum process parameters for a particular work piece-tool material combination. . In this study, three levels of each parameters viz. Hardness (HRC), Speed(mm/min), Feed(mm/rev) and three different tool materials are evaluated for process quality characteristics such as tool wear. The three different tool materials used are High CBN, Low CBN, Mixed ceramic. AISI H 11 was taken as work piece material. The experiment is designed using Taguchi Method. The results obtained from the experiments are transformed into signal to noise (S/N) ratio and used to optimize the value of tool wear. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to indentify the statistical significance of parameters. The final results of experimental investigation are presented in this paper. The conclusions arrived at are critically discussed at the end.

Chaudhari, Y. D.

2013-03-01

100

Modified artificial diet for rearing of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi method and Derringer's desirability function.  

PubMed

With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets. PMID:23425103

Assemi, H; Rezapanah, M; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R; Mehrvar, A

2012-01-01

101

Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

Schwabe, Robert A.

102

Application of Taguchi optimization technique in determining plastic injection molding process parameters for a thin-shell part  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of Taguchi optimization technique to reduce warpage problem related to the shrinkage variation depended on process parameters during production of thin-shell plastic components for orthose part. For this purpose, a number of MoldFlow analyses are carried out by utilizing the combination of process parameters based on three-level of L27 and L9 Taguchi orthogonal design.

Hasan Oktem; Tuncay Erzurumlu; Ibrahim Uzman

2007-01-01

103

Optimization of glucose formation in karanja biomass hydrolysis using Taguchi robust method.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study is aimed to optimize the process parameters for the production of glucose from karanja seed cake. The Taguchi robust design method with L9 orthogonal array was applied to optimize hydrolysis reaction conditions and maximize sugar yield. Effect of temperature, acid concentration, and acid to cake weight ratio were considered as the main influencing factors which effects the percentage of glucose and amount of glucose formed. The experimental results indicated that acid concentration and liquid to solid ratio had a principal effect on the amount of glucose formed when compared to that of temperature. The maximum glucose formed was 245g/kg extractive free cake. PMID:24951940

Radhakumari, M; Ball, Andy; Bhargava, Suresh K; Satyavathi, B

2014-08-01

104

Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

Skidmore, Susan

2008-01-01

105

Drug Design: Examining Large Experimental Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of designing a new drug, thousands of candidate structures could be made and examined by empirical testing. Medicinal chemists would prefer some way of selecting a diverse subset from a list of candidates. Our statistical approach is to use ...

S. S. Young

1992-01-01

106

[Development of an optimized formulation of damask marmalade with low energy level using Taguchi methodology].  

PubMed

The goal of this present study was the development of an optimized formula of damask marmalade low in calories applying Taguchi methodology to improve the quality of this product. The selection of this methodology lies on the fact that in real life conditions the result of an experiment frequently depends on the influence of several variables, therefore, one expedite way to solve this problem is utilizing factorial desings. The influence of acid, thickener, sweetener and aroma additives, as well as time of cooking, and possible interactions among some of them, were studied trying to get the best combination of these factors to optimize the sensorial quality of an experimental formulation of dietetic damask marmalade. An orthogonal array L8 (2(7)) was applied in this experience, as well as level average analysis was carried out according Taguchi methodology to determine the suitable working levels of the design factors previously choiced, to achieve a desirable product quality. A sensory trained panel was utilized to analyze the marmalade samples using a composite scoring test with a descriptive acuantitative scale ranging from 1 = Bad, 5 = Good. It was demonstrated that the design factors sugar/aspartame, pectin and damask aroma had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sensory quality of the marmalade with 82% of contribution on the response. The optimal combination result to be: citric acid 0.2%; pectin 1%; 30 g sugar/16 mg aspartame/100 g, damask aroma 0.5 ml/100 g, time of cooking 5 minutes. Regarding chemical composition, the most important results turned out to be the decrease in carbohydrate content compaired with traditional marmalade with a reduction of 56% in coloric value and also the amount of dietary fiber greater than similar commercial products. Assays of storage stability were carried out on marmalade samples submitted to different temperatures held in plastic bags of different density. Non percetible sensorial, microbiological and chemical changes were detected after 90 days of storage under controlled conditions. PMID:14528613

Villarroel, Mario; Castro, Ruth; Junod, Julio

2003-06-01

107

From Cookbook to Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing expertise, whether from cook to chef or from student to scientist, occurs over time and requires encouragement, guidance, and support. One key goal of an elementary science program should be to move students toward expertise in their ability to design investigative questions. The ability to design a testable question is difficult for novice science students and requires teachers to support students by using concrete strategies. This article promotes a tangible strategy teachers can use to help students design testable questions for experiments and discusses how the strategy can be used to help students design their own investigative questions.

Flannagan, Jenny S.; Mcmillan, Rachel

2009-02-01

108

From Cookbook to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing expertise, whether from cook to chef or from student to scientist, occurs over time and requires encouragement, guidance, and support. One key goal of an elementary science program should be to move students toward expertise in their ability to design investigative questions. The ability to design a testable question is difficult for…

Flannagan, Jenny Sue; McMillan, Rachel

2009-01-01

109

OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other agencies.…

Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

1983-01-01

110

Parametric optimization of selective laser melting for forming Ti6Al4V samples by Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a selective laser melting experiment was carried out with Ti6Al4V alloy powders. To produce samples with maximum density, selective laser melting parameters of laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness, hatching space and scanning strategy were carefully selected. As a statistical design of experimental technique, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the selected parameters. The results were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios by design-expert software for the optimal parameters, and a regression model was established. The regression equation revealed a linear relationship among the density, laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness and scanning strategy. From the experiments, sample with density higher than 95% was obtained. The microstructure of obtained sample was mainly composed of acicular martensite, ? phase and ? phase. The micro-hardness was 492 HV0.2.

Sun, Jianfeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Di

2013-07-01

111

Conducting Repeated Measures Analyses: Experimental Design Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeated measures experimental designs, often referred to as "within-subjects" designs, offer researchers opportunities to study research effects while "controlling" for subjects. These designs offer greater statistical power relative to sample size. However, threats to internal validity such as carryover or practice effects need to be taken into…

Minke, Amy

112

Taguchi Methods in Electronics: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by a...

R. Kissel

1992-01-01

113

Teaching the Taguchi method to industrial engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taguchi method (Tm) is a powerful problem solving technique for improving process performance, yield and productivity. It reduces scrap rates, rework costs and manufacturing costs due to excessive variability in processes. However, its application by industrial engineers in the UK is limited, in part due to the inadequate statistical education of engineers. This paper presents a simple experiment which

Jiju Antony; Frenie Jiju Antony

2001-01-01

114

Design and Experimental Capstone: An Integrated Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on student outcomes across three phases in the development of the BME senior capstone experience. The BME department provides a comprehensive capstone experience to its seniors. All students enroll in a two-course, team-based, device design capstone sequence and a concurrent two-course, team-based, experimental research capstone sequence. The goal of the device design capstone is to advance intellectual property while providing a multidisciplinary design experience. In the first course of the sequence, the teams are presented with a clinical problem and are expected to conceive, design, prototype and evaluate devices with innovative solutions. The course emphasizes information gathering, establishing requirements, concept development, and evaluation. In the second course in the sequence, a verification plan is generated and implemented. The goal of the experimental research capstone sequence is to introduce students to the design and conduct of a pilot study involving human subjects. To this end, students develop a hypothesis, design an experimental protocol to test the hypothesis, conduct an experiment or survey, and use an appropriate statistical analysis of the data. The course also requires students to design an Informed Consent form, adopt high ethical standards for research involving human subjects, and generate a scientific manuscript to report the results. We found that a close integration between experimental methods of testing/data collection was critical in the initial and final stages of design. Those teams that had an integrated design and experimental capstone experience produced better designs than those teams that had separate experiences.

Johnson, Jeffrey; Narmoneva, Daria; Privitera, Mary B.

2011-09-06

115

Experimental design of a waste glass study  

SciTech Connect

A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

1995-04-01

116

Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the val...

S. G. Turyshev M. Shao K. Nordtvedt

2004-01-01

117

Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.  

PubMed

Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites. PMID:22216952

Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

2012-04-01

118

Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.  

PubMed

The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. PMID:22333438

Hibbert, D Brynn

2012-12-01

119

A free lunch in linearized experimental design?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The No Free Lunch (NFL) theorems state that no single optimization algorithm is ideally suited for all objective functions and, conversely, that no single objective function is ideally suited for all optimization algorithms. This paper examines the influence of the NFL theorems on linearized statistical experimental design (SED). We consider four design algorithms with three different design objective functions to examine their interdependency. As a foundation for the study, we consider experimental designs for fitting ellipses to data, a problem pertinent to the study of transverse isotropy in many disciplines. Surprisingly, we find that the quality of optimized experiments, and the computational efficiency of their optimization, is generally independent of the criterion-algorithm pairing. We discuss differences in the performance of each design algorithm, providing a guideline for selecting design algorithms for other problems. As a by-product we demonstrate and discuss the principle of diminishing returns in SED, namely, that the value of experimental design decreases with experiment size. Another outcome of this study is a simple rule-of-thumb for prescribing optimal experiments for ellipse fitting, which bypasses the computational expense of SED. This is used to define a template for optimizing survey designs, under simple assumptions, for Amplitude Variations with Azimuth and Offset (AVAZ) seismics in the specialized problem of fracture characterization, such as is of interest in the petroleum industry. Finally, we discuss the scope of our conclusions for the NFL theorems as they apply to nonlinear and Bayesian SED.

Coles, Darrell; Curtis, Andrew

2011-08-01

120

An experimental design system for the very early design stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of the experimental design system that are discussed are feature modeling and geometrical constraints. The main technique for creating the user environment is Virtual Reality. Feature modeling forms the basis for managing the design data. To start with, data storage is implemented in a Relational Data Base Management System. Along with this a (traditional) interface is developed for

B. de Vries; A. J. Jessurun

1998-01-01

121

More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive emission is becoming a critical threat to today's human health. Many researchers are studying engine designs leading to less fuel consumption. Gearbox selection plays a key role in an engine design. In this study, Taguchi quality engineering method is employed, and optimum gear ratios in a five speed gear box is obtained. A table of various gear ratios is suggested by design of experiment techniques. Fuel consumption is calculated through simulating the corresponding combustion dynamics model. Using a 95 % confidence level, optimal parameter combinations are determined using the Taguchi method. The level of importance of the parameters on the fuel efficiency is resolved using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio as well as analysis of variance.

Goharimanesh, Masoud; Akbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi, Alireza

2014-05-01

122

Choosing an Experimental Design (Engineering Statistics Handbook)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Engineering Statistics Handbook, created by authors Alan Heckert and James Filliben of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, describes in detail the process of choosing an experimental design to obtain the results you need. The basic designs an engineer needs to know about are described in detail. Overall, this is a great resource for anyone interested in either engineering or mathematics.

Filliben, James; Heckert, Alan

2008-12-31

123

Applying the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System to Vehicle Ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is a diagnosis and forecasting method for multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance is a measure based on correlations between the variables and different patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting small, correlated data sets. This

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

124

DATA CLASSIFICATION USING THE MAHALANOBIS—TAGUCHI SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern information technology developed by Dr. Taguchi. This technology is aimed at providing a better prediction for multivariate data through the construction of a multivariate measurement scale. In this study, two sets of data are analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the MTS. Implementation results reveal that the MTS outperforms traditional discriminant analysis methods.

Huei-Chun Wang; Chih-Chou Chiu; Chao-Ton Su

2004-01-01

125

Fault diagnosis for bearing based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for fault diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS), which is applied to practical fault diagnosis for rolling element bearing. Firstly, this method utilizes time\\/frequency domain analysis for feature extraction from the vibration data. Then, a computational scheme based on Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used for fault clustering. In addition, Taguchi methods are employed to reduce

Zhipeng Wang; Zili Wang; Laifa Tao; Jian Ma

2012-01-01

126

Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

127

A free lunch in linearized experimental design?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The No Free Lunch (NFL) theorems state that no single optimization algorithm is ideally suited for all objective functions and, conversely, that no single objective function is ideally suited for all optimization algorithms (Wolpert and Macready, 1997). It is therefore of limited use to report the performance of a particular algorithm with respect to a particular objective function because the results cannot be safely extrapolated to other algorithms or objective functions. We examine the influence of the NFL theorems on linearized statistical experimental design (SED). We are aware of no publication that compares multiple design criteria in combination with multiple design algorithms. We examine four design algorithms in concert with three design objective functions to assess their interdependency. As a foundation for the study, we consider experimental designs for fitting ellipses to data, a problem pertinent, for example, to the study of transverse isotropy in a variety of disciplines. Surprisingly, we find that the quality of optimized experiments, and the computational efficiency of their optimization, is generally independent of the criterion-algorithm pairing. This is promising for linearized SED. While the NFL theorems must generally be true, the criterion-algorithm pairings we investigated are fairly robust to the theorems, indicating that we need not account for independency when choosing design algorithms and criteria from the set examined here. However, particular design algorithms do show patterns of performance, irrespective of the design criterion, and from this we establish a rough guideline for choosing from the examined algorithms for other design problems. As a by-product of our study we demonstrate that SED is subject to the principle of diminishing returns. That is, we see that the value of experimental design decreases with survey size, a fact that must be considered when deciding whether or not to design an experiment at all. Another outcome of our study is a simple rule-of-thumb for prescribing optimal experiments for ellipse fitting that bypasses the computational expense of SED. In closing, we discuss the relevance of our findings for the NFL theorems as they might apply to more sophisticated design methods such as nonlinear and Bayesian SED.

Coles, D.; Curtis, A.

2009-12-01

128

Taguchi Method Applied in Optimization of Shipley SJR 5740 Positive Resist Deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Taguchi Methods of Robust Design presents a way to optimize output process performance through an organized set of experiments by using orthogonal arrays. Analysis of variance and signal-to-noise ratio is used to evaluate the contribution of each of the process controllable parameters in the realization of the process optimization. In the photoresist deposition process, there are numerous controllable parameters that can affect the surface quality and thickness of the final photoresist layer.

Hui, A.; Blosiu, J. O.; Wiberg, D. V.

1998-01-01

129

Multi-objective optimization of flat plate heat sink using Taguchi-based Grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for the multi-objective optimization of the flat plate heat sink using Taguchi design of experiments-based\\u000a Grey relational analysis. The responses studied were electromagnetic emitted radiation, thermal resistance, average heat transfer\\u000a coefficient, pressure drop, and the mass of the flat plate heat sink. The heat sink is modeled using Ansoft High Frequency\\u000a Structure Simulator (HFSS) software

S. Manivannan; S. Prasanna Devi; R. Arumugam; N. M. Sudharsan

2011-01-01

130

Optimization of in-wheel PM motor by fuzzy-based Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel systematic and efficient approach, using the fuzzy-based Taguchi method with multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI), is employed for obtaining the robust design of an in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor with both lower torque ripple factor and higher efficiency. According to the geometric parameters of the PM motor, we select the controllable factors and their levels, such

Zwe-Lee Gaing; Qi-Quan Wang; Jui-An Chiang

2010-01-01

131

Optimization of Welding Parameters on Wear Performance of Cladded Layer with TiC Ceramic via a Taguchi Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin composite TiC coatings in a metal matrix are ideal for components subject to heavy abrasive wear. This study examines the wear behavior of a cladded layer on a carbon steel surface, in which wear resistance was enhanced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The effects of various parameters on cladded layer wear resistance were assessed using Taguchi's parameter design.

De-Xing Peng

2012-01-01

132

Optimization of welding parameters on wear performance of clad layer with TiC ceramic via a Taguchi approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin composite TiC coatings in a metal matrix are ideal for components subject to heavy abrasive wear. This study examines the wear behavior of a cladded layer on a carbon steel surface, in which wear resistance was enhanced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Effects of various parameters on cladded layer wear resistance were assessed by Taguchi parameters design. Microstructure

De-Xing Peng

2011-01-01

133

Bioinformatics and Experimental Design for Biomarker Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteomics is supremely well suited to the discovery of biomarkers in human body fluids. However, the diversity of the human\\u000a population and the multistep nature of most proteomic techniques require great care to be taken in experimental design and\\u000a data analysis. This chapter out-lines strategies for biomarker discovery, using 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or other\\u000a proteomic technologies, and explores issues

Marc R. Wilkins; Sybille M. N. Hunt

134

Optimization of Tribological Properties in Aluminum Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Using Gray-Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigates the optimization of dry sliding performances on the aluminum hybrid metal matrix composites using gray relational analysis in the Taguchi method. Different loads, sliding speeds and varying percentage of molybdenum disulfide are selected as control factors. The multiple responses to evaluate the dry sliding performances are specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. Using a pin-on-disk apparatus, the volume loss and frictional force are measured. Based on gray relational analysis, the optimum level parameters for specific wear rate and coefficient of friction have been identified. An L27 orthogonal array was employed for the experimental design. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) had given the impact of individual factors and interactions on the specific wear rate as well as the coefficient of friction. The results indicated that the three test parameters had a significant role in controlling the friction and wear behavior of composites. Interaction of the control factors showed the sizable influence on tribological performance. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) the wear surface morphology and wear mechanism of the composites have been investigated.

Dharmalingam, S.; Subramanian, R.; Somasundara Vinoth, K.; Anandavel, B.

2011-11-01

135

Inulinase production by Geotrichum candidum OC-7 using migratory locusts as a new substrate and optimization process with Taguchi DOE.  

PubMed

Utilization of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria) as a main substrate due to its high protein content for inulinase (2,1-?-d-fructan fructanohydrolase) production by Geotrichum candidum OC-7 was investigated in this study. To optimize fermentation conditions, four influential factors (locust powder (LP) concentration, sucrose concentration, pH and fermentation time) at three levels were investigated using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). Inulinase yield obtained from the designed experiments with regard to Taguchi L9 OA was processed with Minitab 15 software at 'larger is better' as quality character. The results showed that optimal fermentation conditions determined as LP 30 g/l, sucrose 20 g/l, pH 6.0 and time 48 h. Maximum inulinase activity was recorded as 30.12 U/ml, which was closer to the predicted value (30.56 U/ml). To verify the results, analysis of variance test was employed. LP had the greatest contribution (71.96%) among the other factors. Sucrose had lower contribution (13.96%) than LP. This result demonstrated that LP had a strong effect on inulinase activity and can be used for enzyme production. Taguchi DOE application enhanced enzyme activity to about 3.05-fold versus unoptimized condition and 2.34-fold versus control medium. Consequently, higher inulinase production can be achieved by the utilization of an edible insect material as an alternative substrate and Taguchi DOE presents suitable optimization method for biotechnological process. PMID:22495518

Canli, Ozden; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Taskin, Mesut

2013-09-01

136

A Comparative Study on Taguchi’s SN Ratio, Minimising MSD and Variance for Nominal-the-Best Characteristic Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi uses a coefficient of variation for the nominal-the-best characteristic to define its signal-to-noise (SN) ratio.\\u000a Optimisation can be accomplished in two steps: first by maximising the SN ratio; the mean is then adjusted to the target.\\u000a In addition to Taguchi’s traditional SN ratio (?  \\u000a 1\\u000a ), we can minimise the mean square deviation (MSD), (?\\u000a 2\\u000a ), and variance

F.-C. Wu; C.-C. Chyu

2002-01-01

137

Optimization of Welding Parameters of Submerged Arc Welding Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Based on Taguchi Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports a new procedure using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based Taguchi method for the selection of the best welding parameters to fabricate submerged arc welding of plain carbon steel. Selection of best welding parameters is an unstructured decision problem involving process parameters for multiple weldments. In the present investigation, three process parameter variables i.e. wire feed rate (Wf), stick out (So) and traverse speed (Ts) and the three response parameters i.e. penetration, bead width and bead reinforcement have been considered. The objective of the present work is thus to improve the quality of the welded elements by using AHP analysis based Taguchi method. Taguchi L16 orthogonal array is used to perform with less number of experimental runs. Taguchi approach is insufficient to solve a multi response optimization problem. In order to overcome this limitation, a multi criteria decision making method, AHP is applied in the present study. The optimal condition to have a quality weld (i.e. bead geometry) is found at 210 mm/min of wire feed rate, 15 mm of stick out and 0.75 m/min of traverse speed and also observed that the effect of wire feed rate on the overall bead geometry properties is more significant than other welding parameters. Finally, a confirmatory test has been carried out to verify the optimal setting so obtained.

Sarkar, A.; Roy, J.; Majumder, A.; Saha, S. C.

2014-04-01

138

An optimization of superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride/zinc oxide materials using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on the preparation and characterization of PVDF/ZnO composite materials. The superhydrophobic surface was prepared through spray coating of a mixture of PVDF polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on aluminum substrate. Stearic acid was added to improve the dispersion of ZnO. Taguchi's design of experiment method using MINITAB15 was used to rank several factors that may affect the superhydrophobic properties in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 was applied with three level of consideration for each factor. ANOVA were carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the water contact angle. Confirmation tests were performed on the predicted optimum process parameters. The crystallinity and morphology of PVDF-ZnO membranes were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of Taguchi method indicate that the ZnO and stearic acid contents were the parameters making significant contribution toward improvement in hydrophobicity of PVDF materials. As the content of ZnO nanoparticles increased, the values of water contact angle increased, ranging from 122° to 159°, while the contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle decreased to 3.5° and 2.5°, respectively. The SEM results show that hierarchical micro-nanostructure of ZnO plays an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface. FTIR results showed that, in the absence or present ZnO nanoparticles, the crystallization of the PVDF occurred predominantly in the ?-phase.

Mohamed, Adel M. A.; Jafari, Reza; Farzaneh, Masoud

2014-01-01

139

Optimal experimental design and some related control problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the strong relations between experimental design and control, such as the use of optimal inputs to obtain precise parameter estimation in dynamical systems and the introduction of suitably designed perturbations in adaptive control. The mathematical background of optimal experimental design is briefly presented, and the role of experimental design in the asymptotic properties of estimators is emphasized.

Luc Pronzato

2008-01-01

140

Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

2004-01-01

141

Design and Experimental Applications of Acoustic Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic metamaterials are engineered materials that were extensively investigated over the last years mainly because they promise properties otherwise hard or impossible to find in nature. Consequently, they open the door for improved or completely new applications (e.g. acoustic superlens that can exceed the diffraction limit in imaging or acoustic absorbing panels with higher transmission loss and smaller thickness than regular absorbers). Our objective is to surpass the limited frequency operating range imposed by the resonant mechanism that s1ome of these materials have. In addition, we want acoustic metamaterials that could be experimentally demonstrated and used to build devices with overall performances better than the previous ones reported in the literature. Here, we start by focusing on the need of engineered metamaterials in general and acoustic metamaterials in particular. Also, the similarities between electromagnetic metamaterials and acoustic metamaterials and possible ways to realize broadband acoustic metamaterials are briefly discussed. Then, we present the experimental realization and characterization of a two-dimensional (2D) broadband acoustic metamaterial with strongly anisotropic effective mass density. We use this metamaterial to realize a 2D broadband gradient index acoustic lens in air. Furthermore, we optimize the lens design by improving each unit cell's performance and we also realize a 2D acoustic ground cloak in air. In addition, we explore the performance of some novel applications (a 2D acoustic black hole and a three-dimensional acoustic cloak) using the currently available acoustic metamaterials. In order to overcome the limitations of our designs, we approach the active acoustic metamaterials path, which offers a broader range for the material parameters values and a better control over them. We propose two structures which contain a sensing element (microphone) and an acoustic driver (piezoelectric membrane or speaker). The material properties are controlled by tuning the response of the unit cell to the incident wave. Several samples with interesting effective mass density and bulk modulus are presented. We conclude by suggesting few natural directions that could be followed for the future research based on the theoretical and experimental results presented in this work.

Zigoneanu, Lucian

142

Laboratory Experimental Design of Molecular Cloud Implosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of ionizing radiation with its surrounding medium is a ubiquitous issue in astrophysics. Although the interaction can occur in many environments, the interaction of an ionization front with a molecular cloud is of particular interest. Material ablated form the cloud can form turbulent structure [Peters et al, 2008] and coupled with the radiatively-driven implosion of the cloud can have important consequences in stellar formation. Our understanding of stellar formation is based on computer simulations and models. To improve our understanding of these models, data is required. We present the design of an experiment to study the interaction of an ionization front with a high density sphere, which acts as a surrogate for the molecular cloud. Irradiating a high-Z foil with laser beams generates the ionization front. The ionization front will propagate in a low density medium before interacting with the sphere. We will present our experimental design along with initial simulations. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548.

Keiter, Paul; Stone, James; Trantham, Matt; Malamud, Guy; Klein, Sallee

2012-10-01

143

A Primer on Experimental and Quasi-experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychology is a relatively new field that is gaining autonomy and respect. Unfortunately, research efforts in the field may lack an appropriate research design. This paper considers some of the more common types of research design and the associated threats to their validity. An example of each design type is drawn from the counseling…

Dawson, Thomas E.

144

Robust design of nonlinear dynamic problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi's robust design is a popular methodology utilized within many different industries in order to improve product quality and process performance at low cost. The robust design of dynamic system is used to find the optimal control factor settings so that the measured response is closest to the ideal function. Although Taguchi's robust design was effective in improving performance of

Ful-Chiang Wu; Bing-Chang Ouyang; Cheng-Hsiung Chen; Chi-Hao Yeh

2010-01-01

145

[Design and experimentation of marine optical buoy].  

PubMed

Marine optical buoy is of important value in terms of calibration and validation of ocean color remote sensing, scientific observation, coastal environment monitoring, etc. A marine optical buoy system was designed which consists of a main and a slave buoy. The system can measure the distribution of irradiance and radiance over the sea surface, in the layer near sea surface and in the euphotic zone synchronously, during which some other parameters are also acquired such as spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the water column, the velocity and direction of the wind, and so on. The buoy was positioned by GPS. The low-power integrated PC104 computer was used as the control core to collect data automatically. The data and commands were real-timely transmitted by CDMA/GPRS wireless networks or by the maritime satellite. The coastal marine experimentation demonstrated that the buoy has small pitch and roll rates in high sea state conditions and thus can meet the needs of underwater radiometric measurements, the data collection and remote transmission are reliable, and the auto-operated anti-biofouling devices can ensure that the optical sensors work effectively for a period of several months. PMID:19445253

Yang, Yue-Zhong; Sun, Zhao-Hua; Cao, Wen-Xi; Li, Cai; Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Wen; Lu, Gui-Xin; Ke, Tian-Cun; Guo, Chao-Ying

2009-02-01

146

Optimization of Processing Parameters During Laser Cladding of ZE41AT5 Magnesium Alloy Castings Using Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous wave 4 kW Nd:YAG laser welding system was employed to clad single beads on machined 6.2-mm thick ZE41A-T5 aerospace magnesium alloy sand castings using nominal 1.6-mm filler rods of the parent metal. Based on the quality criterion of minimum dilution ratio, the Taguchi experimental method was used to optimize different process parameters and to identify the dominating factors. It

X. Cao; M. Xiao; M. Jahazi; J. Fournier; M. Alain

2008-01-01

147

Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same goal in an automated fashion.

Malakar, Nabin Kumar

148

PAVAD B Design and Experimental Results Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application and experimental results are presented for the Passive and Advanced Vibro-Acoustic Treatments Demonstration, Part B (PAVAD-B) conducted at the Laboratory for Structural Acoustics, Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) during the winter and sprin...

C. Herdic B. H. Houston R. D. Corsaro

2006-01-01

149

Taguchi approach for anti-heat stress prescription compatibility in mice spleen lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) may induce immunosuppression as well as inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. This study evaluated the effects on immune function of our prescription on splenic lymphocytes under HS as well as its compatibility. The effects of four herbal extracts from Agastache rugosa, Atractylodes lancea, Cortex Phellodendri, and Gypsum Fibrosum on heat treated splenic lymphocytes were investigated and the compatibility of the prescription was also explored by using the Taguchi method. This study revealed changes in proliferation by traditional Chinese medicines of splenic lymphocytes after HS. Proliferation in the HS group was significantly lower than the control group. Under HS, the effects of higher concentrations of Agastache rugosa (100 and 200 ?g/mL), Atractylodes lancea (100 and 200 ?g/mL), Cortex Phellodendri (50 and 100 ?g/mL) and Gypsum Fibrosum (100 and 200 ?g/mL) caused a significant increase on ConA/LPS-induced proliferation of lymphocytes than lower concentrations. We, therefore, conclude that the prescription of traditional Chinese medicines may recover splenic lymphocytes from the immunosuppression induced by HS. The Taguchi design, which allows rapid and high efficiency for the selection of the best conditions for our prescription on HS-treated splenic lymphocytes, demonstrated that Agastache rugosa (200 ?g/mL), Atractylodes lancea (200 ?g/mL), Cortex Phellodendri (100 ?g/mL) and Gypsum Fibrosum (100 ?g/mL) were the optimal conditions for the prescription. The validation experiment confirmed that our composition in optimum extraction conditions enhanced effects on ConA or LPS-stimulated lymphocytes under HS. The results showed that the Taguchi optimization approach is a suitable method for optimization of the composition of prescription. PMID:21811919

Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Cheng, Gui-Lin; Liu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Jin; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yu, Tong-Quan; Xu, Jian-Qin; Wang, Ming

2011-07-01

150

EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.  

SciTech Connect

Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

2000-11-06

151

[Treatment of bedsores--combination of therapies depended the experimental design method].  

PubMed

The treatment of bedsores is a particular problem in geriatric medicine. We selected standard drugs that may be effective for the decubitus ulcer, and investigated combination therapy to develop efficient treatment The subjects were 16 patients in whom the grade of the bedsore was evaluated as II to IV according to the Shea's depth classification. Treatment was performed while all patients were on air mats. We selected drugs and treatment methods based on the previously established experimental design of Taguchi. Based on this, we created and adapted 16 different component combination treatment programs in accordance with the L16 rectangular cross table. The following component factors were adopted: A: types of covering substances on the wound surface (Elase ointment, isodine sugar, isodine gel solcoseryl ointment); B: Isalopan powder; C: Spray of 10 ml physiological saline containing 500 microg of prostaglandin (concentration 0.005%); D: daily number of treatments; and F: presence or absence of tapping. We serially measured the wound surface area as an index of the speed of wound healing, and measured the interval (day) until the area decreased to one half of the original size (T1/2, half life). We analyzed data on one combination treatment each in 16 patients. Analysis of variance of the above factors showed significant F values for factors A, B, D and F. The contribution rates for factors A, B, D and F were 37.84%, 8.47%, 14.98% and 13.81%, respectively. The error term (e) was 16.37%. Optimal results were seen in the groups in which solcoseryl ointment had been applied twice a day. In this study, prostaglandin, which had been anticipated to be effective, did not show any effects. The error term (e) suggests the presence of other healing factors including individual differences. Concerning this point, it well be necessary to examine a larger number of patients in the future. With ointment treatment alone, without using an air mat, it was confirmed that bedsore area reduction was extremely unstable. Decompression of the affected part may be a basic prevention factor and essential treatment of bedsores. PMID:15732367

Miyaji, Hiroko; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Kikawada, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Kimura, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Imada, Nobuo; Imai, Mihoko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

2005-01-01

152

Enhancement of process capability for strip force of tight sets of optical fiber using Taguchi's Quality Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip force is the key to identifying the quality of product during manufacturing tight sets of fiber. This study used Integrated computer-aided manufacturing DEFinition 0 (IDEF0) modeling to discuss detailed cladding processes of tight sets of fiber in transnational optical connector manufacturing. The results showed that, the key factor causing an instable interface connection is the extruder adjustment process. The factors causing improper strip force were analyzed through literature, practice, and gray relational analysis. The parameters design method of Taguchi's Quality Engineering was used to determine the optimal experimental combinations for processes of tight sets of fiber. This study employed case empirical analysis to obtain a model for improving the process of strip force of tight sets of fiber, and determines the correlation factors that affect the processes of quality for tight sets of fiber. The findings indicated that, process capability index (CPK) increased significantly, which can facilitate improvement of the product process capability and quality. The empirical results can serve as a reference for improving the product quality of the optical fiber industry.

Lin, Wen-Tsann; Wang, Shen-Tsu; Li, Meng-Hua; Huang, Chiao-Tzu

2012-03-01

153

The Implications of "Contamination" for Experimental Design in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to…

Rhoads, Christopher H.

2011-01-01

154

Mahalanobis Taguchi System based criteria selection for shrimp aquaculture development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture development suitable location is not formulated from one criterion but from multiple criteria. A list of criteria was selected by reviewing the literature and consultation with aquaculture experts and then classified into five categories namely; water, soil, support, infrastructure and risk factor. Using these criteria a Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based tool was developed to facilitate the selection of

P. Mahalakshmi; K. Ganesan

2009-01-01

155

Structural Health Monitoring Using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to monitor the structural health condition in the case of damage samples shortage, a new approach is proposed by only using the healthy samples of vibration signals. By taking root mean square (RMS), variance, kurtosis and crest factor as characteristic parameters, an identification model for structural health condition monitoring is built by using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). It is

Wang Jin; Duan Chendong

2009-01-01

156

Applying the Mahalanobis - Taguchi System to Vehicle Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) is a diagnosis and forecasting method using multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance (MD) is a measure based on correlations between the variables and patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The MTS is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting using small, correlated data sets. This is

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

2006-01-01

157

Taguchi Approach to Quality Control and Enhancement: A Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quiet revolution in the field of quality control and enhancement has been in progress in Japan for some 25 years, and has recently come ashore to the US. It has been identified with the name of G. Taguchi, an engineer cum statistician, who advocated a r...

S. E. Elmaghraby Y. Fathi W. G. Ferell

1986-01-01

158

Experimental design for equipment qualification and matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process qualifications are required as new equipment is added to a fab to ensure good product quality. For Ion Implanters, dose-matching of machines is a necessary first step in this procedure. Split-lot qualifications are also commonly run prior to releasing a new machine to production. The design of these experiments is crucial to efficient qualification. The use of a fractional

N. Tripsas; R. Johnson

1996-01-01

159

Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Lárraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramírez, V.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Paz, C.; Celis, M. A.

2010-12-01

160

Improving the fine-pitch stencil printing capability using the Taguchi method and Taguchi fuzzy-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents industrial applications for improving the capability of the fine-pitch stencil printing process (SPP) based on the DMAIC framework and using Taguchi-based methodologies. SPP is widely recognized as the main contributor of soldering defects in a surface mount assembly (SMA). An inadequate volume of solder paste deposition or poor printing quality can cause soldering defects and lead to

Tsung-Nan Tsai

2011-01-01

161

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

162

Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part I: theory.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the main concepts of experimental design applicable to the optimization of analytical chemistry techniques. The critical steps and tools for screening, including Plackett-Burman, factorial and fractional factorial designs, and response surface methodology such as central composite, Box-Behnken, and Doehlert designs, are discussed. Some useful routines are also presented for performing the procedures. PMID:24672854

Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

2014-01-01

163

Tool wear monitoring in bandsawing using neural networks and Taguchi’s design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bandsawing as a multi-point cutting operation is the preferred method for cutting off raw materials in industry. Although\\u000a cutting off with bandsaw is very old process, research efforts are very limited compared to the other cutting process. Appropriate\\u000a online tool condition monitoring system is essential for sophisticated and automated machine tools to achieve better tool\\u000a management. Tool wear monitoring

Haci Saglam

2011-01-01

164

A Framework for Efficient Process Development Using Optimal Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a framework assuring efficient process development using fewer experiments\\u000a than standard experimental designs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A novel optimality criterion for experimental designs (Iw criterion) is defined that leads to more efficient process development\\u000a because: (a) prior knowledge is used in the experimental design to focus on optimal processing conditions and (b) a

Peter van de Ven; Sabina Bijlsma; Erik Gout; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk; Uwe Thissen

2011-01-01

165

Bayesian optimal experimental design for the Shock-tube experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequential optimal experimental design formulated as an information-theoretic sensitivity analysis is applied to the ignition delay problem using real experimental. The optimal design is obtained by maximizing the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables, which is quantified in this study using mutual information. This is naturally posed in the Bayesian framework. The study shows that by monitoring the information gain after each measurement update, one can design a stopping criteria for the experimental process which gives a minimal set of experiments to efficiently learn the Arrhenius parameters.

Terejanu, G.; Bryant, C. M.; Miki, K.

2013-02-01

166

Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

2014-05-01

167

Parameter optimization of laser transformation hardening by using Taguchi method and utility concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of Taguchi method and the utility concept for optimizing the laser process parameters\\u000a in laser transformation hardening of commercially pure titanium using a continuous-wave 2-kW, Nd:YAG laser. In this study,\\u000a a set of optimal laser process parameters were evaluated through the Taguchi method of orthogonal arrays and utility concept.\\u000a Taguchi method and utility concept, a

Duradundi Sawant Badkar; Krishna Shankar Pandey; G. Buvanashekaran

2011-01-01

168

Optimal experimental design based on global sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting values considered for the model parameters strongly affect standard techniques for experimental design. When these values are far from the optimal ones, poor quality experiments are achieved or several steps are required resulting in a large experimental burden. Here, a novel criterion based on global sensitivity analysis, and therefore independent of the parameters values, is presented. In order

Maria Rodriguez-Fernandez; Sergei Kucherenko; Costas Pantelides; Nilay Shah

2007-01-01

169

Fabrication optimisation of carbon fiber electrode with Taguchi method.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe an optimised procedure for fabricating carbon fiber electrodes using Taguchi quality engineering method (TQEM). The preliminary results show a S/N ratio improvement from 22 to 30 db (decibel). The optimised parameter was tested by using a glass micropipette (0.3 mm outer/2.5 mm inner length of carbon fiber) dipped into PBS solution under 2.9 V triangle-wave electrochemical processing for 15 s, followed by coating treatment of micropipette on 2.6 V DC for 45 s in 5% Nafion solution. It is thus shown that Taguchi process optimisation can improve cost, manufacture time and quality of carbon fiber electrodes. PMID:12713907

Cheng, Ching-Ching; Young, Ming-Shing; Chuang, Chang-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chang

2003-07-01

170

Experimental design for drug development: a bayesian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bayesian approach to inference and decision making provides an integrated way of addressing the various aspects of drug development, from the early preclinical study of compounds through the clinical and postmarketing phases. In particular, it provides a natural, convenient way for choosing among experimental designs. An essential aspect of the process of evaluating design strategies is the ability to

Donald A. Berry

1991-01-01

171

Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

2014-01-01

172

Fabrication optimisation of carbon fiber electrode with Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe an optimised procedure for fabricating carbon fiber electrodes using Taguchi quality engineering method (TQEM). The preliminary results show a S\\/N ratio improvement from 22 to 30 db (decibel). The optimised parameter was tested by using a glass micropipette (0.3 mm outer\\/2.5 mm inner length of carbon fiber) dipped into PBS solution under 2.9 V triangle-wave

Ching-Ching Cheng; Ming-Shing Young; Chang-Lin Chuang; Ching-Chang Chang

2003-01-01

173

Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

2002-07-01

174

A comparison of theoretical and experimental video compression designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper compares theoretical and experimental picture compression designs, for images processed in 8 x 8 blocks using the Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT). The optimum picture compression design is well known, if the mean-square error (mse) is used as the measure of distortion, and if it is assumed that the video process is a stationary first-order Markov process with a Gaussian distribution. This theoretical design gives useful results when the transform processing is done on full pictures, but gives inferior results (relative to empirical design) when transform processing is done on small 8 x 8 blocks. The use of non-Gaussian distributions for the transform components fails to improve this poor performance, which is due to the nonstationary nature of the video process. An experimentally based design procedure, which considers nonstationarity, yields significantly improved mse and subjective performance.

Jones, H. W., Jr.

1979-01-01

175

Multi-response optimization of diesel engine performance parameters using thumba biodiesel-diesel blends by applying the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study that involves an application of the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis\\u000a to determine the optimum factor level to obtain optimum multiple-performance characteristics of a diesel engine run with different\\u000a low-percentage thumba biodiesel-diesel blends. Four factors, namely, low-percentage thumba biodiesel-diesel blend, compression\\u000a ratio, nozzle opening pressure and injection timing were each considered at three

A. Karnwal; M. M. Hasan; N. Kumar; A. N. Siddiquee; Z. A. Khan

2011-01-01

176

Analysis of spinal lumbar interbody fusion cage subsidence using Taguchi method, finite element analysis, and artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence, when implant penetration induces failure of the vertebral body, occurs commonly after spinal reconstruction. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages may subside into the vertebral body and lead to kyphotic deformity. No previous studies have utilized an artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a spinal interbody fusion cage. In this study, the neural network was applied after initiation from a Taguchi L 18 orthogonal design array. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to address the resistance to subsidence based on the design changes of the material and cage contact region, including design of the ridges and size of the graft area. The calculated subsidence is derived from the ANN objective function which is defined as the resulting maximum von Mises stress (VMS) on the surface of a simulated bone body after axial compressive loading. The ANN was found to have minimized the bone surface VMS, thereby optimizing the ALIF cage given the design space. Therefore, the Taguchi-FEA-ANN approach can serve as an effective procedure for designing a spinal fusion cage and improving the biomechanical properties.

Nassau, Christopher John; Litofsky, N. Scott; Lin, Yuyi

2012-09-01

177

Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

2012-01-01

178

An Evaluation of Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Neural Network for Multivariate Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is a diagnosis and predictive method for analyzing patterns in multivariate cases. The goal of this study is to compare the ability of the Mahalanobis- Taguchi System and a neural-network to discriminate using small data sets. We examine the discriminant ability as a function of data set size using an application area where reliable data is publicly

Elizabeth A. Cudney; Jungeui Hong; Rajesh Jugulum; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell; Genichi Taguchi

179

A comparison of controller designs for an experimental flexible structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control systems design and hardware testing are addressed for an experimental structure that displays the characteristics of a typical flexible spacecraft. The results of designing and implementing various control design methodologies are described. The design methodologies under investigation include linear quadratic Gaussian control, static and dynamic dissipative controls, and H-infinity optimal control. Among the three controllers considered, it is shown, through computer simulation and laboratory experiments on the evolutionary structure, that the dynamic dissipative controller gave the best results in terms of vibration suppression and robustness with respect to modeling errors.

Lim, K. B.; Maghami, P. G.; Joshi, S. M.

1991-01-01

180

Optimization of laser cladding process using taguchi and EM methods for MMC coating production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the influence of laser cladding parameters on the geometry and composition of metalmatrix composite (MMC) coatings. Composite coatings are made of a Ni-Cr-B-Si metallic matrix and of WC reinforcement with a volume fraction of 50%. Optical microscopy is used to characterize the coating geometry (height, width, and penetration depth) and to determine the real volumetric content of WC. Laser cladding on low-carbon steel substrate is carried out using a cw neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a coaxial powder injection system, and a combination of Taguchi and EM methods to design the experiments. This combination explores efficiently the multidimensional volume of laser cladding parameters. The results, which express the interrelationship between laser cladding parameters and the characteristics of the clad produced, can be used to find optimum laser parameters, to predict the responses, and to improve the understanding of laser cladding process.

Dubourg, L.; St-Georges, L.

2006-12-01

181

Simultaneous optimal experimental design on dose and sample times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal experimental design can be used for optimizing new pharmacokinetic (PK)–pharmacodynamic (PD) studies to increase the\\u000a parameter precision. Several methods for optimizing non-linear mixed effect models has been proposed previously but the impact\\u000a of optimizing other continuous design parameters, e.g. the dose, has not been investigated to a large extent. Moreover, the\\u000a optimization method (sequential or simultaneous) for optimizing several

Joakim Nyberg; Mats O. Karlsson; Andrew C. Hooker

2009-01-01

182

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

183

Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

Dong, Nianbo

2011-01-01

184

Design and Development of KIT Student's Experimental Rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small experimental rockets have been developed by a student group of Kyushu Institute of Technology for the rocket launch campaign held at La Courtine military camp in France since 2006, which is conducted by French Planète Sciences and controlled by CNES (Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales). This paper introduces the newest design of rocket. The main mission is recovery guidance to

Shigeru Kaji; Yusuke Oshikata; Tomoki Akiyama; Yoshikazu Harada; Daisuke Sugihara; Tomoaki Shimozawa; Shinichi Sagar; Koichi Yonemoto

185

Model Selection in Systems Biology Depends on Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis.

Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D. W.; Barnes, Chris P.; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

2014-01-01

186

Long-pulse laser design and experimental work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long pulse laser starts to have a prominent role in many applications. So, How to design and calculate the parameters of the high power long-pulse solid-state laser is illustrated, experimentally and arithmetically. How to design a pumping chamber is illustrated, with a double-ellipse cavity. Optical resonator losses are got experimentally in details. Efficiency factor and system slope efficiency are calculated experimentally. Illustration for how to get the optimum mirror reflectivity is mentioned. Beam waist and beam divergence also studied experimentally. The designed system has 10J output energy with pulse width 20msec for efficiency factor 1.1% and a combined loss 0.181 inside resonator. Average system efficiency, gain coefficient and fluorescence power for four different output mirror reflectivity are 0.328%, 0.00994cm-1 and 144.92W respectively. 6KW/cm2 power density inside resonator is obtained which corresponds to 585W maximum output power. An optimum mirror reflectivity 57% is for 208.2KW input power. The beam waist and beam divergence are recorded to be 0.66cm and 8.86mrad. Calculations show that, 11.7J output energy can be obtained by more optimization based on the designed system.

Helal, Osama; Yong, Tan; Yunfeng, Ding; Cai, HongXing

2013-09-01

187

A proposal to support the design of experimental learning activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of designing computer environments to support collaborative scientific experimental learning from the authoring perspective. We aim at a range of learning tasks involving speculative and practical activities in the real world, so we need rich problem workspaces, as well as articulation mechanisms between the problem space and the communication space to refer to the actions

M. F. Verdejo; B. Barros; M. Rodríguez-Artacho

188

Bands to Books: Connecting Literature to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an interdisciplinary unit of study on the inquiry process and experimental design that seamlessly integrates math, science, and reading using a rubber band cannon. This unit was conducted over an eight-day period in two sixth-grade classes (one math and one science with each class consisting of approximately 27 students and…

Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara Delano

2004-01-01

189

Some key things industrial engineers should know about experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are fundamental to enhancing understanding of the complex industrial processes which we deal with every day. Experimental Design (ED) is a very powerful tool that assists engineers and scientist to discover a set of variables which are most important for a process and thereby provide a great insight into the way a process or system works. It is superior

Jiju Antony

1998-01-01

190

Measuring the VC-dimension using optimized experimental design.  

PubMed

VC-dimension is the measure of model complexity (capacity) used in VC-theory. The knowledge of the VC-dimension of an estimator is necessary for rigorous complexity control using analytic VC generalization bounds. Unfortunately, it is not possible to obtain the analytic estimates of the VC-dimension in most cases. Hence, a recent proposal is to measure the VC-dimension of an estimator experimentally by fitting the theoretical formula to a set of experimental measurements of the frequency of errors on artificially generated data sets of varying sizes (Vapnik, Levin, & Le Cun, 1994). However, it may be difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of the VC-dimension due to the variability of random samples in the experimental procedure proposed by Vapnik et al. (1994). We address this problem by proposing an improved design procedure for specifying the measurement points (i.e., the sample size and the number of repeated experiments at a given sample size). Our approach leads to a nonuniform design structure as opposed to the uniform design structure used in the original article (Vapnik et al., 1994). Our simulation results show that the proposed optimized design structure leads to a more accurate estimation of the VC-dimension using the experimental procedure. The results also show that a more accurate estimation of VC-dimension leads to improved complexity control using analytic VC-generalization bounds and, hence, better prediction accuracy. PMID:10953247

Shao, X; Cherkassky, V; Li, W

2000-08-01

191

Convergence in parameters and predictions using computational experimental design  

PubMed Central

Typically, biological models fitted to experimental data suffer from significant parameter uncertainty, which can lead to inaccurate or uncertain predictions. One school of thought holds that accurate estimation of the true parameters of a biological system is inherently problematic. Recent work, however, suggests that optimal experimental design techniques can select sets of experiments whose members probe complementary aspects of a biochemical network that together can account for its full behaviour. Here, we implemented an experimental design approach for selecting sets of experiments that constrain parameter uncertainty. We demonstrated with a model of the epidermal growth factor–nerve growth factor pathway that, after synthetically performing a handful of optimal experiments, the uncertainty in all 48 parameters converged below 10 per cent. Furthermore, the fitted parameters converged to their true values with a small error consistent with the residual uncertainty. When untested experimental conditions were simulated with the fitted models, the predicted species concentrations converged to their true values with errors that were consistent with the residual uncertainty. This paper suggests that accurate parameter estimation is achievable with complementary experiments specifically designed for the task, and that the resulting parametrized models are capable of accurate predictions.

Hagen, David R.; White, Jacob K.; Tidor, Bruce

2013-01-01

192

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

2013-04-01

193

Simulation Reduction Using the Taguchi Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing cost...

F. Mistree U. Lautenschlager S. O. Erikstad J. K. Allen

1993-01-01

194

Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)] [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

195

Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

196

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reactor building design study  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs.

Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON (Canada))

1989-01-01

197

Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

Rinehart, Stephen

2011-01-01

198

Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

1993-01-01

199

Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

1992-01-01

200

Optimization of a total internal reflection lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new method for optimization of a total internal reflection (TIR) lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm. The conventional simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a method for solving global optimization problems and has also been used in non-imaging systems in recent years. However, the success of SA depends heavily on the annealing schedule and initial parameter setting. In this study, we successfully incorporated the Taguchi method into the SA algorithm. The new hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm provides more precise search results and has lower initial parameter dependence.

Chao, Shih-Min; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chou, Chun-Han; Su, Wei-Shao; Hsieh, Tsung-Heng

2014-03-01

201

Experimental designs for a Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo model  

PubMed Central

Background The pathology of the Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is detected by a clinician through maneuvers consisting of a series of consecutive head turns that trigger the symptoms of vertigo in patient. A statistical model based on a new maneuver has been developed in order to calculate the volume of endolymph displaced after the maneuver. Methods A simplification of the Navier?Stokes problem from the fluids theory has been used to construct the model. In addition, the same cubic splines that are commonly used in kinematic control of robots were used to obtain an appropriate description of the different maneuvers. Then experimental designs were computed to obtain an optimal estimate of the model. Results D?optimal and c?optimal designs of experiments have been calculated. These experiments consist of a series of specific head turns of duration ?t and angle ? that should be performed by the clinician on the patient. The experimental designs obtained indicate the duration and angle of the maneuver to be performed as well as the corresponding proportion of replicates. Thus, in the D?optimal design for 100 experiments, the maneuver consisting of a positive 30° pitch from the upright position, followed by a positive 30° roll, both with a duration of one and a half seconds is repeated 47 times. Then the maneuver with 60° /6° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 16 times and the maneuver 90° /90° pitch/roll during half a second is repeated 37 times. Other designs with significant differences are computed and compared. Conclusions A biomechanical model was derived to provide a quantitative basis for the detection of BPPV. The robustness study for the D?optimal design, with respect to the choice of the nominal values of the parameters, shows high efficiencies for small variations and provides a guide to the researcher. Furthermore, c?optimal designs give valuable assistance to check how efficient the D?optimal design is for the estimation of each of the parameters. The experimental designs provided in this paper allow the physician to validate the model. The authors of the paper have held consultations with an ENT consultant in order to align the outline more closely to practical scenarios.

2013-01-01

202

Preliminary structural design of a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobrake concept for a Lunar transfer vehicle was weight optimized through the use of the Taguchi design method, structural finite element analyses and structural sizing routines. Six design parameters were chosen to represent the aerobrake structural configuration. The design parameters included honeycomb core thickness, diameter to depth ratio, shape, material, number of concentric ring frames, and number of radial frames. Each parameter was assigned three levels. The minimum weight aerobrake configuration resulting from the study was approx. half the weight of the average of all twenty seven experimental configurations. The parameters having the most significant impact on the aerobrake structural weight were identified.

Bush, Lance B.

1992-01-01

203

Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

2014-04-01

204

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

2003-02-25

205

Nonaxisymmetric turbine end wall design: Part II -- Experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

The Durham Linear Cascade has been redesigned with the nonaxisymmetric profiled end wall described in the first part of this paper, with the aim of reducing the effects of secondary flow. The design intent was to reduce the passage vortex strength and to produce a more uniform exit flow angle profile in the radial direction with less overturning at the wall. The new end wall has been tested in the linear cascade and a comprehensive set of measurements taken. These include traverses of the flow field at a number of axial planes and surface static pressure distributions on the end wall. Detailed comparisons have been made with the CFD design predictions, and also for the results with a planar end wall. In this way an improved understanding of the effects of end wall profiling has been obtained. The experimental results generally agree with the design predictions, showing a reduction in the strength of the secondary flow at the exit and a more uniform flow angle profile. In a turbine stage these effects would be expected to improve the performance of any downstream blade row. There is also a reduction in the overall loss, which was not given by the CFD design predictions. Areas where there are discrepancies between the CFD calculations and measurement are likely to be due to the turbulence model used. Conclusions for how the three-dimensional linear design system should be used to define end wall geometries for improved turbine performance are presented.

Hartland, J.C.; Gregory-Smith, D.G.; Harvey, N.W.; Rose, M.G.

2000-04-01

206

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2012-10-01

207

Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

208

Optimization of FS Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Behavior of AA2024-T351 Joints Based on Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the design of an experiment technique, the Taguchi method, has been used to optimize the friction stir welding (FSW) parameters for improving mechanical behavior of AA2024-T351 joints. The parameters considered were vertical downward forging force, tool travel speed, and probe length. An orthogonal array of L9 (34) was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting tensile strength (Global Efficiency to Tensile Strength—GETS), bending strength (Global Efficiency to Bending—GEB), and hardness field. The percentage contribution of each parameter was also determined. As a result of the Taguchi analysis in this study, the probe length is the most significant parameter on GETS, and the tool travel speed is the most important parameter affecting both the GEB and the hardness field. An algebraic model for predicting the best mechanical performance, namely fatigue resistance, was developed and the optimal FSW combination was determined using this model. The results obtained were validated by conducting confirmation tests, the results of which verify the adequacy and effectiveness of this approach.

Vidal, C.; Infante, V.

2013-08-01

209

Fault identification in chemical processes through a modified mahalanobis-taguchi strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the chemical process industries an appropriate identification of faults has become at present one of the most critical and challenging PSE activities. Recently, Taguchi and Jugulum (2002) described a new data based approach for diagnosis and forecasting using multivariate data, the so-called Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). MTS is considered to be a non-parametric approach, and has been applied with success

Pedro Saraiva; Nuno Faísca; Raquel Costa; Alcides Gonçalves

2004-01-01

210

Optimization of counter flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube performance using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum temperature gradient for the Ranque–Hilsch counter flow vortex tube performance. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array with each trial performed under different conditions of inlet pressure, nozzle number and fluid type. Signal-to-noise ratio (S\\/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis were carried out

Ahmet Murat Pinar; Onuralp Uluer; Volkan K?rmaci

2009-01-01

211

OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRUSION PROCESS FOR MAGNESIUM ALLOY SHEETS USING THE FUZZY BASED TAGUCHI METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining the fuzzy-logic method and Taguchi method, this study investigates the optimum parameters for the multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI) of the hot-extrusion process for magnesium alloy sheets of AZ31 and AZ61. Process parameters include billet heating temperature, initial extrusion speed, container temperature, and lubricant. Depending on individual quality characteristics, the optimal parameter combination for the Taguchi method would

Su-Hai Hsiang; Yi-Wei Lin

212

Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) magnet systems  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now completing a definition phase as a beginning of a three-year design effort. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide further and more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been of prime importance, since it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. The major levels of mechanical stress in the structure appear in the cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The cases of the poloidal-field (PF) coils must be made thin or segmented to minimize eddy current heating during inductive plasma operation. As a result, the winding packs of both the TF and PF coils includes significant fractions of steel. The TF winding pack provides support against in-plane separating loads but offers little support against out-of-plane loads, unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. The removal of heat due to nuclear and ac loads has not been a fundamental limit to design, but certainly has non-negligible economic consequences. We present here preliminary ITER magnetic systems design parameters taken from trade studies, designs, and analyses performed by the Home Teams of the four ITER participants, by the ITER Magnet Design Unit in Garching, and by other participants at workshops organized by the Magnet Design Unit. The work presented here reflects the efforts of many, but the responsibility for the opinions expressed is the authors'. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

1988-10-09

213

Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Bt Corn, Lignin, and ANOVAs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case is based on a research paper about the lignin content of genetically modified corn published in the American Journal of Botany. Students are asked to analyze and discuss the paper, focusing on questions related to experimental design and interpretation and a critique of the statistical data presented. Developed for use in an upper-level undergraduate course in plant ecology and a graduate biostatistics course, the case could also be used in courses in plant anatomy, plant physiology, soil ecology, agriculture, or genetics.

Ribbens, Eric

2002-01-01

214

Catalysis by Design - Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The development of new catalytic materials is still dominated by trial and error methods, even though the experimental and theoretical bases for their characterization have improved dramatically in recent years. Although it has been successful, the empirical development of catalytic materials is time consuming and expensive with no guarantee of success. We have been exploring computationally complex but experimentally simple systems to establish a 'catalysis by design' protocol that combines the power of theory and experiment. We hope to translate the fundamental insights directly into a complete catalyst system that is technologically relevant. The essential component of this approach is that the catalysts are iteratively examined by both theoretical and experimental methods. This approach involves state-of-the-art first principle density functional theory calculations, experimental design of catalyst sites, and sub-Angstrom resolution imaging with an aberration-corrected electron microscope to characterize the microstructure. We are employing this approach to understand the catalytic sites in oxidation and lean NOx catalysts. The model material for the oxidation catalyst system is Pt/Al2O3 and that for lean NOx catalysis is Ag/Al2O3. We present our initial results on theoretical and experimental studies of the oxidation and reactivity of catalyst clusters towards O, CO, and NOx. Our theoretical studies indicate that the reaction energetics are strongly dependent on the size of the clusters as well as the extent of oxidation of the clusters. We speculate that the energetics of CO and NO oxidation may be more favorable on the oxidized clusters than on the pure Pt clusters because of the weakened adsorption of the reactants. Experimentally, we have synthesized supported catalysts that contain small metal particles that mimic the theoretical models. We have also synthesized various supported catalysts with larger metal particles. We have studied CO oxidations on these catalysts and the results (including microstructural changes in Pt particles) will also be presented. In addition, we will summarize the results of our study of microstructural changes in supported catalysts, especially Ag/Al2O3, exposed to simulated lean NOx exhaust via the ORNL ex situ reactor in order to determine the impact of operating conditions on the catalyst.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Shelton Jr, William Allison [ORNL

2007-01-01

215

Optimization of WEDM process of pure titanium with multiple performance characteristics using Taguchi's DOE approach and utility concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of multi response optimization technique using utility method to predict and select the optimal setting of machining parameters in wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process. The experimental studies in WEDM process were conducted under varying experimental conditions of process parameters, such as pulse on time( T on), pulse off time( T off), peak current ( IP), wire feed ( WF), wire tension ( WT) and servo voltage ( SV) using pure titanium as work material. Experiments were planned using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Multi response optimization was performed for both cutting speed (CS) and surface roughness (SR) using utility concept to find out the optimal process parameter setting. The level of significance of the machining parameters for their effect on the CS and SR was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, confirmation experiment was performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal condition.

Chalisgaonkar, Rupesh; Kumar, Jatinder

2013-06-01

216

A method of multi-class faults classification based-on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using vibration signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an improved Mahalanobis-Taguchi system based fault diagnosis scheme is presented, vibration signals are used as the signal resource. Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is utilized for fault clustering method in order to classify faults into different categories, Lipschitz Exponents are used to extract characteristic vectors. Firstly, the procedure of implementing Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is introduced, a multi-class faults classification method is

Jiangtao Ren; Yuanwen Cai; Xiaochen Xing; Jing Chen

2011-01-01

217

Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues.The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

Chen, Zhengsuo; Deng, Hongbo; Chen, Can; Yang, Ying; Xu, Heng

2014-01-01

218

Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method  

PubMed Central

Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues. The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

2014-01-01

219

Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

2008-10-13

220

Sparse linear models: Variational approximate inference and Bayesian experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of problems such as signal reconstruction, denoising, source separation, feature selection, and graphical model search are addressed today by posterior maximization for linear models with sparsity-favouring prior distributions. The Bayesian posterior contains useful information far beyond its mode, which can be used to drive methods for sampling optimization (active learning), feature relevance ranking, or hyperparameter estimation, if only this representation of uncertainty can be approximated in a tractable manner. In this paper, we review recent results for variational sparse inference, and show that they share underlying computational primitives. We discuss how sampling optimization can be implemented as sequential Bayesian experimental design. While there has been tremendous recent activity to develop sparse estimation, little attendance has been given to sparse approximate inference. In this paper, we argue that many problems in practice, such as compressive sensing for real-world image reconstruction, are served much better by proper uncertainty approximations than by ever more aggressive sparse estimation algorithms. Moreover, since some variational inference methods have been given strong convex optimization characterizations recently, theoretical analysis may become possible, promising new insights into nonlinear experimental design.

Seeger, Matthias W.

2009-12-01

221

Probing pictorial relief: from experimental design to surface reconstruction.  

PubMed

The perception of pictorial surfaces has been studied quantitatively for more than 20 years. During this time, the "gauge figure method" has been shown to be a fast and intuitive method to quantify pictorial relief. In this method, observers have to adjust the attitude of a gauge figure such that it appears to lie flat on a surface in pictorial space. Although the method has received substantial attention in the literature and has become increasingly popular, a clear, step-by-step description has not been published yet. In this article, a detailed description of the method is provided: stimulus and sample preparation, performing the experiment, and reconstructing a 3-D surface from the experimental data. Furthermore, software (written in PsychToolbox) based on this description is provided in an online supplement. This report serves three purposes: First, it facilitates experimenters who want to use the gauge figure task but have been unable to design it, due to the lack of information in the literature. Second, the detailed description can facilitate the design of software for various other platforms, possibly Web-based. Third, the method described in this article is extended to objects with holes and inner contours. This class of objects have not yet been investigated with the gauge figure task. PMID:21789733

Wijntjes, Maarten W A

2012-03-01

222

Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments.  

PubMed

Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using blocking or covariance analysis. In this study experimental design and statistical methods in 3 papers published in toxicological journals were used as case studies and were examined in detail. The first used dogs to study the effects of ethanol on blood and hepatic parameters following chronic alcohol consumption in a 2 x 4 factorial experimental design. However, the authors used mongrel dogs of both sexes and different ages with a wide range of body weights without any attempt to control the variation. They had also attempted to analyse a factorial design using Student's t-test rather than the analysis of variance. Means of 2 blood parameters presented with one decimal place had apparently been rounded to the nearest 5 units. It is suggested that this experiment could equally well have been done in 3 blocks using 24 instead of 46 dogs. The second case study was an investigation of the response of 2 strains of mice to a toxic agent causing bladder injury. The first experiment involved 40 treatment combinations (2 strains x 4 doses x 5 days) with 3-6 mice per combination. There was no explanation of how the experiment involving approximately 180 mice had actually been done, but unequal subclass numbers suggest that the experiment may have been done on an ad hoc basis rather than being properly designed. It is suggested that the experiment could have been done as 2 blocks involving 80 instead of about 180 mice. The third study again involved a factorial design with 4 dose levels of a compound and 2 sexes, with a total of 80 mice. Open field behaviour was examined. The author incorrectly used the t-test to analyse the data, and concluded that there was no dose effect, when a correct analysis showed this to be highly significant. In all case studies the scientists presented means +/- standard deviations or standard errors involving only the animals contributing to that mean, rather than the much better estimates that would be obtained with a pooled estimate of error. This is virtually a universal practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7967459

Festing, M F

1994-07-01

223

Preliminary Design of Winged Experimental Rocket by University Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project of Winged Experimental Rocket described here is a proposal by the alliance of universities (University Consortium) expanding and integrating the research activities of reusable space transportation system performed by individual universities, and is the proposal that aims at flight proof of the results of advanced research conducted by the universities and JAXA using the university-centered experimental launch systems. This paper verifies the validity of the winged experimental rocket by surveying the technical issues that should be demonstrated and by estimating the airframe scale, weight and finally the total cost. The development schedule of this project was set to five years, where two airframes of different scales will be developed to minimize the risks. A 1.5-meter-long airframe will be first manufactured and conduct flight tests in the third year to verify the design issues. Then, a 2.5-meter-long airframe will be finally developed and conduct a complete flight demonstration of various research issues in the fifth year.

Wakita, Masashi; Yonemoto, Koichi; Akiyama, Tomoki; Aso, Shigeru; Kohsetsu, Yuji; Nagata, Harunori

224

Cutting the wires: modularization of cellular networks for experimental design.  

PubMed

Understanding naturally evolved cellular networks requires the consecutive identification and revision of the interactions between relevant molecular species. In this process, initially often simplified and incomplete networks are extended by integrating new reactions or whole subnetworks to increase consistency between model predictions and new measurement data. However, increased consistency with experimental data alone is not sufficient to show the existence of biomolecular interactions, because the interplay of different potential extensions might lead to overall similar dynamics. Here, we present a graph-based modularization approach to facilitate the design of experiments targeted at independently validating the existence of several potential network extensions. Our method is based on selecting the outputs to measure during an experiment, such that each potential network extension becomes virtually insulated from all others during data analysis. Each output defines a module that only depends on one hypothetical network extension, and all other outputs act as virtual inputs to achieve insulation. Given appropriate experimental time-series measurements of the outputs, our modules can be analyzed, simulated, and compared to the experimental data separately. Our approach exemplifies the close relationship between structural systems identification and modularization, an interplay that promises development of related approaches in the future. PMID:24411264

Lang, Moritz; Summers, Sean; Stelling, Jörg

2014-01-01

225

New Synthetic Thrombin Inhibitors: Molecular Design and Experimental Verification  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. Objectives The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. Methods Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies) were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. Results New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best KI was <1 nM) and strong anticoagulants in plasma (an IC50 in the thrombin generation assay of approximately 100 nM) were discovered. These compounds contain one of the following new residues as the basic fragment: isothiuronium, 4-aminopyridinium, or 2-aminothiazolinium. LD50 values for the best new inhibitors ranged from 166.7 to >1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions) were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. Conclusions The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed may be promising for potential medical applications.

Gribkova, Irina V.; Kondakova, Olga A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Gorbatenko, Aleksander S.; Butylin, Andrey A.; Monakov, Mikhail Yu.; Bogolyubov, Alexey A.; Kuznetsov, Yuryi V.; Sulimov, Vladimir B.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoyl I.

2011-01-01

226

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2011-12-31

227

Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems  

SciTech Connect

The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters. Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics.

Huan, Xun, E-mail: xunhuan@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marzouk, Youssef M., E-mail: ymarz@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-01-01

228

Optimization of the ASPN Process to Bright Nitriding of Woodworking Tools Using the Taguchi Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of the research is optimization of the parameters of the Active Screen Plasma Nitriding (ASPN) process of high speed steel planing knives used in woodworking. The Taguchi approach was applied for development of the plan of experiments and elaboration of obtained experimental results. The optimized ASPN parameters were: process duration, composition and pressure of the gaseous atmosphere, the substrate BIAS voltage and the substrate temperature. The results of the optimization procedure were verified by the tools' behavior in the sharpening operation performed in normal industrial conditions. The ASPN technology proved to be extremely suitable for nitriding the woodworking planing tools, which because of their specific geometry, in particular extremely sharp wedge angles, could not be successfully nitrided using conventional direct current plasma nitriding method. The carried out research proved that the values of fracture toughness coefficient K Ic are in correlation with maximum spalling depths of the cutting edge measured after sharpening, and therefore may be used as a measure of the nitrided planing knives quality. Based on this criterion the optimum parameters of the ASPN process for nitriding high speed planing knives were determined.

Walkowicz, J.; Sta?kiewicz, J.; Szafirowicz, K.; Jakrzewski, D.; Grzesiak, G.; St?pniak, M.

2013-02-01

229

Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2010-01-01

230

Experimental Reality: Principles for the Design of Augmented Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D (LDC) is a living laboratory, which we created to develop Augmented Environment (AE) for collaborative work, more specifically “cognitive work” (white collars, engineers, office workers). It is a corporate laboratory in a large industry, where natural activity of real users is observed in a continuous manner in various spaces (project space, meeting room, lounge, etc.) The RAO room, an augmented meeting room, is used daily for “normal” meetings; it is also the “mother room” of all augmented meeting rooms in the company, where new systems, services, and devices are tested. The LDC has gathered a unique set of data on the use of AE, and developed various observation and design techniques, described in this chapter. LDC uses novel techniques of digital ethnography, some of which were invented there (SubCam, offsat) and some of which were developed elsewhere and adapted (360° video, WebDiver, etc.). At LDC, some new theories have also been developed to explain behavior and guide innovation: cognitive attractors, experimental reality, and the triple-determination framework.

Lahlou, Saadi

231

Computational design of an experimental laser-powered thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thruster. The adopted physical model considers two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the laser power absorption process, geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, and the thermodynamically equilibrium (LTE) assumption for the plasma thermophysical and optical properties. A pressure based Navier-Stokes solver using body-fitted coordinate was used to calculate the laser-supported rocket flow which consists of both recirculating and transonic flow regions. The computer code was used to study the behavior of laser-sustained plasmas within a pipe over a wide range of forced convection and optical arrangements before it was applied to the thruster design, and these theoretical calculations agree well with existing experimental results. Several different throat size thrusters operated at 150 and 300 kPa chamber pressure were evaluated in the numerical experiment. It is found that the thruster performance (vacuum specific impulse) is highly dependent on the operating conditions, and that an adequately designed laser-supported thruster can have a specific impulse around 1500 sec. The heat loading on the wall of the calculated thrusters were also estimated, and it is comparable to heat loading on the conventional chemical rocket. It was also found that the specific impulse of the calculated thrusters can be reduced by 200 secs due to the finite chemical reaction rate.

Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald; Keefer, Dennis

1988-01-01

232

Managing the Enriched Experience Network - Learning-Outcome Approach to the Experimental Design Life-Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental design methods have long been used in scientific areas such as agriculture, biology and physics to minimise error and assure validity. Although most network researchers performing experiments with testbeds and simula- tions implicitly follow scientific method, until recently there has been little emphasis on improving experimental design methods. Traditional experimental design focuses on experiments where the scope and objectives

Samson Lee; Nigel Sheridan-Smith; Tim O'Neill; John Leaney; Kumbesan Sandrasegaran; Shmuel Markovits

2003-01-01

233

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: Optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology  

PubMed Central

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011 under solid state fermentation was optimized following Taguchi design of experiment. An orthogonal array layout of L18 (21 × 37) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with eight most influensive factors on laccase production. At individual level pH contributed higher influence, whereas, corn steep liquor (CSL) accounted for more than 50% of the severity index with biotin and KH2PO4 at the interactive level. The optimum conditions derived were; temperature 30°C, pH 5.0, wheat bran 5.0?g, inoculum size 0.5?ml (fungal cell mass = 0.015?g dry wt.), biotin 0.5% w/v, KH2PO4 0.013% w/v, CSL 0.1% v/v and 0.5?mM xylidine as an inducer. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in enzyme production by 58.01%. The laccase production to the level of 1623.55?Ugds?1 indicates that the fungus C. caperata RCK2011 has the commercial potential for laccase.

Nandal, Preeti; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-01-01

234

Optimized experimental design for the estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters: an experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

A set of compounds (n = 30), including traditional cytochrome P450 substrates and compounds from AstraZeneca's compound library, was used in an experimental evaluation of an optimal design approach (ODA) for the estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters (CL(int), V(max), and K(m)). A depletion method previously shown to provide reliable results, the multiple depletion curves method (MDCM), was used as reference. Experiments were conducted with human liver microsomes, and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CL(int) estimated with the ODA were in >90% of the cases within a 2-fold difference compared with MDCM estimates. In addition, good agreement was generally seen for V(max) and K(m) estimates between the two methods as >80% of the estimates were within or almost within a 2-fold difference. The variability in V(max) and K(m) estimates were generally higher than for CL(int) estimates. In addition, decreased substrate turnover considerably increased the variability in V(max) and K(m) estimates, whereas only a modest increase was observed for CL(int) estimates. The experimental design of using multiple starting concentrations for the estimation of enzyme kinetics was shown to be appropriate even when there was a limitation to the number of samples. The method allowed for good estimates of CL(int) and also for V(max) and K(m) in many cases. Hence, this approach is a good alternative for the estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters, especially if enzyme saturation and an assessment of a potential risk for nonlinear metabolism are of interest. PMID:22942316

Sjögren, Erik; Svanberg, Petter; Kanebratt, Kajsa P

2012-12-01

235

Conceptual design of fusion experimental reactor (FER/ITER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual design of the Ion Cyclotron Wave (ICW) system for the FER and the Japanese contribution to the conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Ion Cyclotron Wave (ICW) system are presented. A frequency range of the FER ICW system is 50-85 MHz, which covers 2 omega (sub cT) heating, current drive by transit time magnetic pumping (TTMP) and 2 omega (sub cD) heating. Physics analyses show that the FER and the ITER ICW systems are suitable for the central ion heating and the burn control. The launching systems of the FER ICW system and the ITER high frequency ICW system are characterized by in-port plug and ridged-waveguide-fed 5x4 phased loop array. Merits of those systems are (1) a ceramic support is not necessary inside the cryostat and (2) remote maintenance of the front end part of the launcher is relatively easy. Overall structure of the launching system is consistent with radiation shielding, cooling, pumping, tritium safety and remote maintenance. The launcher has injection capability of 20 MW in the frequency range of 50-85 MHz with the separatrix-antenna distance of 15 cm and steep scrape-off density profile of H-mode. The shape of the ridged waveguide is optimized to provide desired frequency range and power handling capability with a finite element method. Matching between the current strap and the ridged waveguide is satisfactorily good. Thermal analysis of the Faraday shield shows that high electric conductivity low Z material such as beryllium should be chosen for a protection tile of the Faraday shield. A thick Faraday shield is necessary to tolerate electromagnetic force during disruptions. R and D needs for the ITER/FER ICW systems are identified and gain from JT-60/60U ICRF experiments and operations are indicated in connection with them.

Kimura, Haruyuki; Saigusa, Mikio; Saitoh, Yasushi

1991-06-01

236

Experimental Designs for Testing Differences in Survival Among Salmonid Populations.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is a supplementation plan for enhancing salmon runs in the Yakima River basin. It is presumed that inadequate spawning and rearing habitat are limiting factors to population abundance of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha). Therefore, the supplementation effort for spring chinook salmon is focused on introducing hatchery-raised smolts into the basin to compensate for the lack of spawning habitat. However, based on empirical evidence in the Yakima basin, hatchery-reared salmon have survived poorly compared to wild salmon. Therefore, the YFP has proposed to alter the optimal conventional treatment (OCT), which is the state-of-the-art hatchery rearing method, to a new innovative treatment (NIT). The NIT is intended to produce hatchery fish that mimic wild fish and thereby to enhance their survival over that of OCT fish. A limited application of the NIT (LNIT) has also been proposed to reduce the cost of applying the new treatment, yet retain the benefits of increased survival. This research was conducted to test whether the uncertainty using the experimental design was within the limits specified by the Planning Status Report (PSR).

Hoffman, Annette; Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Craig

1994-11-01

237

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Longman, D.E. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-01

238

Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Longman, D.E. (Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

239

Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

2010-06-01

240

Robust modular product family design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust

Lan Jiang; Venkat Allada

2001-01-01

241

Modelling of electrical power distribution systems by application of experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the method of experimental design to the analysis of electrical power distribution systems. The theory of experimental design allows us to construct and experimentally verify the qualitative model of a power distribution system in order to analyse a significance of each component in distribution system modelling. The paper presents

Josnicjusz Nazarko

2000-01-01

242

Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular split plots (diameter: 3.65 m & surface area: 10.5 m2) composed of one half amended with biochar and one control half not amended were prepared. Five of these plots are equipped with a warming system, while the other five were equipped with dummies. Each warmed plot is collocated with a control plot within one block. While split plots are all oriented in the same direction the position of blocks is randomized to eliminate the effect of the spatial variability. Biochar was incorporated in the first 20 cm of the soil with a rototiller. Warming system is provided by hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters. The temperature of the plots is monitored with infrared cameras. The 3oC increase of temperature is obtained by dynamically monitoring the temperature difference between warmed and control plots within blocks via improved software. Each plot is further equipped with a soil temperature and moisture sensor.

Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

2014-05-01

243

Experimental verification of Space Platform battery discharger design optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed design of two candidate topologies for the Space Platform battery discharger, a four module boost converter (FMBC) and a voltage-fed push-pull autotransformer (VFPPAT), is presented. Each has unique problems. The FMBC requires careful design and analysis in order to obtain good dynamic performance. This is due to the presence of a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in the control-to-output transfer function. The VFPPAT presents a challenging power stage design in order to yield high efficiency and light component weight. The authors describe the design of each of these converters and compare their efficiency, weight, and dynamic characteristics.

Sable, Dan M.; Deuty, Scott; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

1991-01-01

244

Experimental verification of Space Platform battery discharger design optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed design of two candidate topologies for the Space Platform battery discharger, a four module boost converter (FMBC) and a voltage-fed push-pull autotransformer (VFPPAT), is presented. Each has unique problems. The FMBC requires careful design and analysis in order to obtain good dynamic performance. This is due to the presence of a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in the control-to-output transfer function. The VFPPAT presents a challenging power stage design in order to yield high efficiency and light component weight. The authors describe the design of each of these converters and compare their efficiency, weight, and dynamic characteristics.

Sable, Dan M.; Deuty, Scott; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

245

Application of Taguchi and response surface methodologies for geometric error in surface grinding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric error in the surface grinding process is mainly affected by the thermal effect and the stiffness of the grinding system. For minimizing the geometric error, the selection of grinding parameters is very important. This paper presented an application of Taguchi and response surface methodologies for the geometric error. The effect of grinding parameters on the geometric error was

Jae-Seob Kwak

2005-01-01

246

Deterioration diagnosis of insulators for breakers using chemical evaluation and Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a deterioration diagnostic technique of the insulators for power distribution equipments such as breakers using the chemical evaluation and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method. It is possible to diagnose the deterioration degree with great accuracy and nondestructively on-site without the effect of humidity and external noise such as electromagnetic wave. The chemical evaluation items are ion concentration, coloration,

S. Miki; H. Okazawa

2006-01-01

247

Financial Crisis Dynamic Prediction Based on Sliding Window Technology and Mahalanobis-Taguchi System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the prediction accuracy of current existing model, the financial crisis prediction dynamic model is proposed. By means of the data streams processing method, the sliding window technology is used for real-time updated samples in this paper, and then the optimal features of samples are selected by Mahalanobis-Taguchi System. The financial crisis prediction dynamic model is built

Jianzhong Shi; Longsheng Cheng

2011-01-01

248

SIMULTANEOUS OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF WEDM BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC AND TAGUCHI TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents, the use of fuzzy logic in the Taguchi method to optimize Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) process with multiple quality characteristics. Rough machining with EDM gives poor surface finish and has micro cracks and pores. Finish machining gives better surface finish but with very poor machining speed (MRR). Hence achieving higher cutting speed along with better surface finish

Y. M. Puri; N. V. Deshpande

2004-01-01

249

CONCURRENT OPTIMIZATION OF MULTI RESPONCE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS BASED ON TAGUCHI METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi method is one of the most frequently used tools for improving quality. However, most published applications have been concerned with the optimization of a single performance characteristic. In this study, three different methods are used to improve a production prosess with multiple performance characteristics and results are evaluated. Quality is a key factor for sustainable success in global economy.

Ümit Terzi; Kasim Baynal

250

Minimization of warpage and sink index in injection-molded thermoplastic parts using Taguchi optimization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper consist of minimization of the warpage and sink index in terms of process parameters of the plastic parts have different rib cross-section types, and rib layout angle using Taguchi optimization method. Considering the process parameters such as mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, in addition to rib cross-section types, and rib layout angle, a series

Tuncay Erzurumlu; Babur Ozcelik

2006-01-01

251

Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

Stallings, William M.

252

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER): Design and materials selection  

SciTech Connect

The success of ITER relies on aggressive design of the superconducting magnet systems. This design emphasized high radiation-damage tolerance, acceptance of high nuclear heat loads, and high operational stresses in the Toroidal Field (TF) magnets. The design of the Central Solenoid (CS) magnets, although they will be well shielded from the plasma, is equally aggressive due to the need for very high magnetic fields (14 T) and long term operation at high cyclic stresses. Success of these magnet designs depends, in part, on sound selection and fabrication of materials for structural, superconducting, and insulating components. Here we review the design of ITER and the selection of structural materials for some of the systems that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. In addition we will introduce some of the data that the materials selection is based on and suggest opportunities for future research in support of ITER. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Heim, J.R.

1989-08-08

253

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON PARTICLE IMPACTION AND BOUNCE: EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE DESIGN AND MATERIAL. (R825270)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effects of impaction substrate designs and material in reducing particle bounce and reentrainment. Particle collection without coating by using combinations of different impaction substrate designs and surface materials was...

254

Architecture Beyond Architecture Experimental Institutional Design Projects: Ethiopia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a documentation of the experimental study program introduced to the participants of the Master Program majoring in architectural design, in order to see beyond the western concepts and conventional design process and to meet the challenge ca...

A. Nevanlinna V. Kokuleraj

1992-01-01

255

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

256

Music and video iconicity: theory and experimental design.  

PubMed

Experimental studies on the relationship between quasi-musical patterns and visual movement have largely focused on either referential, associative aspects or syntactical, accent-oriented alignments. Both of these are very important, however, between the referential and areferential lays a domain where visual pattern perceptually connects to musical pattern; this is iconicity. The temporal syntax of accent structures in iconicity is hypothesized to be important. Beyond that, a multidimensional visual space connects to musical patterning through mapping of visual time/space to musical time/magnitudes. Experimental visual and musical correlates are presented and comparisons to previous research provided. PMID:15684561

Kendall, Roger A

2005-01-01

257

Using introductory labs to engage students in experimental design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) engages students in processes mirroring the practice of science. Laboratories play a central role in this learning environment. Students in ISLE laboratories design their own experiments to investigate new phenomena, test hypotheses, and solve realistic problems. We discuss various issues associated with implementing these labs in large enrollment introductory physics courses. We present examples of experiments that students design, include a sample of student work, and discuss issues related to the choice of experiments for design and practical implementation. We also review assessment techniques and show results of students' acquisition and transfer of some laboratory-related abilities.

Etkina, Eugenia; Murthy, Sahana; Zou, Xueli

2009-04-13

258

Optimal Active Vibration Absorber: Design and Experimental Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppre...

G. Lee-glauser J. Juang J. L. Sulla

1992-01-01

259

Experimental design and testing: Hatching and development in brine shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains information for instructing a laboratory exercise in biology. This exercise serves as an example of how both content knowledge and process can be integrated in an investigative laboratory design using brine shrimp.

Leona Truchan (Alverno College;); Ingrith Deyrup-Olsen (University of Washington;)

1993-06-01

260

W band communication link, design and on ground experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work aims at demonstrating the applicability of W band for the provision of an experimental service founded on the point-to-point communication and transfer of high data volumes between ISS or LEO satellites to ground and for scientific purposes related to the acquisition of propagation data in this unexplored range of frequency. Based on the experience of Oerlikon Contraves in

C. Dainelli; M. Fern; A. De Fazio; L. Ricci; M. Ruggieni

2005-01-01

261

Design and Experimental Results of a Brushless AC Servo Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality electrical servo drives can only be designed and manufactured by using especially compatible and sophisticated components. A typical control actuator system is described consisting of a brushless synchronous motor and a transistor chopper inverter. Important aspects of the design and rating of a three-phase motor with rare-earth permanent magnets are pointed out. Several types of construction are described. The

Gerhard Pfaff; Alois Weschta; Albert F. Wick

1984-01-01

262

Experimental verification of Space Platform battery discharger design optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed design of two candidate topologies for the Space Platform battery discharger, a four module boost converter (FMBC) and a voltage-fed push-pull autotransformer (VFPPAT), is presented. Each has unique problems. The FMBC requires careful design and analysis in order to obtain good dynamic performance. This is due to the presence of a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in the control-to-output transfer

Dan M. Sable; Scott Deuty; Fred C. Lee; Bo H. Cho

1991-01-01

263

Experimental design and efficient parameter estimation in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulation technique used to evaluate the effect of the arrangement of concentrations on the efficiency of estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters in the preclinical setting is described. Although the simulations were restricted to the one compartment model with intravenous bolus input, they provide the basis of discussing some structural aspects involved in designing a destructive ("quantic") preclinical population pharmacokinetic study with a fixed sample size as is usually the case in such studies. The efficiency of parameter estimation obtained with sampling strategies based on the three and four time point designs were evaluated in terms of the percent prediction error, design number, individual and joint confidence intervals coverage for parameter estimates approaches, and correlation analysis. The data sets contained random terms for both inter- and residual intra-animal variability. The results showed that the typical population parameter estimates for clearance and volume were efficiently (accurately and precisely) estimated for both designs, while interanimal variability (the only random effect parameter that could be estimated) was inefficiently (inaccurately and imprecisely) estimated with most sampling schedules of the two designs. The exact location of the third and fourth time point for the three and four time point designs, respectively, was not critical to the efficiency of overall estimation of all population parameters of the model. However, some individual population pharmacokinetic parameters were sensitive to the location of these times. PMID:7479560

Ette, E I; Howie, C A; Kelman, A W; Whiting, B

1995-05-01

264

Design support systems for process engineering—II. KBDS: An experimental prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

KBDS is a prototype design support system for process engineering. It was created as an experimental vehicle to test and develop ideas about the representation of the design process, and to demonstrate how such a representation can be used to support the design activity. Our starting point is a representation of the design process consisting of three spaces: One for

R. Bañares-Alcántara; H. M. S. Lababidi

1995-01-01

265

Optimizing the Wire-Bonding Process for Copper Ball Bonding, Using classic Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two classic experimental designs were used to develop the copper ball bonding process. A two-level factorial design was used to screen five process variables simultaneously and determine whether any of them had a significant effect on the process. A four-factor central composite design was used to optimize and map the bonding process window. The efficiency of using designed experiments allowed

MICHAEL SHEAFFER; LEE R. LEVINE; BRIAN SCHLAIN

1987-01-01

266

Toward implantable glucometer: Design, modeling and experimental results.  

PubMed

We put forward an implantable glucometers using a biologically inspired sensor (BioS) method. In this method, engineered glucokinase (GLK) molecules are used as nanoscale glucometers. Herein, we describe two computational and experimental models of GLKs exposed to glucose molecules. The simulation results significantly show the detection of GLK binding to glucose. We thereafter reveal the applicability of this technique for continuous glucose monitoring by demonstrating and discussing the experimental results. Based on these results the glucose measurement with various glucose concentrations (0.5 mM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were precisely performed and repeated for more than 4 weeks. These results prove the advantage of proposed BioS method for continuous measurement of glucose. PMID:24111021

Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Gholamzadeh, Bahareh; Awwad, Falah; Sawan, Mohamad

2013-01-01

267

Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes  

PubMed Central

The design of functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neural changes that support treatment-based recovery of targeted language functions in acquired aphasia faces a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and focus on experimental tasks and experimental designs that can be used to address the challenges, facilitate the interpretation of results and promote integration of findings across studies.

Rapp, Brenda; Caplan, David; Edwards, Susan; Visch-Brink, Evy; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

268

OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS BY INCORPORATING NIF FACILITY IMPACTS  

SciTech Connect

For experimental campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to be successful, they must obtain useful data without causing unacceptable impact on the facility. Of particular concern is excessive damage to optics and diagnostic components. There are 192 fused silica main debris shields (MDS) exposed to the potentially hostile target chamber environment on each shot. Damage in these optics results either from the interaction of laser light with contamination and pre-existing imperfections on the optic surface or from the impact of shrapnel fragments. Mitigation of this second damage source is possible by identifying shrapnel sources and shielding optics from them. It was recently demonstrated that the addition of 1.1-mm thick borosilicate disposable debris shields (DDS) block the majority of debris and shrapnel fragments from reaching the relatively expensive MDS's. However, DDS's cannot stop large, faster moving fragments. We have experimentally demonstrated one shrapnel mitigation technique showing that it is possible to direct fast moving fragments by changing the source orientation, in this case a Ta pinhole array. Another mitigation method is to change the source material to one that produces smaller fragments. Simulations and validating experiments are necessary to determine which fragments can penetrate or break 1-3 mm thick DDS's. Three-dimensional modeling of complex target-diagnostic configurations is necessary to predict the size, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel fragments. The tools we are developing will be used to set the allowed level of debris and shrapnel generation for all NIF experimental campaigns.

Eder, D C; Whitman, P K; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B T; Parham, T G; Koerner, J G; Dixit, S N; . Suratwala, T I; Blue, B E; Hansen, J F; Tobin, M T; Robey, H F; Spaeth, M L; MacGowan, B J

2005-08-31

269

Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameter identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from indirect concentration measurements in identifying unknown source parameters such as the release time, strength and location. In this approach, the sampling location that gives the maximum relative entropy is selected as the optimal one. Once the sampling location is determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown source parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. Compared with the traditional optimal design, which is based on the Gaussian linear assumption, the method developed in this study can cope with arbitrary nonlinearity. It can be used to assist in groundwater monitor network design and identification of unknown contaminant sources. Contours of the expected information gain. The optimal observing location corresponds to the maximum value. Posterior marginal probability densities of unknown parameters, the thick solid black lines are for the designed location. For comparison, other 7 lines are for randomly chosen locations. The true values are denoted by vertical lines. It is obvious that the unknown parameters are estimated better with the desinged location.

Zhang, J.; Zeng, L.

2013-12-01

270

Using Propensity Scores in Quasi-Experimental Designs to Equate Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education research rarely lends itself to large scale experimental research and true randomization, leaving the researcher to quasi-experimental designs. The problem with quasi-experimental research is that underlying factors may impact group selection and lead to potentially biased results. One way to minimize the impact of non-randomization is…

Lane, Forrest C.; Henson, Robin K.

2010-01-01

271

An Experimental Hydrodynamic Study of Innovative Trawl Board Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major source of trawl system inefficiency is the poor hydrodynamic qualities of the trawl boards commonly used by U.S. fishermen. A family of trawl board configurations was developed consisting of 24 different models. All designs were low aspect ratio, ...

C. A. Goudey

1978-01-01

272

The Ethics of Experimental Design [and A Response].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles address the ethical issues of withholding treatment in a study of self injurious behavior reported in a mentally retarded person. M. Noonan and W. Bickel suggest alternative research designs, and P. Borreson defends the methodology he used in the 1980 study. (CL)

Noonan, Mary Jo; Borreson, Paul M.

1981-01-01

273

Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hours in engine dynamometer tests and for more than 38,600 kilimeters (24,000

P. L. Stone; C. P. Blankenship

1974-01-01

274

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

275

Acting Like a Physicist: Student Approach Study to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In…

Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-01-01

276

Using introductory labs to engage students in experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) engages students in processes mirroring the practice of science. Laboratories play a central role in this learning environment. Students in ISLE laboratories design their own experiments to investigate new phenomena, test hypotheses, and solve realistic problems. We discuss various issues associated with implementing these labs in large enrollment introductory physics courses. We present examples

Eugenia Etkina; Sahana Murthy; Xueli Zou

2006-01-01

277

Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning

Anna Karelina; Eugenia Etkina

2007-01-01

278

The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

2010-01-01

279

Design and experimental investigation of portable solar thermoelectric refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to design and build an affordable solar thermoelectric refrigerator for the Bedouin people (e.g. deserts) living in remote parts of Oman where electricity is still not available. The refrigerator could be used to store perishable items and facilitate the transportation of medications as well as biological material that must be stored at low

Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; Ali Elkamel; Ali M. Al-Damkhi; Is'haq A. Al-Habsi; Abdulaziz K. Al-Battashi; Ali R. Al-Tamimi; Khamis H. Al-Mamari; Muhammad U. Chutani

2009-01-01

280

Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

Cheung, Ming

2011-01-01

281

Experimental Residential Foundation Designs on Expansive Clay Soils. Data Supplement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents activities associated with the design and construction of 11 single - family residences and the behavioral pattern of these structures over 6 seasonal climatic cycles or about 3 years. The floor slabs for all the houses were of reinf...

A. R. Poor

1979-01-01

282

Creating A Data Base For Design Of An Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes use of Taguchi method of parametric design to create data base facilitating optimization of design of impeller in centrifugal pump. Data base enables systematic design analysis covering all significant design parameters. Reduces time and cost of parametric optimization of design: for particular impeller considered, one can cover 4,374 designs by computational simulations of performance for only 18 cases.

Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung

1993-01-01

283

Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties  

PubMed Central

It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design.

Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

2014-01-01

284

Tocorime Apicu: design and validation of an experimental search engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the development of an integrated, experimental search engine, Tocorime Apicu, the incorporation and emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the chosen biological model (honeybees) and the field of high-performance knowledge discovery in databases results in the coupling of diverse fields of research: evolutionary computations, biological modeling, machine learning, statistical methods, information retrieval systems, active networks, and data visualization. The use of computer systems provides inherent sources of self-similarity traffic that result from the interaction of file transmission, caching mechanisms, and user-related processes. These user-related processes are initiated by the user, application programs, or the operating system (OS) for the user's benefit. The effect of Web transmission patterns, coupled with these inherent sources of self-similarity associated with the above file system characteristics, provide an environment for studying network traffic. The goal of the study was client-based, but with no user interaction. New methodologies and approaches were needed as network packet traffic increased in the LAN, LAN+WAN, and WAN. Statistical tools and methods for analyzing datasets were used to organize data captured at the packet level for network traffic between individual source/destination pairs. Emulation of the evolutionary aspects of the biological model equips the experimental search engine with an adaptive system model which will eventually have the capability to evolve with an ever- changing World Wide Web environment. The results were generated using a LINUX OS.

Walker, Reginald L.

2001-07-01

285

Accelerating Assay Development using Experimental Design and Integrated Liquid Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biologists developing assays face complex challenges inherent with the rate of new target identification and their adaptation to automation-ready assays. In addition, the exponential growth of compound libraries over the last several years has required that assays be miniaturized as a means of containing costs.Using AAO, the assay developer can take advantage of statistical design of experiment (a.k.a. DOE

Tim Sherrill; John Snider; Nate Terpstra; Carol Vanderpool; Wayne Schmidt

1999-01-01

286

A Modified Experimental Hut Design for Studying Responses of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes to Indoor Interventions: The Ifakara Experimental Huts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS). Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or

Fredros O. Okumu; Jason Moore; Edgar Mbeyela; Mark Sherlock; Robert Sangusangu; Godfrey Ligamba; Tanya Russell; Sarah J. Moore

2012-01-01

287

Experimental characterisation of new design thermometers for planetary atmospheric measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design of a platinum resistance sensor has been studied for atmospheric experiments onboard a lander mission in order to measure the vertical temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere. Laboratory tests of different prototypes of platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) have been performed and the results are presented. The prototypes are derived from the HASI TEM, the temperature sensors of the Huygens probe of the Cassini/Huygens mission. To obtain an accurate estimation of the atmospheric temperature gradient, very high spatial resolution measurements are required. This means that, for a given descent profile, a high sampling frequency is needed. Studies have been carried out to improve the sensor performance; they result in new possible structural solutions. In the new design, the sensing element (Pt wire) is suspended on very thin non-metallic fibres truss, in order to thermally decouple it from the supporting structure. Several sensors have been designed and built; laboratory tests have been conducted in a wind tunnel in order to dynamically characterise the sensors. The time response has been investigated and the time constant calculated from the asymptotic trend of the sensor response to a step-wise electric power, simulating a steep temperature gradient. The measurements of the PRT have been compared to those of numerical simulations. A prototype has also flown in a balloon flight test in order to verify its performance in Earth's atmosphere. Results from post flight analysis data of the balloon flight experiment are presented; spectral analysis of the data has evidenced the larger bandwidth of the new sensor and a higher signal to noise ratio. Improvements of HASI TEM performance are shown in terms of a shorter time constant; this allows the new sensor to be able to resolve smaller temperature variations during the descent in Mars' atmosphere.

Colombatti, G.; Francesconi, A.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Angrilli, F.

2000-10-01

288

The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

2004-01-01

289

Shock-driven mixing: Experimental design and initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Vertical Shock Tube (VST) has been designed to study shock-induced mixing due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) developing on a 3-D multi-mode interface between two gases. These studies characterize how interface contours, gas density difference, and Mach No. affect the ensuing mixing by using simultaneous measurements of velocity/density fields. The VST allows for the formation of a single stably-stratified interface, removing complexities of the dual interface used in prior RMI work. The VST also features a new diaphragmless driver, making feasible larger ensembles of data by reducing intra-shot time, and a larger viewing window allowing new observations of late-time mixing. The initial condition (IC) is formed by a co-flow system, chosen to minimize diffusion at the gas interface. To ensure statistically stationary ICs, a contoured nozzle has been manufactured to form repeatable co-flowing jets that are manipulated by a flapping splitter plate to generate perturbations that span the VST. This talk focuses on the design of the IC flow system and shows initial results characterizing the interface.

Friedman, Gavin; Prestridge, Katherine; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Leftwich, Megan

2012-03-01

290

Shock-Driven Mixing: Experimental Design and Initial Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Vertical Shock Tube (VST) has been designed to study shock-induced mixing due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) developing on a 3-D multi-mode interface between two gases. These studies characterize how interface contours, gas density difference, and Mach No. affect the ensuing mixing by using simultaneous measurements of velocity/density fields. The VST allows for the formation of a single stably-stratified interface, removing complexities of the dual interface used in prior RMI work. The VST also features a new diaphragmless driver, making feasible larger ensembles of data by reducing intra-shot time, and a larger viewing window allowing new observations of late-time mixing. The initial condition (IC) is formed by a co-flow system, chosen to minimize diffusion at the gas interface. To ensure statistically stationary ICs, a contoured nozzle has been manufactured to form repeatable co-flowing jets that are manipulated by a flapping splitter plate to generate perturbations that span the VST. This talk focuses on the design of the IC flow system and shows initial results characterizing the interface.

Friedman, Gavin; Prestridge, Kathy; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Leftwich, Megan

2011-06-01

291

Design and experimental validation of a dual-coverage shaped single reflector antenna system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and experimental validation of a dual-coverage shaped single reflector antenna system using one feed for each beam are described. The design specifically relates to the European feeder link antenna (EFLA) for the European Data Relay System (DRS) satellite. The work described involves the electrical design and the comparison of the measurements conducted on a breadboard of such an

B. G. Driscoll; G. Y. Philippou

1992-01-01

292

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

Smith, Justin D.

2012-01-01

293

Experimental design and computer simulation of multi-effect humidification (MEH)dehumidification solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the experimental design and computer simulation model of a multi-effect humidification\\/dehumidification (MEH) solar desalination system has been presented. The pilot plant on MEH was designed, fabricated and tested at the Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. The heat collection part has been designed to provide continuously the hot water to the distillation unit.

H. P. Garg; R. S. Adhikari; Rakesh Kumar

2003-01-01

294

Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli. For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology, there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions. This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies. We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion. Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs, and m-sequences are also discussed. Moreover, we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices. Under certain assumptions, these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal. Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed.

Kao, Ming-Hung; Temkit, M'hamed; Wong, Weng Kee

2014-01-01

295

Combination of Raman microscopy, multiwell plate experimental designs, and BTEM analysis for high-throughput experimentation.  

PubMed

Both nonreactive and reactive multiwell plate experiments were combined with Raman microscopy and band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) analysis. The multicomponent nonreactive experiments showed that accurate pure component spectral estimation is possible without recourse to any spectral libraries. The multicomponent reactive experiments showed that, in addition to accurate pure component spectral estimation, concentration profiles can be obtained for quantitative purposes. In the present case, the solvent and time dependence of a cycloaddition reaction was addressed as the high-throughput experimentation issue. A total of 1152 experimental spectra were collected and analyzed. Two methods were used, namely, (A) each solvent set was individually analyzed and (B) the entire set of spectra, from 4 different solvents, were analyzed all together. Method B provided very satisfactory results. The present study with combined Raman-multiwell plate-BTEM analysis establishes proof of concept. The new approach appears to be applicable to other frequently conducted combinatorial/high-throughput experimentations. These include, but are not restricted to, chemo- and regioselective studies, solid-phase syntheses, etc. PMID:19192968

Widjaja, Effendi; Li, Chuanzhao; Garland, Marc

2009-03-01

296

Semester-long Engagement in Science Inquiry Improves Students' Understanding of Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this TIEE Research Paper assessed changes in students' understanding of experimental design during a semester-long, inquiry-based, plant ecology laboratory. Students learned about and designed experiments to address four hypotheses about invasive species. Students were given similar pre- and post- tests in both years. Student knowledge self assessment questions were added in 2005. Also in 2005, students analyzed an experimental design on an interim assessment. In 2004, 4 of the 8 questions showed a significant shift to more correct answers on the post-test. In 2005, 2 of the 10 questions showed a significant shift to more correct answers. In both 2004 and 2005, the percent correct answers per student on experimental design questions increased between the pre- and post-test. The majority of students correctly described 8 of 9 components of an experiment on the interim assessment. The results suggest that participation in the laboratory improved student understanding of experimental design.

Griffith, Alan

2010-02-16

297

PhET Teacher Activities: Experimental Design with Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This middle school lesson plan blends a classroom experiment with the interactive PhET simulation Masses and Springs. Students design and conduct an experiment to test their predictions about the behavior of springs with masses attached. The simulation is used to explore kinetic and potential energy of spring motion and to visualize how the spring moves on different planets with varied gravitational constants. The lesson provides extensive background information for both educators and learners, scripted teacher discussion, student guides, and assessment materials with answer keys. The "Masses & Springs" simulation (which is required to complete this activity) is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

Texas, Uteach -.

2012-09-24

298

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

299

A Modified Experimental Hut Design for Studying Responses of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes to Indoor Interventions: The Ifakara Experimental Huts  

PubMed Central

Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS). Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1) inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2) increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3) difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4) the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1) interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2) use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement) to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3) use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4) the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5) an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

Okumu, Fredros O.; Moore, Jason; Mbeyela, Edgar; Sherlock, Mark; Sangusangu, Robert; Ligamba, Godfrey; Russell, Tanya; Moore, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

300

Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

Ellis, Stephen R.

1990-01-01

301

Experimental design for dynamics identification of cellular processes.  

PubMed

We address the problem of using nonlinear models to design experiments to characterize the dynamics of cellular processes by using the approach of the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE), which was introduced in W. Dong et al. (PLoS ONE 3(8):e3105, 2008) and independently in M.M. Donahue et al. (IET Syst. Biol. 4:249-262, 2010). In this approach, existing data is used to define a probability distribution on the parameters; the next measurement point is the one that yields the largest model output variance with this distribution. Building upon this approach, we introduce the Expected Dynamics Estimator (EDE), which is the expected value using this distribution of the output as a function of time. We prove the consistency of this estimator (uniform convergence to true dynamics) even when the chosen experiments cluster in a finite set of points. We extend this proof of consistency to various practical assumptions on noisy data and moderate levels of model mismatch. Through the derivation and proof, we develop a relaxed version of MINE that is more computationally tractable and robust than the original formulation. The results are illustrated with numerical examples on two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models of biomolecular and cellular processes. PMID:24522560

Dinh, Vu; Rundell, Ann E; Buzzard, Gregery T

2014-03-01

302

Experimental design for assessing the effectiveness of autonomous countermine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The countermine mission (CM) is a compelling example of what autonomous systems must address to reduce risks that Soldiers take routinely. The list of requirements is formidable and includes autonomous navigation, autonomous sensor scanning, platform mobility and stability, mobile manipulation, automatic target recognition (ATR), and systematic integration and control of components. This paper compares and contrasts how the CM is done today against the challenges of achieving comparable performance using autonomous systems. The Soldier sets a high standard with, for example, over 90% probability of detection (Pd) of metallic and low-metal mines and a false alarm rate (FAR) as low as 0.05/m2. In this paper, we suggest a simplification of the semi-autonomous CM by breaking it into three components: sensor head maneuver, robot navigation, and kill-chain prosecution. We also discuss the measurements required to map the system's physical and state attributes to performance specifications and note that current Army countermine metrics are insufficient to the guide the design of a semi-autonomous countermine system.

Chappell, Isaac; May, Michael; Moses, Franklin L.

2010-04-01

303

Experimental design and study of Free Rotor River Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Terrace irrigation along the rivers of Nepal is the vital problem of farmers in the remote villages. The existing turbines and irrigation systems are not feasible without civil structures, and suffer from the lack of resources and financial problems. A simple and inexpensive underwater Free Rotor River Turbine (FRRT) which extracts power ranging from a fraction of a HP up to 25 HP from the velocity of the running water in a river or stream was developed. The power obtained from the turbine can be used to run a pump to lift water for drinking purposes and for irrigation along the river banks during the dry season and early part of the wet season. Various designs of models have been tested in the laboratory to find the optimum pitch angle, shape and size of blades, and optimum number of blades in order to accomplish the cheapest, simplest, and most efficient turbine. The effect of diameter of turbine, velocity of water and torque produced by the turbines were studied,and the effect of simple linear twist on blades is discussed.

Nepali, D.B.

1987-01-01

304

The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Neural network algorithm for data-mining in dynamic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-mining analysis has two important processes: searching for patterns and model construction. From previous works finding that the Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) algorithm is successful and effective for data-mining. Conventional research in searching for patterns and modeling in data-mining is typically in a static state. Studies using a dynamic environment for data-mining are scarce. The artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm can

Ching-lien Huang; Tsung-shin Hsu; Chih-ming Liu

2009-01-01

305

Application of Taguchi method for the optimization of system parameters of centrifugal evaporative air cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaporative cooling system based on the action of centrifugal forces is proposed. Such systems are suitable for cooling large air volumes in tropical climates. Effects of geometrical and operational parameters on system performance are optimized using Taguchi method. It is observed that disc speed, air flow rate and water flow rate are found to have major influence on system performance and other parameter, viz., disc diameter, pin geometry, evaporation chamber length and orientation of pin have less influence.

Senthilkumar, K.; Srinivasan, Pss.

2010-10-01

306

Taguchi techniques-based study on the effect of mobile phone conversation on drivers' reaction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate application of the Taguchi method-based conceptual signal-to-noise (S\\/N) approach and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine optimum level of three important factors related to mobile phone conversation during driving, namely time of drive (day or night), distance between cars, and mobile phone call duration that minimizes drivers' reaction time

Zahid A. Khan; Ibrahim A. Al-Darrab

2010-01-01

307

The Burrs Formation Prediction and Minimization Based on the Optimal Cutting Parameters Design Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researches have shown the cutting parameters and the burrs formation are close related, but these relationships cannot be formed in a simple formula. The mechanism of burrs formation and its appearance occurred to the cutting material quite depends on the method of machining and cutting condition. Although the relationships are nonlinear, the residual burrs can be reduced significantly by selecting appropriate cutting parameters during machining. In this research, a series of cutting experiments that based on Taguchi experimental method has been conducted to explore the formation of burrs size and types under different cutting conditions. The relationship of cutting parameters and the burrs formation data are collected for further study. With the burr size as the evaluation index, cutting speed, feed-rate, and depth of cut are chosen to cut the medium carbon steel (S50C). The Taguchi Method and Artificial Neural Network are adapted to establish the burrs formation model, and then the neural network based on optimal design method as a tool in cutting parameters optimization is employed. The result shows the goal of reduce burrs size into a reasonable region can be accomplished by adjusting cutting parameters. The experiments proved the burrs size with the optimal design method can be reduced as much as 67 to 78% that comparing with experienced cutting condition. As this point of view, the parameters optimization operations by optimal parameters design method offer an effective tool to reduce the burrs size in machining.

Tseng, Pai-Chung; Chiou, I.-Chen

308

Experimental investigation of passive micromixers conceptual design using the layout optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the novel efficient passive micromixers conceptual design using the flexible layout optimization method. Utilizing the layout optimization method when designing passive micromixers results in decreased reliance on the experience and intuition of designers. The detailed layout of passive micromixers is obtained by solving a variational optimization problem, in which the manufacturability and periodicity of passive micromixers can be considered by adding the corresponding design constraints. The obtained micromixers are fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques. The mixing performance is evaluated by stereoscopic and confocal microscopes. The effectiveness of the layout optimization method is confirmed by a comparison of the numerical and experimental results.

Liu, Yongshun; Deng, Yongbo; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihui

2013-07-01

309

Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization  

PubMed Central

Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

2014-01-01

310

Applying the taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.  

PubMed

Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

2014-01-01

311

Design Study of Superconducting Magnets for Tokamak Experimental Fusion Reactor, (2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design study has been made of superconducting magnet system for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) of tokamak type. The system is composed of superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils, cryostat, mechanical support and cooling system. Described in ...

1980-01-01

312

Experimental Evaluation of the Battelle Accelerated Test Design for the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full-size modules, and electrical and physical eval...

P. O. Frickland J. Repar

1982-01-01

313

The Experimental Design and Operation of a Rotating Wickless Heat Pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental rotating wickless heat pipe apparatus was designed and machined. The apparatus includes a rotating heat pipe assembly, test stand, spray cooling assembly, safety shielding, and instrumentation. A revised condensing limit for the operation ...

T. J. Daley

1970-01-01

314

Demonstration of Decomposition and Optimization in the Design of Experimental Space Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective design strategies for a class of systems which may be termed Experimental Space Systems (ESS) are needed. These systems, which include large space antenna and observatories, space platforms, earth satellites and deep space explorers, have specia...

S. Padula C. A. Sandridge R. T. Haftka J. L. Walsh

1989-01-01

315

Optimized Multi-Modal-Operation Designs for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tokamak nonlinear optimization systems code TETRA has been expanded to contain the option of examining machine designs capable of ''multi-modal'' operations. The conceptual International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is an example of a ''b...

D. T. Blackfield L. J. Perkins R. S. Devoto M. E. Fenstermacher S. K. Ho

1988-01-01

316

Design Strategies Research: An Experimental Comparison of the Effectiveness of Planning Procedures. Volume II. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research is to compare the effectiveness of different design (or planning) methods. The research had two phases: literature search and model building, to isolate propositions, and experimental, which converted some of these propositions...

P. C. Nutt

1974-01-01

317

76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon AGENCY: National Marine...propose to designate the Middle Columbia River (MCR) steelhead (Oncorhynchus...

2011-05-18

318

Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A' in the 10-90 MeV/c2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

Cowan, Ray F.; DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-01

319

Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon  

SciTech Connect

This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

Cowan, Ray F. [MIT

2013-11-01

320

Experimental System Design of Wireless Power Transfer Based on Witricity Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless power transfer based on witricity technology is a new technology which energy can be transferred via coupled magnetic resonances in the non- radiative near-field. In order to verify its feasibility, coupled mode theory and power transfer system structure was proposed in this paper. Based on these analysis, The wireless power transfer experimental device is designed. Experimental results shows that

Yang Li; Qingxin Yang; Haiyan Chen; Xian Zhang; Zhuo Yan

2011-01-01

321

Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

2013-01-01

322

A Formative-Summative Evaluation Design for a State-Sponsored Program of Educational Experimentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation design created to provide information for a multiple-project program of educational experimentation is presented. Project SEED (State Experimentation in Educational Development) became an official education effort in North Carolina on July 1, 1971. Model for the program was that of the State's ESEA Title III program with certain…

Kniefel, Tanya M.

323

EXPERIMENTAL FAST CERAMIC REACTOR DESIGN STATUS REPORT AS OF OCTOBER 31, 1961  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design status of the Experimental Fast Ceramic Reactor (EFCR) is ; described for the period up to October 31, 1961. The primary purpose of the ; facility is to study the dynamic behavior of a fast ceramic reactor, including ; the experimental demonstration of the effectiveness of the Doppler coefficient in ; limiting the power excursion following a rapid

Horst; K. M. ed

1962-01-01

324

Design studies for the transmission simulator method of experimental dynamic substructuring.  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, a successful method for generating experimental dynamic substructures has been developed using an instrumented fixture, the transmission simulator. The transmission simulator method solves many of the problems associated with experimental substructuring. These solutions effectively address: (1) rotation and moment estimation at connection points; (2) providing substructure Ritz vectors that adequately span the connection motion space; and (3) adequately addressing multiple and continuous attachment locations. However, the transmission simulator method may fail if the transmission simulator is poorly designed. Four areas of the design addressed here are: (1) designating response sensor locations; (2) designating force input locations; (3) physical design of the transmission simulator; and (4) modal test design. In addition to the transmission simulator design investigations, a review of the theory with an example problem is presented.

Mayes, Randall Lee; Arviso, Michael

2010-05-01

325

Experimental Control and Threats to Internal Validity of Concurrent and Nonconcurrent Multiple Baseline Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Single-case research designs are often applied within school psychology. This article provides a critical review of the scientific merit of both concurrent and nonconcurrent multiple baseline (MB) designs, relative to their capacity to assess threats of internal validity and establish experimental control. Distinctions are established between AB…

Christ, Theodore J.

2007-01-01

326

A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

2013-01-01

327

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of fungal metabolites resolution optimized by experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal metabolites were extracted from two isolates of Penicillium commune and two isolates of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract agar (YES) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA). Optimized conditions for analysing the extracts by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) were obtained by experimental designs. The following nine factors were examined by a two-level fractional factorial design: concentration of the buffer

Marianne S. Nielsen; Per V. Nielsen; Jens C. Frisvad

1996-01-01

328

Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO3 decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications

Sung-Deok Hong; Chan-Soo Kim; Yong-Wan Kim; Dong-Un Seo; Goon-Cherl Park

329

Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

2014-01-01

330

Design Rules for Quantum Imaging Devices: Experimental Progress Using CMOS Single Photon Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We continue our previous program, where we introduced a set of quantum-based design rules directed at quantum engineers who design single-photon quantum communications and quantum imaging devices. Here, we report on experimental progress using SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) arrays of our design and fabricated in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Emerging high-resolution imaging techniques based on SPAD

Edoardo Charbon; Neil J. Gunther; Dmitri L. Boiko; Giordano B. Beretta

2006-01-01

331

Numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming in order\\u000a to achieve a large reduction in the volume of flash. A titanium TA2 watch-case-like component was used as an example. Sixteen\\u000a different shapes of hollow preforms were specially designed for finite-element simulation. Their diameters of the center-holes\\u000a were designed based on the values

Ting Fai Kong; Luen Chow Chan; Tai Chiu Lee

2008-01-01

332

Optimization of multi machining characteristics in WEDM of WC-5.3%Co composite using integrated approach of Taguchi, GRA and entropy method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a well known process for generating intricate and complex geometries in hard metal alloys and metal matrix composites with high precision. In present work, intricate machining of WC-5.3%Co composite on WEDM has been reported. Taguchi's design of experiment has been utilised to investigate the process parameters for four machining characteristics namely material removal rate, surface roughness, angular error and radial overcut. In order to optimize the four machining characteristics simultaneously, grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with entropy measurement method has been employed. Through GRA, grey relational grade has been computed as a performance index for predicting the optimal parameters setting for multi machining characteristics. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on grey relational grade, significant parameters affecting the multi-machining characteristics has been determined. Confirmatory results prove the potential of present approach.

Jangra, Kamal; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Aman

2012-09-01

333

A Computational/Experimental Study of Two Optimized Supersonic Transport Designs and the Reference H Baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two supersonic transport configurations designed by use of non-linear aerodynamic optimization methods are compared with a linearly designed baseline configuration. One optimized configuration, designated Ames 7-04, was designed at NASA Ames Research Center using an Euler flow solver, and the other, designated Boeing W27, was designed at Boeing using a full-potential method. The two optimized configurations and the baseline were tested in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Supersonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate the non-linear design optimization methodologies. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computational predictions for each of the three configurations from the Enter flow solver, AIRPLANE. The computational and experimental results both indicate moderate to substantial performance gains for the optimized configurations over the baseline configuration. The computed performance changes with and without diverters and nacelles were in excellent agreement with experiment for all three models. Comparisons of the computational and experimental cruise drag increments for the optimized configurations relative to the baseline show excellent agreement for the model designed by the Euler method, but poorer comparisons were found for the configuration designed by the full-potential code.

Cliff, Susan E.; Baker, Timothy J.; Hicks, Raymond M.; Reuther, James J.

1999-01-01

334

Use of Taguchi Design of Experiments to Optimize and Increase Robustness of Preliminary Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research performed this summer includes the completion of work begun last summer in support of the Air Launched Personnel Launch System parametric study, providing support on the development of the test matrices for the plume experiments in the Plume ...

H. R. Carrasco

1992-01-01

335

Product Robust Design and Process Robust Design: Are They the Same? (No.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi's ideas of robust parameter design motivated the development of the dual?response approach, where both the mean and the variance of the quality response are modeled in terms of the design parameters and noise factors. These are then used to identify optimal settings that achieve the dual objective of optimizing the signal (the mean) and minimizing variation. While much research

Haim Shore; Ram Arad

2003-01-01

336

Product and process design optimization by quality engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is concerned with product and process design optimization by quality engineering based on the work of Dr Taguchi, with emphasis on the optimization of dynamic systems and tolerance design. Various quality loss functions are presented in this thesis which can be used for quality evaluation. The goal of robust design for dynamic systems is to reduce the deviations

Guangming Chen

1990-01-01

337

An intelligent approach to robust multi-response process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet strict customer demands in a global highly-complex industrial sector, it is necessary to design manufacturing processes based on a clear understanding of the customer's requirements and usage of a product, by translating this knowledge into the process parameter design. This paper presents an integrative, general and intelligent approach to the multi-response process design, based on Taguchi's

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Zoran D. Miljkovic

2010-01-01

338

An intelligent approach to robust multi-response process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet strict customer demands in a global highly-complex industrial sector, it is necessary to design manufacturing processes based on a clear understanding of the customer's requirements and usage of a product, by translating this knowledge into the process parameter design. This paper presents an integrative, general and intelligent approach to the multi-response process design, based on Taguchi's

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Zoran D. Miljkovic

2011-01-01

339

Perspectives on Prediction Variance and Bias in Developing, Assessing, and Comparing Experimental Designs  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of response surface methods used in practice to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs focus on variance properties of designs. Because response surface models only approximate the true unknown relationships, models are subject to bias errors as well as variance errors. Beginning with the seminal paper of Box and Draper (1959) and over the subsequent 50 years, methods that consider bias and mean-squared-error (variance and bias) properties of designs have been presented in the literature. However, these methods are not widely implemented in software and are not routinely used to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs in practice. Methods for developing, assessing, and comparing response surface designs that account for variance properties are reviewed. Brief synopses of publications that consider bias or mean-squared-error properties are provided. The difficulties and approaches for addressing bias properties of designs are summarized. Perspectives on experimental design methods that account for bias and/or variance properties and on future needs are presented.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2010-12-01

340

[Diagnosis of liver diseases by classification of laboratory signal factor pattern findings with the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint method].  

PubMed

There are many autoimmune liver diseases in which diagnosis is difficult so that overlap is accepted, and this negatively affects treatment. The initial diagnosis is therefore important for later treatment and convalescence. We distinguished autoimmune cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis by the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint (MTA) method in the Mahalanobis·Taguchi system and analyzed the pattern of factor effects by the MTA method. As a result, the characteristic factor effect pattern of each disease was classified, enabling the qualitative evaluation of cases including overlapping cases which were difficult to diagnose. PMID:22306542

Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Uetake, Shinichirou; Takagi, Ichiro

2012-02-01

341

The effectiveness of family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. METHODS: Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r between program and effect variables ranged from -.08 to .09 and averaged .08. CONCLUSIONS: The programs evaluated in the studies considered have had, on average, smaller effects than many would assume and desire.

Bauman, K E

1997-01-01

342

Statistical process control and the Taguchi method: a comparative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most manufacturing processes do not produce completely identical characteristics for successive units of the same product. There are many different sources of manufacturing variability. Product design has a significant impact on manufacturing variability. The design flows of a particular product cannot be predicted, making it difficult to apply effectively traditional statistical process control (SPC) methods. In this article, a comparison

W. C. BENTON

1991-01-01

343

Color Stabilization of Low Toxic Antimicrobial Polypropylene\\/Poly(hexamethylene guanidine) Phosphate Blends by Taguchi Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color stabilization of antimicrobial blends was studied by using poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate (PHMG) as a highly efficient biocidal and nontoxic agent. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the blending of PHMG in polypropylene (PP) matrix. To improve the yellowing phenomena, two kinds of stabilizer were used together: tetrakis(methylene(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate))(IN1010) from phenol and tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenylphosphite) (IF168) from

Sangmook Lee; Jae Wook Lee

2009-01-01

344

Color stabilization of low toxic antimicrobial polypropylene\\/poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate blends by Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color stabilization of antimicrobial blends was studied by using poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate (PHMG) as a highly\\u000a efficient biocidal and nontoxic agent. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the blending of\\u000a PHMG in polypropylene (PP) matrix. To improve the yellowing phenomena, two kinds of stabilizer were used together: tetrakis[methylene(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate)](IN1010)\\u000a from phenol and tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenylphosphite) (IF168) from

Sangmook Lee; Jae Wook Lee

2009-01-01

345

Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: Experimental design and physical insights.  

PubMed

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems. PMID:24784263

Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

2014-04-28

346

Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: Experimental design and physical insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

2014-04-01

347

Design and performance of a piezoelectric actuated precise rotary positioner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries including semiconductor, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are seeking compact and reliable nanometer resolution positioning techniques. To address this demand, this article presents a friction-drive rotary stage driven by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) actuator. This stage includes a multilayer PZT actuator, the Scott-Russell mechanism, an actuation stage, a preload spring, and an output shaft. Its rotary positioning is accomplished by the stick-slip effect between the wire electrodischarge-machining rotary stage and the output shaft. Finite element analysis and Taguchi optimization method were extensively conducted to analyze the displacement, stress, and vibration behavior for optimum design. As shown by the experimental results, the stage achieved a resolution of 0.13 ?rad and a speed of 0.15°/h by tuning of the preload spring.

Wang, Y. C.; Chang, S. H.

2006-10-01

348

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

349

Experimental design as a source of sex bias in social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether there is evidence for sex bias in experimental design, abstracts of 312 experiments on interpersonal attraction and 244 experiments on aggression which used only male or only female subjects were coded according to types of variables studied. Results indicate that when females are subjects in experiments the independent variable manipulation is less likely to involve

Wendy McKenna; Suzanne J. Kessler

1977-01-01

350

An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

1979-01-01

351

Evaluation of factors influencing Co removal by calcinated bone sorbent using experimental design methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental design methodology was applied for evaluation of factors influencing Co sorption by thermally treated bovine bones. The major aim of this study was to determine factors which affect process the most, as well as their mutual interactions, in order to select conditions that provide maximum sorbent loading. Five process variables (sorbent mass, sorbate concentration, contact time, initial pH and

Ivana D. Smi?iklas; Marija Z. Šljivi?-Ivanovi?

2012-01-01

352

Shielding analysis and design of the KIPT experimental neutron source facility of Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility based on the use of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility [1]. The facility uses the existing electron accelerators of KIPT in Ukraine. The neutron source of the sub-critical

Z. Zhong; M. Y. A. Gohar; D. Naberezhnev; J. Duo

2008-01-01

353

Application of Statistical Experimental Design to the Development of Low-Density Polymer Foams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical experimental designs have been used to improve the development of low-density polymer foams for use as direct-drive targets for Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). For polystyrene foams, which are made by polymerization of a high-internal...

B. L. Haendler L. M. Hair F. M. Kong

1988-01-01

354

Application of Factorial and Response Surface Methodology in Modern Experimental Design and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically examines the use of factorial and response surface methodology in modern experimental design and optimization. A survey of important screening and optimization techniques in the literature since 2000 are presented. Current applications in biological, environmental and pharmaceutical analysis, food technology and industrial-related processes are examined.

Grady Hanrahan; Kenneth Lu

2006-01-01

355

An experimental study on the design parameters of a counterflow vortex tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental study, the design parameters and performances of counterflow vortex tubes are investigated. Under different inlet pressures, the thermal performance as a function of the following geometrical parameters is studied: the length of the vortex tube, the diameter of the inlet nozzle and the angle of the control valve. Three different working gases are comparatively tested: air, oxygen

Orhan Ayd?n; Muzaffer Baki

2006-01-01

356

Poly(vinyl alcohol)–collagen hydrolysate thermoplastic blends: I. Experimental design optimisation and biodegradation behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid blends based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and collagen hydrolysate (CH), an abundant, added value waste product of the leather industry, have been processed by melt blow extrusion to environmentally degradable films. Optimisation of the blend compositions was performed in respect of mechanical properties of the films. The experimental design method (DOE) was used for the understanding of the structure–property

P. Alexy; D. Bakoš; S. Hanzelová; L. Kukolíková; J. Kupec; K. Charvátová; E. Chiellini; P. Cinelli

2003-01-01

357

Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

2004-01-01

358

Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

Stallings, William M.

1993-01-01

359

An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

Simpson, Henry; And Others

1991-01-01

360

Design of a Solar Power Management System for an Experimental UAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a solar power management system (SPMS) for an experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is summarized. The system will provide power required for the on-board electronic systems on the UAV. The power management system mainly consists of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT), the battery management, and the power conversion stages. The MPPT stage attempts to obtain the

Jaw-Kuen Shiau; Der-Ming Ma; Pin-Ying Yang; Geng-Feng Wang; Jhij Hua Gong

2009-01-01

361

Measuring plant dispersal: an introduction to field methods and experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of plant dispersal is vital for understanding plant distribution and abundance at different scales. However, dispersal is difficult to measure and there is a lack of guidance for researchers new to the subject. In this paper we provide advice on methods for measuring dispersal in the field and approaches to experimental design. First, we encourage clear exposition of

James M. Bullock; Katriona Shea; Olav Skarpaas

2006-01-01

362

An evaluation of modified R -change effect size indices for single-subject experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study describes modification of change in R (?R ) indices used to describe a treatment's effect on the level and linear growth in outcome measures in single-subject experimental designs. A description of how to calculate each index, its standard error and associated test statistic is provided. A small simulation study was conducted to evaluate the Type I error

S. Natasha Beretvas; Hyewon Chung

2008-01-01

363

A factorial experimental design for oxidative thermal decomposition of low-density polyethylene waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative thermal decomposition was studied as a method to decompose low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic waste and produces valuable chemical feedstocks. The air feed rate, the reactor temperature, and the reaction time are the three most important factors affecting the liquid, the acid number, and the peroxide number. Regression equations were obtained according to a standard factorial experimental design and the

Adil Koç; Ali Y. Bilgesü; Rafig Alibeyli; M. Çetin Koçak

2004-01-01

364

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS USED TO DETECT CHANGES IN YIELDS OF CROPS EXPOSED TO ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of experimental designs used to detect changes in yield of crops exposed to simulated acidic rain was performed. Seed yields were determined from field-grown soybeans(Glycine max) exposed to simulated rainfalls in which all ambient rainfalls were excluded by automati...

365

Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-01-01

366

Determination of key variables affecting surface properties of UV curable coatings using experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of prepolymer (urethane acrylate or polyesteracrylate) type, triacrylate (trimethyolpropane triactylate or ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate) type and the concentration of silicone acrylate on the surface properties of UV cured films was studied. The effect of these variables on the pencil hardness and gloss was determined by using a full factorial experimental design. The results showed that the prepolymer type

H. K. Kim; J. G. Kim; J. W. Hong

2002-01-01

367

Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over The Wing (OTW) design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is demonstrated. Composite structures and digital engine controls are among the topics included.

1977-01-01

368

A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

2009-01-01

369

Teaching Experimental Design in Ecology, or How to Do Statistics Without a Bikini  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article emphasizes that when teaching statistics and experimental design, the subject must be communicated in such a way that the general concepts are well understood, even at the expense of mathematical details. A lesson plan for an entire course is outlined, applying this teaching philosophy.

Magnusson, William E.

2010-02-16

370

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

2006-08-03

371

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G.

2006-08-01

372

Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

Staveland, Lowell

1994-01-01

373

Designing specific protein-protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods  

PubMed Central

Given the importance of protein–protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity.

Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

2012-01-01

374

Efficient experimental design and analysis strategies for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a powerful approach for the detection of differential gene expression with both high-throughput and high resolution capabilities possible depending upon the experimental design chosen. Multiplex experimental designs are now readily available, these can be utilised to increase the numbers of samples or replicates profiled at the cost of decreased sequencing depth generated per sample. These strategies impact on the power of the approach to accurately identify differential expression. This study presents a detailed analysis of the power to detect differential expression in a range of scenarios including simulated null and differential expression distributions with varying numbers of biological or technical replicates, sequencing depths and analysis methods. Results Differential and non-differential expression datasets were simulated using a combination of negative binomial and exponential distributions derived from real RNA-Seq data. These datasets were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used differential expression analysis algorithms and to quantify the changes in power with respect to true and false positive rates when simulating variations in sequencing depth, biological replication and multiplex experimental design choices. Conclusions This work quantitatively explores comparisons between contemporary analysis tools and experimental design choices for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Seq. We found that the DESeq algorithm performs more conservatively than edgeR and NBPSeq. With regard to testing of various experimental designs, this work strongly suggests that greater power is gained through the use of biological replicates relative to library (technical) replicates and sequencing depth. Strikingly, sequencing depth could be reduced as low as 15% without substantial impacts on false positive or true positive rates.

2012-01-01

375

Near-optimal experimental design for model selection in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Motivation:?Biological systems are understood through iterations of modeling and experimentation. Not all experiments, however, are equally valuable for predictive modeling. This study introduces an efficient method for experimental design aimed at selecting dynamical models from data. Motivated by biological applications, the method enables the design of crucial experiments: it determines a highly informative selection of measurement readouts and time points. Results:?We demonstrate formal guarantees of design efficiency on the basis of previous results. By reducing our task to the setting of graphical models, we prove that the method finds a near-optimal design selection with a polynomial number of evaluations. Moreover, the method exhibits the best polynomial-complexity constant approximation factor, unless P = NP. We measure the performance of the method in comparison with established alternatives, such as ensemble non-centrality, on example models of different complexity. Efficient design accelerates the loop between modeling and experimentation: it enables the inference of complex mechanisms, such as those controlling central metabolic operation. Availability:?Toolbox ‘NearOED’ available with source code under GPL on the Machine Learning Open Source Software Web site (mloss.org). Contact:?busettoa@inf.ethz.ch Supplementary information:?Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Hauser, Alain; Krummenacher, Gabriel; Sunnaker, Mikael; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Ong, Cheng Soon; Stelling, Jorg; Buhmann, Joachim M.

2013-01-01

376

Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2013-08-01

377

Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.  

SciTech Connect

There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

2005-11-01

378

A method of fast, sequential experimental design for linearized geophysical inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for linear(ized) experimental design is developed for a determinant-based design objective function. This objective function is common in design theory and is used to design experiments that minimize the model entropy, a measure of posterior model uncertainty. Of primary significance in design problems is computational expediency. Several earlier papers have focused attention on posing design objective functions and opted to use global search methods for finding the critical points of these functions, but these algorithms are too slow to be practical. The proposed technique is distinguished primarily for its computational efficiency, which derives partly from a greedy optimization approach, termed sequential design. Computational efficiency is further enhanced through formulae for updating determinants and matrix inverses without need for direct calculation. The design approach is orders of magnitude faster than a genetic algorithm applied to the same design problem. However, greedy optimization often trades global optimality for increased computational speed; the ramifications of this tradeoff are discussed. The design methodology is demonstrated on a simple, single-borehole DC electrical resistivity problem. Designed surveys are compared with random and standard surveys, both with and without prior information. All surveys were compared with respect to a `relative quality' measure, the post-inversion model per cent rms error. The issue of design for inherently ill-posed inverse problems is considered and an approach for circumventing such problems is proposed. The design algorithm is also applied in an adaptive manner, with excellent results suggesting that smart, compact experiments can be designed in real time.

Coles, Darrell A.; Morgan, Frank Dale

2009-07-01

379

A robust experimental design method to optimize formulations of retinol solid lipid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A robust experimental design method was developed using a response surface methodology and models to facilitate the development process of retinol solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The SLNs were evaluated to determine how different parameters including lipid and surfactant affect size and encapsulation efficiency. This was conducted using factorial analysis and a robust design (RD) method was used to achieve optimal formulations. Two models were developed based on the RD principle and both mean and variance of the response characteristics were estimated functionally using the least squares method. They proved useful in formulation studies aiming to develop optimum by allowing a systematic and reliable design method. A model for maximizing the overall desirability represented by the geometric mean of all objectives was found to provide a better solution. The newly designed method provides useful information to characterize significant factors and obtain optimum formulations, thereby allowing a systematic and reliable design method. PMID:23137194

Jung, Youn Jung; Truong, Nguyen Khoa Viet; Shin, Sangmun; Jeong, Seong Hoon

2013-01-01

380

Multiperformance Optimization in Turning of Free-Machining Steel Using Taguchi Method and Utility Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the application of Taguchi method and the utility concept for optimizing the machining parameters in turning of free-machining steel using a cemented carbide tool. A set of optimal process parameters, such as feed rate, cutting speed, and depth of cut on two multiple performance characteristics, namely, surface roughness and metal removal rate (MRR) is developed. The experiments were planned as per L 9 orthogonal array. The optimal level of the process parameters was determined through the analysis of means (ANOM). The relative importance among the process parameters was identified through the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results indicated that the most significant process parameter is cutting speed followed by depth of cut that affect the optimization of multiple performance characteristics. The confirmation tests with optimal levels of machining parameters were carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization method. The optimization results revealed that a combination of higher levels of cutting speed and depth of cut along with feed rate in the medium level is essential in order to simultaneously minimize the surface roughness and to maximize the MRR.

Gaitonde, V. N.; Karnik, S. R.; Davim, J. Paulo

2009-04-01

381

Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

2009-01-01

382

Evaluation of the Deterioration Degree of Insulators for Breakers Using Chemical Analysis and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel evaluation technique of the deterioration degree of insulators for breakers using a chemical analysis and the Mahalanobis-Taguchi (MT) method. It is possible to evaluate the deterioration degree with great accuracy and nondestructively on-site by this technique without the effect of humidity and external noise such as electromagnetic wave. The mechanism of insulator's surface resistivity reduction

Shinsuke Miki; Hiroshi Okazawa; Hiroshi Inujima

2007-01-01

383

Mahalanobis-Taguchi System as a MultiSensor Based Decision Making Prognostics Tool for Centrifugal Pump Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based fault detection, isolation, and prognostics scheme is presented. The proposed scheme fuses data from multiple sensors into a single system level performance metric using Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and generates fault clusters based on MD values. MD thresholds derived from the clustering analysis are used for fault detection and isolation. When a fault is

Ahmet Soylemezoglu; Sarangapani Jagannathan; Can Saygin

2011-01-01

384

Introduction of R-LCS and comparative analysis with FSC and Mahalanobis-Taguchi method for Breast Cancer classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification for medical diagnosis is an important problem in the field of pattern recognition. We introduce a new method for classification based on repeated analysis of information tailored to small data sets - the Rote Learning Classifier System. Using the Wisconsin Breast Cancer study, this method was compared to three other methods of classification: Mahalanobis-Taguchi Systems, Finite State Classifiers, and

Benjamin Daniels; Steven M. Corns; Elizabeth A. Cudney

2012-01-01

385

Optimization of Deep Cryogenic Treatment Process for 100Cr6 bearing steel using the Grey Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to optimize the deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) process parameters for 100Cr6 bearing steel, based on the Taguchi method with grey relational analysis. The DCT parameters considered for the optimization are, the cooling rate, soaking temperature, soaking time, and tempering temperature, with the quality targets of dimensional stability, wear resistance, and hardness. As per the grey

R. Sri Siva; D. Mohan Lal; M. Arockia Jaswin

2012-01-01

386

Optimisation of electron-beam surface hardening of cast iron for high wear resistance using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the application of the Taguchi method to develop an optimised electron-beam surface hardening of cast iron for high wear resistance. The experiments were conducted on both the ductile and grey cast iron. The factors investigated during the surface-hardened process included the material matrix, the accelerating voltage, the electrical current, the travel velocity, the melted width, the beam

Jean Ming-der; Tzeng Yih-fong

2004-01-01

387

Exploring the effects of chemical composition in hot rolled steel product using Mahalanobis distance scale under Mahalanobis–Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of hot rolled steel product from the point of view of reaching the target mechanical property, based on chemical composition of the steel, is a common objective practiced in the industrial rolling mill. After examining the ability of measurement scale of Mahalanobis–Taguchi system in classifying the steel plate as “OK” or “Diverted”, study on the changing nature of Mahalanobis

Prasun Das; Shubhabrata Datta

2007-01-01

388

Optimization of the Cryogenic Treatment Process for En 52 Valve Steel Using the Grey-Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the optimization of the deep cryogenic treatment for En 52 valve steel using the Taguchi method in combination with the Grey relational analysis. The factors considered for the optimization are the cooling rate, soaking temperature, soaking period, and tempering temperature, each at three different levels. The mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, hardness, and wear resistance

M. Arockia Jaswin; D. Mohan Lal

2010-01-01

389

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

PubMed Central

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods.

Smith, Justin D.

2013-01-01

390

An optimal designed RCD snubber for DC-DC converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is first proposed that genetic algorithm and Taguchi method can be employed in the optimal design of DC-DC converter with RCD snubber. The purpose of this optimal design is to lower the spike voltage Vdsp of power switch and hence reduce the cost in manufacturing circuit. It is of great educational value for students and engineers.

C. K. Huang; H. H. Nien; S. K. Changchien; C. H. Chan; C. K. Chen

2008-01-01

391

Experimental modeling and design optimization of push-pull electret loudspeakers.  

PubMed

A fully experimental modeling technique and a design optimization procedure are presented in this paper for push-pull electret loudspeakers. Conventional electrical impedance-based parameter identification methods are not completely applicable to electret speakers due to the extremely weak electromechanical coupling. This prompts the development of an experimental technique for identifying the electroacoustic parameters of the electret speakers. Mechanical parameters are identified from the membrane velocity measured using a laser vibrometer. The voltage-force conversion factor and the motional impedance are estimated, with the aid of a test-box method. This experimentally identified model serves as the simulation platform for predicting the response of the electret loudspeaker and optimizing the design. Optimal parameters are calculated by using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to fulfill various design goals and constraints. Either the comprehensive search for various parameters or the simple search for the optimal gap distance can be conducted by this SA procedure. The results reveal that the optimized design has effectively enhanced the performance of the electret loudspeaker. PMID:20370008

Bai, Mingsian R; Wang, Chun-Jen; Chiang, Dar-Ming; Lin, Shu-Ru

2010-04-01

392

A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

Steeper, T.J. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (Tubal Cain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)); Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E. (Metco/Perkin-Elmer, Westbury, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

393

Design, Evaluation and Experimental Effort Toward Development of a High Strain Composite Wing for Navy Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This design development effort addressed significant technical issues concerning the use and benefits of high strain composite wing structures (Epsilon(sub ult) = 6000 micro-in/in) for future Navy aircraft. These issues were concerned primarily with the structural integrity and durability of the innovative design concepts and manufacturing techniques which permitted a 50 percent increase in design ultimate strain level (while maintaining the same fiber/resin system) as well as damage tolerance and survivability requirements. An extensive test effort consisting of a progressive series of coupon and major element tests was an integral part of this development effort, and culminated in the design, fabrication and test of a major full-scale wing box component. The successful completion of the tests demonstrated the structural integrity, durability and benefits of the design. Low energy impact testing followed by fatigue cycling verified the damage tolerance concepts incorporated within the structure. Finally, live fire ballistic testing confirmed the survivability of the design. The potential benefits of combining newer/emerging composite materials and new or previously developed high strain wing design to maximize structural efficiency and reduce fabrication costs was the subject of subsequent preliminary design and experimental evaluation effort.

Bruno, Joseph; Libeskind, Mark

1990-01-01

394

D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture are prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. However, recent advances in statistically-based experimental design have made it easier to evaluate interactions involving many chemicals...

395

An application of experimental design using mutually orthogonal Latin squares in conformational studies of peptides.  

PubMed

We address the question-can we use experimental design methods to investigate peptide conformation and identify conformational parameters that may contribute more significantly to the potential energy than others? We used mutually orthogonal Latin square design to sample the conformational space of peptides and analysed the samples using analysis of variance. We examined the equality of the effect of the torsion angles on the conformational potential energy. The results showed that different torsion angles contributed differently to the conformational energy. We are able to identify those parameters that may have to be more carefully considered in conformational studies of peptides. PMID:15033460

Vengadesan, K; Anbupalam, T; Gautham, N

2004-04-01

396

An experimental investigation of two 15 percent-scale wind tunnel fan-blade designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and modified NACA 65-series sections incorporated increased thickness on the upper surface, between the leading edge and the one-half-chord position. Twist and taper were the same for both blade designs. The fan blades with modified 65-series sections were found to have an increased stall margin when they were compared with the unmodified blades.

Signor, David B.

1988-01-01

397

Designation and Implementation of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology Virtual Experimental Platform Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explicitly discusses the designation and implementation thought and method of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology virtual experimental platform website construction. The instructional design of this platform mainly follows with the students-oriented constructivism learning theory, and the overall structure is subject to the features of teaching aims, teaching contents and interactive methods. Virtual experiment platform production and development should fully take the characteristics of network operation into consideration and adopt relevant technologies to improve the effect and speed of network software application in internet.

Gao, JinYue; Tang, Yin

398

Design, construction, and evaluation of an inhalation system for exposing experimental animals to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

An inhalation system was designed to expose experimental animals to aged and diluted sidestream smoke (ADSS), used as a surrogate for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The construction of the smoke generator and of the smoke dilution systems is described. Target ADSS concentrations in a 90-day inhalation study were 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/m3 of respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Data is presented on the physical and chemical composition of the smoke presented to animals at or near these target RSP concentrations. The design of the inhalation laboratory was shown to result in highly reproducible respirable aerosols that were effective surrogates of ETS. PMID:7942514

Ayres, P H; Mosberg, A T; Coggins, C R

1994-09-01

399

A bioinspired design principle for DNA nanomotors: Mechanics-mediated symmetry breaking and experimental demonstration.  

PubMed

DNA nanotechnology is a powerful tool to fabricate nanoscale motors, but the DNA nanomotors to date are largely limited to the simplistic burn-the-bridge design principle that prevents re-use of a fabricated motor-track system and is unseen in biological nanomotors. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to implement a conceptually new design principle by which a symmetric bipedal nanomotor autonomously gains a direction not by damaging the traversed track but by fine-tuning the motor's size. PMID:24602841

Cheng, Juan; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Loh, Iong Ying; Liu, Meihan; Wang, Zhisong

2014-05-15

400

Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

1991-01-01

401

Application of Taguchi approach to optimize friction stir welding parameters of polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and numerical results of butt friction stir welding of high density polyethylene. The FSW designed tool insulates the welded samples and preserves the heat gained from friction thus avoiding the appearance of blisters and splits after welding. The experimental tests, conducted according to combinations of process factors such as rotation speed, welding speed, pin diameter and

M. A. Rezgui; M. Ayadi; A. Cherouat; K. Hamrouni; A. Zghal; S. Bejaoui

2010-01-01

402

Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): Experimental Design and Boundary Conditions (Experiment 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilizes fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.; Stoll, D. K.; Dolan, A. M.; Lunt, D. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.

2011-01-01

403

Microstructural design and experimental validation of elastic metamaterial plates with anisotropic mass density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microstructure design of anisotropic resonant inclusions is investigated for the elastic metamaterial plate with the aid of the numerically based effective medium model. Experimental validation is then conducted in the anisotropic metamaterial plate through both harmonic and transient wave testing, from which the anisotropic effective dynamic mass density, group, and phase velocities are determined as functions of frequency. The strongly anisotropic mass density along two principal orientations is observed experimentally and the prediction from the experimental measurements agrees well with that from the numerical simulation. Finally, based on the numerically obtained effective dynamic properties, a continuum theory is developed to simulate different guided wave modes in the elastic metamaterial plate. Particularly, high-order guided wave coupling and repulsion as well as the preferential energy flow in the anisotropic elastic metamaterial plate are discussed.

Zhu, R.; Liu, X. N.; Huang, G. L.; Huang, H. H.; Sun, C. T.

2012-10-01

404

Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels ( Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found

Thomas Happi Emaga; Sébastien N. Ronkart; Christelle Robert; Bernard Wathelet; Michel Paquot

2008-01-01

405

Production of Lipase from Candida rugosa Using Cheese Whey through Experimental Design and Surface Response Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work investigates the production of lipases from Candida rugosa in a culture medium containing cheese whey and also determines the importance of the components of the used culture medium\\u000a using two experimental design and surface response methodology. When pure cheese whey was used as culture medium, the lipolytic\\u000a activity measured in the broth, after 120 h of fermentation, was

Giovana Tommaso; Bruna Souza de Moraes; Gabriela Cruz Macedo; Guilherme Sousa Silva; Eliana Setsuko Kamimura

406

Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

1982-01-01

407

All-digital 1-bit RSFQ Autocorrelator for Radioastronomy Applications: Design and Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of a Rapid SingleFlux-Quantum all-digital one-bit autocorrelator forsubmillimeter spectrometry applications, featuring4 GHz input signal bandwidth, double oversamplingquantizer, and 16 Mbps-per-channel output rate. Thecorrelator consists of a digital delay line with multiplicationand an array of accumulators with parallelread-out. We report experimental results for a 3-stagedelay line (294 Josephson junctions) and a 4 \\\\Theta 4 arrayof accumulators (288

Alexander V. Rylyakov; Stas V. Polonsky

1997-01-01

408

Optimization and enhancement of soil bioremediation by composting using the experimental design technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was the application of the experimental design technique to optimize the conditions for the bioremediation\\u000a of contaminated soil by means of composting. A low-cost material such as compost from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid\\u000a Waste as amendment and pyrene as model pollutant were used. The effect of three factors was considered: pollutant concentration\\u000a (0.1–2 g\\/kg),

Montserrat Sarrà; Antoni Sánchez

2010-01-01

409

Teaching neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design using animal models of psychiatric and neurological disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to integrate the teaching of neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design. For this purpose, seven case studies were developed in which animal models for several psychiatric and neurological diseases were descibed and in which neuroactive drugs used to treat or study these diseases were introduced. Groups of undergraduate students were assigned to one of these case studies and asked to give a classroom presentation in which 1) the disease and underlying pathophysiology are described, 2) face and construct validity of the animal model are discussed, and 3) a pharmacological experiment with the associated neuroactive drug to assess predictive validity is presented. After evaluation of the presentations, we found that the students had gained considerable insight into disease phenomenology, its underlying neurophysiology, and the mechanism of action of the neuroactive drug. Moreover, the assignment was very useful in the teaching of experimental design, allowing an indepth discussion of experimental control groups and the prediction of outcomes in these groups if the animal model were to display predictive validity. Finally, the highly positive responses in the student evaluation forms indicated that the assignment was of great interest to the students. Hence, the currently developed case studies constitute a very useful tool for teaching neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design.

Maarten C Morsink (Leiden University of Applied Science Biology); Danny F Dukers (Leiden University of Applied Science Biology and medical Laboratory Research)

2009-03-01

410

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

2003-08-01

411

Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

Ventrice, Carl

2009-04-01

412

Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

2012-12-01

413

Demonstration of decomposition and optimization in the design of experimental space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective design strategies for a class of systems which may be termed Experimental Space Systems (ESS) are needed. These systems, which include large space antenna and observatories, space platforms, earth satellites and deep space explorers, have special characteristics which make them particularly difficult to design. It is argued here that these same characteristics encourage the use of advanced computer-aided optimization and planning techniques. The broad goal of this research is to develop optimization strategies for the design of ESS. These strategics would account for the possibly conflicting requirements of mission life, safety, scientific payoffs, initial system cost, launch limitations and maintenance costs. The strategies must also preserve the coupling between disciplines or between subsystems. Here, the specific purpose is to describe a computer-aided planning and scheduling technique. This technique provides the designer with a way to map the flow of data between multidisciplinary analyses. The technique is important because it enables the designer to decompose the system design problem into a number of smaller subproblems. The planning and scheduling technique is demonstrated by its application to a specific preliminary design problem.

Padula, Sharon; Sandridge, Chris A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Walsh, Joanne L.

1989-01-01

414

Central Composite experimental design applied to removal of lead and nickel from sand.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to apply Central Composite experimental design in the removal of lead and nickel ions from sand by electrokinetic remediation. Sand was used for an initial study since it is inert, thus making it possible to analyze the parameters influencing the process. Central Composite Design was used to create an experimental program to provide data to model the effects of various factors on removal efficiency. The variables chosen were ion concentration (C), applied potential (E) and time (t). The mathematical relationship between removal efficiency and three significant independent variables can be approximated by a second-order quadratic model. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to describe the individual and interactive effects of three variables at five levels, combined according to a Central Composite Design. This study has shown that Central Composite Design can be applied to the removal of lead and nickel ions from sand, and it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information with the fewest experiments. PMID:19716231

Guaracho, V V; Kaminari, N M S; Ponte, M J J S; Ponte, H A

2009-12-30

415

The Langley Research Center CSI phase-0 evolutionary model testbed-design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology is described. The design philosophy, capabilities, and early experimental results are presented to introduce some of the ongoing CSI research at NASA-Langley. The testbed, referred to as the Phase 0 version of the CSI Evolutionary model (CEM), is the first stage of model complexity designed to show the benefits of CSI technology and to identify weaknesses in current capabilities. Early closed loop test results have shown non-model based controllers can provide an order of magnitude increase in damping in the first few flexible vibration modes. Model based controllers for higher performance will need to be robust to model uncertainty as verified by System ID tests. Data are presented that show finite element model predictions of frequency differ from those obtained from tests. Plans are also presented for evolution of the CEM to study integrated controller and structure design as well as multiple payload dynamics.

Belvin, W. K.; Horta, Lucas G.; Elliott, K. B.

1991-01-01

416

Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

1991-01-01

417

Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

418

Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide maximum information about unknown groundwater pumping in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design uses a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. The formulated optimization problem is non-convex and contains integer variables necessitating a combinatorial search. Given a realistic large-scale model, the size of the combinatorial search required can make the problem difficult, if not impossible, to solve using traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used to perform the global search; however, because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem still may be infeasible to solve. As a result, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimensionality. Then, the information matrix in the full model space can be searched without solving the full model. Results from a small-scale test case show identical optimal solutions among the GA, integer programming, and exhaustive search methods. This demonstrates the GA's ability to determine the optimal solution. In addition, the results show that a GA with POD model reduction is several orders of magnitude faster in finding the optimal solution than a GA using the full model. The proposed experimental design algorithm is applied to a realistic, two-dimensional, large-scale groundwater problem. The GA converged to a solution for this large-scale problem.

Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

2013-10-01

419

Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Processed by Repetitive Corrugation and Straightening Process using Taguchi Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severe plastic deformation process is capable of developing the submicron grain structures in metallic alloys and to improve the mechanical properties. Repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) processes are widely used in industries to compensate the high-strength metal plates components used in automobiles. In this work, an attempt has been made to study the influence of RCS parameters like strain rate, number of passes, and plate thickness to produce grain refinement in metallic alloys. Experiments were based on the Taguchi method and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was an effective tool to predict the degree of importance of the RCS parameters on grain size, microhardness, and tensile strength of RCS specimens. The results indicated that the number of passes has a major influence on the fine-grain refinement, followed by Al plate thickness and strain rate.

Siddesha, H. S.; Shantharaja, M.

2013-02-01

420

Optimization of hybrid PVD process of TiAlN coatings by Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taguchi method was applied to optimize the performances of TiAlN coatings deposited by hollow cathode discharge ion plating (HCDIP) and medium frequency magnetron sputtering ion plating (MFMSIP) hybrid physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating system. TiAlN coatings prepared by this coating system showed columnar microstructure with the preferred orientation of (1 1 1). The sensitive parameters on microhardness were total deposition pressure and substrate bias voltage, and the sensitive parameter on milling performance was substrate bias voltage. The optimum conditions were total deposition pressure: 0.9 Pa, flowrate of N 2: 250 sccm, substrate bias voltage: -120 V. And the confirming experiment obtained the optimum TiAlN coating with microhardness of 25.8 GPa, and the best TiAlN-coated end mill performed the milling length of 50.8 m.

Yu, Donghai; Wang, Chengyong; Cheng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Fenglin

2008-12-01

421

Experimental design for the optimization of copper biosorption from aqueous solution by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

An experimental design methodology was applied to study the effects of temperature, pH, biomass dose, and stirring speed on copper removal from aqueous solutions by Aspergillus terreus in a biosorption batch system. To identify the effects of the main factors and their interactions on copper removal efficiency and to optimize the process, a full 2(4) factorial design with central points was performed. Four factors were studied at two levels, including stirring speed (50-150 min(-1)), temperature (30-50°C), pH (4-6) and biosorbent dose (0.01-0.175 g). The main factors observed were pH and biomass dose, along with the interactions between pH and biomass, and stirring speed. The optimal operational conditions were obtained using a response surface methodology. The adequacy of the proposed model at 99% confidence level was confirmed by its high adjusted linear coefficient of determination (R(Adj)(2)=0.9452). The best conditions for copper biosorption in the present study were: pH 6, biosorbent dose of 0.175 g, stirring speed of 50 min(-1) and temperature of 50°C. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted copper removal efficiency was 68.52% (adsorption capacity of 15.24 mg/g). The difference between the experimental and predicted copper removal efficiency at the optimal conditions was 4.8%, which implies that the model represented very well the experimental data. PMID:21292385

Cerino-Córdova, F J; García-León, A M; Soto-Regalado, E; Sánchez-González, M N; Lozano-Ramírez, T; García-Avalos, B C; Loredo-Medrano, J A

2012-03-01

422

Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. Simultaneous maximization of aerodynamic efficiency and aggressive flight load carrying capacity are chosen as two design objectives. The design points on the Pareto optimal front thus achieved are compared with a baseline design to observe some designs with improved performance both aerodynamically and structurally. Reliability based optimization concludes the work where uncertainties in design variables, design parameters and modeling are considered to achieve designs satisfying specified reliability constraint.

Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

423

Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

1999-01-01

424

Design oriented simulation for plasma arc cutting consumables and experimental validation of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrode and nozzle erosion mechanisms in plasma arc cutting processes of mild steel have been studied while designing a prototype mono-gas plasma torch, operating in the range 25-160 A. The correlation between the distribution of different quantities inside the plasma chamber and the erosion mechanisms of the hafnium emitter surface and of the nozzle inner surfaces have been investigated by means of a 2D ANSYS FLUENT-based numerical model, with the final aim of optimizing the overall performances of the prototype. Modelling and numerical simulation have allowed better understanding of the physical phenomena evidenced by experimental results and have suggested successful design solutions for consumables (in particular nozzle, electrode and primary gas diffusers). The correlation between the results of experimental tests and numerical simulations has proven useful in overcoming the critical aspects initially pointed out, significantly improving the expected lifetime of consumables. Results have been analyzed with respect to plasma behaviour, and conclusions have been drawn, concerning the powerfulness of numerical simulation as a tool for designing plasma cutting torches.

Colombo, V.; Concetti, A.; Ghedini, E.; Dallavalle, S.

2011-06-01

425

Experimental verification of flextensional transducers designed by using topology optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flextensional transducer consist of a piezoceramic connected to a flexible structure which amplifies and changes the direction of generated piezoceramic displacement. In a previous work[1,2] these transducers were designed by using topology optimization method. In this work, some prototypes of these transducers were manufactured and experimental measurements were performed to characterize them. The prototypes were built by bonding a flexible structure manufactured by using a wire EDM machine to a piezoceramic with epoxy. As a result, the displacements obtained through laser interferometry at a given frequency and the electrical impedance curves are presented. The experimental results were compared with simulated results obtained by using a commercial finite element software (ANSYS), and the predicted amplification rate provided by these transducers were verified.

Nader, Gilder; Nelli Silva, Emilio C.; Adamowski, Julio C.

2001-08-01

426

Design, Simulation and Experimental Characteristics of Hydrogel-based Piezoresistive pH Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the investigations of a novel type of piezoresistive pH sensors exploiting the chemo-mechanical energy conversion due to hydrogel swelling. pH-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) (PVA-PAA) hydrogel is used for this aim. The pH sensor has been designed including a commercial piezoresistive pressure sensor chip, a hydrogel layer, and a rigid grid. Behaviour of pH sensor under swelling of polymer hydrogel has been simulated using finite element method (ANSYS). The sensor simulations have been performed using the experimental material parameters of PVA-PAA hydrogel. The sensor characteristics including the silicon diaphragm deflection and output voltage have been measured. There were good relative agreements between simulations and experimental results.

Trinh, Thong Quang; Sorber, Jorge; Gerlach, Gerald

427

Optimal experimental design for parameter estimation of a cell signaling model.  

PubMed

Differential equation models that describe the dynamic changes of biochemical signaling states are important tools to understand cellular behavior. An essential task in building such representations is to infer the affinities, rate constants, and other parameters of a model from actual measurement data. However, intuitive measurement protocols often fail to generate data that restrict the range of possible parameter values. Here we utilized a numerical method to iteratively design optimal live-cell fluorescence microscopy experiments in order to reveal pharmacological and kinetic parameters of a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) second messenger signaling process that is deregulated in many tumors. The experimental approach included the activation of endogenous phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) by chemically induced recruitment of a regulatory peptide, reversible inhibition of PI3K using a kinase inhibitor, and monitoring of the PI3K-mediated production of PIP(3) lipids using the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt. We found that an intuitively planned and established experimental protocol did not yield data from which relevant parameters could be inferred. Starting from a set of poorly defined model parameters derived from the intuitively planned experiment, we calculated concentration-time profiles for both the inducing and the inhibitory compound that would minimize the predicted uncertainty of parameter estimates. Two cycles of optimization and experimentation were sufficient to narrowly confine the model parameters, with the mean variance of estimates dropping more than sixty-fold. Thus, optimal experimental design proved to be a powerful strategy to minimize the number of experiments needed to infer biological parameters from a cell signaling assay. PMID:19911077

Bandara, Samuel; Schlöder, Johannes P; Eils, Roland; Bock, Hans Georg; Meyer, Tobias

2009-11-01

428

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. VI - Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available experimental two-dimensional cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of blade-profile performance. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.

Lieblein, Seymour

1955-01-01

429

Experimental design and capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous analysis of arbutin, kojic acid and hydroquinone in cosmetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical experimental design was used to optimize one micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (MEKC) for simultaneous analysis of arbutin (AR), kojic acid (KA) and hydroquinone (HQ). Untreated fused-silica capillaries were operated using a phosphate buffer (20mM, pH 6.5) under 20kV and detection at 200nm. Quantitative linear ranges were 20–200?g\\/ml for AR, 20–100?g\\/ml for KA and 8–80?g\\/ml for HQ with correlation

Yi-Hui Lin; Yi-Hsin Yang; Shou-Mei Wu

2007-01-01

430

Microarray RNA transcriptional profiling: part I. Platforms, experimental design and standardization.  

PubMed

This review summarizes, in a balanced and comprehensive manner, the various components of microarrays and their types, substrate architecture, platforms for microarray probe implementation, standardizations and confounders. The review is intended to familiarize the beginner with the principles of experimental design and the selection of an appropriate microarray platform. This parallel technology has revolutionized transcriptomic approaches to data profiling and has a major role in the identification of expressed genes, classification and diagnosis studies. The technology is still evolving and guidelines for standardization and reporting have been developed and are being improved. PMID:16824028

Ahmed, Farid E

2006-07-01

431

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

Clemons, A.

1979-01-01

432

An optimal design for process quality improvement: modelling and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research works on process quality improvement focus largely on the linkages between quality improvement cost and production economics such as set-up cost and defect rate reduction. This paper deals with the optimal design problem for process improvement by balancing the sunk investment cost and revenue increments due to the process improvement. We develop an optimal model based on Taguchi

Jen-Ming Chen; Jia-Chi Tsou

2003-01-01

433

Design and Experimental Performance of a Two Stage Partial Admission Turbine, Task B.1/B.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-inch mean diameter, two-stage turbine with partial admission in each stage was experimentally investigated over a range of admissions and angular orientations of admission arcs. Three configurations were tested in which first stage admission varied from 37.4 percent (10 of 29 passages open, 5 per side) to 6.9 percent (2 open, 1 per side). Corresponding second stage admissions were 45.2 percent (14 of 31 passages open, 7 per side) and 12.9 percent (4 open, 2 per side). Angular positions of the second stage admission arcs with respect to the first stage varied over a range of 70 degrees. Design and off-design efficiency and flow characteristics for the three configurations are presented. The results indicated that peak efficiency and the corresponding isentropic velocity ratio decreased as the arcs of admission were decreased. Both efficiency and flow characteristics were sensitive to the second stage nozzle orientation angles.

Sutton, R. F.; Boynton, J. L.; Akian, R. A.; Shea, Dan; Roschak, Edmund; Rojas, Lou; Orr, Linsey; Davis, Linda; King, Brad; Bubel, Bill

1992-01-01

434

Design and experimental verification for optical module of optical vector-matrix multiplier.  

PubMed

Optical computing is a new method to implement signal processing functions. The multiplication between a vector and a matrix is an important arithmetic algorithm in the signal processing domain. The optical vector-matrix multiplier (OVMM) is an optoelectronic system to carry out this operation, which consists of an electronic module and an optical module. In this paper, we propose an optical module for OVMM. To eliminate the cross talk and make full use of the optical elements, an elaborately designed structure that involves spherical lenses and cylindrical lenses is utilized in this optical system. The optical design software package ZEMAX is used to optimize the parameters and simulate the whole system. Finally, experimental data is obtained through experiments to evaluate the overall performance of the system. The results of both simulation and experiment indicate that the system constructed can implement the multiplication between a matrix with dimensions of 16 by 16 and a vector with a dimension of 16 successfully. PMID:23842187

Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Lin

2013-06-20

435

Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY86 FER): Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the study on safety for FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. The report consists of two chapters. The first chapter summarizes the FER system and describes FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including purification, isotope separation and storage. Probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA.

Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu

1987-08-01

436

Trapped Vortex Combustion Chamber: Design and Experimental Investigations Using Hydrogen as Fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of trapped vortex combustion chamber was undertaken as a part of ongoing research on micro combustion chamber using hydrogen as fuel. The reacting experimental studies were then carried out on the designed chamber. The fuel was injected directly into the cavity. The combustion was first initiated in the cavity with 3 % of the main flow air supplied in reverse direction to the fuel flow. The combustion in cavity was of rich type. Temperature levels in the range of 900 K were encountered in the cavity. Thereafter, diffusion combustion was initiated using the flame generated in the cavity. The temperature levels in this stage were in the range of 1,800 K. The overall pressure drop for a trapped vortex combustor was less than 5 % at all operating parameters.

Kulshreshtha, D. B.; Channiwala, S. A.

2014-01-01

437

Design and experimental study on FBG hoop-strain sensor in pipeline monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pipeline monitoring is an important task for the economic and safe operation of pipelines as well as for loss prevention and environmental protection. The circumferential strain is of significance in pipeline integrity monitoring. In this paper, an indirect pipeline corrosion monitoring method based on the circumferential strain measurement is firstly proposed, with main objectives at designing a circumferential strain measuring device. Combined with unique advantages of optical fiber sensing, an FBG hoop-strain sensor was designed and encapsulated. Its enhanced sensitivity mechanism in the circumferential strain measurement and manufacturing technique is detailed. The experimental study of the developed FBG hoop-strain sensor is conducted on a PVC model pipeline to investigate its characteristics, including reliability and some tentative dynamic tests. Results of model tests show that the FBG hoop-strain sensor demonstrates good performance in the circumferential strain measurement, and can be considered as a practical device for pipeline health monitoring.

Ren, Liang; Jia, Zi-guang; Li, Hong-nan; Song, Gangbing

2014-01-01

438

Flowing lead spallation target design for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design has been initiated for a flowing lead spallation target for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF. The lead is contained using Nb-1Zr as the structural material. This material was selected based on its favorable material properties as well as its compatibility with the flowing lead. Heat deposited in the lead and the Nb-1Zr container by the 800-MeV, 1-mA beam is removed by the flowing lead and transferred to helium via a conventional heat exchanger. The neutronic, thermal hydraulic, and stress characteristics of the system have been determined. In addition, a module to control the thaw and freeze of the lead has been developed and incorporated into the target system design. The entire primary target system (spallation target, thaw/freeze system, and intermediate heat exchanger) has been designed to be built as a contained module to allow easy insertion into an experimental ADTT blanket assembly and to provide multiple levels of containment for the lead. For the 800-MeV LAMPF beam, the target delivers a source of approximately 18 neutrons/proton. A total of 540 kW are deposited in the target. The lead temperature ranges from 400 to 500 C. The peak structural heating occurs at the beam interface, and the target is designed to maximize cooling at this point. An innovative thin-window structure has been incorporated that allows direct, convective cooling of the window by the inlet flowing lead. Safe, and reliable operation of the target has been maximized through simple, robust engineering

Beard, C.A.; Bracht, R.R.; Buksa, J.J. [and others

1994-08-01

439

Experimental and numerical characterization of multi-actuated piezoelectric device designs using topology optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-actuators piezoelectric devices consist of a multi-flexible structure actuated by two or more piezoceramic portions, whose differing output displacements and forces are tailored according to the excitation properties of the piezoceramic materials and the desired working locations and directions of movement. Such devices have a wide range of application in performing biological cell manipulation, for microsurgery, and in nanotechnology equipment, and the like. However, the design of multi-flexible structures is a highly complex task since the devices have many degrees of freedom and, employ a variety of piezoceramics, but must carefully tune the movement coupling among the device parts to prevent motion in undesirable directions. In prior research, topology optimization techniques have been applied to the design of devices having minimum movement coupling among the piezoceramic parts, and in this work a number of these devices were manufactured and experimentally analyzed to validate the results of the topology optimization. X-Y nanopositioners consisting of two piezoceramic portions were addressed and designs considering low and high degrees of coupling between desired and undesirable displacements were investigated to evaluate the performance of the design method. Prototypes were manufactured in aluminum using a wire EDM process, and bonded to piezoceramics (PZT5A) polarized in the thickness direction and working in d31 mode. Finite element simulations were carried out using the commercial ANSYS software application. Experimental analyses were conducted using laser interferometry to measure displacement, while considering a quasi-static excitation. The coupling between the X-Y movements was measured and compared with FEM results, which showed that the coupling requirements were adequately achieved.

Carbonari, Ronny Calixto; Nader, Gilder; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

2005-05-01

440

Flowing lead spallation target design for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design has been initiated for a flowing lead spallation target for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF. The lead is contained using Nb-1Zr as the structural material. This material was selected based on its favorable material properties as well as its compatibility with the flowing lead. Heat deposited in the lead and the Nb-1Zr container by the 800-MeV, 1-mA beam is removed by the flowing lead and transferred to helium via a conventional heat exchanger. The neutronic, thermal hydraulic, and stress characteristics of the system have been determined. In addition, a module to control the thaw and freeze of the lead has been developed and incorporated into the target system design. The entire primary target system (spallation target, thaw/freeze system, and intermediate heat exchanger) has been designed to be built as a contained module to allow easy insertion into an experimental ADTT blanket assembly and to provide multiple levels of containment for the lead. For the 800-MeV LAMPF beam, the target delivers a source of approximately 18 neutrons/proton. A total of 540 kW are deposited in the target. The lead temperature ranges from 400 to 500 C. The peak structural heating occurs at the beam interface, and the target is designed to maximize cooling at this point. An innovative thin-window structure has been incorporated that allows direct, convective cooling of the window by the inlet flowing lead. Safe and reliable operation of the target has been maximized through simple, robust engineering.

Beard, C. A.; Bracht, R. R.; Buksa, J. J.; Chaves, W.; DeVolder, B. G.; O'Brien, H.; Park, J. J.; Parker, R. B.; Pillai, C.; Potter, R. C.; Reid, R. S.; Trujillo, D. A.; Vela, O. A.; Venneri, F.; Weinacht, D. J.; Wender, S. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Woloshun, K. A.

1995-09-01

441

Real-time detection of grip length during fastening of bolted joints: a Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) based methodology that detects grip length of bolted joints in real-time\\u000a during fastening. Grip length is the length of the unthreaded portion of a bolt shaft. When the total thickness of joining\\u000a members is greater than the grip length of the bolt, it is called under-grip, which compromises the structural integrity of\\u000a a

Can Saygin; Deepak Mohan; Jagannathan Sarangapani

2010-01-01

442

The optimum Ga-67-citrate gamma camera imaging quality factors as first calculated and shown by the Taguchi's analysis.  

PubMed

In this work gallium-67 ((67)Ga) gamma camera imaging quality was optimized using the Taguchi's analysis and a planar phantom. The acrylic planar phantom was LASER-cut to form groups of slits 1mm wide and 5mm deep, to determine the spatial resolution and contrast ratio that could be achieved in a (67)Ga citrate nuclear medicine examination. The (67)Ga-citrate solution was injected into the slits to form an active radioactive line source which was placed between regular acrylic plates for optimization. Then, nine combinations of four operating factors: L9 (3((4)), of the gamma camera imaging system were used and followed the Taguchi's analysis. The four operating factors were: a) the type of collimator in front of the NaI(Tl) detector, b) the region of interest of (67)Ga gamma rays spectrum, c) the scanning speed of NaI(Tl) detector head and d) the activity of (67)Ga. The original judged grade of the planar phantom image quality was increased 36% and factors a) and b) were confirmed to dominate. The cross interaction among factors was also discussed. Our results showed that the optimal factor settings of the gamma camera imaging system were verified by performing a routine nuclear medicine examination in ten cases. Nine cases showed the same optimal settings as estimated by three highly trained radio-diagnostic physicians. Additionally, the optimal setting yielded clearer images with greater contrast than did the conventional settings. In conclusion, this work suggests for practical use an optimized process for determining both the spatial resolution and the contrast ratio of a gamma camera imaging system using Taguchi's optimal analysis and a planar phantom. The Taguchi's method is most effective in targeting a single quality characteristic but can also be extended to satisfy multiple requirements under specific conditions by revising the definition of signal to noise ratio. PMID:23529390

Yeh, Da Ming; Chang, Pai Jung; Pan, Lung Kwang

2013-01-01

443

Application of Taguchi method to selection of optimal lubrication and cutting conditions in face milling of AlMg 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize the cutting parameters in face milling when machining AlMg3 (EN AW 5754) with HSS (high speed steel) tool under semi-finishing conditions in order to get the best surface roughness and the minimum power consumption. Beside the conventional flood lubrication, the investigations include the minimal quantity lubrication and the

Domnita Fratila; Cristian Caizar

2011-01-01

444

Experimental Testing of Rockfall Barriers Designed for the Low Range of Impact Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the recent research on rockfall and the development of protective systems, such as flexible rockfall barriers, have been focused on medium to high levels of impacting energy. However, in many regions of the world, the rockfall hazard involves low levels of energy. This is particularly the case in New South Wales, Australia, because of the nature of the geological environments. The state Road and Traffic Authority (RTA) has designed various types of rockfall barriers, including some of low capacity, i.e. 35 kJ. The latter were tested indoors using a pendulum equipped with an automatic block release mechanism triggered by an optical beam. Another three systems were also tested, including two products designed by rockfall specialised companies and one modification of the initial design of the RTA. The research focused on the influence of the system's stiffness on the transmission of load to components of the barrier such as posts and cables. Not surprisingly, the more compliant the system, the less loaded the cables and posts. It was also found that removing the intermediate cables and placing the mesh downslope could reduce the stiffness of the system designed by the RTA. The paper concludes with some multi-scale considerations on the capacity of a barrier to absorb the energy based on experimental evidence.

Buzzi, O.; Spadari, M.; Giacomini, A.; Fityus, S.; Sloan, S. W.

2013-07-01

445

Design and Computational/Experimental Analysis of Low Sonic Boom Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have shown that inviscid CFD codes combined with a planar extrapolation method give accurate sonic boom pressure signatures at distances greater than one body length from supersonic configurations if either adapted grids swept at the approximate Mach angle or very dense non-adapted grids are used. The validation of CFD for computing sonic boom pressure signatures provided the confidence needed to undertake the design of new supersonic transport configurations with low sonic boom characteristics. An aircraft synthesis code in combination with CFD and an extrapolation method were used to close the design. The principal configuration of this study is designated LBWT (Low Boom Wing Tail) and has a highly swept cranked arrow wing with conventional tails, and was designed to accommodate either 3 or 4 engines. The complete configuration including nacelles and boundary layer diverters was evaluated using the AIRPLANE code. This computer program solves the Euler equations on an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. Computations and wind tunnel data for the LBWT and two other low boom configurations designed at NASA Ames Research Center are presented. The two additional configurations are included to provide a basis for comparing the performance and sonic boom level of the LBWT with contemporary low boom designs and to give a broader experiment/CFD correlation study. The computational pressure signatures for the three configurations are contrasted with on-ground-track near-field experimental data from the NASA Ames 9x7 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Computed pressure signatures for the LBWT are also compared with experiment at approximately 15 degrees off ground track.

Cliff, Susan E.; Baker, Timothy J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

1999-01-01

446

Supersonic Retro-Propulsion Experimental Design for Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of supersonic retro-propulsion, an enabling technology for heavy payload exploration missions to Mars, is the primary focus for the present paper. A new experimental model, intended to provide computational fluid dynamics model validation data, was recently designed for the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2. Pre-test computations were instrumental for sizing and refining the model, over the Mach number range of 2.4 to 4.6, such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separation issues would be minimized. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody, which accommodates up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was developed for this study based on the computational results. The model was designed to allow for a large number of surface pressure measurements on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Some preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, although detailed analyses of the data and uncertainties are still on going.

Berry, Scott A.; Laws, Christopher T.; Kleb, W. L.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Spells, Courtney; McCrea, Andrew C.; Truble, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Oberkampf, William L.

2011-01-01

447

Experimental design for the evaluation of struvite sedimentation obtained from an ammonium concentrated wastewater.  

PubMed

Chemical precipitation of struvite as a technique of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) removal from concentrated wastewater has been shown to be an attractive alternative due to its high effectiveness, reaction rate, simplicity, environmental sustainability and, especially, the application potential of the generated solids for the fertilizer industry. The technique of experimental design has been used in order to identify and evaluate the optimum conditions of chemical precipitation reaction applied in a struvite sedimentation study. The preliminary tests were performed using synthetic effluent with a concentration equal to 500.0 mg N L(-1). The stoichiometric ratio Mg:NH(4):PO(4) equal to 1.5:1.0:1.25 and pH equal to 8.5 were taken to be the optimum conditions, where a NH(4)-N removal equal to 98.6% was achieved with only 10-min reaction time. This condition has been used to evaluate the struvite sedimentation from synthetic wastewaters, intending to check the optimum conditions achieved by the experimental design in different initial concentrations, 1,000 and 2,000 mg N L(-1). The results were typical of a good zonal sedimentation and can be used in the scale up the system. PMID:24135111

Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Araújo, Mahira Adna Cota; Lange, Liséte Celina

2013-01-01

448

Experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first experimental validation of an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures. The Controls-Structures-Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model, a laboratory test bed at Langley, is redesigned based on the integrated design methodology with two different dissipative control strategies. The redesigned structure is fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally compared with the original test structure. Design guides are proposed and used in the integrated design process to ensure that the resulting structure can be fabricated. Experimental results indicate that the integrated design requires greater than 60 percent less average control power (by thruster actuators) than the conventional control-optimized design while maintaining the required line-of-sight performance, thereby confirming the analytical findings about the superiority of the integrated design methodology. Amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is considered and evaluated analytically and experimentally. This work also demonstrates the capabilities of the Langley-developed design tool CSI DESIGN which provides a unified environment for structural and control design.

Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliott, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Walz, Joseph E.

1994-11-01