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1

Statistical analysis of sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals using Taguchi experimental design  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals. ? Using Taguchi experimental design (L9) for optimizing the experimental procedure. ? The significant effects of all the ultrasonic parameters on the response. - Abstract: SAPO-34 nanocrystals with high crystallinity were synthesized by means of sonochemical method. An L9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was implemented to investigate the effects of sonication conditions on the preparation of SAPO-34 with respect to crystallinity of the final product phase. The experimental data establish the favorable phase crystallinity which is improved by increasing the ultrasonic power and the sonication temperature. In the case of ultrasonic irradiation time, however, an initial increases in crystallinity from 5 min to 15 min is followed by a decrease in crystallinity for longer sonication time.

Askari, Sima [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halladj, Rouein, E-mail: halladj@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Mahdi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-05-15

2

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. (Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States)); Riggs, W.L. II (TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

3

A Taguchi experimental design study of twin-wire electric arc sprayed aluminum coatings  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted on the twin-wire electric arc spraying of aluminum coatings. This aluminum wire system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic experiments. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical process parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, optical metallography, and image analysis. The paper discusses coating qualities with respect to hardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The study attempts to correlate the features of the coatings with the changes in operating parameters. A numerical model of the process is presented including gas, droplet, and coating dynamics.

Steeper, T.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Johnson, R.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R. [Hobart-Tafa Corp., Concord, NH (United States); Riggs, W.L. II [TubalCain Co., Loveland, OH (United States)

1992-08-01

4

Parametric appraisal of process parameters for adhesion of plasma sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings using Taguchi experimental design.  

PubMed

This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones. PMID:24288490

Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

2013-01-01

5

Parametric Appraisal of Process Parameters for Adhesion of Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured YSZ Coatings Using Taguchi Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56?MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones. PMID:24288490

Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K.; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

2013-01-01

6

Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.  

PubMed

'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

2012-09-01

7

Designing simulation experiments: Taguchi methods and response surface metamodels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genichi Taguchi has made an innovative contribution to quality planning activities through the integrated use of loss functions and orthogonal arrays. In this tutorial, we focus on the improvement and implementation of certain of these techniques in the simulation arena. The orthogonal arrays advocated by Taguchi are related to classical experimental designs, which have played important tactical roles in the

John S. Ramberg; Susan M. Sanchez; Paul J. Sanchez; Ludwig J. Hollick

1991-01-01

8

Metal recovery enhancement using Taguchi style experimentation  

SciTech Connect

In the remelting of scrap, the ultimate goal is to produce clean aluminum while minimizing metal losses. Recently, it has become more difficult to make significant recovery improvements in Reynolds` Reclamation Plants since metal recoveries were nearing the theoretical maximum. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the factors impacting Reynolds remelting process, a series of experiments using a Taguchi-type design was performed. Specifically, the critical variables and interactions affecting metal recovery of shredded, delacquered Used Beverage Containers (UBC) melted in a side-well reverbatory furnace were examined. This furnace was equipped with plunger-style puddlers and metal circulation. Both delacquering and melting processes operated continuously with downtime only for necessary mechanical repairs. The experimental design consisted of an orthogonal array with eight trials, each using nominal 500,000 lb shred charge volumes. Final recovery results included molten output and metal easily recovered from dross generated during the test.

Wells, P.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Manufacturing Technology Lab.; Andreas, R.E.; Fox, T.M. [Reynolds Metals Co., Sheffield, AL (United States). Alabama Reclamation Plant

1995-12-31

9

Optimization of experimental parameters based on the Taguchi robust design for the formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals by solvothermal method  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Taguchi robust design can be applied to study ZnO nanocrystal growth. {yields} Spherical-like and rod-like shaped of ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained from solvothermal method. {yields} [NaOH]/[Zn{sup 2+}] ratio plays the most important factor on the aspect ratio of prepared ZnO. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and nanorods were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process. Taguchi robust design was applied to study the factors which result in stronger ZnO nanocrystal growth. The factors which have been studied are molar concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate, amount of polymer templates and molecular weight of polymer templates. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results show that the concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate ratio has the greatest effect on ZnO nanocrystal growth.

Yiamsawas, Doungporn; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)] [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong, E-mail: wiyong@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)] [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

10

Assessing the applicability of the Taguchi design method to an interrill erosion study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-factorial experimental designs have been used in soil erosion studies, but are time, cost and labor intensive, and sometimes they are impossible to conduct due to the increasing number of factors and their levels to consider. The Taguchi design is a simple, economical and efficient statistical tool that only uses a portion of the total possible factorial combinations to obtain the results of a study. Soil erosion studies that use the Taguchi design are scarce and no comparisons with full-factorial designs have been made. In this paper, a series of simulated rainfall experiments using a full-factorial design of five slope lengths (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 m), five slope gradients (18%, 27%, 36%, 48%, and 58%), and five rainfall intensities (48, 62.4, 102, 149, and 170 mm h-1) were conducted. Validation of the applicability of a Taguchi design to interrill erosion experiments was achieved by extracting data from the full dataset according to a theoretical Taguchi design. The statistical parameters for the mean quasi-steady state erosion and runoff rates of each test, the optimum conditions for producing maximum erosion and runoff, and the main effect and percentage contribution of each factor obtained from the full-factorial and Taguchi designs were compared. Both designs generated almost identical results. Using the experimental data from the Taguchi design, it was possible to accurately predict the erosion and runoff rates under the conditions that had been excluded from the Taguchi design. All of the results obtained from analyzing the experimental data for both designs indicated that the Taguchi design could be applied to interrill erosion studies and could replace full-factorial designs. This would save time, labor and costs by generally reducing the number of tests to be conducted. Further work should test the applicability of the Taguchi design to a wider range of conditions.

Zhang, F. B.; Wang, Z. L.; Yang, M. Y.

2015-02-01

11

Taguchi's experimental design for optimizing the production of novel thermostable polypeptide antibiotic from Geobacillus pallidus SAT4.  

PubMed

Polypeptide antimicrobials used against topical infections are reported to obtain from mesophilic bacterial species. A thermophilic Geobacillus pallidus SAT4 was isolated from hot climate of Sindh Dessert, Pakistan and found it active against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10400 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189. The current experiment was designed to optimize the production of novel thermostable polypeptide by applying the Taguchi statistical approach at various conditions including the time of incubation, temperature, pH, aeration rate, nitrogen, and carbon concentrations. There were two most important factors that affect the production of antibiotic including time of incubation and nitrogen concentration and two interactions including the time of incubation/pH and time of incubation/nitrogen concentration. Activity was evaluated by well diffusion assay. The antimicrobial produced was stable and active even at 55°C. Ammonium sulphate (AS) was used for antibiotic recovery and it was desalted by dialysis techniques. The resulted protein was evaluated through SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that novel thermostable protein produced by Geobacillus pallidus SAT4 is stable at higher temperature and its production level can be improved statistically at optimum values of pH, time of incubation and nitrogen concentration the most important factors for antibiotic production. PMID:24374431

Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmed, Safia; Ismail, Tariq; Hameed, Abdul

2014-01-01

12

Application of Taguchi L32 orthogonal array design to optimize copper biosorption by using Spaghnum moss.  

PubMed

In this work, Taguchi L32 experimental design was applied to optimize biosorption of Cu(2+) ions by an easily available biosorbent, Spaghnum moss. With this aim, batch biosorption tests were performed to achieve targeted experimental design with five factors (concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature and agitation time) at two different levels. Optimal experimental conditions were determined by calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Higher is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain high metal removal efficiencies. The impact ratios of factors were determined by the model. Within the study, Cu(2+) biosorption efficiencies were also predicted by using Taguchi method. Results of the model showed that experimental and predicted values were close to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach. Furthermore, thermodynamic, isotherm and kinetic studies were performed to explain the biosorption mechanism. Calculated thermodynamic parameters were in good accordance with the results of Taguchi model. PMID:25011119

Ozdemir, Utkan; Ozbay, Bilge; Ozbay, Ismail; Veli, Sevil

2014-09-01

13

A comparison of central composite design and Taguchi method for optimizing Fenton process.  

PubMed

In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye:Fe(+2), H2O2:Fe(+2), and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L 9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications. PMID:25258741

Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

2014-01-01

14

A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye?:?Fe+2, H2O2?:?Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications. PMID:25258741

Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

2014-01-01

15

Determining optimal operation parameters for reducing PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ values) from the iron ore sintering process by using the Taguchi experimental design.  

PubMed

This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (including sinter, hematite, and limonite), were selected for conducting experiments in a pilot scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt%, Hb = 500 mm, Ps = 1000 mmH2O, and hearth layer = hematite) could decrease the emission factor of total PCDD/Fs (total EF(PCDD/Fs)) up to 62.8% by reference to the current operating condition of the real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and hearth layer = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Wc was the most significant parameter in determining total EF(PCDD/Fs (accounting for 74.7% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). The resultant optimal combination could also enhance slightly in both sinter productivity and sinter strength (30.3 t/m2/day and 72.4%, respectively) by reference to those obtained from the reference operating condition (29.9 t/m (2)/day and 72.2%, respectively). The above results further ensure the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter production without interfering its sinter productivity and sinter strength. PMID:18754384

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

2008-07-15

16

Application of Taguchi Philosophy for Optimization of Design Parameters in a Rectangular Enclosure with Triangular Fin Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an optimum parametric design yielding maximum heat transfer has been suggested using Taguchi Philosophy. This statistical approach has been applied to the results of an experimental parametric study conducted to investigate the influence of fin height (L); fin spacing (S) and Rayleigh number (Ra) on convection heat transfer from triangular fin array within a vertically oriented rectangular enclosure. Taguchi's L9 (3**3) orthogonal array design has been adopted for three different levels of influencing parameters. The goal of this study is to reach maximum heat transfer (i.e. Nusselt number). The dependence of optimum fin spacing on fin height has been also reported. The results proved the suitability of the application of Taguchi design approach in this kind of study, and the predictions by the method are reported in very good agreement with experimental results. This paper also compares the application of classical design approach with Taguchi's methodology used for determination of optimum parametric design

Dwivedi, Ankur; Das, Debasish

2015-03-01

17

A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

1991-01-01

18

A Parameter Design Study In a Turning Operation Using The Taguchi Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern manufacturers, seeking to remain competitive in the market, rely on their manufacturing engineers and production personnel to quickly and effectively set up manufacturing processes for new products. Taguchi Parameter Design is a powerful and efficient method for optimizing quality and performance output of manufacturing processes, thus a powerful tool for meeting this challenge. This paper discusses an investigation into the use of Taguchi Parameter Design for optimizing surface roughness generated by a CNC turning operation. This study utilizes a standard orthogonal array for determining the optimum turning parameters, with an applied noise factor. Controlled factors include spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut; and the noise factor is slightly damaged jaws. The noise factor is included to increase the robustness and applicability of this study. After experimentally turning sample workpieces using the selected orthogonal array and parameters, this study produced a verified combination of controlled factors and a predictive equation for determining surface roughness with a given set of parameters.

Kirby, Daniel

19

Prediction of surface roughness in CNC face milling using neural networks and Taguchi's design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a neural network modeling approach is presented for the prediction of surface roughness (Ra) in CNC face milling. The data used for the training and checking of the networks’ performance derived from experiments conducted on a CNC milling machine according to the principles of Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) method. The factors considered in the experiment were

P. G Benardos; G. C Vosniakos

2002-01-01

20

Taguchi statistical design and analysis of cleaning methods for spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we have extensively tested various cleaning protocols. The variant parameters included the type and concentration of solvent, type of wipe, pretreatment conditions, and various rinsing systems. Taguchi statistical method was used to design and evaluate various cleaning conditions on ten common spacecraft materials.

Lin, Y.; Chung, S.; Kazarians, G. A.; Blosiu, J. O.; Beaudet, R. A.; Quigley, M. S.; Kern, R. G.

2003-01-01

21

Optimal Condition of Happiness: Application of Taguchi Robust Parameter Design on Evidences from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present empirical paper attempts to quantify the optimal condition of happiness, measured in terms of subjective wellbeing (SWB), by using Taguchi Robust Parameter Design. The study uses evidences from survey conducted in New Delhi across various segment of people covering 193 respondents. Responses on a total of 25 sources of happiness pertaining to three broad facets- domain satisfaction, lifetime

Prabhat Pankaj; Roma Mitra Debnath

22

Application of the Taguchi method to chip scale package (CSP) design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear finite element model of an overmolded chip scale package (CSP) on flex-tape carrier has been developed by using ANSYSTM finite element simulation code. The model has been used to optimize the package for robust design and to determine design rules to keep package warpage within acceptable Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) limits. An L18 Taguchi

Atila Mertol

2000-01-01

23

Application of Taguchi method to robust design of BLDC motor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to the design of brushless dc motors considering cogging torque reduction and running torque optimization to enhance the product robustness. The approach is based on the Taguchi method and utilizes the orthogonal array for design of `'experiments', i.e. the scheme for numerical simulations using a finite element method. The concept of signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio is

H. T. Wang; Z. J. Liu; S. X. Chen; J. P. Yang

1999-01-01

24

An integrated approach to optimise parameter design of multi-response processes based on Taguchi method and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taguchi robust parameter design has been widely used over the past decade to solve many single-response process parameter\\u000a designs. However, the Taguchi method is unable to deal with multi-response problems that are of main interest today, owing\\u000a to increasing complexity of manufacturing processes and products. Several recent studies have been conducted in order to solve\\u000a this problem. But, they

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Vidosav D. Majstorovic

25

Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establish human presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In order for SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost this time, even with tremendous increases in quality and performance requirements, such as extremely high reliability. This implies that both government and industry must change the way they do business. Therefore, new philosophy and technology must be employed to design and produce reliable, high quality space systems at low cost. In recognizing the need to reduce cost and improve quality and productivity, Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is a revolutionary management strategy in quality assurance and cost reduction. TQM requires complete management commitment, employee involvement, and use of statistical tools. The quality engineering methods of Dr. Taguchi, employing design of experiments (DOE), is one of the most important statistical tools of TQM for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. Taguchi methods provide an efficient and systematic way to optimize designs for performance, quality, and cost. Taguchi methods have been used successfully in Japan and the United States in designing reliable, high quality products at low cost in such areas as automobiles and consumer electronics. However, these methods are just beginning to see application in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the Taguchi methods for improving quality and reducing cost, describe the current state of applications and its role in identifying cost sensitive design parameters.

Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.

1990-01-01

26

Economic design of bar X & S control charts based on Taguchi's loss function and its optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much research effort has been devoted to economic design of bar X & S control charts, however, there are some problems in usual methods. On the one hand, it is difficult to estimate the relationship between costs and other model parameters, so the economic design method is often not effective in producing charts that can quickly detect small shifts before substantial losses occur; on the other hand, in many cases, only one type of process shift or only one pair of process shifts are taken into consideration, which may not correctly reflect the actual process conditions. To improve the behavior of economic design of control chart, a cost & loss model with Taguchi's loss function for the economic design of bar X & S control charts is embellished, which is regarded as an optimization problem with multiple statistical constraints. The optimization design is also carried out based on a number of combinations of process shifts collected from the field operation of the conventional control charts, thus more hidden information about the shift combinations is mined and employed to the optimization design of control charts. At the same time, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is developed to solve such an optimization problem in design of bar X & S control charts, IPSO is first tested for several benchmark problems from the literature and evaluated with standard performance metrics. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has significant advantages on obtaining the optimal design parameters of the charts. The proposed method can substantially reduce the total cost (or loss) of the control charts, and it will be a promising tool for economic design of control charts.

Guo, Yu; Yang, Wen'an; Liao, Wenhe; Gao, Shiwen

2012-05-01

27

Application of the fuzzy-based Taguchi method for the structural design of drawing dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sheet metal stamping process for automobiles, the drawing process requires the greatest stamping force, and thus the\\u000a structure of the drawing dies is the thickest and heaviest among all stamping dies. This study describes how the fuzzy-based\\u000a Taguchi method can be applied to explore multi-objective optimization in the structural design of drawing dies. Using the\\u000a lower die of

Bor-Tsuen Lin; Chun-Chih Kuo

2011-01-01

28

Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.  

PubMed

Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong. PMID:24291584

Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

2014-01-01

29

Applying Taguchi Methods To Brazing Of Rocket-Nozzle Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental study in which Taguchi Methods applied with view toward improving brazing of coolant tubes in nozzle of main engine of space shuttle. Dr. Taguchi's parameter design technique used to define proposed modifications of brazing process reducing manufacturing time and cost by reducing number of furnace brazing cycles and number of tube-gap inspections needed to achieve desired small gaps between tubes.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Bellows, William J.; Deily, David C.; Brennan, Alex; Somerville, John G.

1995-01-01

30

The use of the Taguchi design of experiment method in optimizing splicing conditions for a Nylon 66 yarn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yarn splicing joins two yarns by applying a blast of compressed air into a profiled device called a splicing chamber. Splicing is a mature technology, but there is little published work on its fundamental principles. The current research program addresses these principles. However, the research confronts many variables such as yarn count and construction. The Taguchi design of experiment method

C. J. Webb; G. T. Waters; A. J. Thomas; G. P. Liu; C. Thomas

2007-01-01

31

Validation of Taguchi design using a quality parameter of cosmetic soap manufactured in a local industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the applicability of Taguchi method to the production process of a local industry. Harishchandra Mills (Pvt.) Ltd, Matara, which is engaged in soap manufacturing process has been selected as the local industry. This process is entangled with different kinds of variables. Four critical variables - two types of oil, coconut oil (a1)

C. P. S. Pathirana; S. B. Nawarathne

32

An Exploratory Exercise in Taguchi Analysis of Design Parameters: Application to a Shuttle-to-space Station Automated Approach Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chief goals of the summer project have been twofold - first, for my host group and myself to learn as much of the working details of Taguchi analysis as possible in the time allotted, and, secondly, to apply the methodology to a design problem with the intention of establishing a preliminary set of near-optimal (in the sense of producing a desired response) design parameter values from among a large number of candidate factor combinations. The selected problem is concerned with determining design factor settings for an automated approach program which is to have the capability of guiding the Shuttle into the docking port of the Space Station under controlled conditions so as to meet and/or optimize certain target criteria. The candidate design parameters under study were glide path (i.e., approach) angle, path intercept and approach gains, and minimum impulse bit mode (a parameter which defines how Shuttle jets shall be fired). Several performance criteria were of concern: terminal relative velocity at the instant the two spacecraft are mated; docking offset; number of Shuttle jet firings in certain specified directions (of interest due to possible plume impingement on the Station's solar arrays), and total RCS (a measure of the energy expended in performing the approach/docking maneuver). In the material discussed here, we have focused on single performance criteria - total RCS. An analysis of the possibility of employing a multiobjective function composed of a weighted sum of the various individual criteria has been undertaken, but is, at this writing, incomplete. Results from the Taguchi statistical analysis indicate that only three of the original four posited factors are significant in affecting RCS response. A comparison of model simulation output (via Monte Carlo) with predictions based on estimated factor effects inferred through the Taguchi experiment array data suggested acceptable or close agreement between the two except at the predicted optimum point, where a difference outside a rule-of-thumb bound was observed. We have concluded that there is most likely an interaction effect not provided for in the original orthogonal array selected as the basis for our experimental design. However, we feel that the data indicates that this interaction is a mild one and that inclusion of its effect will not alter the location of the optimum.

Deal, Don E.

1991-01-01

33

Taguchi Experimental Design for Cleaning PWAs with Ball Grid Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball grid arrays (BGAs), and other area array packages, are becoming more prominent as a way to increase component pin count while avoiding the manufacturing difficulties inherent in processing quad flat packs (QFPs)...Cleaning printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) with BGA components mounted on the surface is problematic...Currently, a low flash point semi-aqueous material, in conjunction with a batch cleaning unit, is being used to clean PWAs. The approach taken at JPL was to investigate the use of (1) semi-aqueous materials having a high flash point and (2) aqueous cleaning involving a saponifier.

Bonner, J. K.; Mehta, A.; Walton, S.

1997-01-01

34

Use of Taguchi Design of Experiments to Determine ALPLS Ascent Delta-5 Sensitivities and Total Mass Sensitivities to Release Conditions and Vehicle Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of Taguchi's Design of Experiment Methods to improve the effectiveness of this and future parametric studies. Taguchi Methods will be applied in addition to the typical approach to provide a mechanism for comparing the results and the cost or effort necessary to complete the studies. It is anticipated that results of this study should include an improved systematic analysis process, an increase in information obtained at a lower cost, and a more robust, cost effective vehicle design.

Carrasco, Hector Ramon

1991-01-01

35

Evaluation of B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactants' potency for diesel-contaminated soil washing: optimization of oil desorption using Taguchi design.  

PubMed

Low solubility of certain hydrophobic soil contaminants limits remediation process. Surface-active compounds can improve the solubility and removal of hydrophobic compounds from contaminated soils and, consequently, their biodegradation. Hence, this paper aims to study desorption efficiency of oil from soil of SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant. The effect of different physicochemical parameters on desorption potency was assessed. Taguchi experimental design method was applied in order to enhance the desorption capacity and establish the best washing parameters. Mobilization potency was compared to those of chemical surfactants under the newly defined conditions. Better desorption capacity was obtained using 0.1% biosurfacatnt solution and the mobilization potency shows great tolerance to acidic and alkaline pH values and salinity. Results show an optimum value of oil removal from diesel-contaminated soil of about 87%. The optimum washing conditions for surfactant solution volume, biosurfactant concentration, agitation speed, temperature, and time were found to be 12 ml/g of soil, 0.1% biosurfactant, 200 rpm, 30 °C, and 24 h, respectively. The obtained results were compared to those of SDS and Tween 80 at the optimal conditions described above, and the study reveals an effectiveness of SPB1 biosurfactant comparable to the reported chemical emulsifiers. (1) The obtained findings suggest (a) the competence of Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant in promoting diesel desorption from soil towards chemical surfactants and (b) the applicability of this method in decontaminating crude oil-contaminated soil and, therefore, improving bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. (2) The obtained findings also suggest the adequacy of Taguchi design in promoting process efficiency. Our findings suggest that preoptimized desorption process using microbial-derived emulsifier can contribute significantly to enhancement of hydrophobic pollutants' bioavailability. This study can be complemented with the investigation of potential role in improving the biodegradation of the diesel adsorbed to the soil. PMID:23818070

Mnif, Inès; Sahnoun, Rihab; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

2014-01-01

36

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is Experimental Design? How Do I conduct an experiment? Is there a process to follow? This interactive lesson will allow for you to explore the questions above and many more Assignment #1: Scroll down to the link entitled "Steps of the Scientific Method " click on the link and go through the the Powerpoint on the Scientific Method.Scientific Method PowerPoint Assignment #2: This assisgnment has two parts. a) Click on " What is the Scientific Method" link and using the scientific method, solve the mystry. Please write your ...

Mrs. Lunt

2010-06-07

37

Experimental Investigation of Parameters of CNC Turning by Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AISI H13, a chromium based hot work tool Steel has a wide variety of applications in aluminum casting and extrusion dies, forging dies, hot nut tools, hot header dies, extrusion mandrels, plastic molds, cores, die holder blocks, hot press dies and specially hot work punches etc. In this study, the optimization of two response parameters (Surface roughness and Material Removal Rate) by three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) is investigated in high speed turning of H13 in dry conditions. Taguchi's L'18 orthogonal array and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used for individual optimization. The simultaneous optimization is done by Grey Relational Analysis approach. The different levels of all machining parameters are used and experiments are done on HMT STALLION-100 HS CNC lathe machine. The optimum condition for combined effects was found V5-F1-D1 and the optimal value of the surface roughness (Ra) comes out to be 0.85 (μm) and of MRR is 488.8 (mm³/sec). The optimum results are also verified with the help of confirmation experiments. Keywords: CNC Turning, O

Sharma, Pankaj; Bhambri, Kamaljeet

2013-03-01

38

Multi response optimization of wire EDM operations using robust design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this present study a multi response optimization method using Taguchi’s robust design approach is proposed for wire electrical\\u000a discharge machining (WEDM) operations. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array. Each experiment\\u000a has been performed under different cutting conditions of pulse on time, wire tension, delay time, wire feed speed, and ignition\\u000a current intensity. Three responses namely material

R. Ramakrishnan; L. Karunamoorthy

2006-01-01

39

Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This SciGuide addresses how students can improve the design of investigations and understand how scientists do science. The format of this SciGuide is designed to help all precollege teachers (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) design inquiry investigations.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2008-08-01

40

Optimization of manufacturing parameters for a brake lining using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design, is used to optimize manufacturing parameters of a brake lining. In this work, a brake lining containing 15 ingredients is employed to find the best manufacturing parameters for wear resistance and friction stability of a brake lining. According to the parameter design, brake linings produced from 16 different manufacturing conditions are examined for

Seong Jin Kim; Kwang Seok Kim; Ho Jang

2003-01-01

41

Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.  

PubMed

1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science. PMID:24437370

Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

2014-01-01

42

A study on kerf and material removal rate in wire electrical discharge machining based on Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation on the effect and optimization of machining parameters on the kerf (cutting width) and material removal rate (MRR) in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operations. The experimental studies were conducted under varying pulse duration, open circuit voltage, wire speed and dielectric flushing pressure. The settings of machining parameters were determined by using Taguchi experimental design

Nihat Tosun; Can Cogun; Gul Tosun

2004-01-01

43

Taguchi Method Implementation in Taper Motion Wire EDM Process Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire EDM) is a non-conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for producing jigs, fixtures, and dies. Among others, the machine is able to cut a workpiece having oblique and taper form. The objective of this paper is to optimize the input parameters of Wire EDM machine, such as no load voltage, capacitor, on-time, off-time, and servo voltage, for machining medium carbon steel ASSAB 760. The Taguchi design of experiments, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to analyze the effects of the input parameters by adopting L18 Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) to conduct experiments using brass wire electrode of 0.2 mm in diameter. In order to achieve the maximum material removal rate (MRR) or the minimum surface roughness (SR), six controllable factors, i.e., the parameters of each at three levels are applied for determining the optimal combination of factors and levels. The results reveal that the MRR and the SR are greatly influenced by the on-time and the taper angle, respectively. Experimental results affirm the effectiveness of the method, and also prove that the Taguchi method is suitable to solving the stated problem within minimum number of experiments as compared to that of a full factorial design.

Martowibowo, S. Y.; Wahyudi, A.

2012-10-01

44

Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: Determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C\\/C0)

Ahmet Baki Engin; Özgür Özdemir; Mustafa Turan; Abdullah Z. Turan

2008-01-01

45

Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

Kissel, R.

1992-01-01

46

Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

Kissel, R.

1992-05-01

47

Integrated Bayesian Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any scientist planning experiments wants to optimize the design of a future experiment with respect to best performance within the scheduled experimental scenarios. Bayesian Experimental Design (BED) aims in finding optimal experimental settings based on an information theoretic utility function. Optimal design parameters are found by maximizing an expected utility function where the future data and the parameters of physical scenarios of interest are marginalized. The goal of the Integrated Bayesian Experimental Design (IBED) concept is to combine experiments as early as on the design phase to mutually exploit the benefits of the other experiments. The Bayesian Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) concept of linking interdependent measurements to provide a validated data base and to exploit synergetic effects will be used to design meta-diagnostics. An example is given by the Thomson scattering (TS) and the interferometry (IF) diagnostics individually, and a set of both. In finding the optimal experimental design for the meta-diagnostic, TS and IF, the strengths of both experiments can be combined to synergistically increase the reliability of results.

Fischer, R.; Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Kurzan, B.; Pasch, E.

2005-11-01

48

Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.

Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.

1993-01-01

49

Risk-based Quality by Design (QbD): A Taguchi Perspective on the Assessment of Product Quality, and the Quantitative Linkage of Drug Product Parameters and Clinical Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For good reason, quality by design (QbD) has become a topic of significant interest within the pharmaceutical industry. Whereas\\u000a regulatory agencies and standard-setting organizations are moving swiftly to establish QbD guidance relevant to the needs\\u000a of pharmaceutical manufacturing, much of the core science of QbD was established long ago by Dr. Genichi Taguchi and other\\u000a leaders in the field of

Robert P. Cogdill; James K. Drennen

2008-01-01

50

Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values. PMID:20590424

Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

2010-10-01

51

A feasibility investigation for modeling and optimization of temperature in bone drilling using fuzzy logic and Taguchi optimization methodology.  

PubMed

Drilling of bone is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery to produce hole for screw insertion to fixate the fracture devices and implants. The increase in temperature during such a procedure increases the chances of thermal invasion of bone which can cause thermal osteonecrosis resulting in the increase of healing time or reduction in the stability and strength of the fixation. Therefore, drilling of bone with minimum temperature is a major challenge for orthopedic fracture treatment. This investigation discusses the use of fuzzy logic and Taguchi methodology for predicting and minimizing the temperature produced during bone drilling. The drilling experiments have been conducted on bovine bone using Taguchi's L25 experimental design. A fuzzy model is developed for predicting the temperature during orthopedic drilling as a function of the drilling process parameters (point angle, helix angle, feed rate and cutting speed). Optimum bone drilling process parameters for minimizing the temperature are determined using Taguchi method. The effect of individual cutting parameters on the temperature produced is evaluated using analysis of variance. The fuzzy model using triangular and trapezoidal membership predicts the temperature within a maximum error of ±7%. Taguchi analysis of the obtained results determined the optimal drilling conditions for minimizing the temperature as A3B5C1.The developed system will simplify the tedious task of modeling and determination of the optimal process parameters to minimize the bone drilling temperature. It will reduce the risk of thermal osteonecrosis and can be very effective for the online condition monitoring of the process. PMID:25500858

Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

2014-11-01

52

Experimental approached optimisation of a linear motion performance with grey hazy set and Taguchi analysis methods (GHST) for ball-screw table type  

Microsoft Academic Search

In end effect to control a path, tracking, or cutting motion of CNC milling machine or other applications of machine tools,\\u000a controlling its actuator, specifically a linear table motion, becomes a classical matter to be solved in industries. By applying\\u000a an optimisation of grey hazy set Taguchi (GHST) analysis methods, it might get a performance improvement of a linear motion

Hendro Nurhadi; Yeong-Shin Tarng

2009-01-01

53

Cell Membrane Experimental Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The final activity of this unit, which integrates the Keepers of the Gate unit through the Go Public challenge, involves students taking part in experimental design. They design a lab that answers the challenge question: "You are spending the night with your grandmother when your throat starts to feel sore. Your grandma tells you to gargle with salt water and it will feel much better. Thinking this is an old wive's tale, you scoff, but when you try it later that night it works! Why?" Students must have their plan approved by the instructor before they begin. A formal lab write-up is due as part of the laboratory investigation.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

54

An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, some stabilized magnetite based ferrofluids were synthesized using Dextran as a stabilizing agent. In order to achieve optimum experimental conditions for synthesizing ferrofluids as MRI contrast agents, the Taguchi method was used. This approach was employed to design and minimize the number of required experiments. By using the Taguchi orthogonal (L16) array, four parameters including solution temperature and alkalinity, reaction temperature and stirring rate were selected at four predetermined levels for 16 experiments. Synthesizing processes established based on this set of experimental conditions were carried out and the obtained ferrofluids were characterized using PCS, VSM, TEM and FT-IR techniques. The obtained results were used and analyzed through the Qualitek-4 software and the proposed optimum experimental conditions were used for synthesizing the desired sample. Finally, this sample was used as a potential MRI contrast agent for imaging lymph nodes.

Ahmadi, Reza; Hosseini, Hamid Reza Madaah

2013-04-01

55

Multi-response design of Nd:YAG laser drilling of Ni-based superalloy sheets using Taguchi’s quality loss function, multivariate statistical methods and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid design strategy for the determination of the optimum laser drilling parameters which simultaneously\\u000a meets the requirements for seven quality characteristics (responses) of the holes produced during pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling\\u000a of a thin sheet of nickel-based superalloy Nimonic 263. The process was designed using two approaches based on the experimental\\u000a data. In the first approach,

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Sanja Z. Petronic; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Radica Prokic-Cvetkovic; Andjelka Milosavljevic

2011-01-01

56

Synthesis of coral-like and spherical nickel nanostructures using Taguchi L8 experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article spherical nanoparticles with narrow diameter range (4–10.7 nm) and coral-like nickel architectures have been synthesized in a laboratory scale in a mixture of 1:1 (v\\/v) ethylene glycol and water of pH 10–11.5 using microwave as heating source. The reducing agent used was hydrazine hydrate. Samples have been tested by XRD, SEM, LLS, TG, DTG and FTIR to obtain

M. Edrissi; H. Arabian Hosseinabadi

2012-01-01

57

Study on interaction between palladium(??)-Linezolid chelate with eosin by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second order of scattering and frequency doubling scattering methods using Taguchi orthogonal array design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linezolid reacted with palladium to form 1:1 binary cationic chelate which further reacted with eosin dye to form 1:1 ternary ion association complex at pH 4 of Walpole's acetate buffer in the presence of methyl cellulose. As a result not only absorption spectra were changed but Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS), Second-order Scattering (SOS) and Frequency Doubling Scattering (FDS) intensities were greatly enhanced. The analytical wavelengths of RRS, SOS and FDS (?ex/?em) of ternary complex were located at 538 nm/538 nm, 240 nm/480 nm and 660 nm/330 nm, respectively. The linearity range for RRS, SOS and FDS methods were 0.01-0.5 ?g mL-1, 0.1-2 ?g mL-1 and 0.2-1.8 ?g mL-1, respectively. The sensitivity order of three methods was as RRS > SOS > FDS. Accuracy of all methods were determined by recovery studies and showed recovery between 98% and 102%. Intraday and inter day precision were checked for all methods and %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all methods. The effects of foreign substances were tested on RRS method and it showed the method had good selectivity. For optimization of process parameter, Taguchi orthogonal array design L8(24) was used and ANOVA was adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the scattering intensities of methods. The reaction mechanism, composition of ternary ion association complex and reasons for scattering intensity enhancement was discussed in this work.

Thakkar, Disha; Gevriya, Bhavesh; Mashru, R. C.

2014-03-01

58

Optimal design of loudspeaker arrays for robust cross-talk cancellation using the Taguchi method and the genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal design technique of loudspeaker arrays for cross-talk cancellation with application in three-dimensional audio is presented. An array focusing scheme is presented on the basis of the inverse propagation that relates the transducers to a set of chosen control points. Tikhonov regularization is employed in designing the inverse cancellation filters. An extensive analysis is conducted to explore the cancellation

Mingsian R. Bai; Chih-Wei Tung; Chih-Chung Lee

2005-01-01

59

Machining Characteristics and Optimization of Machining Parameters of SKH 57 High-Speed Steel Using Electrical-Discharge Machining Based on Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the machining parameters in electrical-discharge machining (EDM) on the machining characteristics of SKH 57 high-speed steel were investigated. A well-designed experimental scheme was used to reduce the total number of experiments. Parts of the experiment were conducted with the L18 orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratios associated with the observed values in

Yan-Cherng Lin; Chao-Hsu Cheng; Bo-Lin Su; Lih-Ren Hwang

2006-01-01

60

Application of the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method to the precision positioning device using combined piezo-VCM actuator.  

PubMed

In this research, the nonlinear, double-dynamic Taguchi method was used as design and analysis methods for a high-precision positioning device using the combined piezo-voice-coil motor (VCM) actuator. An experimental investigation into the effects of two input signals and three control factors were carried out to determine the optimum parametric configuration of the positioning device. The double-dynamic Taguchi method, which permits optimization of several control factors concurrently, is particularly suitable for optimizing the performance of a positioning device with multiple actuators. In this study, matrix experiments were conducted with L9(3(4)) orthogonal arrays (OAs). The two most critical processes for the optimization of positioning device are the identification of the nonlinear ideal function and the combination of the double-dynamic signal factors for the ideal function's response. The driving voltage of the VCM and the waveform amplitude of the PZT actuator are combined into a single quality characteristic to evaluate the positioning response. The application of the double-dynamic Taguchi method, with dynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and L9(3(4)) OAs, reduced the number of necessary experiments. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to set the optimum parameters based on the high-precision positioning process. PMID:17328322

Liu, Yung-Tien; Fung, Rong-Fong; Wang, Chun-Chao

2007-02-01

61

Multi-response analysis in the material characterisation of electrospun poly (lactic acid)/halloysite nanotube composite fibres based on Taguchi design of experiments: fibre diameter, non-intercalation and nucleation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite fibres were prepared by using a simple and versatile electrospinning technique. The systematic approach via Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) was implemented to investigate factorial effects of applied voltage, feed rate of solution, collector distance and HNT concentration on the fibre diameter, HNT non-intercalation and nucleation effects. The HNT intercalation level, composite fibre morphology, their associated fibre diameter and thermal properties were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. HNT non-intercalation phenomenon appears to be manifested as reflected by the minimal shift of XRD peaks for all electrospun PLA/HNT composite fibres. The smaller-fibre-diameter characteristic was found to be sequentially associated with the feed rate of solution, collector distance and applied voltage. The glass transition temperature ( T g) and melting temperature ( T m) are not highly affected by varying the material and electrospinning parameters. However, as the indicator of the nucleation effect, the crystallisation temperature ( T c) of PLA/HNT composite fibres is predominantly impacted by HNT concentration and applied voltage. It is evident that HNT's nucleating agent role is confirmed when embedded with HNTs to accelerate the cold crystallisation of composite fibres. Taguchi DoE method has been found to be an effective approach to statistically optimise critical parameters used in electrospinning in order to effectively tailor the resulting physical features and thermal properties of PLA/HNT composite fibres.

Dong, Yu; Bickford, Thomas; Haroosh, Hazim J.; Lau, Kin-Tak; Takagi, Hitoshi

2013-09-01

62

--Design, Experimentation, Languages --RESEARCH REPORT  

E-print Network

and concepts of given problem domains play a key role in Model Driven Engineering (MDE). Thus, the degree-- Design, Experimentation, Languages -- RESEARCH REPORT No 06.03 April 2006 A Practical Experiment.jouault@univ-nantes.fr,ivan.kurtev@univ- nantes.fr,jean.bezivin@univ-nantes.fr Abstract Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are high level languages

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Investigation Of Tool Wear In Hard Turning Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard turning is a machining process defined of hardness higher than 45 HRC under appropriate cutting tools and cutting speed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum process parameters for a particular work piece-tool material combination. . In this study, three levels of each parameters viz. Hardness (HRC), Speed(mm/min), Feed(mm/rev) and three different tool materials are evaluated for process quality characteristics such as tool wear. The three different tool materials used are High CBN, Low CBN, Mixed ceramic. AISI H 11 was taken as work piece material. The experiment is designed using Taguchi Method. The results obtained from the experiments are transformed into signal to noise (S/N) ratio and used to optimize the value of tool wear. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to indentify the statistical significance of parameters. The final results of experimental investigation are presented in this paper. The conclusions arrived at are critically discussed at the end.

Chaudhari, Y. D.

2013-03-01

64

Modified Artificial Diet for Rearing of Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi Method and Derringer's Desirability Function  

PubMed Central

With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets. PMID:23425103

Assemi, H.; Rezapanah, M.; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R.

2012-01-01

65

Modified artificial diet for rearing of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera, using the Taguchi method and Derringer's desirability function.  

PubMed

With the aim to improve the mass rearing feasibility of tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), design of experimental methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array was applied. To do so, the effect of 16 ingredients of an artificial diet including bean, wheat germ powder, Nipagin, ascorbic acid, formaldehyde, oil, agar, distilled water, ascorbate, yeast, chloramphenicol, benomyl, penicillin, temperature, humidity, and container size on some biological characteristics of H. armigera was evaluated. The selected 16 factors were considered at two levels (32 experiments) in the experimental design. Among the selected factors, penicillin, container size, formaldehyde, chloramphenicol, wheat germ powder, and agar showed significant effect on the mass rearing performance. Derringer's desirability function was used for simultaneous optimization of mass rearing of tobacco budworm, H. armigera, on a modified artificial diet. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by Derringer's desirability function and Taguchi methodology decreased larval period from 19 to 15.5 days (18.42 % improvement), decreased the pupal period from 12.29 to 11 days (10.49 % improvement), increased the longevity of adults from 14.51 to 21 days (44.72 % improvement), increased the number of eggs/female from 211.21 to 260, and increased egg hatchability from 54.2% to 72% (32.84 % improvement). The proposed method facilitated a systematic mathematical approach with a few well-defined experimental sets. PMID:23425103

Assemi, H; Rezapanah, M; Vafaei-Shoushtari, R; Mehrvar, A

2012-01-01

66

Optimization of novel flux barrier in interior permanent magnet-type brushless dc motor based on modified Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the novel flux barrier by using the modified Taguchi method to reduce the cogging torque. In the optimizing process the modified Taguchi method is utilized to consider multiple objective quality characteristics simultaneously such as the torque ripple and the efficiency as well as the cogging torque. The optimal novel flux barrier can effectively reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple and it is verified through the experimental results.

Yang, Byoung-yull; Hwang, Kyu-yun; Rhee, Sang-bong; Kim, Dae-kyong; Kwon, Byung-il

2009-04-01

67

Optimizing Aqua Splicer Parameters for Lycra-Cotton Core Spun Yarn Using Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, optimization of the aqua splicer parameters viz opening time, splicing time, feed arm code (i.e. splice length) and duration of water joining was carried out for 37 tex lycra-cotton core spun yarn for better retained splice strength (RSS%), splice abrasion resistance (RYAR%) and splice appearance (RYA%) using Taguchi experimental design. It is observed that as opening time, splicing time and duration of water joining increase, the RSS% and RYAR% increases, whereas increase in feed arm code leads to decrease in both. The opening time and feed arm code do not have significant effect on RYA%. The optimum RSS% of 92.02 % was obtained at splicing parameters of 350 ms opening time, 180 ms splicing time, 65 feed arm code and 600 ms duration of water joining.

Midha, Vinay Kumar; Hiremath, ShivKumar; Gupta, Vaibhav

2014-11-01

68

Application of Taguchi optimization technique in determining plastic injection molding process parameters for a thin-shell part  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of Taguchi optimization technique to reduce warpage problem related to the shrinkage variation depended on process parameters during production of thin-shell plastic components for orthose part. For this purpose, a number of MoldFlow analyses are carried out by utilizing the combination of process parameters based on three-level of L27 and L9 Taguchi orthogonal design.

Hasan Oktem; Tuncay Erzurumlu; Ibrahim Uzman

2007-01-01

69

Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

Schwabe, Robert A.

70

Optimizing Experimental Designs: Finding Hidden Treasure.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classical experimental design theory, the predominant treatment in most textbooks, promotes the use of blocking designs for control of spatial variability in field studies and other situations in which there is significant variation among heterogeneity among experimental units. Many blocking design...

71

Experimental Designs for Drug Combination Studies  

E-print Network

Experimental Designs for Drug Combination Studies B. Almohaimeed & A. N. Donev First version: 1, The University of Manchester #12;Experimental Designs for Drug Combination Studies B. Almohaimeed and A. N. Donev of the studied drugs. These ray designs [27], are easy to implement and the results obtained using them are easy

Sidorov, Nikita

72

Teaching the Taguchi method to industrial engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taguchi method (Tm) is a powerful problem solving technique for improving process performance, yield and productivity. It reduces scrap rates, rework costs and manufacturing costs due to excessive variability in processes. However, its application by industrial engineers in the UK is limited, in part due to the inadequate statistical education of engineers. This paper presents a simple experiment which

Jiju Antony; Frenie Jiju Antony

2001-01-01

73

Experimental economics for market design  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract This study reports of an experimental economics analysis of the new proposed Swedish- Norwegian tradable green certificate market (TGC). The green certificate market is a fi- nancial instrument to stimulate renewables within the context of liberalized, transnational electricity markets (a kind of market-oriented subsidy scheme). Green certificates are fi- nancial assets issued to green producers that can be

Klaus Vogstad; Santiago Arango; Hans Ivar Skjelbred

74

OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other agencies.…

Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

1983-01-01

75

Design and Experimental Capstone: An Integrated Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on student outcomes across three phases in the development of the BME senior capstone experience. The BME department provides a comprehensive capstone experience to its seniors. All students enroll in a two-course, team-based, device design capstone sequence and a concurrent two-course, team-based, experimental research capstone sequence. The goal of the device design capstone is to advance intellectual property while providing a multidisciplinary design experience. In the first course of the sequence, the teams are presented with a clinical problem and are expected to conceive, design, prototype and evaluate devices with innovative solutions. The course emphasizes information gathering, establishing requirements, concept development, and evaluation. In the second course in the sequence, a verification plan is generated and implemented. The goal of the experimental research capstone sequence is to introduce students to the design and conduct of a pilot study involving human subjects. To this end, students develop a hypothesis, design an experimental protocol to test the hypothesis, conduct an experiment or survey, and use an appropriate statistical analysis of the data. The course also requires students to design an Informed Consent form, adopt high ethical standards for research involving human subjects, and generate a scientific manuscript to report the results. We found that a close integration between experimental methods of testing/data collection was critical in the initial and final stages of design. Those teams that had an integrated design and experimental capstone experience produced better designs than those teams that had separate experiences.

Johnson, Jeffrey

76

Experimental Design For Photoresist Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In processing a semiconductor product (from discrete devices up to the most complex products produced) we find more photolithographic steps in wafer fabrication than any other kind of process step. Thus, the success of a semiconductor manufacturer hinges on the optimization of their photolithographic processes. Yet, we find few companies that have taken the time to properly characterize this critical operation; they are sitting in the "passenger's seat", waiting to see what will come out, hoping that the yields will improve someday. There is no "black magic" involved in setting up a process at its optimum conditions (i.e. minimum sensitivity to all variables at the same time). This paper gives an example of a real world situation for optimizing a photolithographic process by the use of a properly designed experiment, followed by adequate multidimensional analysis of the data. Basic SPC practices like plotting control charts will not, by themselves, improve yields; the control charts are, however, among the necessary tools used in the determination of the process capability and in the formulation of the problems to be addressed. The example we shall consider is the twofold objective of shifting the process average, while tightening the variance, of polysilicon line widths. This goal was identified from a Pareto analysis of yield-limiting mechanisms, plus inspection of the control charts. A key issue in a characterization of this type of process is the number of interactions between variables; this example rules out two-level full factorial and three-level fractional factorial designs (which cannot detect all of the interactions). We arrive at an experiment with five factors at five levels each. A full factorial design for five factors at three levels would require 3125 wafers. Instead, we will use a design that allows us to run this experiment with only 25 wafers, for a significant reduction in time, materials and manufacturing interruption in order to complete the experiment. An optimum solution is then determined via response surface analysis and a series of 3-D and contour plots are shown. The offset between the mask dimensions and poly CD at the optimum operating conditions is discussed with respect to yield, profits and return-on-investment. The expert system used for process optimization covers all types of process steps, producing the best custom designed experiment based on the actual equipment used. The knowledge base contains parameter lists, by machine make and model, ranked by sensitivity and controllability. One option allows 3-D spatial characterization of equipment. For the purpose of this presentation, we will assume that we want to optimize a photo-lithographic process used for polysilicon pattern definition and that we have determined minimum and maximum line widths, based on electrical yield requirements of the product. For this MOS process, the minimum critical dimension (CD) for the poly gate was determined by punchthrough voltage, threshold voltage, etc., while the maximum CD was determined from other performance factors like access time. We will start with the product engineer's analysis.

Luckock, Larry

1987-04-01

77

Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.  

PubMed

When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design. PMID:22317428

Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars

2012-01-01

78

Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.  

PubMed

The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. PMID:22333438

Hibbert, D Brynn

2012-12-01

79

Taguchi's off line method and Multivariate loss function approach for quality management and optimization of process parameters -A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-line quality control is considered to be an effective approach to improve product quality at a relatively low cost. The Taguchi method is one of the conventional approaches for this purpose. Through this approach, engineers can determine a feasible combination of design parameters such that the variability of a product's response can be reduced and the mean is close to the desired target. The traditional Taguchi method was focused on ensuring good performance at the parameter design stage with one quality characteristic, but most products and processes have multiple quality characteristics. The optimal parameter design minimizes the total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. Several studies have presented approaches addressing multiple quality characteristics. Most of these papers were concerned with maximizing the parameter combination of signal to noise (SN) ratios. The results reveal the advantages of this approach are that the optimal parameter design is the same as the traditional Taguchi method for the single quality characteristic; the optimal design maximizes the amount of reduction of total quality loss for multiple quality characteristics. This paper presents a literature review on solving multi-response problems in the Taguchi method and its successful implementation in various industries.

Bharti, P. K.; Khan, M. I.; Singh, Harbinder

2010-10-01

80

Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

1983-01-01

81

Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

82

An optimization of superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride/zinc oxide materials using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is focused on the preparation and characterization of PVDF/ZnO composite materials. The superhydrophobic surface was prepared through spray coating of a mixture of PVDF polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on aluminum substrate. Stearic acid was added to improve the dispersion of ZnO. Taguchi's design of experiment method using MINITAB15 was used to rank several factors that may affect the superhydrophobic properties in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 was applied with three level of consideration for each factor. ANOVA were carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the water contact angle. Confirmation tests were performed on the predicted optimum process parameters. The crystallinity and morphology of PVDF-ZnO membranes were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of Taguchi method indicate that the ZnO and stearic acid contents were the parameters making significant contribution toward improvement in hydrophobicity of PVDF materials. As the content of ZnO nanoparticles increased, the values of water contact angle increased, ranging from 122° to 159°, while the contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle decreased to 3.5° and 2.5°, respectively. The SEM results show that hierarchical micro-nanostructure of ZnO plays an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface. FTIR results showed that, in the absence or present ZnO nanoparticles, the crystallization of the PVDF occurred predominantly in the ?-phase.

Mohamed, Adel M. A.; Jafari, Reza; Farzaneh, Masoud

2014-01-01

83

Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

2004-01-01

84

Comparing Taguchi and Anterior Lich-Gregoir Ureterovesical Reimplantation Techniques for Kidney Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urologic complications are common in renal transplant surgery. Numerous innovations have been developed to circumvent ureterovesical anastomotic failure. In addition to the popular modified Lich-Gregoir technique, we evaluated Taguchi’s method which is both quick and easy to perform. One hundred forty four patients were prospectively compared using Taguchi (n = 44) or the modified Lich-Gregoir (n = 100) for anastomotic

M. A. Zargar; H. Shahrokh; M. R. Mohammadi Fallah; H. Zargar

2005-01-01

85

[Design and experimentation of marine optical buoy].  

PubMed

Marine optical buoy is of important value in terms of calibration and validation of ocean color remote sensing, scientific observation, coastal environment monitoring, etc. A marine optical buoy system was designed which consists of a main and a slave buoy. The system can measure the distribution of irradiance and radiance over the sea surface, in the layer near sea surface and in the euphotic zone synchronously, during which some other parameters are also acquired such as spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the water column, the velocity and direction of the wind, and so on. The buoy was positioned by GPS. The low-power integrated PC104 computer was used as the control core to collect data automatically. The data and commands were real-timely transmitted by CDMA/GPRS wireless networks or by the maritime satellite. The coastal marine experimentation demonstrated that the buoy has small pitch and roll rates in high sea state conditions and thus can meet the needs of underwater radiometric measurements, the data collection and remote transmission are reliable, and the auto-operated anti-biofouling devices can ensure that the optical sensors work effectively for a period of several months. PMID:19445253

Yang, Yue-Zhong; Sun, Zhao-Hua; Cao, Wen-Xi; Li, Cai; Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Wen; Lu, Gui-Xin; Ke, Tian-Cun; Guo, Chao-Ying

2009-02-01

86

Preparation of photocatalytic ZnO nanoparticles and application in photochemical degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate using taguchi approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method for the first time. Taguchi method was used to identify the several factors that may affect degradation percentage of betamethasone sodium phosphate in wastewater in UV/K2S2O8/nano-ZnO system. Our experimental design consisted of testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of betamethasone sodium phosphate, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. With four levels of each factor tested. It was found that, optimum parameters are irradiation time, 180 min; pH 9.0; betamethasone sodium phosphate, 30 mg/L; amount of ZnO, 13 mg; K2S2O8, 1 mM. The percentage contribution of each factor was determined by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that irradiation time; pH; amount of ZnO; drug concentration and dosage of K2S2O8 contributed by 46.73, 28.56, 11.56, 6.70, and 6.44%, respectively. Finally, the kinetics process was studied and the photodegradation rate of betamethasone sodium phosphate was found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equation represented by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Giahi, M.; Farajpour, G.; Taghavi, H.; Shokri, S.

2014-07-01

87

Taguchi approach for anti-heat stress prescription compatibility in mice spleen lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Heat stress (HS) may induce immunosuppression as well as inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. This study evaluated the effects on immune function of our prescription on splenic lymphocytes under HS as well as its compatibility. The effects of four herbal extracts from Agastache rugosa, Atractylodes lancea, Cortex Phellodendri, and Gypsum Fibrosum on heat treated splenic lymphocytes were investigated and the compatibility of the prescription was also explored by using the Taguchi method. This study revealed changes in proliferation by traditional Chinese medicines of splenic lymphocytes after HS. Proliferation in the HS group was significantly lower than the control group. Under HS, the effects of higher concentrations of Agastache rugosa (100 and 200 ?g/mL), Atractylodes lancea (100 and 200 ?g/mL), Cortex Phellodendri (50 and 100 ?g/mL) and Gypsum Fibrosum (100 and 200 ?g/mL) caused a significant increase on ConA/LPS-induced proliferation of lymphocytes than lower concentrations. We, therefore, conclude that the prescription of traditional Chinese medicines may recover splenic lymphocytes from the immunosuppression induced by HS. The Taguchi design, which allows rapid and high efficiency for the selection of the best conditions for our prescription on HS-treated splenic lymphocytes, demonstrated that Agastache rugosa (200 ?g/mL), Atractylodes lancea (200 ?g/mL), Cortex Phellodendri (100 ?g/mL) and Gypsum Fibrosum (100 ?g/mL) were the optimal conditions for the prescription. The validation experiment confirmed that our composition in optimum extraction conditions enhanced effects on ConA or LPS-stimulated lymphocytes under HS. The results showed that the Taguchi optimization approach is a suitable method for optimization of the composition of prescription. PMID:21811919

Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Cheng, Gui-Lin; Liu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Jin; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yu, Tong-Quan; Xu, Jian-Qin; Wang, Ming

2011-07-01

88

Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same goal in an automated fashion.

Malakar, Nabin Kumar

2011-07-01

89

Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering students…

Hsiung, Chin-Min

2011-01-01

90

Optimal experimental design applied to DC resistivity problems  

E-print Network

The systematic design of experiments to optimally query physical systems through manipulation of the data acquisition strategy is termed optimal experimental design (OED). This dissertation introduces the state-of-the-art ...

Coles, Darrell Ardon, 1971-

2008-01-01

91

Dysprosium sorption by polymeric composite bead: Robust parametric optimization using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Polyethersulfone-based beads encapsulating di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid have been synthesized and evaluated for the recovery of rare earth values from the aqueous media. Percentage recovery and the sorption behavior of Dy(III) have been investigated under wide range of experimental parameters using these beads. Taguchi method utilizing L-18 orthogonal array has been adopted to identify the most influential process parameters responsible for higher degree of recovery with enhanced sorption of Dy(III) from chloride medium. Analysis of variance indicated that the feed concentration of Dy(III) is the most influential factor for equilibrium sorption capacity, whereas aqueous phase acidity influences the percentage recovery most. The presence of polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified the internal structure of the composite beads and resulted in uniform distribution of organic extractant inside polymeric matrix. The experiment performed under optimum process conditions as predicted by Taguchi method resulted in enhanced Dy(III) recovery and sorption capacity by polymeric beads with minimum standard deviation. PMID:25660520

Yadav, Kartikey K; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Singh, Dhruva K; Varshney, Lalit; Singh, Harvinderpal

2015-03-01

92

SVM-RFE Based Feature Selection and Taguchi Parameters Optimization for Multiclass SVM Classifier  

PubMed Central

Recently, support vector machine (SVM) has excellent performance on classification and prediction and is widely used on disease diagnosis or medical assistance. However, SVM only functions well on two-group classification problems. This study combines feature selection and SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) to investigate the classification accuracy of multiclass problems for Dermatology and Zoo databases. Dermatology dataset contains 33 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 366 testing instances; and the Zoo dataset contains 16 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 101 testing instances. The feature variables in the two datasets were sorted in descending order by explanatory power, and different feature sets were selected by SVM-RFE to explore classification accuracy. Meanwhile, Taguchi method was jointly combined with SVM classifier in order to optimize parameters C and ? to increase classification accuracy for multiclass classification. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy can be more than 95% after SVM-RFE feature selection and Taguchi parameter optimization for Dermatology and Zoo databases. PMID:25295306

Huang, Mei-Ling; Hung, Yung-Hsiang; Lee, W. M.; Li, R. K.; Jiang, Bo-Ru

2014-01-01

93

Statistical Experimental Design Guided Optimization of a One-Pot Biphasic Multienzyme Total Synthesis of Amorpha-4,11-diene  

PubMed Central

In vitro synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals using enzymes is of considerable interest as these biocatalysts facilitate a wide variety of reactions under mild conditions with excellent regio-, chemo- and stereoselectivities. A significant challenge in a multi-enzymatic reaction is the need to optimize the various steps involved simultaneously so as to obtain high-yield of a product. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to guide the optimization of a total synthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene (AD) using multienzymes in the mevalonate pathway. A combinatorial approach guided by Taguchi orthogonal array design identified the local optimum enzymatic activity ratio for Erg12:Erg8:Erg19:Idi:IspA to be 100?100?1?25?5, with a constant concentration of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (Ads, 100 mg/L). The model also identified an unexpected inhibitory effect of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (IspA), where the activity was negatively correlated with AD yield. This was due to the precipitation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), the product of IspA. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize IspA and Ads activities simultaneously so as to minimize the accumulation of FPP and the result showed that Ads to be a critical factor. By increasing the concentration of Ads, a complete conversion (?100%) of mevalonic acid (MVA) to AD was achieved. Monovalent ions and pH were effective means of enhancing the specific Ads activity and specific AD yield significantly. The results from this study represent the first in vitro reconstitution of the mevalonate pathway for the production of an isoprenoid and the approaches developed herein may be used to produce other isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP)/dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) based products. PMID:24278153

Chen, Xixian; Zhang, Congqiang; Zou, Ruiyang; Zhou, Kang; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Too, Heng Phon

2013-01-01

94

Experimental designs for identifying causal mechanisms  

E-print Network

Experimentation is a powerful methodology that enables scientists to establish causal claims empirically. However, one important criticism is that experiments merely provide a black box view of causality and fail to identify ...

Imai, Kosuke

95

Experimental design of stamping machines and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of hydraulic equipment for locally continuous plastic shaping of a blank is considered. Experimental results\\u000a regarding a technology that combines upsetting with oscillation (rocking) are presented.

E. N. Chumachenko; Yu. A. Zimin; S. A. Bober

2010-01-01

96

Modeling Experimental Design for Proteomics Jan Eriksson and David Feny  

E-print Network

to improve experimental designs. Key words: Proteomics, Mass spectrometry, Experimental design, Simulations, Modeling The proteomics researcher that aims at comprehensive proteome analysis using mass spectrometry (MS "Retention time" (bin) y 1 k #of peptides perbin Mass Spectrometry MS dynamic range 10 m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6

Chait, Brian T.

97

The Implications of "Contamination" for Experimental Design in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to…

Rhoads, Christopher H.

2011-01-01

98

Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

2014-01-01

99

Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C/C(0)) versus time (min) or bed volumes (BV). The chosen experimental parameters and their ranges are: HTAB concentration (C(htab)), 1-7.5 gL(-1); HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab)), 0.015-0.075 L min(-1); textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye)), 0.025-0.050 L min(-1) and zeolite bed height (H(bed)), 25-50 cm, respectively. Mixed orthogonal array L(16) (4(2)x2(2)) for experimental plan and the larger the better response category were selected to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: HTAB concentration (C(htab))=1g L(-1), HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab))=0.015 L min(-1), textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye))=0.025 L min(-1) and bed height (H(bed))=50 cm. Under these conditions, the treated wastewater volume reached a maximum while the bed volumes (BV) were about 217. While HTAB concentration, gL(-1) (A); zeolite bed height, cm (D) and wastewater flowrate, L min(-1) (C) were found to be significant parameters, respectively, whereas, HTAB flowrate, L min(-1) (B) was found to be an insignificant parameter. PMID:18387737

Engin, Ahmet Baki; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Z

2008-11-30

100

Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

NONE

1990-04-13

101

Experimental design for sternocleidomastoid muscle stress measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we assess the sternocleidomastoid muscle stress with two experimental studies to evaluate the developed smart neck support system. The first study involving head rotation angle and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) electromyography (EMG) activity. This (descriptive) study extends efforts from different authors to assess the isometric strength of SCM, in which the experiment is carried out in relation to

Chee Fai Tan; Wei Chen; Matthias Rauterberg

2010-01-01

102

Tool wear monitoring in bandsawing using neural networks and Taguchi’s design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bandsawing as a multi-point cutting operation is the preferred method for cutting off raw materials in industry. Although\\u000a cutting off with bandsaw is very old process, research efforts are very limited compared to the other cutting process. Appropriate\\u000a online tool condition monitoring system is essential for sophisticated and automated machine tools to achieve better tool\\u000a management. Tool wear monitoring

Haci Saglam

2011-01-01

103

Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model  

SciTech Connect

In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Celis, M. A. [Unidad de Radiocirugia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramirez, V.; Paz, C. [Laboratorio de Neurofisiologia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-07

104

Optimization of wire Electrical Discharge turning operations using robust design of experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study a multi response optimization method using Taguchi's robust design approach is proposed for wire electrical discharge turning (WEDT) operations. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment has been performed under different machining conditions of power, servo, voltage, pulse off time, wire tension, wire feed speed, and rotational speed. Three responses namely material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness, and roundness have been considered for each experiment. The machining parameters are optimized with the multi response characteristics of the material removal rate, surface roughness, and roundness. Multi response S/N (MRSN) ratio is applied to measure the performance characteristics deviating from the actual value. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to identify the level of importance of the machining parameters on the multiple performance considered characteristics. Finally experimental confirmation was carried out to identify the effectiveness of this proposed method.

Mohammadi, Aminollah; Fadaei Tehrani, Alireza; Safari, Mahdi

2011-01-01

105

Important considerations in experimental design for large scale simulation analyses  

SciTech Connect

Economic and other factors accompanying developments in physics, mathematics and particularly in computer technology are shifting a substantial portion of the experimental resources associated with large scale engineering projects from physical testing to modeling and simulation. In the process, the priorities of selecting meaningful and informative tests and simulations to perform are also changing. This paper describes issues related to experimental design and how the goals and priorities of the experimental design for these problems are changing to accommodate the this shift in experimentation. Issues, priorities and new methods of approach are discussed.

Rutherford, B.

1998-05-01

106

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

107

Collimator design for experimental minibeam radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and optimize a minibeam collimator for minibeam radiation therapy studies using a 250 kVp x-ray machine as a simulated synchrotron source. Methods: A Philips RT250 orthovoltage x-ray machine was modeled using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo software. The resulting machine model was coupled to a model of a minibeam collimator with a beam aperture of 1 mm. Interaperture spacing and collimator thickness were varied to produce a minibeam with the desired peak-to-valley ratio. Results: Proper design of a minibeam collimator with Monte Carlo methods requires detailed knowledge of the x-ray source setup. For a cathode-ray tube source, the beam spot size, target angle, and source shielding all determine the final valley-to-peak dose ratio. Conclusions: A minibeam collimator setup was created, which can deliver a 30 Gy peak dose minibeam radiation therapy treatment at depths less than 1 cm with a valley-to-peak dose ratio on the order of 23%.

Babcock, Kerry; Sidhu, Narinder; Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ali, Kaiser [Saskatoon Cancer Centre, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 4H4 (Canada)

2011-04-15

108

A Trial-Based Experimental Design for fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental design for functional MRI (fMRI) is presented whose conceptual units of analysis are behavioral trials, in contrast to blocks of trials. This type of design is referred to as a trial-based (TB) fMRI design. It is explained how TB designs can afford the ability to: (1) randomize the presentation of behavioral trials and (2) utilize intertrial variance in

Eric Zarahn; Geoff Aguirre; Mark D'Esposito

1997-01-01

109

Experimental vertical stability studies for ITER performance and design  

E-print Network

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic ...

Hutchinson, Ian H.

110

Reservoir characterization using experimental design and response surface methodology  

E-print Network

runs for identifying significant reservoir modeling parameters impacting flow response and for history matching. Experimental design/response surface (ED/RS) is a statistical technique, which allows a systematic approach for minimizing the number...

Parikh, Harshal

2004-09-30

111

Application of parameter analysis principles in design: an experimental study  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF PARAMETER ANALYSIS PRINCIPLES IN DESIGN: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY A Thesis by VINAI ROJANAVANICH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering APPLICATION OF PARAMETER ANALYSIS PRINCIPLES IN DESIGN: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY A Thesis by VINAI ROJANAVANICH Approved as to style and content by: David G. sson (Chair...

Rojanavanich, Vinai

1991-01-01

112

A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

2010-01-01

113

Multi-response optimization of diesel engine performance parameters using thumba biodiesel-diesel blends by applying the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study that involves an application of the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis\\u000a to determine the optimum factor level to obtain optimum multiple-performance characteristics of a diesel engine run with different\\u000a low-percentage thumba biodiesel-diesel blends. Four factors, namely, low-percentage thumba biodiesel-diesel blend, compression\\u000a ratio, nozzle opening pressure and injection timing were each considered at three

A. Karnwal; M. M. Hasan; N. Kumar; A. N. Siddiquee; Z. A. Khan

2011-01-01

114

Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

2014-05-01

115

Analysis of spinal lumbar interbody fusion cage subsidence using Taguchi method, finite element analysis, and artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence, when implant penetration induces failure of the vertebral body, occurs commonly after spinal reconstruction. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages may subside into the vertebral body and lead to kyphotic deformity. No previous studies have utilized an artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a spinal interbody fusion cage. In this study, the neural network was applied after initiation from a Taguchi L 18 orthogonal design array. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to address the resistance to subsidence based on the design changes of the material and cage contact region, including design of the ridges and size of the graft area. The calculated subsidence is derived from the ANN objective function which is defined as the resulting maximum von Mises stress (VMS) on the surface of a simulated bone body after axial compressive loading. The ANN was found to have minimized the bone surface VMS, thereby optimizing the ALIF cage given the design space. Therefore, the Taguchi-FEA-ANN approach can serve as an effective procedure for designing a spinal fusion cage and improving the biomechanical properties.

Nassau, Christopher John; Litofsky, N. Scott; Lin, Yuyi

2012-09-01

116

Introducing optimal experimental design in predictive modeling: a motivating example.  

PubMed

Predictive microbiology emerges more and more as a rational quantitative framework for predicting and understanding microbial evolution in food products. During the mathematical modeling of microbial growth and/or inactivation, great, but not always efficient, effort is spent on the determination of the model parameters from experimental data. In order to optimize experimental conditions with respect to parameter estimation, experimental design has been extensively studied since the 1980s in the field of bioreactor engineering. The so-called methodology of optimal experimental design established in this research area enabled the reliable estimation of model parameters from data collected in well-designed fed-batch reactor experiments. In this paper, we introduce the optimal experimental design methodology for parameter estimation in the field of predictive microbiology. This study points out that optimal design of dynamic input signals is necessary to maximize the information content contained within the resulting experimental data. It is shown that from few dynamic experiments, more pertinent information can be extracted than from the classical static experiments. By introducing optimal experimental design into the field of predictive microbiology, a new promising frame for maximization of the information content of experimental data with respect to parameter estimation is provided. As a case study, the design of an optimal temperature profile for estimation of the parameters D(ref) and z of an Arrhenius-type model for the maximum inactivation rate kmax as a function of the temperature, T, was considered. Microbial inactivation by heating is described using the model of Geeraerd et al. (1999). The need for dynamic temperature profiles in experiments aimed at the simultaneous estimation of the model parameters from measurements of the microbial population density is clearly illustrated by analytical elaboration of the mathematical expressions involved on the one hand, and by numerical simulations on the other. PMID:10563462

Versyck, K J; Bernaerts, K; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F

1999-10-01

117

Simultaneous optimization of multi-response problems in the Taguchi method using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of multiple responses (or performance characteristics) has received increasing attention over the last few years in many manufacturing organizations. Most previous applications of the Taguchi method only emphasize the single-response problems, while the multi-response problems have received relatively little attention. Many Taguchi practitioners have employed past experience and engineering knowledge or judgement when dealing with multiple responses. The

R. Jeyapaul; P. Shahabudeen; K. Krishnaiah

2006-01-01

118

FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO  

E-print Network

FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE design could be applied to the immunological stidy of 2 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, and we significant interaction. - Analysis of the simple effects. - Establishment of immunological rela- tions

Boyer, Edmond

119

Importance of randomization in microarray experimental designs with Illumina platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of gene expression from microarray experiments are highly dependent on experimental design. Systematic noise can be introduced into the data at numerous steps. On Illumina BeadChips, multiple samples are assayed in an ordered series of arrays. Two experiments were performed using the same samples but different hybridization designs. An experiment confounding genotype with BeadChip and treatment with array position

Ricardo A. Verdugo; Christian F. Deschepper; Gloria Munoz; Daniel Pomp; Gary A. Churchill

2009-01-01

120

Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

2014-01-01

121

Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

2013-01-01

122

Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

Lee, Jang Ho

2012-01-01

123

Microelectronics package design using experimentally-validated modeling and simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Packaging high power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) in low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) presents many challenges. Within the constraints of LTCC fabrication, the design must provide the usual electrical isolation and interconnections required to package the IC, with additional consideration given to RF isolation and thermal management. While iterative design and prototyping is an option for developing RFIC packaging, it would be expensive and most likely unsuccessful due to the complexity of the problem. To facilitate and optimize package design, thermal and mechanical simulations were used to understand and control the critical parameters in LTCC package design. The models were validated through comparisons to experimental results. This paper summarizes an experimentally-validated modeling approach to RFIC package design, and presents some results and key findings.

Johnson, Jay Dean; Young, Nathan Paul; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory

2010-11-01

124

Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

125

Design optimisation and experimental evaluation of dorsal double plating fixation for distal radius fracture.  

PubMed

This study determines the relative effects of changes in osteoporosis condition, plate/screw design factors (plate angle/length/width/thickness and screw diameter) and fixation methods (screw number and screw length) on the biomechanical response of dorsal double plating (DDP) fixation at a distal radius fracture to determine the optimal design and evaluate its biomechanical strength using the dynamic fatigue test. Eighteen CAD and finite element (FE) models corresponding to a Taguchi L18 array were constructed to perform numerical simulations to simulate the mechanical responses of a DDP fixed in a simply distal radius fracture bone. The Taguchi method was employed to determine the significance of each design factor in controlling bone/plate/screw stress and distal fragment displacement under axial (100 N), bending (1 N m) and torsion (1 N m) loads. Simulation results indicated that the order rank to determine the mechanical response was the plate thickness, plate width, screw diameter, and number of screws. Dorsal intermediate (L) plate with 60 mm length, 1.8 mm thickness, 6.0 mm width and 2.8 mm diameter, 20 mm length dual-thread locking screw can be found for optimisation. The DDP, including an L plate with 0°, 30° and 60° angles and a straight I plate, were made with Ti6Al4V to fix onto the sawbones with three corresponding radius fractures to perform the dynamic testing. The specimens were oscillated with loads between 10 N and 150 N at 5 Hz for 20,000 cycles. The average stiffness in 20,000 test cycles was 425.7 N/mm, 461.1 N/mm and 532.1N/mm for the 0°, 30° and 60° constructs, respectively. No difference in stiffness was found in the same angled constructs throughout the 20,000 cycles of testing (p > 0.05). Lack of gross construct failures during cyclic testing and reasonable stiffness corroborated that our new constructs tested to date seem stable enough to support restricted post-operative loads. PMID:23099020

Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Hao; Kuo, Hsien-Nan; Yu, Tsung-Chih; Sun, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Li

2013-04-01

126

The design, construction, and testing of an experimental reverberation chamber  

E-print Network

of Department ember (Mem er May 1975 ABSTRACT The Design, Construction, and Testing of an Experimental Reverberation Chamber. (May 1975) Henry Joseph Smahlik, B. S. , Texas A8cM University Directed by: Dr. Ralph J. Vernon The design of a reverberation... types of vibratory motion, only l. ongitudinal vibrations of the conducting medium consti- 8 tute sound waves, A sound wave may be character ized as a succession of condensations and rarefactions of the particles of the conducting medium. The number...

Smahlik, Henry Joseph

1975-01-01

127

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation  

E-print Network

Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation Simon Duquennoy dedicated terminals. A new trend consists in embedding Web servers in small devices, making both access of embedded Web servers, and we introduce a taxonomy of the contents possi- bly served by Web applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Designing daybuilder: an experimental app to support people with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daybuilder is an experimental smartphone app intended to support people with depression. It was designed in collaboration with six participants who had all received antidepressant medication within the last two years. The Daybuilder prototype was field tested with the same six participants for three to four weeks. All participants were interested in using an application like Daybuilder, immediately or in

Philip Kaare Løventoft; Lasse Benn Nørregaard; Erik Frøkjær

2012-01-01

129

Bands to Books: Connecting Literature to Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an interdisciplinary unit of study on the inquiry process and experimental design that seamlessly integrates math, science, and reading using a rubber band cannon. This unit was conducted over an eight-day period in two sixth-grade classes (one math and one science with each class consisting of approximately 27 students and…

Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara Delano

2004-01-01

130

The Sequential Generation of $D$Optimum Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to obtain convergence to a $D$-optimum measure, as defined by Kiefer and Wolfowitz, by successively adding points to a given initial experimental design. The points added correspond to points of maximum variance of the usual least squares estimate of the response mean for the particular regression model at each stage. A new bound is given for the

Henry P. Wynn

1970-01-01

131

COM2002, 3002, 6222 Statistics and Experimental Design  

E-print Network

COM2002, 3002, 6222 Statistics and Experimental Design · (adapted from Dr Simon Tucker's lecture #12;· My neighbour's new baby Tuesday, 22 October 2013 #12;· Other half of class hide eyes Tuesday, 22 by the surrounding context · more complicated than just laying down a trace of what was encountered · people

Sharkey, Amanda

132

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2012-01-01

133

Experimental design for single point diamond turning of silicon optics  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these experiments is to determine optimum cutting factors for the machining of silicon optics. This report describes experimental design, a systematic method of selecting optimal settings for a limited set of experiments, and its use in the silcon-optics turning experiments. 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Krulewich, D.A.

1996-06-16

134

Multivariate statistical regression methods for process modelling and experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification for multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

135

Multivariate Statistical Regression Methods for Process Modelling and Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification tor multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

136

A Hierarchical Adaptive Approach to Optimal Experimental Design  

E-print Network

for that person have been observed. Despite the intuitive appeal of this dual approach, to the best of ourA Hierarchical Adaptive Approach to Optimal Experimental Design Woojae Kim1, Mark A. Pitt1, Zhong 43210 2Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 Keywords: optimal

Steyvers, Mark

137

Model Selection in Systems Biology Depends on Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis. PMID:24922483

Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D. W.; Barnes, Chris P.; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

2014-01-01

138

An experimental and analytical synthesis of controlled structure design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the experimental and analytical results from a controlled structure technology development project are reported and discussed. A controller was designed to reject disturbances from a lightly damped truss structure, in which twenty structural modes lie within the controller bandwidth. The signals from four strain sensors are fed back through an eighteenth order dynamic controller into four stress

L. D. Peterson; J. J. Allen; J. P. Lauffer; A. K. Miller

1989-01-01

139

Some key things industrial engineers should know about experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are fundamental to enhancing understanding of the complex industrial processes which we deal with every day. Experimental Design (ED) is a very powerful tool that assists engineers and scientist to discover a set of variables which are most important for a process and thereby provide a great insight into the way a process or system works. It is superior

Jiju Antony

1998-01-01

140

Load-cell-design developments by numerical and experimental methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design data for a family of ring-shaped elastic elements are derived using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. The development of a family of elastic elements for load cells operating at medium to low load level is considered in detail, using several approaches. Snapes analyzed were circular ring with integral bosses and square ring. The effects of thickness, boss size and

G. Barbato; S. Desogus; A. Zompi; R. Levi

1981-01-01

141

Design, Control, and Experimental Performance of a Teleoperated Robotic Fish  

E-print Network

Design, Control, and Experimental Performance of a Teleoperated Robotic Fish Evangelos Papadopoulos National Technical University of Athens 15780 Athens, Greece egpapado@central.ntua.gr Abstract-- Fish-cost teleoperated underwater robotic fish, driven by an oscillating foil. The main principles for the development

Papadopoulos, Evangelos

142

Some Nonparametric Tests for Student's Hypothesis in Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental designs the quantities investigated are often grouped into blocks as a method of obtaining a higher precision for the experiment. This grouping may result in high correlation among observations within the same block. If the positions of the treatments within a block are assigned at random, the amount of correlation is difficult to determine and may vary greatly

John E. Walsh

1952-01-01

143

An experimental and analytical synthesis of controlled structure design  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the experimental and analytical results from a controlled structure technology development project are reported and discussed. A controller was designed to reject disturbances from a lightly damped truss structure, in which twenty structural modes lie within the controller bandwidth. The signals from four strain sensors are fed back through an eighteenth order dynamic controller into four stress actuators (not collocated with the sensors) to reduce the vibration of the structure. Five independent performance measures are simultaneously minimized to synthesize the controller. An optimal projection controller, designed from a 58th order state space model, experimentally reduces the structural vibration by up to 65% without saturating the actuators and without destabilizing high frequency modes. By comparing analytical and experimental performance predictions, the robustness of the controller to model imperfections is demonstrated. The overall procedure reported here demonstrates a complete analysis, control synthesis, and test of a realistic controlled structure. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Peterson, L.D.; Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.; Miller, A.K.

1989-01-01

144

Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated.

Khakpour, H.; Birglenl, L.; Tahan, A.; Paquet, F.

2014-12-01

145

Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

1991-01-01

146

Multiobjective Time-Dependent Optimal Experimental Design of Sampling Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the application of optimal experimental design (OED) for obtaining groundwater sampling data in an efficient manner. The OED finds application here in developing designs for a complex reactive transport scenario. In this context, monitoring networks can be used for multiple purposes, such as for collecting samples that improve the accuracy of reaction parameters and for reliably monitoring contaminant transport. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to develop the Pareto surface of these objectives and their tradeoff with design cost. Costs explicitly include the designer's discount rate, a factor which can significantly influence the selection of well installation and sampling times. As the temporal domain is of interest to both design cost and reaction kinetics, the methodology explicitly addresses the time dependency of the OED problem.

Thomas, B.; Yeh, W. W.

2005-12-01

147

Design and experimental evaluation of compact radial-inflow turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of a multistage 3D Euler solver to the aerodynamic design of two compact radial-inflow turbines is presented, along with experimental results evaluating and validating the designs. The objectives of the program were to design, fabricate, and rig test compact radial-inflow turbines with equal or better efficiency relative to conventional designs, while having 40 percent less rotor length than current traditionally-sized radial turbines. The approach to achieving these objectives was to apply a calibrated 3D multistage Euler code to accurately predict and control the high rotor flow passage velocities and high aerodynamic loadings resulting from the reduction in rotor length. A comparison of the advanced compact designs to current state-of-the-art configurations is presented.

Fredmonski, A. J.; Huber, F. W.; Roelke, R. J.; Simonyi, S.

1991-01-01

148

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental and flight propulsion systems are presented. The following areas are discussed: engine core and low pressure turbine design; bearings and seals design; controls and accessories design; nacelle aerodynamic design; nacelle mechanical design; weight; and aircraft systems design.

1974-01-01

149

A response modeling approach to experimental design for optimal product design.  

SciTech Connect

The general problem considered is an optimization problem involving product design where some initial data are available and computer simulation is to be used to obtain more information. Resources and system complexity together restrict the number of simulations that can be performed in search of optimal settings for the product parameters. Consequently levels of these parameters, used in the simulations, (the experimental design) must be selected in an efficient way. We describe an algorithmic 'response-modeling' approach for performing this selection. The algorithm is illustrated using a rolamite design application. We provide (as examples) optimal one, two and three-point experimental designs for the rolamite computational analyses.

Rutherford, Brian Milne

2003-08-01

150

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

2013-04-01

151

Experimental Design for Parameter Estimation of Gene Regulatory Networks  

PubMed Central

Systems biology aims for building quantitative models to address unresolved issues in molecular biology. In order to describe the behavior of biological cells adequately, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are intensively investigated. As the validity of models built for GRNs depends crucially on the kinetic rates, various methods have been developed to estimate these parameters from experimental data. For this purpose, it is favorable to choose the experimental conditions yielding maximal information. However, existing experimental design principles often rely on unfulfilled mathematical assumptions or become computationally demanding with growing model complexity. To solve this problem, we combined advanced methods for parameter and uncertainty estimation with experimental design considerations. As a showcase, we optimized three simulated GRNs in one of the challenges from the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM). This article presents our approach, which was awarded the best performing procedure at the DREAM6 Estimation of Model Parameters challenge. For fast and reliable parameter estimation, local deterministic optimization of the likelihood was applied. We analyzed identifiability and precision of the estimates by calculating the profile likelihood. Furthermore, the profiles provided a way to uncover a selection of most informative experiments, from which the optimal one was chosen using additional criteria at every step of the design process. In conclusion, we provide a strategy for optimal experimental design and show its successful application on three highly nonlinear dynamic models. Although presented in the context of the GRNs to be inferred for the DREAM6 challenge, the approach is generic and applicable to most types of quantitative models in systems biology and other disciplines. PMID:22815723

Timmer, Jens

2012-01-01

152

Preliminary structural design of a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerobrake concept for a Lunar transfer vehicle was weight optimized through the use of the Taguchi design method, structural finite element analyses and structural sizing routines. Six design parameters were chosen to represent the aerobrake structural configuration. The design parameters included honeycomb core thickness, diameter to depth ratio, shape, material, number of concentric ring frames, and number of radial frames. Each parameter was assigned three levels. The minimum weight aerobrake configuration resulting from the study was approx. half the weight of the average of all twenty seven experimental configurations. The parameters having the most significant impact on the aerobrake structural weight were identified.

Bush, Lance B.

1992-01-01

153

The Concept of Fashion Design on the Basis of Color Coordination Using White LED Lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development of fashion design, especially a dress coordinated with White LED Lighting (=LED). As for the design concept a fusion of the advanced science and local culture was aimed for. For such a reason this development is a very experimental one. Here in particular I handled an Imperial Court dinner dress for the last Japanese First Lady, Mrs. Akie Abe who wore it at the Imperial Court dinner for the Indonesian First Couple held on November 2006 to. This dress made by Prof. T. Taguchi and I open up a new field in the dress design.

Mizutani, Yumiko; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

154

Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

155

Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

Rinehart, Stephen

2011-01-01

156

Optimization of FS Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Behavior of AA2024-T351 Joints Based on Taguchi Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the design of an experiment technique, the Taguchi method, has been used to optimize the friction stir welding (FSW) parameters for improving mechanical behavior of AA2024-T351 joints. The parameters considered were vertical downward forging force, tool travel speed, and probe length. An orthogonal array of L9 (34) was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting tensile strength (Global Efficiency to Tensile Strength—GETS), bending strength (Global Efficiency to Bending—GEB), and hardness field. The percentage contribution of each parameter was also determined. As a result of the Taguchi analysis in this study, the probe length is the most significant parameter on GETS, and the tool travel speed is the most important parameter affecting both the GEB and the hardness field. An algebraic model for predicting the best mechanical performance, namely fatigue resistance, was developed and the optimal FSW combination was determined using this model. The results obtained were validated by conducting confirmation tests, the results of which verify the adequacy and effectiveness of this approach.

Vidal, C.; Infante, V.

2013-08-01

157

TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

1985-11-01

158

Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

1992-01-01

159

Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Magnetorheological Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new magnetorheological (MR) brake prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. Firstly, the rheological properties of\\u000a MR fluids, in particular the dynamic yield stress, were experimentally investigated based on a Bingham plastic model. The\\u000a working principles of the MR brake were then analysed and discussed. The equations for transmitted torque were derived and\\u000a used to evaluate the disc-shaped MR brake.

W. H. Li; H. Du

2003-01-01

160

Epistasis in Genetic Algorithms: An Experimental Design Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper we examined the relationshipbetween genetic algorithms (GAs)and traditional methods of experimental design.This was motivated by an investigationinto the problems caused by epistasis inthe implementation and application of GAsto optimization problems. We showed howthis viewpoint enables us to gain further insightsinto the determination of epistatic effects,and into the value of different forms ofencoding a problem for a

Colin R. Reeves; Christine C. Wright

1995-01-01

161

Factorial experimental design of Orange II photocatalytic discolouration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-discolouration of Orange II solutions at different concentrations was carried out in a 1l concentric reactor irradiated with a 254nm mercury lamp (125W) in the presence of Degussa TiO2 P-25 dispersions. Experimentation involving discolouration of Orange II has been carried out using factorial design methodology for the simulation of the three critical variables affecting the dye discolouration: concentration of Orange

J. Fernández; J. Kiwi; C. Lizama; J. Freer; J. Baeza; H. D. Mansilla

2002-01-01

162

Sloppy Models, Parameter Uncertainty, and the Role of Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Summary Computational models are increasingly used to understand and predict complex biological phenomena. These models contain many unknown parameters, at least some of which are difficult to measure directly, and instead are estimated by fitting to time-course data. Previous work has suggested that even with precise data sets, many parameters are unknowable by trajectory measurements. We examined this question in the context of a pathway model of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuronal growth factor (NGF) signaling. Computationally, we examined a palette of experimental perturbations that included different doses of EGF and NGF as well as single and multiple gene knockdowns and overexpressions. While no single experiment could accurately estimate all of the parameters, experimental design methodology identified a set of five complementary experiments that could. These results suggest optimism for the prospects for calibrating even large models, that the success of parameter estimation is intimately linked to the experimental perturbations used, and that experimental design methodology is important for parameter fitting of biological models and likely for the accuracy that can be expected for them. PMID:20556289

Apgar, Joshua F.; Witmer, David K.; White, Forest M.; Tidor, Bruce

2012-01-01

163

Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

2010-10-01

164

Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method.  

PubMed

Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues.The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

Chen, Zhengsuo; Deng, Hongbo; Chen, Can; Yang, Ying; Xu, Heng

2014-01-01

165

Importance of randomization in microarray experimental designs with Illumina platforms  

PubMed Central

Measurements of gene expression from microarray experiments are highly dependent on experimental design. Systematic noise can be introduced into the data at numerous steps. On Illumina BeadChips, multiple samples are assayed in an ordered series of arrays. Two experiments were performed using the same samples but different hybridization designs. An experiment confounding genotype with BeadChip and treatment with array position was compared to another experiment in which these factors were randomized to BeadChip and array position. An ordinal effect of array position on intensity values was observed in both experiments. We demonstrate that there is increased rate of false-positive results in the confounded design and that attempts to correct for confounded effects by statistical modeling reduce power of detection for true differential expression. Simple analysis models without post hoc corrections provide the best results possible for a given experimental design. Normalization improved differential expression testing in both experiments but randomization was the most important factor for establishing accurate results. We conclude that lack of randomization cannot be corrected by normalization or by analytical methods. Proper randomization is essential for successful microarray experiments. PMID:19617374

Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Muñoz, Gloria; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A.

2009-01-01

166

A Hierarchical Adaptive Approach to Optimal Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Experimentation is at the core of research in the behavioral and neural sciences, yet observations can be expensive and time-consuming to acquire (e.g., MRI scans, responses from infant participants). A major interest of researchers is designing experiments that lead to maximal accumulation of information about the phenomenon under study with the fewest possible number of observations. In addressing this challenge, statisticians have developed adaptive design optimization methods. This letter introduces a hierarchical Bayes extension of adaptive design optimization that provides a judicious way to exploit two complementary schemes of inference (with past and future data) to achieve even greater accuracy and efficiency in information gain. We demonstrate the method in a simulation experiment in the field of visual perception. PMID:25149697

Kim, Woojae; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Steyvers, Mark; Myung, Jay I.

2014-01-01

167

Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. Conclusion SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders. PMID:23071200

Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

2014-01-01

168

Design and experimental validation of looped-tube thermoacoustic engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present the design and experimental validation process for a thermoacoustic looped-tube engine. The design procedure consists of numerical modelling of the system using DELTA EC tool, Design Environment for Low-amplitude ThermoAcoustic Energy Conversion, in particular the effects of mean pressure and regenerator configuration on the pressure amplitude and acoustic power generated. This is followed by the construction of a practical engine system equipped with a ceramic regenerator — a substrate used in automotive catalytic converters with fine square channels. The preliminary testing results are obtained and compared with the simulations in detail. The measurement results agree very well on the qualitative level and are reasonably close in the quantitative sense.

Abduljalil, Abdulrahman S.; Yu, Zhibin; Jaworski, Artur J.

2011-10-01

169

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. An optimal experiment maximizes geophysical information while maintaining the cost of the experiment as low as possible. This requires a careful selection of recording parameters as source and receivers locations or range of periods needed to image the target. We are developing a method to design an optimal experiment in the context of detecting and monitoring a CO2 reservoir using controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. Using an algorithm for a simple one-dimensional (1D) situation, we look for the most suitable locations for source and receivers and optimum characteristics of the source to image the subsurface. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our algorithm is based on a genetic algorithm which has been proved to be an efficient technique to examine a wide range of possible surveys and select the one that gives superior resolution. Each configuration is associated to one value of the objective function that characterizes the quality of this particular design. Here, we describe the method used to optimize an experimental design. Then, we validate this new technique and explore the different issues of experimental design by simulating a CSEM survey with a realistic 1D layered model.

Roux, E.; Garcia, X.

2012-04-01

170

Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

2014-04-01

171

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

2003-02-25

172

Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-12-01

173

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2014-04-01

174

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2012-10-01

175

Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Bt Corn, Lignin, and ANOVAs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case is based on a research paper about the lignin content of genetically modified corn published in the American Journal of Botany. Students are asked to analyze and discuss the paper, focusing on questions related to experimental design and interpretation and a critique of the statistical data presented. Developed for use in an upper-level undergraduate course in plant ecology and a graduate biostatistics course, the case could also be used in courses in plant anatomy, plant physiology, soil ecology, agriculture, or genetics.

Eric Ribbens

2002-01-01

176

Bayesian experimental design for models with intractable likelihoods.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a methodology for designing experiments for efficiently estimating the parameters of models with computationally intractable likelihoods. The approach combines a commonly used methodology for robust experimental design, based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to ensure that no likelihood evaluations are required. The utility function considered for precise parameter estimation is based upon the precision of the ABC posterior distribution, which we form efficiently via the ABC rejection algorithm based on pre-computed model simulations. Our focus is on stochastic models and, in particular, we investigate the methodology for Markov process models of epidemics and macroparasite population evolution. The macroparasite example involves a multivariate process and we assess the loss of information from not observing all variables. PMID:24131221

Drovandi, Christopher C; Pettitt, Anthony N

2013-12-01

177

Design of vibration compensation interferometer for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.  

PubMed

A vibration compensation interferometer (wavelength at 0.532 ?m) has been designed and tested for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). It is designed as a sub-system for EAST far-infrared (wavelength at 432.5 ?m) poloarimeter/interferometer system. Two Acoustic Optical Modulators have been applied to produce the 1 MHz intermediate frequency. The path length drift of the system is lower than 2 wavelengths within 10 min test, showing the system stability. The system sensitivity has been tested by applying a periodic vibration source on one mirror in the system. The vibration is measured and the result matches the source period. The system is expected to be installed on EAST by the end of 2014. PMID:25430167

Yang, Y; Li, G S; Liu, H Q; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zhu, X; Wang, Z X; Zeng, L; Zou, Z Y; Wei, X C; Lan, T

2014-11-01

178

Structure reduction and robust experimental design for distributed parameter identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing an experiment for identifying a distributed parameter is a very challenging problem when the spatial variability of the parameter is unknown. First, we need to determine an appropriate structure complexity for the unknown parameter. A more complicated structure needs more data for identification. Second, we need to evaluate the sufficiency of an experiment design before it is actually conducted. In this paper, the complexity of parameter structure is determined by the accuracy requirement of model application, and the sufficiency of data is evaluated by solving a generalized inverse problem. The worst-case parameter (WCP) defined in this paper is the one that causes the maximum deviation in model application when its structure is simplified. The WCP of a structure can be found by solving a discrete optimization problem with the genetic algorithm. Quantitative relationships between structure complexity, parameter identifiability, data sufficiency and model reliability are derived. For example, it has been proven that if an experimental design is sufficient for identifying the WCP then it must be sufficient for identifying all other parameters with the same structure or simplified structures in the admissible region, and thus, it is a robust design. Based on the theoretical results and algorithms presented in this paper, we may develop a cost-effective methodology for constructing reliable distributed parameter models.

Sun, Ne-Zheng

2005-04-01

179

Probing pictorial relief: from experimental design to surface reconstruction.  

PubMed

The perception of pictorial surfaces has been studied quantitatively for more than 20 years. During this time, the "gauge figure method" has been shown to be a fast and intuitive method to quantify pictorial relief. In this method, observers have to adjust the attitude of a gauge figure such that it appears to lie flat on a surface in pictorial space. Although the method has received substantial attention in the literature and has become increasingly popular, a clear, step-by-step description has not been published yet. In this article, a detailed description of the method is provided: stimulus and sample preparation, performing the experiment, and reconstructing a 3-D surface from the experimental data. Furthermore, software (written in PsychToolbox) based on this description is provided in an online supplement. This report serves three purposes: First, it facilitates experimenters who want to use the gauge figure task but have been unable to design it, due to the lack of information in the literature. Second, the detailed description can facilitate the design of software for various other platforms, possibly Web-based. Third, the method described in this article is extended to objects with holes and inner contours. This class of objects have not yet been investigated with the gauge figure task. PMID:21789733

Wijntjes, Maarten W A

2012-03-01

180

Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

2008-10-13

181

Cutting the wires: modularization of cellular networks for experimental design.  

PubMed

Understanding naturally evolved cellular networks requires the consecutive identification and revision of the interactions between relevant molecular species. In this process, initially often simplified and incomplete networks are extended by integrating new reactions or whole subnetworks to increase consistency between model predictions and new measurement data. However, increased consistency with experimental data alone is not sufficient to show the existence of biomolecular interactions, because the interplay of different potential extensions might lead to overall similar dynamics. Here, we present a graph-based modularization approach to facilitate the design of experiments targeted at independently validating the existence of several potential network extensions. Our method is based on selecting the outputs to measure during an experiment, such that each potential network extension becomes virtually insulated from all others during data analysis. Each output defines a module that only depends on one hypothetical network extension, and all other outputs act as virtual inputs to achieve insulation. Given appropriate experimental time-series measurements of the outputs, our modules can be analyzed, simulated, and compared to the experimental data separately. Our approach exemplifies the close relationship between structural systems identification and modularization, an interplay that promises development of related approaches in the future. PMID:24411264

Lang, Moritz; Summers, Sean; Stelling, Jörg

2014-01-01

182

Cutting the Wires: Modularization of Cellular Networks for Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

Understanding naturally evolved cellular networks requires the consecutive identification and revision of the interactions between relevant molecular species. In this process, initially often simplified and incomplete networks are extended by integrating new reactions or whole subnetworks to increase consistency between model predictions and new measurement data. However, increased consistency with experimental data alone is not sufficient to show the existence of biomolecular interactions, because the interplay of different potential extensions might lead to overall similar dynamics. Here, we present a graph-based modularization approach to facilitate the design of experiments targeted at independently validating the existence of several potential network extensions. Our method is based on selecting the outputs to measure during an experiment, such that each potential network extension becomes virtually insulated from all others during data analysis. Each output defines a module that only depends on one hypothetical network extension, and all other outputs act as virtual inputs to achieve insulation. Given appropriate experimental time-series measurements of the outputs, our modules can be analyzed, simulated, and compared to the experimental data separately. Our approach exemplifies the close relationship between structural systems identification and modularization, an interplay that promises development of related approaches in the future. PMID:24411264

Lang, Moritz; Summers, Sean; Stelling, Jörg

2014-01-01

183

Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

2007-12-13

184

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: Optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology  

PubMed Central

Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011 under solid state fermentation was optimized following Taguchi design of experiment. An orthogonal array layout of L18 (21 × 37) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with eight most influensive factors on laccase production. At individual level pH contributed higher influence, whereas, corn steep liquor (CSL) accounted for more than 50% of the severity index with biotin and KH2PO4 at the interactive level. The optimum conditions derived were; temperature 30°C, pH 5.0, wheat bran 5.0?g, inoculum size 0.5?ml (fungal cell mass = 0.015?g dry wt.), biotin 0.5% w/v, KH2PO4 0.013% w/v, CSL 0.1% v/v and 0.5?mM xylidine as an inducer. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in enzyme production by 58.01%. The laccase production to the level of 1623.55?Ugds?1 indicates that the fungus C. caperata RCK2011 has the commercial potential for laccase. PMID:23463372

Nandal, Preeti; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2013-01-01

185

Parameters optimization of laser brazing in crimping butt using Taguchi and BPNN-GA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser brazing (LB) is widely used in the automotive industry due to the advantages of high speed, small heat affected zone, high quality of welding seam, and low heat input. Welding parameters play a significant role in determining the bead geometry and hence quality of the weld joint. This paper addresses the optimization of the seam shape in LB process with welding crimping butt of 0.8 mm thickness using back propagation neural network (BPNN) and genetic algorithm (GA). A 3-factor, 5-level welding experiment is conducted by Taguchi L25 orthogonal array through the statistical design method. Then, the input parameters are considered here including welding speed, wire speed rate, and gap with 5 levels. The output results are efficient connection length of left side and right side, top width (WT) and bottom width (WB) of the weld bead. The experiment results are embed into the BPNN network to establish relationship between the input and output variables. The predicted results of the BPNN are fed to GA algorithm that optimizes the process parameters subjected to the objectives. Then, the effects of welding speed (WS), wire feed rate (WF), and gap (GAP) on the sum values of bead geometry is discussed. Eventually, the confirmation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the optimal values were effective and reliable. On the whole, the proposed hybrid method, BPNN-GA, can be used to guide the actual work and improve the efficiency and stability of LB process.

Rong, Youmin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Guojun; Yue, Chen; Gu, Yafei; Huang, Yu; Wang, Chunming; Shao, Xinyu

2015-04-01

186

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QSCEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental propulsion systems to be built and tested in the 'quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine' program are presented. The flight propulsion systems are also presented. The following areas are discussed: acoustic design; emissions control; engine cycle and performance; fan aerodynamic design; variable-pitch actuation systems; fan rotor mechanical design; fan frame mechanical design; and reduction gear design.

1974-01-01

187

Experimental design schemes for learning Boolean network models  

PubMed Central

Motivation: A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein–protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model signaling regulatory circuits in human. Learning such models requires observing the system under a sufficient number of different conditions. To date, the amount of measured data is the main bottleneck in learning informative Boolean models, underscoring the need for efficient experimental design strategies. Results: We developed novel design approaches that greedily select an experiment to be performed so as to maximize the difference or the entropy in the results it induces with respect to current best-fit models. Unique to our maximum difference approach is the ability to account for all (possibly exponential number of) Boolean models displaying high fit to the available data. We applied both approaches to simulated and real data from the EFGR and IL1 signaling systems in human. We demonstrate the utility of the developed strategies in substantially improving on a random selection approach. Our design schemes highlight the redundancy in these datasets, leading up to 11-fold savings in the number of experiments to be performed. Availability and implementation: Source code will be made available upon acceptance of the manuscript. Contact: roded@post.tau.ac.il PMID:25161232

Atias, Nir; Gershenzon, Michal; Labazin, Katia; Sharan, Roded

2014-01-01

188

Focusing Kinoform Lenses: Optical Design and Experimental Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray focusing lenses with a kinoform profile are high brilliance optics that can produce nano-sized beams on 3rd generation synchrotron beamlines. The lenses are fabricated with sidewalls of micrometer lateral size. They are virtually non-absorbing and therefore can deliver a high flux over a good aperture. We are developing silicon and germanium lenses that will focus hard x-ray beams to less than 0.5 ?m size using a single refractive element. In this contribution, we present preliminary optical design and experimental test carried out on ID06 ESRF: the lenses were used to image directly the undulator source, providing a beam with fwhm of about 0.7 ?m.

Alianelli, Lucia; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly

2010-06-01

189

Focusing Kinoform Lenses: Optical Design and Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect

X-ray focusing lenses with a kinoform profile are high brilliance optics that can produce nano-sized beams on 3rd generation synchrotron beamlines. The lenses are fabricated with sidewalls of micrometer lateral size. They are virtually non-absorbing and therefore can deliver a high flux over a good aperture. We are developing silicon and germanium lenses that will focus hard x-ray beams to less than 0.5 {mu}m size using a single refractive element. In this contribution, we present preliminary optical design and experimental test carried out on ID06 ESRF: the lenses were used to image directly the undulator source, providing a beam with fwhm of about 0.7 {mu}m.

Alianelli, Lucia; Sawhney, Kawal J. S. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2010-06-23

190

Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.  

PubMed

High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered. PMID:21063953

Jung, Klaus

2011-01-01

191

A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

1994-04-01

192

Determination of chemical release rates from soils: Experimental design  

SciTech Connect

Increasing weight of evidence information has made it clear that, under certain conditions, chemicals above background levels in soils may not be easily released and therefore may not have an adverse environmental effect. This has led to a broadening body of knowledge on approaches to measure or estimate the extent and rate of release of hydrocarbons from soil. Monte Carlo simulation was used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of different experimental designs for measuring the rate of release (ROR) of chemicals from soils. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulation was used to identify changes to the sampling schedule and number of replicates that may result in greater precision in the best-fit model parameters. The purpose was to identify the factors that should be considered in a rate of release experiment to obtain the desired precision in ROR results. Factors that were investigated include the number of replicates, the scatter of the laboratory data, and the length and distribution of samples in a rate study. The fraction of chemical released quickly, F, was shown to be estimated with high precision for a wide range of experimental designs. The rate constant describing fast release, k{sub 1}, can be estimated with high precision if sufficient samples are taken near the beginning of the rate study. The rate constant describing slow release, k{sub 2}, can be estimated with high precision if sufficient samples are taken near the time corresponding to 1/k{sub 2}. For highly weathered soils containing hydrophobic organic chemicals, a precise estimate of k{sub 2} will require a long laboratory study.

Opdyke, D.R.; Loehr, R.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program

1999-04-15

193

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2011-12-31

194

Experimental Reality: Principles for the Design of Augmented Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D (LDC) is a living laboratory, which we created to develop Augmented Environment (AE) for collaborative work, more specifically “cognitive work” (white collars, engineers, office workers). It is a corporate laboratory in a large industry, where natural activity of real users is observed in a continuous manner in various spaces (project space, meeting room, lounge, etc.) The RAO room, an augmented meeting room, is used daily for “normal” meetings; it is also the “mother room” of all augmented meeting rooms in the company, where new systems, services, and devices are tested. The LDC has gathered a unique set of data on the use of AE, and developed various observation and design techniques, described in this chapter. LDC uses novel techniques of digital ethnography, some of which were invented there (SubCam, offsat) and some of which were developed elsewhere and adapted (360° video, WebDiver, etc.). At LDC, some new theories have also been developed to explain behavior and guide innovation: cognitive attractors, experimental reality, and the triple-determination framework.

Lahlou, Saadi

195

Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

196

Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

2010-01-01

197

Multidisciplinary design optimization using response surface analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace conceptual vehicle design is a complex process which involves multidisciplinary studies of configuration and technology options considering many parameters at many values. NASA Langley's Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) has detailed computerized analysis capabilities in most of the key disciplines required by advanced vehicle design. Given a configuration, the capability exists to quickly determine its performance and lifecycle cost. The next step in vehicle design is to determine the best settings of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics. Typical approach to design optimization is experience based, trial and error variation of many parameters one at a time where possible combinations usually number in the thousands. However, this approach can either lead to a very long and expensive design process or to a premature termination of the design process due to budget and/or schedule pressures. Furthermore, one variable at a time approach can not account for the interactions that occur among parts of systems and among disciplines. As a result, vehicle design may be far from optimal. Advanced multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods are needed to direct the search in an efficient and intelligent manner in order to drastically reduce the number of candidate designs to be evaluated. The payoffs in terms of enhanced performance and reduced cost are significant. A literature review yields two such advanced MDO methods used in aerospace design optimization; Taguchi methods and response surface methods. Taguchi methods provide a systematic and efficient method for design optimization for performance and cost. However, response surface method (RSM) leads to a better, more accurate exploration of the parameter space and to estimated optimum conditions with a small expenditure on experimental data. These two methods are described.

Unal, Resit

1992-01-01

198

Computational design of an experimental laser-powered thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thruster. The adopted physical model considers two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the laser power absorption process, geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, and the thermodynamically equilibrium (LTE) assumption for the plasma thermophysical and optical properties. A pressure based Navier-Stokes solver using body-fitted coordinate was used to calculate the laser-supported rocket flow which consists of both recirculating and transonic flow regions. The computer code was used to study the behavior of laser-sustained plasmas within a pipe over a wide range of forced convection and optical arrangements before it was applied to the thruster design, and these theoretical calculations agree well with existing experimental results. Several different throat size thrusters operated at 150 and 300 kPa chamber pressure were evaluated in the numerical experiment. It is found that the thruster performance (vacuum specific impulse) is highly dependent on the operating conditions, and that an adequately designed laser-supported thruster can have a specific impulse around 1500 sec. The heat loading on the wall of the calculated thrusters were also estimated, and it is comparable to heat loading on the conventional chemical rocket. It was also found that the specific impulse of the calculated thrusters can be reduced by 200 secs due to the finite chemical reaction rate.

Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald; Keefer, Dennis

1988-01-01

199

Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System  

E-print Network

Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System H. Nouri,1 F'H^opital, 75013 Paris, France. An experimental study on the design of counter-rotating axial-flow fans was carried out. The fans were designed using an inverse method. In particular, the system is designed to have

Boyer, Edmond

200

Statistical vs. stochastic experimental design: an experimental comparison on the example of protein refolding.  

PubMed

Optimization of experimental problems is a challenging task in both engineering and science. In principle, two different design of experiments (DOE) strategies exist: statistical and stochastic methods. Both aim to efficiently and precisely identify optimal solutions inside the problem-specific search space. Here, we evaluate and compare both strategies on the same experimental problem, the optimization of the refolding conditions of the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus with 26 variables under study. Protein refolding is one of the main bottlenecks in the process development for recombinant proteins. Despite intensive effort, the prediction of refolding from sequence information alone is still not applicable today. Instead, suitable refolding conditions are typically derived empirically in large screening experiments. Thus, protein refolding should constitute a good performance test for DOE strategies. We compared an iterative stochastic optimization applying a genetic algorithm and a standard statistical design consisting of a D-optimal screening step followed by an optimization via response surface methodology. Our results revealed that only the stochastic optimization was able to identify optimal refolding conditions (~1.400 U g(-1) refolded activity), which were 3.4-fold higher than the standard. Additionally, the stochastic optimization proved quite robust, as three independent optimizations performed similar. In contrast, the statistical DOE resulted in a suboptimal solution and failed to identify comparable activities. Interactions between process variables proved to be pivotal for this optimization. Hence, the linear screening model was not able to identify the most important process variables correctly. Thereby, this study highlighted the limits of the classic two-step statistical DOE. PMID:22961887

Anselment, Bernd; Schoemig, Veronika; Kesten, Christopher; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

2012-01-01

201

Bearing diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is developed for defect type identification in rolling element bearings using the integrated Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt (MTGS) method. Vibration data recorded from bearings with seeded defects on outer race, inner race and balls are processed in time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. Eleven damage identification parameters (RMS, Peak, Crest Factor, and Kurtosis in time domain, amplitude of outer race, inner race, and ball defect frequencies in FFT spectrum and HFRT spectrum in frequency domain and peak of HHT spectrum in time-frequency domain) are computed. Using MTGS, these damage identification parameters (DIPs) are fused into a single DIP, Mahalanobis distance (MD), and gain values for the presence of all DIPs are calculated. The gain value is used to identify the usefulness of DIP and the DIPs with positive gain are again fused into MD by using Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization process (GSP) in order to calculate Gram-Schmidt Vectors (GSVs). Among the remaining DIPs, sign of GSVs of frequency domain DIPs is checked to classify the probable defect. The approach uses MTGS method for combining the damage parameters and in conjunction with the GSV classifies the defect. A Defect Occurrence Index (DOI) is proposed to rank the probability of existence of a type of bearing damage (ball defect/inner race defect/outer race defect/other anomalies). The methodology is successfully validated on vibration data from a different machine, bearing type and shape/configuration of the defect. The proposed methodology is also applied on the vibration data acquired from the accelerated life test on the bearings, which established the applicability of the method on naturally induced and naturally progressed defect. It is observed that the methodology successfully identifies the correct type of bearing defect. The proposed methodology is also useful in identifying the time of initiation of a defect and has potential for implementation in a real time environment.

Shakya, Piyush; Kulkarni, Makarand S.; Darpe, Ashish K.

2015-02-01

202

The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

2006-01-01

203

Statistical models and experimental designs for poultry research  

E-print Network

number of birds in the experimental unit, will increase the degrees of freedom associated. with the valid. error for testing the hypothesis of no difference between treatment means which provides more precise results. The validity of experimental... of an experiment is related to the number of degrees of freedom associated. with the valid. error in the analysis of' variance table. In most poultry experimentation~ the experimental unit is a group of birds assigned to one treatment in one replicate...

Abdel Baky, Anwar Ahmed

1972-01-01

204

Minimization of warpage and sink index in injection-molded thermoplastic parts using Taguchi optimization method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper consist of minimization of the warpage and sink index in terms of process parameters of the plastic parts have different rib cross-section types, and rib layout angle using Taguchi optimization method. Considering the process parameters such as mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, in addition to rib cross-section types, and rib layout angle, a series

Tuncay Erzurumlu; Babur Ozcelik

2006-01-01

205

Biodegradation of dye solution containing Malachite Green: Optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, optimization of biological decolorization of synthetic dye solution containing Malachite Green was investigated. The effect of temperature, initial pH of the solution, type of algae, dye concentration and time of the reaction was studied and optimized using Taguchi method. Sixteen experiments were required to study the effect of parameters on biodegradation of the dye. Each of experiments

N. Daneshvar; A. R. Khataee; M. H. Rasoulifard; M. Pourhassan

2007-01-01

206

Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is extensively used in machining of conductive materials when precision is of prime importance. Rough cutting operation in WEDM is treated as a challenging one because improvement of more than one machining performance measures viz. metal removal rate (MRR), surface finish (SF) and cutting width (kerf) are sought to obtain a precision work. Using Taguchi's

S. S. Mahapatra; Amar Patnaik

2006-01-01

207

Optimization of the electrical discharge machining process based on the Taguchi method with fuzzy logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of the Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for optimizing the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics has been reported. A multi-response performance index is used to solve the electrical discharge machining process with multiple performance characteristics. The machining parameters (the workpiece polarity, pulse-on time, duty factor, open discharge voltage, discharge current and dielectric

J. L. Lin; K. S. Wang; B. H. Yan; Y. S. Tarng

2000-01-01

208

Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

2010-06-01

209

Combining adaptive and designed statistical experimentation : process improvement, data classification, experimental optimization and model building  

E-print Network

Research interest in the use of adaptive experimentation has returned recently. This historic technique adapts and learns from each experimental run but requires quick runs and large effects. The basis of this renewed ...

Foster, Chad Ryan

2009-01-01

210

Department of Mechanical Engineering Experimental Designs Inc. The Bipedal Machine  

E-print Network

design for a 30 foot tall construction robot. The engineering applications for the project include both, and accurately predicting forces on the full scale robot. Objectives The team was faced with multiple objectives, thigh, and rotary hydraulic, improving the hip design, developing a pelvis design, and updating the 1

Demirel, Melik C.

211

Sequential experimental design approaches to helicopter rotor tuning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different approaches based on sequential experimental design concepts have been studied for helicopter rotor tuning, which is the process of adjusting the rotor blades so as to reduce the aircraft vibration and the spread of rotors. One uses an interval model adapted sequentially to improve the search for the blade adjustments. The other uses a probability model to search for the blade adjustments with the maximal probability of success. In the first approach, an interval model is used to represent the range of effect of blade adjustments on helicopter vibration, so as to cope with the nonlinear and stochastic nature of aircraft vibration. The coefficients of the model are initially defined according to sensitivity coefficients between the blade adjustments and helicopter vibration, to include the expert knowledge of the process. The model coefficients are subsequently transformed into intervals and updated after each tuning iteration to improve the model's estimation accuracy. The search for the blade adjustments is performed according to this model by considering the vibration estimates of all of the flight regimes so as to provide a comprehensive solution for rotor tuning. The second approach studied uses a probability model to maximize the likelihood of success of the selected blade adjustments. The underlying model in this approach consists of two segments: a deterministic segment to include a linear regression model representing the relationships between the blade adjustments and helicopter vibration, and a stochastic segment to comprise probability densities of the vibration components. The blade adjustments with the maximal probability of generating acceptable vibration are selected as recommended adjustments. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is evaluated in simulation based on a series of neural networks trained with actual vibration data. To incorporate the stochastic behavior of the helicopter vibration and better simulate the tuning process, the probability density function of the prediction error is used to simulate noise. Due to the stochastics of the helicopter vibration, the proposed approaches cannot be evaluated by deterministic measures. Therefore, several performance measures have been devised to represent the various aspects of helicopter rotor tuning as the evaluation criteria.

Wang, Shengda

2005-07-01

212

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON PARTICLE IMPACTION AND BOUNCE: EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE DESIGN AND MATERIAL. (R825270)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effects of impaction substrate designs and material in reducing particle bounce and reentrainment. Particle collection without coating by using combinations of different impaction substrate designs and surface materials was...

213

Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular split plots (diameter: 3.65 m & surface area: 10.5 m2) composed of one half amended with biochar and one control half not amended were prepared. Five of these plots are equipped with a warming system, while the other five were equipped with dummies. Each warmed plot is collocated with a control plot within one block. While split plots are all oriented in the same direction the position of blocks is randomized to eliminate the effect of the spatial variability. Biochar was incorporated in the first 20 cm of the soil with a rototiller. Warming system is provided by hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters. The temperature of the plots is monitored with infrared cameras. The 3oC increase of temperature is obtained by dynamically monitoring the temperature difference between warmed and control plots within blocks via improved software. Each plot is further equipped with a soil temperature and moisture sensor.

Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

2014-05-01

214

Overview of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) engineering design activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [InternationalThermonuclearExperimentalReactor (ITER) (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1988), ITER Documentation Series, No. 1] project is a multiphased project, presently proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community (EC), the Government of Japan (JA), the Government of the Russian

Y. Shimomura

1994-01-01

215

Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-01-01

216

Creating A Data Base For Design Of An Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes use of Taguchi method of parametric design to create data base facilitating optimization of design of impeller in centrifugal pump. Data base enables systematic design analysis covering all significant design parameters. Reduces time and cost of parametric optimization of design: for particular impeller considered, one can cover 4,374 designs by computational simulations of performance for only 18 cases.

Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung

1993-01-01

217

Findings in Experimental Psychology as Functioning Principles of Theatrical Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…

Caldwell, George

218

Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

Banwart, Steve

2010-05-01

219

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

220

"Using Power Tables to Compute Statistical Power in Multilevel Experimental Designs"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Power computations for one-level experimental designs that assume simple random samples are greatly facilitated by power tables such as those presented in Cohen's book about statistical power analysis. However, in education and the social sciences experimental designs have naturally nested structures and multilevel models are needed to compute the…

Konstantopoulos, Spyros

2009-01-01

221

Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design  

E-print Network

PAPER Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design Gamma spectroscopy is commonly used in nuclear safeguards to measure uranium enrichment. An experimental design has been carried out for the measurement of uranium enrichment using this technique with different

222

Web-Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology: A Top-Down Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the designing of…

Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

2003-01-01

223

Association mapping: critical considerations shift from genotyping to experimental design  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of many plant scientists’ research is to explain natural phenotypic variation in terms of simple changes in DNA sequence. Traditionally, linkage mapping has been the most commonly employed method to reach this goal: experimental crosses are made to generate a family with known relatedness ...

224

Design of an intelligent pumping station: an experimental model  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is confirmed that the electrical energy demand and hence the electrical operating cost for the pumping stations network of Egypt are substantial. Hence any attempt for energy cost saving at the pumping stations network of the country will be very much appreciated. An experimental model of multi-pump pumping station installed to apply and verify the modern concepts of power

Mohamed I. MAHMOUD; Mohamed A. HELAL; Ahmed M. ZOROMBA

2004-01-01

225

Accounting for No-Shows in Experimental Evaluation Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how to estimate the effect of a program in the presence of no- shows—persons who are assigned to the program but do not participate. The article briefly discusses the methodological problems involved, describes two current experimental evaluations that are subject to these problems, presents several estimators that overcome these problems, outlines the conditions necessary for these estimators

Howard S. Bloom

1984-01-01

226

Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

2010-01-01

227

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) neutral beam design  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on ITER neutral beam design: ion dump; neutralizer and module gas flow analysis; vacuum system; cryogenic system; maintainability; power distribution; and system cost.

Myers, T.J.; Brook, J.W.; Spampinato, P.T.; Mueller, J.P.; Luzzi, T.E.; Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

1990-10-01

228

Design and experimental analysis of legged locomotive robots  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present the design and motion-capture analysis of two previously well-studied dynamic-walking machines, the rimless wheel and the compass gait robot. These robots were the basis for my undergraduate ...

Villabona, Timothy J

2009-01-01

229

Detecting mistakes in engineering models: the effects of experimental design  

E-print Network

This paper presents the results of an experiment with human subjects investigating their ability to discover a mistake in a model used for engineering design. For the purpose of this study, a known mistake was intentionally ...

Savoie, Troy B.

230

Design and construction of an experimental mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

and Dempster's mass spectrometer# The course of instrument development since then has paralleled progress in materials and in electronic and construction techniques, as well as advances in theory. With the improvements in design have come increasingly... of conventional source design indicates the possibility of avoiding, at least in part, some of the above mentioned undesirable phenomena. In the usual construction, an electron gun projects an ionizing beam of electrons through an ionizing chamber so...

Wall, Robert F.

1950-01-01

231

Design of an experimental incinerator for alpha waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically heated controlled-air two-stage incinerator has been designed for burning small volumes (5 kg\\/h) of solid wastes. Distinguishing features of the design are compactness, relatively lightweight, and ease of assembly made possible by using prefabricated ceramic components to form two combustion chambers surrounded by packed fiber insulation within a steel case. Electric girdle heaters around the two combustion chambers

1979-01-01

232

Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties  

PubMed Central

It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design.

Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

2014-01-01

233

Experimental design on the front lines of marketing: Testing new ideas to increase direct mail sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketers have recently begun to embrace complex experimental designs for marketing and advertising testing. Full-factorial, fractional-factorial and Plackett–Burman designs have given marketers new statistical tools to increase the speed, power, and profitability of their testing programs. This case study shows how well constructed and managed experimental designs offer marketing professionals clear, bottom-line benefits over common change one variable at-a-time testing

Gordon H. Bell; Johannes Ledolter; Arthur J. Swersey

2006-01-01

234

Optimization for solidification of low-level-radioactive resin using Taguchi analysis.  

PubMed

Solidification of low-level-radioactive (LLW) resin was optimized using Taguchi analytical methodology. The ingredients in LLW mortar which caused the solidification of cement were evaluated through consecutive measurements of the effects of various concentrations of ingredients. Samples selected according to Taguchi's method were separated into 18 different categories and measured at the 7th, 21st, and 28th day after fabrication on developing effects. Evaluations of the various samples focused on whether the compressive and bending strength fulfilled the special criteria of the Taiwan Power Company (TPC). Similar results indicated that both furnace slag and fly ash were the dominant material resulting from the solidification of LLW mortar. The superior combination was obtained as furnace slag 24 wt.%, fly ash 24 wt.%, and cement 8 wt.% to mix 24 wt.% of resin with 20 wt.% of water, to fulfill the contemporary requirements of TPC. PMID:11699633

Pan, L K; Chang, B D; Chou, D S

2001-01-01

235

Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameters identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from concentration measurements in identifying unknown parameters. In this approach, the sampling locations that give the maximum expected relative entropy are selected as the optimal design. After the sampling locations are determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport equation. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. It is shown that the methods can be used to assist in both single sampling location and monitoring network design for contaminant source identifications in groundwater.

Zhang, Jiangjiang; Zeng, Lingzao; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Dingjiang; Wu, Laosheng

2015-01-01

236

Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameter identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from indirect concentration measurements in identifying unknown source parameters such as the release time, strength and location. In this approach, the sampling location that gives the maximum relative entropy is selected as the optimal one. Once the sampling location is determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown source parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. Compared with the traditional optimal design, which is based on the Gaussian linear assumption, the method developed in this study can cope with arbitrary nonlinearity. It can be used to assist in groundwater monitor network design and identification of unknown contaminant sources. Contours of the expected information gain. The optimal observing location corresponds to the maximum value. Posterior marginal probability densities of unknown parameters, the thick solid black lines are for the designed location. For comparison, other 7 lines are for randomly chosen locations. The true values are denoted by vertical lines. It is obvious that the unknown parameters are estimated better with the desinged location.

Zhang, J.; Zeng, L.

2013-12-01

237

Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

2013-01-01

238

Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors are summarized. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs by using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated-metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hr in engine-dynamometer tests and more than 38,600 km (24000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as those containing silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

1974-01-01

239

Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes the results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hours in engine dynamometer tests and for more than 38,600 kilimeters (24,000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

1974-01-01

240

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

241

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) physics design guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The physics requirements for the ITER design have been set to provide reasonable assurance that the plasma performance will be sufficient to meet the goals of ITER in both physics and technology phases of operation. Considerations for an adequate level of energy confinement with a stable plasma, a satisfactory power and particle control system, an efficient heating and current drive scheme, a suitable plasma control system, a sufficient level of volt-seconds, a need for high-fluence burn, etc., along with several engineering and technology, constraints, set the machine parameters (current, size, field, etc.) The physics guidelines for the ITER design are based on reasonable extrapolations of the tokamak physics database as assessed during the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (1988--90). The reference ITER design has a nominal plasma current of 22 MA (with capability up to 25--28 MA for limited pulse duration), magnetic field of 4.85 T, major radius of 6 m, minor radius of 2.15 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of {approximately}2 that produces a nominal fusion power of {approximately}1 GW. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01

242

High-power CMUTs: design and experimental verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with piezoelectric transducers in high-power applications. As the output pressures increase, nonlinearity of CMUT must be reconsidered and optimization is required to reduce harmonic distortions. In this paper, we describe a design approach in which uncollapsed CMUT array elements are sized so as to operate at the maximum radiation impedance

F. Yamaner; Selim Olcum; H. Oguz; Ayhan Bozkurt; Hayrettin Koymen; Abdullah Atalar

2012-01-01

243

Optimizing Experimental Designs Relative to Costs and Effect Sizes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general model is derived for the purpose of efficiently allocating integral numbers of units in multi-level designs given prespecified power levels. The derivation of the model is based on a constrained optimization problem that maximizes a general form of a ratio of expected mean squares subject to a budget constraint. This model provides more…

Headrick, Todd C.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

244

Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

Cheung, Ming

2011-01-01

245

Stabilization based design and experimental research of a fish robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce the yawing, rolling and pitching of the fish robot and to improve the efficiency of tail fin propulsion, the strength environment of the tail fin thruster was analyzed, the fish robot's shape is optimized under a novel design principle, which was abbreviated as SPC (stability first, propulsion second, control third), of bionic fish robot, the result was analyzed

Tianmiao Wang; Jianhong Liang; Gongxin Shen; Guangkun Tan

2005-01-01

246

The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

2010-01-01

247

Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using

Michael F. W. Festing

1994-01-01

248

Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.  

PubMed

Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

2014-04-01

249

Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization  

PubMed Central

Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

2014-01-01

250

A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis  

SciTech Connect

A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

1993-08-01

251

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

Smith, Justin D.

2012-01-01

252

ADAPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR DRUG COMBINATIONS Mijung Park, Marcel Nassar, Brian L. Evans, Haris Vikalo  

E-print Network

ADAPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR DRUG COMBINATIONS Mijung Park, Marcel Nassar, Brian L. Evans points significantly. Index Terms-- Drug Combinations, Active Learning, Exper- imental Design, Kernel pro- cesses to optimize the drug combination design for the epi- dermal growth factor receptor (EGFR

Pillow, Jonathan

253

Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli. For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology, there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions. This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies. We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion. Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs, and m-sequences are also discussed. Moreover, we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices. Under certain assumptions, these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal. Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed. PMID:25071884

Kao, Ming-Hung; Temkit, M'hamed; Wong, Weng Kee

2014-01-01

254

The Burrs Formation Prediction and Minimization Based on the Optimal Cutting Parameters Design Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researches have shown the cutting parameters and the burrs formation are close related, but these relationships cannot be formed in a simple formula. The mechanism of burrs formation and its appearance occurred to the cutting material quite depends on the method of machining and cutting condition. Although the relationships are nonlinear, the residual burrs can be reduced significantly by selecting appropriate cutting parameters during machining. In this research, a series of cutting experiments that based on Taguchi experimental method has been conducted to explore the formation of burrs size and types under different cutting conditions. The relationship of cutting parameters and the burrs formation data are collected for further study. With the burr size as the evaluation index, cutting speed, feed-rate, and depth of cut are chosen to cut the medium carbon steel (S50C). The Taguchi Method and Artificial Neural Network are adapted to establish the burrs formation model, and then the neural network based on optimal design method as a tool in cutting parameters optimization is employed. The result shows the goal of reduce burrs size into a reasonable region can be accomplished by adjusting cutting parameters. The experiments proved the burrs size with the optimal design method can be reduced as much as 67 to 78% that comparing with experienced cutting condition. As this point of view, the parameters optimization operations by optimal parameters design method offer an effective tool to reduce the burrs size in machining.

Tseng, Pai-Chung; Chiou, I.-Chen

255

Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on the acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. An optimal experiment maximizes geophysical information while maintaining the cost of the experiment as low as possible. This requires a careful selection of recording parameters as source and receivers locations or range of periods needed to image the target. We are developing a method to design an optimal experiment in the context of detecting and monitoring a CO2 reservoir using controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. Using an algorithm for a simple one-dimensional (1D) situation, we look for the most suitable locations for source and receivers and optimum characteristics of the source to image the subsurface. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our algorithm is based on a genetic algorithm which has been proved to be an efficient technique to examine a wide range of possible surveys and select the one that gives superior resolution. Each particular design needs to be quantified. Different quantities have been used to estimate the "goodness" of a model, most of them being sensitive to the eigenvalues of the corresponding inversion problem. Here we show a comparison of results obtained using different objective functions. Then, we simulate a CSEM survey with a realistic 1D structure and discuss the optimum recording parameters determined by our method.

Roux, E.; Garcia, X. A.

2011-12-01

256

High-power CMUTs: design and experimental verification.  

PubMed

Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with piezoelectric transducers in high-power applications. As the output pressures increase, nonlinearity of CMUT must be reconsidered and optimization is required to reduce harmonic distortions. In this paper, we describe a design approach in which uncollapsed CMUT array elements are sized so as to operate at the maximum radiation impedance and have gap heights such that the generated electrostatic force can sustain a plate displacement with full swing at the given drive amplitude. The proposed design enables high output pressures and low harmonic distortions at the output. An equivalent circuit model of the array is used that accurately simulates the uncollapsed mode of operation. The model facilities the design of CMUT parameters for high-pressure output, without the intensive need for computationally involved FEM tools. The optimized design requires a relatively thick plate compared with a conventional CMUT plate. Thus, we used a silicon wafer as the CMUT plate. The fabrication process involves an anodic bonding process for bonding the silicon plate with the glass substrate. To eliminate the bias voltage, which may cause charging problems, the CMUT array is driven with large continuous wave signals at half of the resonant frequency. The fabricated arrays are tested in an oil tank by applying a 125-V peak 5-cycle burst sinusoidal signal at 1.44 MHz. The applied voltage is increased until the plate is about to touch the bottom electrode to get the maximum peak displacement. The observed pressure is about 1.8 MPa with -28 dBc second harmonic at the surface of the array. PMID:22718878

Yamaner, F Yalçin; Olçum, Selim; O?uz, H Ka?an; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Köymen, Hayrettin; Atalar, Abdullah

2012-06-01

257

Optimal experimental design for event-related fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important challenge in the design and analysis of event-related or single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is to optimize statistical efficiency, i.e., the accuracy with which the event-related hemodynamic response to different stimuli can be estimated for a given amount of imaging time. Several studies have suggested that using a fixed inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of at least 15 sec

Anders M. Dale

1999-01-01

258

Optimal design and experimental investigation of surfactant encapsulated microbubbles.  

PubMed

The diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging can be improved with contrast-specific nonlinear imaging modalities such as harmonic and subharmonic imaging. The nonlinear response of an encapsulated microbubble in an acoustic field is strongly influenced by the shell viscoelastic properties that are determined by the shell composition and thickness. In this paper, the subharmonic performance of a surfactant encapsulated microbubble was optimized by choosing the appropriate composition of shell material with the aid of theoretical model. To study the effects of viscoelastic properties of microbubble shell materials on the nonlinear scattered response of microbubbles, a theoretical model-modified Herring equation for the oscillation of encapsulated microbubbles in the ultrasound field was employed. Based on this model, a computer aided design system was developed to optimize and analyze the acoustic properties, particularly subharmonic responses, of microbubbles under different shell parameters. Furthermore, surfactant encapsulated microbubbles with different viscoelastic properties were prepared by changing the shell composition. Their shell viscoelastic behavior was measured indirectly as dilational modulus of monolayer film formed with surfactant molecular. Moreover, in vitro quantitative acoustic properties measurements of these microbubbles were carried out to evaluate their subharmonic performance. Both of the theoretical simulation and acoustic measurement showed that the surfactant encapsulated microbubbles with good subharmonic properties could be designed and prepared by adjusting the shell material composition with the guide of the computer aided design system. PMID:16859725

Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Wang, Supin; Zhang, Guolu

2006-12-22

259

Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design  

PubMed Central

A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point of maximum performance is found to occur at relatively low elasticity levels, with diodicity around 3.5. Based on a previously published numerical work [Ejlebjerg et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 234102 (2012)], 2D simulations of the FENE-CR differential constitutive model are also presented, but limited reproducibility and uncertainties of the experimental data prevent a direct comparison at low elasticity, where the flow is essentially two-dimensional. PMID:24324532

Ejlebjerg Jensen, Kristian; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin; Alves, M. A.

2012-01-01

260

Application of Experimental Design in Preparation of Nanoliposomes Containing Hyaluronidase  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This property is utilized for hypodermoclysis and for treating extravasation injury. Hyaluronidase is further studied for possible application as an adjuvant for increasing the efficacy of other drugs. Development of suitable carrier system for hyaluronidase would help in coadministration of other drugs. In the present study, the hyaluronidase was encapsulated in liposomes. The effect of variables, namely, phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol, temperature during film formation (T1), and speed of rotation of the flask during film formation (SPR) on percentage of protein encapsulation, was first analyzed using factorial design. The study showed that level of phosphatidylcholine had the maximum effect on the outcome. The effect of interaction of PC and SPR required for preparation of nanoliposomes was identified by central composite design (CCD). The dependent variables were percentage protein encapsulation, particle size, and zeta potential. The study showed that ideal conditions for production of hyaluronidase loaded nanoliposomes are PC—140?mg and cholesterol 1/5th of PC when the SPR is 150?rpm and T1 is 50°C. PMID:25295195

Kasinathan, Narayanan; Volety, Subrahmanyam Mallikarjuna; Josyula, Venkata Rao

2014-01-01

261

The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

2004-01-01

262

Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

2009-09-15

263

Mapping small effect mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impacts of experimental design and mutational properties  

E-print Network

1 Mapping small effect mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impacts responsible for three EMS-induced mutant phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of experimental design and mutational properties Fabien Duveau*, Brian P.H. Metzger

Gruber, Jonathan

264

76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon AGENCY: National Marine...propose to designate the Middle Columbia River (MCR) steelhead (Oncorhynchus...

2011-05-18

265

Optimization of experimental designs and model parameters exemplified by sedimentation in salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weighted least squares estimator for model parameters was presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs was described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account a potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches were combined with two different methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and handling was described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two models for sediment concentration in seawater of different complexity served as application example. The advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches were compared, and an evaluation of the approaches was performed.

Reimer, J.; Schürch, M.; Slawig, T.

2014-09-01

266

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

267

PhET Teacher Activities: Experimental Design with Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This middle school lesson plan blends a classroom experiment with the interactive PhET simulation Masses and Springs. Students design and conduct an experiment to test their predictions about the behavior of springs with masses attached. The simulation is used to explore kinetic and potential energy of spring motion and to visualize how the spring moves on different planets with varied gravitational constants. The lesson provides extensive background information for both educators and learners along with scripted teacher discussion. The simulation required to complete this activity is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs Simulation. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

2012-09-24

268

Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.

Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-04-01

269

Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A' in the 10-90 MeV/c2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

Cowan, Ray F.; DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-01

270

Optimization of rheological parameter for micro-bubble drilling fluids by multiple regression experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize plastic viscosity of 18 mPa·s circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid formula, orthogonal and uniform\\u000a experimental design methods were applied, and the plastic viscosities of 36 and 24 groups of agent were tested, respectively.\\u000a It is found that these two experimental design methods show drawbacks, that is, the amount of agent is difficult to determine,\\u000a and the results

Li-hui Zheng; Jin-feng Wang; Xiao-peng Li; Yan Zhang; Du Li

2008-01-01

271

Likelihood-based confidence intervals of relative fitness for a common experimental design  

E-print Network

Likelihood-based confidence intervals of relative fitness for a common experimental design Steven T confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimates of relative fitness obtained from an experimental confidence intervals based on the t distribution have been constructed by estimat- ing the sampling variance

Kalinowski, Steven T

272

System Design and Experimental Evaluation of a MEMS-based Semicircular Canal Prosthesis  

E-print Network

System Design and Experimental Evaluation of a MEMS-based Semicircular Canal Prosthesis Jiayin Liu evaluation of a unilateral vestibular prosthesis. The sensing element of the prosthesis is a one-axis MEMS the corresponding vestibular nerve branch. Our preliminary experimental evaluations of the prosthesis on a rate

Tang, William C

273

Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

2013-01-01

274

Design and Validation of a Virtual Environment for Experimentation inside the Small Intestine  

E-print Network

Design and Validation of a Virtual Environment for Experimentation inside the Small Intestine Liang algorithm inside small intestine faces a lot of difficulties since any experimentation on the human being small intestine would facilitate the process of verifying the performance of existing algorithms without

Pahlavan, Kaveh

275

Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System  

E-print Network

Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System H. Nouri, F Paris, France. An experimental study on counter-rotating axial-flow fans was carried out. The fans a pure axial discharge flow. The counter-rotating fans operate in a ducted-flow configuration

276

Experimental Design of a Magnetic Flux Compression Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of ultrahigh magnetic fields is an interesting topic of high-energy-density physics, and an essential aspect of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). To examine plasma formation from conductors impinged upon by ultrahigh magnetic fields, in a geometry similar to that of the MAGO experiments, an experiment is under design to compress magnetic flux in a toroidal cavity, using the Shiva Star or Atlas generator. An initial toroidal bias magnetic field is provided by a current on a central conductor. The central current is generated by diverting a fraction of the liner current using an innovative inductive current divider, thus avoiding the need for an auxiliary power supply. A 50-mm-radius cylindrical aluminum liner implodes along glide planes with velocity of about 5 km/s. Inward liner motion causes electrical closure of the toroidal chamber, after which flux in the chamber is conserved and compressed, yielding magnetic fields of 2-3 MG. Plasma is generated on the liner and central rod surfaces by Ohmic heating. Diagnostics include B-dot probes, Faraday rotation, radiography, filtered photodiodes, and VUV spectroscopy. Optical access to the chamber is provided through small holes in the walls.

Fuelling, Stephan; Awe, Thomas J.; Bauer, Bruno S.; Goodrich, Tasha; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Siemon, Richard E.; Atchison, Walter L.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Salazar, Mike A.; Scudder, David W.; Turchi, Peter J.; Degnan, James H.; Ruden, Edward L.

2007-06-01

277

Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

Ellis, Stephen R.

1990-01-01

278

Experimental design of double-cladding planar waveguide laser amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An end-pumped laser amplifier with high efficiency and compactness was designed. The thermal stress of symmetrical single-cladding and double-cladding planar waveguide with Nd:YAG as its core were analyzed theoretically, and the maximum thermal load for each were also obtained according to the stress fracture limit. For different inner cladding thickness, the maximum pump power that could be absorbed was calculated. The laser medium was chosen to be a symmetrical double-cladding planar waveguide with Nd:YAG as its core, the dimensions of the gain area were 50mm×12mm×100?m, and the waveguide were 60mm×12mm×2mm. The single thickness of inner cladding YAG and the outer cladding sapphire were 250?m and 700?m respectively. The size of LDA pump light was 18.9mm and 10mm respectively in fast axis and slow axis. The seeder was coupled into the waveguide from one end, and the outer cladding were welded with two heat sink for heat transfer. By theoretical calculation, if the seeder into the waveguide is 0.1W, the outputting power of 1651W could be obtained when the pump power from the LD array was 3600W, with the optical-optical efficiency of 46%.

Wang, Juntao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Tangjian; Hu, Hao; Gao, Qingsong

2015-02-01

279

Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge. I. Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~103 strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders," each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

Dobler, Gregory; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phil; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

2015-02-01

280

Assessing the Effectiveness of a Computer Simulation for Teaching Ecological Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing manipulative ecological experiments is a complex and time-consuming process that is problematic to teach in traditional undergraduate classes. This study investigates the effectiveness of using a computer simulation--the Virtual Rocky Shore (VRS)--to facilitate rapid, student-centred learning of experimental design. We gave a series of…

Stafford, Richard; Goodenough, Anne E.; Davies, Mark S.

2010-01-01

281

Developing Experimental Design and Troubleshooting Skills in an Advanced Biochemistry Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creates an advanced biochemistry laboratory course that focuses on the development of experimental design and troubleshooting skills which provide students with the opportunity to design and evaluate their own experiments through semester-long independent projects with a common theme. Indicates that students were often frustrated but felt that the…

Roberts, Linda M.

2001-01-01

282

Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

2014-01-01

283

Design, dynamic modelling and experimental validation of a new three-degree-of-freedom flexible arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design, dynamic modelling and experimental validation of a new three-degree-of-freedom flexible arm which is suitable for industrial applications. The arm was designed on the assumption that all its mass was concentrated at the tip. In keeping with this, the arm was built with very lightweight links, and all the actuators were located at its base. A

J. A. Somolinos; V. Feliu; L. Sánchez

2002-01-01

284

A Class of Experimental Designs for Estimating a Response Surface and Variance Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new class of experimental designs, called split factorials, which allow for the estimation of both response surface effects (fixed effects of crossed factors) and variance components arising from nested random effects. With an economical run size, split factorials provide flexibility in dividing the degrees of freedom among the different estimations. For a split factorial design, it

Bruce E. Ankenman; Hui Liu; Alan F. Karr

2000-01-01

285

Scaffolding a Complex Task of Experimental Design in Chemistry with a Computer Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When solving a scientific problem through experimentation, students may have the responsibility to design the experiment. When students work in a conventional condition, with paper and pencil, the designed procedures stay at a very general level. There is a need for additional scaffolds to help the students perform this complex task. We propose a…

Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cédric

2014-01-01

286

Constrained MIMO dynamic discrete-time modeling exploiting optimal experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) constrained discrete-time modeling (DTM) approach for dynamic block-oriented processes that does not require the nonlinear steady state characteristics to be known prior to model development. This approach uses an efficient statistical experimental design to provide design points for sequential step tests. The DTM is developed from this data in two

Derrick K. Rollins; Nidhi Bhandari

2004-01-01

287

A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

2013-01-01

288

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE DESIGN OF A DUCTED COUNTER-ROTATING AXIAL FLOW FANS SYSTEM  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE DESIGN OF A DUCTED COUNTER-ROTATING AXIAL FLOW FANS SYSTEM-rotating axial-flow fans in a ducted-flow configuration was carried out. The fans were designed using an inverse method. The rotation rate of each fan is independently con- trolled. The distance between the fans can

Boyer, Edmond

289

Designing for Self-Efficacy in a Game Based Simulator: An Experimental Study and Its Implications for Serious Games Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on designing for self-efficacy in a game based driving simulator. Self-efficacy refers to how peoplepsilas beliefs in their capabilities affect their actions. The results show that the design of the feedback system can be used to increase self-efficacy measures thus affecting performance in a driving simulator environment. Self-efficacy has consequences not

Per Backlund; Henrik Engström; Mikael Johannesson; Mikael Lebram; Björn Sjödén

2008-01-01

290

Theoretical and experimental analyses of optimal experimental design for determination of hydraulic conductivity of cell membrane.  

PubMed

Determination of cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp) is required to predict the optimal conditions for cell cryopreservation. One of the critical procedures associated with the determination of Lp is to measure the kinetics of cell volume change in response to a sudden cell exposure to anisosmotic media until the cells achieve an osmotic equilibrium state. To achieve accurate measurement, it should be ensured that (1) the cell osmotic equilibration process is sufficiently slow, and (2) the total cell volume change (?V) is much larger than the resolution of the measuring device (?). In this article, a cell's half volume excursion time (t*) was defined as the time in which osmotically active cell water volume increases or decreases by half of its maximum change. Based on the water transport equations, a series of analytical solutions were derived. The t* and ?V were expressed as functions of 2 control variables: initial intracellular osmolality (Mo) and extracellular osmolality (Me), and the effects of Me and Mo on t* and ?V were predicted theoretically. The predictions were confirmed by performing experiments using two different cell types. In the light of this study, a strategy to optimize the experiment design for the Lp determination is suggested. PMID:24836483

Zhou, Xiaoming; Gao, Frank; Shu, Zhiquan; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Heimfeld, Shelly; Gao, Dayong

2010-09-01

291

Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can

Wei-Bin Lu; Wei-Chen Kao; Jun-Ji Shi; Jo-Shu Chang

2008-01-01

292

Thermal-hydraulic design issues and analysis for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) divertor  

SciTech Connect

Critical Heat Flux (CHF), also called burnout, is one of the major design limits for water-cooled divertors in tokamaks. Another important design issue is the correct thermal modeling of the divertor plate geometry where heat is applied to only one side of the plate and highly subcooled flow boiling in internal passages is used for heat removal. This paper discusses analytical techniques developed to address these design issues, and the experimental evidence gathered in support of the approach. Typical water-cooled divertor designs for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are analyzed, and design margins estimated. Peaking of the heat flux at the tube-water boundary is shown to be an important issue, and design concerns which could lead to imposing large design safety margins are identified. The use of flow enhancement techniques such as internal twisted tapes and fins are discussed, and some estimates of the gains in the design margin are presented. Finally, unresolved issues and concerns regarding hydraulic design of divertors are summarized, and some experiments which could help the ITER final design process identified. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Koski, J.A.; Watson, R.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hassanien, A.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Goranson, P.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Fusion Engineering Design Center); Salmonson, J.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Special Projects)

1990-01-01

293

Analytical and experimental performance of optimal controller designs for a supersonic inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques of modern optimal control theory were applied to the design of a control system for a supersonic inlet. The inlet control problem was approached as a linear stochastic optimal control problem using as the performance index the expected frequency of unstarts. The details of the formulation of the stochastic inlet control problem are presented. The computational procedures required to obtain optimal controller designs are discussed, and the analytically predicted performance of controllers designed for several different inlet conditions is tabulated. The experimental implementation of the optimal control laws is described, and the experimental results obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are presented. The control laws were implemented with analog and digital computers. Comparisons are made between the experimental and analytically predicted performance results. Comparisons are also made between the results obtained with continuous analog computer controllers and discrete digital computer versions.

Zeller, J. R.; Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.; Batterton, P. G.

1973-01-01

294

Design considerations and experimental analysis of high-voltage SiC Schottky barrier rectifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical design of high-voltage SiC Schottky rectifiers requires an understanding of the device physics that affect the key performance parameters. Forward characteristics of SiC Schottky rectifiers follow thermionic emission theory and are relatively well understood. However, the reverse characteristics are not well understood and have not been experimentally investigated in-depth. In this paper we report the analysis and experimental results

Kipp Jay Schoen; Jerry M. Woodall; James A. Cooper; Michael R. Melloch

1998-01-01

295

Experimental verification of the sparse design of a square partial discharge acoustic emission array sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study experimentally verified the sparse design of a square partial discharge (PD) acoustic emission array sensor proposed in Xie et al (2014 Meas. Sci. Technol. 25 035102). Firstly, this study developed a square PD acoustic emission array sensor and determined the material, centre frequency, thickness, radius, etc of the element of this array sensor through analysis and comparison with others. Moreover, in combination with a sound-absorbing backing and a matching layer, a single acoustic emission array sensor element was designed, which laid the basis for the experimental verification of the ensuing sparse design. On this basis, the assembly of the square acoustic emission array sensor was designed. It realised the plug-and-play ability of the array elements and formed the basis for the experimental study of the following sparse design. Subsequently, this study established and introduced an experimental system and methods for PD positioning. Finally, it experimentally investigated the sparse design of a square PD acoustic emission array sensor. The 9-element square PD acoustic emission array sensor was used as an example to study the positioning effects on PD using the acoustic emission array sensor in optimum and random sparse structures respectively. The results suggested that: (1) the PD acoustic emission array sensor and corresponding experimental system were effective in detecting and positioning the PD; (2) the square PD acoustic emission array sensor proposed in Xie et al (2014 Meas. Sci. Technol. 25 035102) was feasible. Using this array sensor, it was possible to optimise the sparse distribution structure of this acoustic emission array sensor.

Xie, Qing; Liu, Xiong; Tao, Junhan; Li, Tong; Cheng, Shuyi; Lu, Fangcheng

2015-04-01

296

Perspectives on Prediction Variance and Bias in Developing, Assessing, and Comparing Experimental Designs  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of response surface methods used in practice to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs focus on variance properties of designs. Because response surface models only approximate the true unknown relationships, models are subject to bias errors as well as variance errors. Beginning with the seminal paper of Box and Draper (1959) and over the subsequent 50 years, methods that consider bias and mean-squared-error (variance and bias) properties of designs have been presented in the literature. However, these methods are not widely implemented in software and are not routinely used to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs in practice. Methods for developing, assessing, and comparing response surface designs that account for variance properties are reviewed. Brief synopses of publications that consider bias or mean-squared-error properties are provided. The difficulties and approaches for addressing bias properties of designs are summarized. Perspectives on experimental design methods that account for bias and/or variance properties and on future needs are presented.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2010-12-01

297

A comparison of the calculated and experimental off-design performance of a radial flow turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Off design aerodynamic performance of the solid version of a cooled radial inflow turbine is analyzed. Rotor surface static pressure data and other performance parameters were obtained experimentally. Overall stage performance and turbine blade surface static to inlet total pressure ratios were calculated by using a quasi-three dimensional inviscid code. The off design prediction capability of this code for radial inflow turbines shows accurate static pressure prediction. Solutions show a difference of 3 to 5 points between the experimentally obtained efficiencies and the calculated values.

Tirres, Lizet

1991-01-01

298

Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

2015-02-01

299

Design and performance of a piezoelectric actuated precise rotary positioner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industries including semiconductor, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are seeking compact and reliable nanometer resolution positioning techniques. To address this demand, this article presents a friction-drive rotary stage driven by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) actuator. This stage includes a multilayer PZT actuator, the Scott-Russell mechanism, an actuation stage, a preload spring, and an output shaft. Its rotary positioning is accomplished by the stick-slip effect between the wire electrodischarge-machining rotary stage and the output shaft. Finite element analysis and Taguchi optimization method were extensively conducted to analyze the displacement, stress, and vibration behavior for optimum design. As shown by the experimental results, the stage achieved a resolution of 0.13?rad and a speed of 0.15°/h by tuning of the preload spring.

Wang, Y. C.; Chang, S. H.

2006-10-01

300

Multiperformance Optimization in Turning of Free-Machining Steel Using Taguchi Method and Utility Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the application of Taguchi method and the utility concept for optimizing the machining parameters in turning of free-machining steel using a cemented carbide tool. A set of optimal process parameters, such as feed rate, cutting speed, and depth of cut on two multiple performance characteristics, namely, surface roughness and metal removal rate (MRR) is developed. The experiments were planned as per L 9 orthogonal array. The optimal level of the process parameters was determined through the analysis of means (ANOM). The relative importance among the process parameters was identified through the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results indicated that the most significant process parameter is cutting speed followed by depth of cut that affect the optimization of multiple performance characteristics. The confirmation tests with optimal levels of machining parameters were carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization method. The optimization results revealed that a combination of higher levels of cutting speed and depth of cut along with feed rate in the medium level is essential in order to simultaneously minimize the surface roughness and to maximize the MRR.

Gaitonde, V. N.; Karnik, S. R.; Davim, J. Paulo

2009-04-01

301

Exploring the effects of chemical composition in hot rolled steel product using Mahalanobis distance scale under Mahalanobis–Taguchi system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of hot rolled steel product from the point of view of reaching the target mechanical property, based on chemical composition of the steel, is a common objective practiced in the industrial rolling mill. After examining the ability of measurement scale of Mahalanobis–Taguchi system in classifying the steel plate as “OK” or “Diverted”, study on the changing nature of Mahalanobis

Prasun Das; Shubhabrata Datta

2007-01-01

302

Introduction of R-LCS and comparative analysis with FSC and Mahalanobis-Taguchi method for Breast Cancer classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification for medical diagnosis is an important problem in the field of pattern recognition. We introduce a new method for classification based on repeated analysis of information tailored to small data sets - the Rote Learning Classifier System. Using the Wisconsin Breast Cancer study, this method was compared to three other methods of classification: Mahalanobis-Taguchi Systems, Finite State Classifiers, and

Benjamin Daniels; Steven M. Corns; Elizabeth A. Cudney

2012-01-01

303

Experimental analysis of the flow in a two stage axial compressor at off-design conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental analysis of the flow that develops in a two-stage axial flow compressor at off-design conditions is presented. The measurements are performed upstream, between, and downstream of the four blade rows of the compressor. The analysis shows the off-design effects on the local conditions of the flow field. Low-energy flow zones are identified, and the development of annulus-boundary-layer, secondary,

Aristide Massardo; Antonio Satta

1987-01-01

304

Design and Experimental Realization of a Broadband Transformation Media Field Rotator at Microwave Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a metamaterial field rotator that can rotate electromagnetic wave fronts. Our starting point was the transformation-media concept. Effective medium theories and full simulations facilitated the actual design process. We created at a very simple structure comprising of an array of identical aluminum metal plates. We made and measured a sample and we experimentally demonstrated the field rotation effect as well as the broadband functionality at microwave frequencies.

Chen, Huanyang; Hou, Bo; Chen, Shuyu; Ao, Xianyu; Wen, Weijia; Chan, C. T.

2009-05-01

305

Design and experimental study of high-speed low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a design and experimental effort to develop small centrifugal compressors for aircraft air cycle cooling systems and small vapor compression refrigeration systems (20--100 tons). Efficiency improvements at 25% are desired over current designs. Although centrifugal compressors possess excellent performance at high flow rates, low-flow-rate compressors do not have acceptable performance when designed using current approaches. The new compressors must be designed to operate at a high rotating speed to retain efficiency. The emergence of the magnetic bearing provides the possibility of developing such compressors that run at speeds several times higher than current dominating speeds. Several low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors, featured with three-dimensional blades, have been designed, manufactured and tested in this study. An experimental investigation of compressor flow characteristics and efficiency has been conducted to explore a theory for mini-centrifugal compressors. The effects of the overall impeller configuration, number of blades, and the rotational speed on compressor flow curve and efficiency have been studied. Efficiencies as high as 84% were obtained. The experimental results indicate that the current theory can still be used as a guide, but further development for the design of mini-centrifugal compressors is required.

Gui, F.; Reinarts, T.R.; Scaringe, R.P. [Mainstream Engineering Corp., Rockledge, FL (United States); Gottschlich, J.M. [Air Force Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

306

An Introduction to Clinical Significance: An Alternative Index of Intervention Effect for Group Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article provides an overview of two result interpretation aids commonly used in group experimental design research: (a) statistical significance testing and (b) practical significance (i.e., effect sizes). The limitations of each are described and an alternative index is discussed: clinical significance. Clinical significance, which focuses on meaningful change, differs from both statistical and practical significance. Basic concepts associated

Todd C. Campbell

2005-01-01

307

LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE OF OUTCOMES  

E-print Network

LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING, California, USA ABSTRACT As the decommissioning of dams becomes a common restoration technique, decisions about dam removals must be based on sound predictions of expected outcomes. Results of past and ongoing

Tullos, Desiree

308

Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children1  

E-print Network

of Education. #12;focal variable, i.e. the variable whose effect on an outcome is being investigated instruction to individual students. Keywords: transfer; experimental design skills; computer-based tutor 1 by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305H060034 to CMU

Klahr, David

309

Design and Experimental Implementation of a Compliant Hybrid Zero Dynamics Controller for Walking on MABEL  

E-print Network

Design and Experimental Implementation of a Compliant Hybrid Zero Dynamics Controller for Walking-zero-dynamics-based controller is implemented experi- mentally and shown to realize stable walking gaits which make use of redirecting the center of mass upward after leg impact [5]; they can also be used to isolate actuators from

Poulakakis, Ioannis

310

System engineering and design of a pulsed homopolar generator power supply for the Texas Experimental Tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a homopolar generator power supply for the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) is presented. Four series-connected disk type homopolar machines serve as inertial energy storage and conversion devices to supply 50 to 70 MW peak power to the toroidal field coil and ohmic heating coil circuits. The system is nominally operated at 150 MJ, 430 V to provide

W. L. Bird; G. B. Grant; W. F. Weldon; H. G. Rylander; H. H. Woodson

1977-01-01

311

Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-01-01

312

Micro Position Control of a Designed 3-PRR Compliant Mechanism Using Experimental Models  

E-print Network

Micro Position Control of a Designed 3-PRR Compliant Mechanism Using Experimental Models Merve Acer Mechatronics Engineering Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey asif@sabanciuniv.edu Abstract-- A new compliant to manufacturing and assembly faults. Thus, sliding mode control with disturbance observer is chosen

Yanikoglu, Berrin

313

Using Superstitions & Sayings To Teach Experimental Design in Beginning and Advanced Biology Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collaborative learning exercise intended to teach the unfamiliar terminology of experimental design both in biology classes and biochemistry laboratories. The exercise promotes discussion and debate, develops communication skills, and emphasizes peer review. The effectiveness of the exercise is supported by student surveys. (SOE)

Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Rippel, Scott A.

2003-01-01

314

Cache Design of SSD-based Search Engine Architectures: An Experimental Study  

E-print Network

A Cache Design of SSD-based Search Engine Architectures: An Experimental Study JIANGUO WANG disk drive (HDD). Recently, solid state drive (SSD) has emerged as a new kind of secondary storage medium, and some search engines like Baidu have already used SSD to completely replace HDD

Yiu, Man Lung

315

Experimental Design and Analysis of Transmission Properties in an Indoor Wireless Sensor Network  

E-print Network

Experimental Design and Analysis of Transmission Properties in an Indoor Wireless Sensor Network channel common to an indoor, single-hop, wireless sensors networks in which the sensor deployment sensor network in a real-world indoor environment. We quantify the impact of primary factors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

Stallings, William M.

1993-01-01

317

Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

Gropper, George L.

2015-01-01

318

Design, Implementation, and Experimentation on Mobile Agent Security for Electronic Commerce  

E-print Network

Design, Implementation, and Experimentation on Mobile Agent Security for Electronic Commerce In this paper, a Shopping Information Agent System (SIAS) is built based on mobile agent technology. It sends. Security is a major prob- lem of mobile agent systems, especially when money transactions are concerned

Lyu, Michael R.

319

An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

Simpson, Henry; And Others

1991-01-01

320

Complex Trait-Treatment-Interaction analysis: A powerful approach for analysing individual differences in experimental designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex Trait-Treatment-Interaction (CTTI) analysis is introduced as a new and highly efficient statistical approach for analysing individual differences in experimental designs. CTTI analysis enables the researcher to investigate the combined effects of several personality traits and several treatments on a dependent variable. Thus, the hypothesis can be tested that a specific relationship between some aspect of human behavior and some

Detlev Leutner; Thomas Rammsayer

1995-01-01

321

Design of an experimental test stand for the study of liquid lithium film stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of having the walls of fusion devices partially or even totally covered with lithium are widely recognized, as evidenced by the growing number of experimental devices with programs devoted to lithium wall conditioning. There are, however, many outstanding questions regarding technology aspects of lithium handling when placed in a tokamak experiment. The present work describes the preliminary design

M. Nieto-Perez; G. Ramos

2011-01-01

322

Design Aspects of an Experimental Test Stand for the Study of Liquid-Lithium-Film Condensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of having the walls of fusion devices covered with lithium are widely recognized, as evidenced by the growing number of experimental devices with experiments devoted to lithium wall conditioning. However, there are still many outstanding questions regarding the technology aspects of lithium when it is placed in a tokamak experiment. This paper describes the preliminary design activities of

Martin Nieto-Perez; R. Avalos-Zuniga; G. Ramos

2012-01-01

323

An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

1979-01-01

324

Experimental Design and Inverse Problems in Plant Biological , H.T. Banks  

E-print Network

Biotechnology to use modeling to better characterize photosynthesis in plants and subsequently better understand to help engineer seeds that maximize carbon dioxide assimilation in photosynthesis and hence promote plantExperimental Design and Inverse Problems in Plant Biological Modeling M. Avery , H.T. Banks , K

325

Experimental design of FPD made of all-ceramics and fibre-reinforced composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was carried out to combine flexural properties of FRC materials with aesthetic values of ceramics.Methods. The bonding strength of fibre-reinforced composite to ceramic was determined. Afterwards, 8 three unit and 8 four unit FPDs (fixed partial dentures) were manufactured based on the experimental design and were then adhesively luted onto human molars. After thermal cycling and mechanical

M Rosentritt; M Behr; R Lang; G Handel

2000-01-01

326

Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

2013-01-01

327

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS USED TO DETECT CHANGES IN YIELDS OF CROPS EXPOSED TO ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of experimental designs used to detect changes in yield of crops exposed to simulated acidic rain was performed. Seed yields were determined from field-grown soybeans(Glycine max) exposed to simulated rainfalls in which all ambient rainfalls were excluded by automati...

328

Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over The Wing (OTW) design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is demonstrated. Composite structures and digital engine controls are among the topics included.

1977-01-01

329

Experimental Validation of Control Designs for Low-Loss Active Magnetic Bearings  

E-print Network

by a low-loss active magnetic bearing (AMB). The electromagnets of the AMB are constrained by a generalized constraint ZB zero-bias LB low-bias PMSM permanent magnet synchronous motor IPACS Integrated PowerExperimental Validation of Control Designs for Low-Loss Active Magnetic Bearings Brian C. Wilson

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

330

Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

2004-01-01

331

Using experimental design to improve the efficiency of simulation modeling — a manufacturing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation models represent an abstraction of real life systems in terms of their components, parameters, and relationships. To obtain an acceptable understanding of any simulated system, experiments must be performed on their elements through representative simulation runs. Statistically designed experiments can be employed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of experimentation with systems - real life or simulated. This technique

Steve Hatami; Earl L. Cowley; Cynthia L. Morey

1990-01-01

332

Experimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as  

E-print Network

to a ruthenium complex that can be bound to a TiO2 anatase electrode. Gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by incorporating liquid electrolyte into a polymer matrix such as poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) using a gellingExperimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as low viscosity solution

333

Experimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as  

E-print Network

polymer electrolytes are prepared by incor- porating liquid electrolyte into a polymer matrix such as polyExperimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as low viscosity solutions)[1] we explore gel electrolyte mixtures with an even higher PC content to improve the SC lifetime. LCs

334

FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO FOOT-AND-MOUTH  

E-print Network

VIRUS SUBTYPES. 1. A GREECE 1969 - A ALLIER EXAMPLE G. DANNACHER M. FEDIDA M. COUDERT LaboratoireFACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, 250, rue Marcel-Mérieux, 69342 Lyon Cedex 2, France. (Directeur : M. Fedida) Résumé PLAN D

Boyer, Edmond

335

Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

2011-01-01

336

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation  

E-print Network

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation gasoline engines (that is, homogeneous charge, stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F)), employ a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) to oxidize HC and CO emissions and reduce NOx. Tradi- tionally, the control

Grizzle, Jessy W.

337

SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE, STUDY PLAN AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INITIAL PHASES OF A STUDY OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR A TELEVISED PHYSICS COURSE WERE DESCRIBED. THE APPROACH, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, PROCEDURE, AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY PLAN WERE INCLUDED. THE MATERIALS WERE PREPARED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERED STATIC AND CURRENT ELECTRICITY,…

KLAUS, DAVID J.; LUMSDAINE, ARTHUR A.

338

Design and application of FBG strain experimental apparatus in high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology has many applications, and it's widely used in detection of temperature, strain and etc. Now the application of FBG sensor is limited to the temperature below 200°C owing to the so called High Temperature Erasing Phenomenon. Strain detection over 200°C is still an engineering challenge since high temperature has a bad influence on the sensor, testing equipment and test data, etc, thus effective measurement apparatus are needed to ensure the accuracy of the measurement over 200°C, but there are no suitable FBG strain experimental apparatus in high temperature to date. In this paper a high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus has been designed to detect the strain in high temperature. In order to verify working condition of the high temperature FBG strain, an application of FBG strain sensing experiment was given in this paper. The high temperature FBG strain sensor was installed in the apparatus, the internal temperature of experimental apparatus was controlled from -20 to 300°C accurately, and strain loading was given by the counterweight, then the data was recorded through electrical resistance strain measurement and optical sensing interrogator. Experimental data result shows that the high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus can work properly over 200°C. The design of the high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus are demonstrated suitable for high temperature strain gauges and FBG strain sensors , etc, which can work under the temperature of -20 ~ 300°C, the strain of -1500 ~ +1500?epsilon and the wavelength resolution of 1pm.

Xia, Zhongcheng; Liu, Yueming; Gao, Xiaoliang

2014-09-01

339

D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to mixtures of environmental compounds. A regulatory assumption is that the mixtures of chemicals act in an additive manner. However, this assumption requires experimental validation. Traditional experimental designs (full factorial) require a large number of e...

340

Near-optimal experimental design for model selection in systems biology  

PubMed Central

Motivation:?Biological systems are understood through iterations of modeling and experimentation. Not all experiments, however, are equally valuable for predictive modeling. This study introduces an efficient method for experimental design aimed at selecting dynamical models from data. Motivated by biological applications, the method enables the design of crucial experiments: it determines a highly informative selection of measurement readouts and time points. Results:?We demonstrate formal guarantees of design efficiency on the basis of previous results. By reducing our task to the setting of graphical models, we prove that the method finds a near-optimal design selection with a polynomial number of evaluations. Moreover, the method exhibits the best polynomial-complexity constant approximation factor, unless P = NP. We measure the performance of the method in comparison with established alternatives, such as ensemble non-centrality, on example models of different complexity. Efficient design accelerates the loop between modeling and experimentation: it enables the inference of complex mechanisms, such as those controlling central metabolic operation. Availability:?Toolbox ‘NearOED’ available with source code under GPL on the Machine Learning Open Source Software Web site (mloss.org). Contact:?busettoa@inf.ethz.ch Supplementary information:?Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23900189

Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Hauser, Alain; Krummenacher, Gabriel; Sunnåker, Mikael; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Ong, Cheng Soon; Stelling, Jörg; Buhmann, Joachim M.

2013-01-01

341

Scaffolding a Complex Task of Experimental Design in Chemistry with a Computer Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When solving a scientific problem through experimentation, students may have the responsibility to design the experiment. When students work in a conventional condition, with paper and pencil, the designed procedures stay at a very general level. There is a need for additional scaffolds to help the students perform this complex task. We propose a computer environment (copex-chimie) with embedded scaffolds in order to help students to design an experimental procedure. A pre-structuring of the procedure where the students have to choose the actions of their procedure among pre-defined actions and specify the parameters forces the students to face the complexity of the design. However, this is not sufficient for them to succeed; they look for some feedback to improve their procedure and finally abandon their task. In another condition, the students were provided with individualized feedbacks on the errors detected in their procedures by an artificial tutor. These feedbacks proved to be necessary to accompany the students throughout their experimental design without being discouraged. With this kind of scaffold, students worked longer and succeeded better to the task than all the other students.

Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cédric

2014-08-01

342

Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

1992-01-01

343

Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.  

SciTech Connect

There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

2005-11-01

344

Design and experimental validation of a flutter suppression controller for the active flexible wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and extensive simulation based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite modeling errors in predicted flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with another controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

1992-01-01

345

Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2013-08-01

346

Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 2: Supporting experimental program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Areas of cryogenic fuel systems were identified where critical experimental information was needed either to define a design criteria or to establish the feasibility of a design concept or a critical aspect of a particular design. Such data requirements fell into three broad categories: (1) basic surface tension screen characteristics; (2) screen acquisition device fabrication problems; and (3) screen surface tension device operational failure modes. To explore these problems and to establish design criteria where possible, extensive laboratory or bench test scale experiments were conducted. In general, these proved to be quite successful and, in many instances, the test results were directly used in the system design analyses and development. In some cases, particularly those relating to operational-type problems, areas requiring future research were identified, especially screen heat transfer and vibrational effects.

Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

1973-01-01

347

Optimization of engineering tolerance design using revised loss functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering tolerance design plays an important role in modern manufacturing. Both symmetric and asymmetric tolerances are common in many manufacturing processes. Recently, various revised loss functions have been proposed for overcoming the drawbacks of Taguchi's loss function. In this article, Kapur's economic tolerance design model is modified and the economic specification limits for both symmetric and asymmetric losses are established.

Jeh-Nan Pan; Jianbiao Pan

2009-01-01

348

Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

Staveland, Lowell

1994-01-01

349

Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

2009-01-01

350

Taking evolutionary circuit design from experimentation to implementation: some useful techniques and a silicon demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current techniques in evolutionary synthesis of analogue and digital circuits designed at transistor level have focused on achieving the desired functional response, without paying sufficient attention to issues needed for a practical implementation of the resulting solution. No silicon fabrication of circuits with topologies designed by evolution has been done before, leaving open questions on the feasibility of the evolutionary circuit design approach, as well as on how high-performance, robust, or portable such designs could be when implemented in hardware. It is argued that moving from evolutionary 'design-for experimentation' to 'design-for-implementation' requires, beyond inclusion in the fitness function of measures indicative of circuit evaluation factors such as power consumption and robustness to temperature variations, the addition of certain evaluation techniques that are not common in conventional design. Several such techniques that were found to be useful in evolving designs for implementation are presented; some are general, and some are particular to the problem domain of transistor-level logic design, used here as a target application. The example used here is a multifunction NAND/NOR logic gate circuit, for which evolution obtained a creative circuit topology more compact than what has been achieved by multiplexing a NAND and a NOR gate. The circuit was fabricated in a 0.5 mum CMOS technology and silicon tests showed good correspondence with the simulations.

Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Guo, X.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Duong, V.

2004-01-01

351

Aspects of experimental design for plant metabolomics experiments and guidelines for growth of plant material.  

PubMed

Experiments involve the deliberate variation of one or more factors in order to provoke responses, the identification of which then provides the first step towards functional knowledge. Because environmental, biological, and/or technical noise is unavoidable, biological experiments usually need to be designed. Thus, once the major sources of experimental noise have been identified, individual samples can be grouped, randomised, and/or pooled. Like other 'omics approaches, metabolomics is characterised by the numbers of analytes largely exceeding sample number. While this unprecedented singularity in biology dramatically increases false discovery, experimental error can nevertheless be decreased in plant metabolomics experiments. For this, each step from plant cultivation to data acquisition needs to be evaluated in order to identify the major sources of error and then an appropriate design can be produced, as with any other experimental approach. The choice of technology, the time at which tissues are harvested, and the way metabolism is quenched also need to be taken into consideration, as they decide which metabolites can be studied. A further recommendation is to document data and metadata in a machine readable way. The latter should also describe every aspect of the experiment. This should provide valuable hints for future experimental design and ultimately give metabolomic data a second life. To facilitate the identification of critical steps, a list of items to be considered before embarking on time-consuming and costly metabolomic experiments is proposed. PMID:22351168

Gibon, Yves; Rolin, Dominique

2012-01-01

352

Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards  

PubMed Central

This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

Smith, Justin D.

2013-01-01

353

Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study  

SciTech Connect

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis.

Krstulovich, S.F.

1987-10-31

354

D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture are prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. However, recent advances in statistically-based experimental design have made it easier to evaluate interactions involving many chemicals...

355

Optimal experimental designs for the estimation of thermal properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable estimation of thermal properties is extremely important in the utilization of new advanced materials, such as composite materials. The accuracy of these estimates can be increased if the experiments are designed carefully. The objectives of this study are to design optimal experiments to be used in the prediction of these thermal properties and to then utilize these designs in the development of an estimation procedure to determine the effective thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity). The experiments were optimized by choosing experimental parameters that maximize the temperature derivatives with respect to all of the unknown thermal properties. This procedure has the effect of minimizing the confidence intervals of the resulting thermal property estimates. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional experimental designs were optimized. A heat flux boundary condition is required in both analyses for the simultaneous estimation of the thermal properties. For the one-dimensional experiment, the parameters optimized were the heating time of the applied heat flux, the temperature sensor location, and the experimental time. In addition to these parameters, the optimal location of the heat flux was also determined for the two-dimensional experiments. Utilizing the optimal one-dimensional experiment, the effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibers and the effective volumetric heat capacity were then estimated for an IM7-Bismaleimide composite material. The estimation procedure used is based on the minimization of a least squares function which incorporates both calculated and measured temperatures and allows for the parameters to be estimated simultaneously.

Scott, Elaine P.; Moncman, Deborah A.

1994-01-01

356

RNA-seq Data: Challenges in and Recommendations for Experimental Design and Analysis.  

PubMed

RNA-seq is widely used to determine differential expression of genes or transcripts as well as identify novel transcripts, identify allele-specific expression, and precisely measure translation of transcripts. Thoughtful experimental design and choice of analysis tools are critical to ensure high-quality data and interpretable results. Important considerations for experimental design include number of replicates, whether to collect paired-end or single-end reads, sequence length, and sequencing depth. Common analysis steps in all RNA-seq experiments include quality control, read alignment, assigning reads to genes or transcripts, and estimating gene or transcript abundance. Our aims are two-fold: to make recommendations for common components of experimental design and assess tool capabilities for each of these steps. We also test tools designed to detect differential expression, since this is the most widespread application of RNA-seq. We hope that these analyses will help guide those who are new to RNA-seq and will generate discussion about remaining needs for tool improvement and development. Curr. Protoc. Hum. Genet. 83:11.13.1-11.13.20. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25271838

Williams, Alexander G; Thomas, Sean; Wyman, Stacia K; Holloway, Alisha K

2014-01-01

357

Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low-speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6-series airfoils was achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge was also met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show excellent agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils, both laminar flow and turbulent flow, confirm the achievement of the basic objective.

Somers, D. M.

1981-01-01

358

Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

1981-01-01

359

Optimisation of the Caco-2 Permeability Assay Using Experimental Design Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study used a Box-Behnken experimental design to optimise the experimental conditions in the Caco-2 assay for a series\\u000a of p-hydroxybenzoate ester compounds (log P 1.96–5.69), as highly lipophilic compounds are not handled well in this system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Caco-2 cells, passage 55–70, were cultured on Transwell™ cell culture supports and permeability assays were performed on day\\u000a 21. A three level three

Mark Lakeram; David J. Lockley; Ruth Pendlington; Ben Forbes

2008-01-01

360

Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

Schur, W. W.

2004-01-01

361

Development of a Model for Measuring Scientific Processing Skills Based on Brain-Imaging Technology: Focused on the Experimental Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a model for measuring experimental design ability based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during biological inquiry. More specifically, the researchers developed an experimental design task that measures experimental design ability. Using the developed experimental design task, they measured…

Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-shin; Kwon, Yong-Ju

2014-01-01

362

An experimental investigation of two 15 percent-scale wind tunnel fan-blade designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and modified NACA 65-series sections incorporated increased thickness on the upper surface, between the leading edge and the one-half-chord position. Twist and taper were the same for both blade designs. The fan blades with modified 65-series sections were found to have an increased stall margin when they were compared with the unmodified blades.

Signor, David B.

1988-01-01

363

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mufflers with Comments on Engine-Exhaust Muffler Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for the attenuation characteristics of single-chamber and multiple-chamber mufflers of both the expansion-chamber and resonator types, for tuned side-branch tubes, and for the combination of an expansion chamber with a resonator. Experimental curves of attenuation plotted against frequency are presented for 77 different mufflers with a reflection-free tailpipe termination. The experiments were made at room temperature without flow; the sound source was a loud-speaker. A method is given for including the tailpipe reflections in the calculations. Experimental attenuation curves are presented for four different muffler-tailpipe combinations, and the results are compared with the theory. The application of the theory to the design of engine-exhaust mufflers is discussed, and charts are included for the assistance of the designer.

Davis, Don D , Jr; Stokes, George M; Moore, Dewey; Stevens, George L , Jr

1954-01-01

364

Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): Experimental Design and Boundary Conditions (Experiment 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilizes fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.; Stoll, D. K.; Dolan, A. M.; Lunt, D. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.

2011-01-01

365

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control\\u000a system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be\\u000a placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of

John R. P. French; Douglas A. Wilcox; S. Jerrine Nichols

1999-01-01

366

Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

1982-01-01

367

Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

2003-08-01

368

A Resampling Based Approach to Optimal Experimental Design for Computer Analysis of a Complex System  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of a complex system is often performed using computer generated response data supplemented by system and component test results where possible. Analysts rely on an efficient use of limited experimental resources to test the physical system, evaluate the models and to assure (to the extent possible) that the models accurately simulate the system order investigation. The general problem considered here is one where only a restricted number of system simulations (or physical tests) can be performed to provide additional data necessary to accomplish the project objectives. The levels of variables used for defining input scenarios, for setting system parameters and for initializing other experimental options must be selected in an efficient way. The use of computer algorithms to support experimental design in complex problems has been a topic of recent research in the areas of statistics and engineering. This paper describes a resampling based approach to form dating this design. An example is provided illustrating in two dimensions how the algorithm works and indicating its potential on larger problems. The results show that the proposed approach has characteristics desirable of an algorithmic approach on the simple examples. Further experimentation is needed to evaluate its performance on larger problems.

Rutherford, Brian

1999-08-04

369

The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.  

PubMed

The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. PMID:24902590

Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-09-01

370

Optimizing an experimental design for a CSEM experiment: methodology and synthetic tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizing an experimental design is a compromise between maximizing information we get about the target and limiting the cost of the experiment, providing a wide range of constraints. We present a statistical algorithm for experiment design that combines the use of linearized inverse theory and stochastic optimization technique. Linearized inverse theory is used to quantify the quality of one given experiment design while genetic algorithm (GA) enables us to examine a wide range of possible surveys. The particularity of our algorithm is the use of the multi-objective GA NSGA II that searches designs that fit several objective functions (OFs) simultaneously. This ability of NSGA II is helping us in defining an experiment design that focuses on a specified target area. We present a test of our algorithm using a 1-D electrical subsurface structure. The model we use represents a simple but realistic scenario in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study. Our first synthetic test using a single OF shows that a limited number of well-distributed observations from a chosen design have the potential to resolve the given model. This synthetic test also points out the importance of a well-chosen OF, depending on our target. In order to improve these results, we show how the combination of two OFs using a multi-objective GA enables us to determine an experimental design that maximizes information about the reservoir layer. Finally, we present several tests of our statistical algorithm in more challenging environments by exploring the influence of noise, specific site characteristics or its potential for reservoir monitoring.

Roux, E.; Garcia, X.

2014-04-01

371

Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design  

SciTech Connect

An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment to the design concept is quantitatively determined. A technique is then established to assimilate this data and produce posteriori uncertainties on key attributes and responses of the design concept. Several experiment perturbations based on engineering judgment are used to demonstrate these methods and also serve as an initial generation of the optimization problem. Finally, an optimization technique is developed which will simultaneously arrive at an optimized experiment to produce an optimized reactor design. Solution of this problem is made possible by the use of the simulated annealing algorithm for solution of optimization problems. The optimization examined in this work is based on maximizing the reactor cost savings associated with the modified design made possible by using the design margin gained through reduced basic nuclear data uncertainties. Cost values for experiment design specifications and reactor design specifications are established and used to compute a total savings by comparing the posteriori reactor cost to the a priori cost plus the cost of the experiment. The optimized solution arrives at a maximized cost savings.

Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

2011-03-31

372

BioNetCAD: design, simulation and experimental validation of synthetic biochemical networks  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Synthetic biology studies how to design and construct biological systems with functions that do not exist in nature. Biochemical networks, although easier to control, have been used less frequently than genetic networks as a base to build a synthetic system. To date, no clear engineering principles exist to design such cell-free biochemical networks. Results: We describe a methodology for the construction of synthetic biochemical networks based on three main steps: design, simulation and experimental validation. We developed BioNetCAD to help users to go through these steps. BioNetCAD allows designing abstract networks that can be implemented thanks to CompuBioTicDB, a database of parts for synthetic biology. BioNetCAD enables also simulations with the HSim software and the classical Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE). We demonstrate with a case study that BioNetCAD can rationalize and reduce further experimental validation during the construction of a biochemical network. Availability and implementation: BioNetCAD is freely available at http://www.sysdiag.cnrs.fr/BioNetCAD. It is implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows. CompuBioTicDB is freely accessible at http://compubiotic.sysdiag.cnrs.fr/ Contact: stephanie.rialle@sysdiag.cnrs.fr; franck.molina@sysdiag.cnrs.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20628073

Rialle, Stéphanie; Felicori, Liza; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Pérès, Sabine; El Atia, Sanaâ; Thierry, Alain R.; Amar, Patrick; Molina, Franck

2010-01-01

373

Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

2014-09-01

374

Enhanced production of lipase by the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 using statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

Statistically based experimental designs were applied to optimize the cultural conditions for the production of a glycerol-inducible lipase from the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5. The effect of nineteen culture conditions on enzyme production was evaluated using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Tween 80, K(2)HPO(4), glycerol and glucose were the most significant factors in improving enzyme production. The selected parameters were then further investigated using central composite design to define the optimal process conditions. Maximal enzyme activity (578 U/ml) was reached under the following conditions: glycerol, 2.24% (v/v); Tween 80, 0.76% (v/v); glucose, 0.76% (w/v) and K(2)HPO(4), 0.38% (w/v) which is about five folds the activity in basal medium. A verification experiment was carried out to examine model validation and revealed more than 98% validity. PMID:20412872

Sifour, Mohamed; Zaghloul, Taha I; Saeed, Hesham M; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R

2010-09-30

375

Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.  

PubMed

To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented. PMID:25430314

Huang, J; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B; von Hellermann, M G; Zhu, Y; Gao, W; Wu, C; Li, Y; Fu, J; Lyu, B; Yu, Y; Shi, Y; Ye, M; Hu, L; Hu, C

2014-11-01

376

A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation.

Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D.

2011-05-01

377

Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

378

Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

2009-10-30

379

Surface Improvement Using a Combination of Electrical Discharge Machining with Ball Burnish Machining Based on the Taguchi Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of improving surface integrity via a novel combined process of electrical discharge\\u000a machining (EDM) with ball burnish machining (BBM) using the Taguchi method. To provide burnishing immediately after the EDM\\u000a process, ZrO2 balls were attached to the tool electrode in the experiments. To verify the optimal process, three observed values, i.e.\\u000a material removal rate, surface

Y. C. Lin; B. H. Yan; F. Y. Huang

2001-01-01

380

Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling, sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

2009-02-16

381

Issues and recent advances in optimal experimental design for site investigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides an overview over issues and recent advances in model-based experimental design for site exploration. The addressed issues and advances are (1) how to provide an adequate envelope to prior uncertainty, (2) how to define the information needs in a task-oriented manner, (3) how to measure the expected impact of a data set that it not yet available but only planned to be collected, and (4) how to perform best the optimization of the data collection plan. Among other shortcomings of the state-of-the-art, it is identified that there is a lack of demonstrator studies where exploration schemes based on expert judgment are compared to exploration schemes obtained by optimal experimental design. Such studies will be necessary do address the often voiced concern that experimental design is an academic exercise with little improvement potential over the well- trained gut feeling of field experts. When addressing this concern, a specific focus has to be given to uncertainty in model structure, parameterizations and parameter values, and to related surprises that data often bring about in field studies, but never in synthetic-data based studies. The background of this concern is that, initially, conceptual uncertainty may be so large that surprises are the rule rather than the exception. In such situations, field experts have a large body of experience in handling the surprises, and expert judgment may be good enough compared to meticulous optimization based on a model that is about to be falsified by the incoming data. In order to meet surprises accordingly and adapt to them, there needs to be a sufficient representation of conceptual uncertainty within the models used. Also, it is useless to optimize an entire design under this initial range of uncertainty. Thus, the goal setting of the optimization should include the objective to reduce conceptual uncertainty. A possible way out is to upgrade experimental design theory towards real-time interaction with the ongoing site investigation, such that surprises in the data are immediately accounted for to restrict the conceptual uncertainty and update the optimization of the plan.

Nowak, W.

2013-12-01

382

Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. Simultaneous maximization of aerodynamic efficiency and aggressive flight load carrying capacity are chosen as two design objectives. The design points on the Pareto optimal front thus achieved are compared with a baseline design to observe some designs with improved performance both aerodynamically and structurally. Reliability based optimization concludes the work where uncertainties in design variables, design parameters and modeling are considered to achieve designs satisfying specified reliability constraint.

Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

383

Experimental research of the synthetic jet generator designs based on actuation of diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental analyses of four own developed synthetic jet generator designs were presented in this paper. The main task of this work was to find the most appropriate design of the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec®PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working in resonance frequency were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental analysis of the synthetic jet generator amplitude-frequency characteristics were performed using CTA (hot wire anemometer) measuring techniques. Piezoelectric diaphragm in diameter of 27 mm was excited by sinusoidal voltage signal and it was fixed tightly inside the chamber of the synthetic jet generator. The number of the synthetic jet generator orifices (1 or 3) and volume of cavity (height of cavity vary from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm) were changed. The highest value of the synthetic jet velocity 25 m/s was obtained with synthetic jet generator which has cavity 0.5 mm and 1 orifice (resonance frequency of the piezoelectric diaphragm 2.8 kHz). It can be concluded that this type of the design is preferred in order to get the peak velocity of the synthetic jet.

Rimasauskiene, R.; Matejka, M.; Ostachowicz, W.; Kurowski, M.; Malinowski, P.; Wandowski, T.; Rimasauskas, M.

2015-01-01

384

Model Structure Identification: From the Reliability of Model Prediction to the Robustness of Experimental Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces a new methodology for identifying a distributed parameter system when the structure of the system is complex and unknown. The basic idea of the new methodology is to solve a generalized inverse problem (GIP) to find the simplest model structure for given model applications. In the theoretical part of the presentation, the identifiability of model parameters, the reliability of model applications, and the sufficiency of observation data are rigorously defined for the case of existing model structure errors. Some quantitative relationships of them are derived. Sufficient conditions for assuring the reducibility of a model structure are given. When model structure is unknown, to find a robust experimental design for model calibration is a very challenging problem because a more complex structure needs more data to identify. The worst-case-parameter (WCP) of a model structure is defined as such a parameter that produces the largest structure error when the model structure is simplified. We can prove that if a design is sufficient for identifying the WCP, it must be a robust one. Based on these theoretical results, the paper gives the following algorithms: (1) Using GA to Find the WCP, and (2) Judging the robustness of an experimental design before it is actually conducted in the field. A numerical example shows how this methodology is used for identifying the structure of hydraulic conductivity of a heterogeneous aquifer.

Sun, N.; Yeh, W.; Tsai, F.

2002-12-01

385

Design and experimental characterization of a NiTi-based, high-frequency, centripetal peristaltic actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and experimental testing of a peristaltic device actuated by a single shape-memory NiTi wire are described. The actuator is designed to radially shrink a compliant silicone pipe, and must work on a sustained basis at an actuation frequency that is higher than those typical of NiTi actuators. Four rigid, aluminum-made circular sectors are sitting along the pipe circumference and provide the required NiTi wire housing. The aluminum assembly acts as geometrical amplifier of the wire contraction and as heat sink required to dissipate the thermal energy of the wire during the cooling phase. We present and discuss the full experimental investigation of the actuator performance, measured in terms of its ability to reduce the pipe diameter, at a sustained frequency of 1.5 Hz. Moreover, we investigate how the diameter contraction is affected by various design parameters as well as actuation frequencies up to 4 Hz. We manage to make the NiTi wire work at 3% in strain, cyclically providing the designed pipe wall displacement. The actuator performance is found to decay approximately linearly with actuation frequencies up to 4 Hz. Also, the interface between the wire and the aluminum parts is found to be essential in defining the functional performance of the actuator.

Borlandelli, E.; Scarselli, D.; Nespoli, A.; Rigamonti, D.; Bettini, P.; Morandini, M.; Villa, E.; Sala, G.; Quadrio, M.

2015-03-01

386

The balloon experimental twin telescope for infrared interferometry (BETTII): optical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the optical and limited cryogenic design for The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an 8-meter far-infrared interferometer designed to fly on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The optical design is separated into warm and cold optics with the cold optics further separated into the far-infrared (FIR) (30-90 microns) and near-infrared (NIR) (1-3 microns). The warm optics are comprised of the twin siderostats, twin telescopes, K-mirror, and warm delay line. The cold optics are comprised of the cold delay line and the transfer optics to the FIR science detector array and the NIR steering array. The field of view of the interferometer is 2', with a wavelength range of 30-90 microns, 0.5" spectral resolution at 40 microns, R~200 spectral resolution, and 1.5" pointing stability. We also present the design of the cryogenic system necessary for operation of the NIR and FIR detectors. The cryogenic system consists of a `Buffered He-7' type cryogenic cooler providing a cold stage base temperature of < 280mK and 10 micro-Watts of heat lift and a custom in-house designed dewar that nominally provides sufficient hold time for the duration of the BETTII flight (24 hours).

Veach, Todd J.; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Mentzell, John E.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Dhabal, Arnab; Gibbons, Caitlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.

2014-07-01

387

Experimental verification of flextensional transducers designed by using topology optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flextensional transducer consist of a piezoceramic connected to a flexible structure which amplifies and changes the direction of generated piezoceramic displacement. In a previous work[1,2] these transducers were designed by using topology optimization method. In this work, some prototypes of these transducers were manufactured and experimental measurements were performed to characterize them. The prototypes were built by bonding a flexible structure manufactured by using a wire EDM machine to a piezoceramic with epoxy. As a result, the displacements obtained through laser interferometry at a given frequency and the electrical impedance curves are presented. The experimental results were compared with simulated results obtained by using a commercial finite element software (ANSYS), and the predicted amplification rate provided by these transducers were verified.

Nader, Gilder; Nelli Silva, Emilio C.; Adamowski, Julio C.

2001-08-01

388

Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1.  

PubMed

In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced a method for experimental design in phylogenetics based on the expected information to be gained that has barely been used in practice. Here we use this method to explore the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial (mt) genes, mt genomes, and nuclear rag1 for studies of the systematics of caecilian amphibians, as well as the effect of taxon addition on the stabilization of a controversial branch of the tree. Overall phylogenetic information estimates per gene, specific estimates per branch of the tree, estimates for combined (mitogenomic) data sets, and estimates as a hypothetical new taxon is added to different parts of the caecilian tree are calculated and compared. In general, the most informative data sets are those for mt transfer and ribosomal RNA genes. Our results also show at which positions in the caecilian tree the addition of taxa have the greatest potential to increase phylogenetic information with respect to the controversial relationships of Scolecomorphus, Boulengerula, and all other teresomatan caecilians. These positions are, as intuitively expected, mostly (but not all) adjacent to the controversial branch. Generating whole mitogenomic and rag1 data for additional taxa joining the Scolecomorphus branch may be a more efficient strategy than sequencing a similar amount of additional nucleotides spread across the current caecilian taxon sampling. The methodology employed in this study allows an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of the appropriateness of particular experimental designs to solve specific questions at different levels of the caecilian phylogeny. PMID:20525595

San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Massingham, Tim; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael; Cotton, James A

2009-08-01

389

Optimum experimental design for extended Gaussian disorder modeled organic semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply optimum experimental design (OED) to organic semiconductors modeled by the extended Gaussian disorder model (EGDM) which was developed by Pasveer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 206601 (2005)]. We present an extended Gummel method to decouple the corresponding system of equations and use automatic differentiation to get derivatives with the required accuracy for OED. We show in two examples, whose parameters are taken from Pasveer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 206601 (2005)] and Mensfoort and Coehoorn [Phys. Rev. B 78, 085207 (2008)] that the linearized confidence regions of the parameters can be reduced significantly by applying OED resulting in new experiments with a different setup.

Weiler, C. K. F.; Körkel, S.

2013-03-01

390

Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

Clemons, A.

1979-01-01

391

Design and experimental investigations on a small scale traveling wave thermoacoustic engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small scale traveling wave or Stirling thermoacoustic engine with a resonator of only 1 m length was designed, constructed and tested by using nitrogen as working gas. The small heat engine achieved a steady working frequency of 45 Hz. The pressure ratio reached 1.189, with an average charge pressure of 0.53 MPa and a heating power of 1.14 kW. The temperature and the pressure characteristics during the onset and damping processes were also observed and discussed. The experimental results demonstrated that the small engine possessed the potential to drive a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler.

Chen, M.; Ju, Y. L.

2013-02-01

392

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. VI - Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available experimental two-dimensional cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of blade-profile performance. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.

Lieblein, Seymour

1955-01-01

393

Optimum design of natural-circulation solar-water-heater by the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998 a ‘Natural-Circulation Solar-Water-Heater Efficiency Testing System’ was set up on the roof of Energy and Resources Laboratories. The system was constructed according to the Chinese National Standard B7277, No. 12558 standard, namely ‘Method of Test for Solar-Water-Heater System (Automatic Cycle)’, Central Standard Bureau of Economic Affairs Department, Taipei, Taiwan; July 15, 1989.. This method can automatically measure heat

S.-M. Lu; Y.-C. M. Li; J.-C. Tang

2003-01-01

394

Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

1994-01-01

395

DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF A MULTI-COLUMN EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR KR/XE SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect

As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Tony Watson

2014-12-01

396

Design and experimental study on FBG hoop-strain sensor in pipeline monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pipeline monitoring is an important task for the economic and safe operation of pipelines as well as for loss prevention and environmental protection. The circumferential strain is of significance in pipeline integrity monitoring. In this paper, an indirect pipeline corrosion monitoring method based on the circumferential strain measurement is firstly proposed, with main objectives at designing a circumferential strain measuring device. Combined with unique advantages of optical fiber sensing, an FBG hoop-strain sensor was designed and encapsulated. Its enhanced sensitivity mechanism in the circumferential strain measurement and manufacturing technique is detailed. The experimental study of the developed FBG hoop-strain sensor is conducted on a PVC model pipeline to investigate its characteristics, including reliability and some tentative dynamic tests. Results of model tests show that the FBG hoop-strain sensor demonstrates good performance in the circumferential strain measurement, and can be considered as a practical device for pipeline health monitoring.

Ren, Liang; Jia, Zi-guang; Li, Hong-nan; Song, Gangbing

2014-01-01

397

Design of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy for the joint Texas experimental tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The old diagnostic neutral beam injector first operated at the University of Texas at Austin is ready for rejoining the joint Texas experimental tokamak (J-TEXT). A new set of high voltage power supplies has been equipped and there is no limitation for beam modulation or beam pulse duration henceforth. Based on the spectra of fully striped impurity ions induced by the diagnostic beam the design work for toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system is presented. The 529 nm carbon VI (n = 8 ? 7 transition) line seems to be the best choice for ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements and the considered hardware is listed. The design work of the toroidal CXRS system is guided by essential simulation of expected spectral results under the J-TEXT tokamak operation conditions.

Chi, Y.; Zhuang, G., E-mail: ge-zhuang@hust.edu.cn; Cheng, Z. F.; Hou, S. Y.; Cheng, C.; Li, Z.; Wang, J. R.; Wang, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2014-11-15

398

Combination of theoretical and experimental approaches for the design and study of fibril-forming peptides.  

PubMed

Self-assembling peptides that can form supramolecular structures such as fibrils, ribbons, and nanotubes are of particular interest to modern bionanotechnology and materials science. Their ability to form biocompatible nanostructures under mild conditions through non-covalent interactions offers a big biofabrication advantage. Structural motifs extracted from natural proteins are an important source of inspiration for the rational design of such peptides. Examples include designer self-assembling peptides that correspond to natural coiled-coil motifs, amyloid-forming proteins, and natural fibrous proteins. In this chapter, we focus on the exploitation of structural information from beta-structured natural fibers. We review a case study of short peptides that correspond to sequences from the adenovirus fiber shaft. We describe both theoretical methods for the study of their self-assembly potential and basic experimental protocols for the assessment of fibril-forming assembly. PMID:25213410

Tamamis, Phanourios; Kasotakis, Emmanouil; Archontis, Georgios; Mitraki, Anna

2014-01-01

399

Design and Experimental Performance of a Two Stage Partial Admission Turbine, Task B.1/B.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-inch mean diameter, two-stage turbine with partial admission in each stage was experimentally investigated over a range of admissions and angular orientations of admission arcs. Three configurations were tested in which first stage admission varied from 37.4 percent (10 of 29 passages open, 5 per side) to 6.9 percent (2 open, 1 per side). Corresponding second stage admissions were 45.2 percent (14 of 31 passages open, 7 per side) and 12.9 percent (4 open, 2 per side). Angular positions of the second stage admission arcs with respect to the first stage varied over a range of 70 degrees. Design and off-design efficiency and flow characteristics for the three configurations are presented. The results indicated that peak efficiency and the corresponding isentropic velocity ratio decreased as the arcs of admission were decreased. Both efficiency and flow characteristics were sensitive to the second stage nozzle orientation angles.

Sutton, R. F.; Boynton, J. L.; Akian, R. A.; Shea, Dan; Roschak, Edmund; Rojas, Lou; Orr, Linsey; Davis, Linda; King, Brad; Bubel, Bill

1992-01-01

400

Experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the first experimental validation of an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures. The Controls-Structures-Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model, a laboratory test bed at Langley, is redesigned based on the integrated design methodology with two different dissipative control strategies. The redesigned structure is fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally compared with the original test structure. Design guides are proposed and used in the integrated design process to ensure that the resulting structure can be fabricated. Experimental results indicate that the integrated design requires greater than 60 percent less average control power (by thruster actuators) than the conventional control-optimized design while maintaining the required line-of-sight performance, thereby confirming the analytical findings about the superiority of the integrated design methodology. Amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is considered and evaluated analytically and experimentally. This work also demonstrates the capabilities of the Langley-developed design tool CSI DESIGN which provides a unified environment for structural and control design.

Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliott, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Walz, Joseph E.

1994-01-01

401

Experimental and numerical characterization of multi-actuated piezoelectric device designs using topology optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-actuators piezoelectric devices consist of a multi-flexible structure actuated by two or more piezoceramic portions, whose differing output displacements and forces are tailored according to the excitation properties of the piezoceramic materials and the desired working locations and directions of movement. Such devices have a wide range of application in performing biological cell manipulation, for microsurgery, and in nanotechnology equipment, and the like. However, the design of multi-flexible structures is a highly complex task since the devices have many degrees of freedom and, employ a variety of piezoceramics, but must carefully tune the movement coupling among the device parts to prevent motion in undesirable directions. In prior research, topology optimization techniques have been applied to the design of devices having minimum movement coupling among the piezoceramic parts, and in this work a number of these devices were manufactured and experimentally analyzed to validate the results of the topology optimization. X-Y nanopositioners consisting of two piezoceramic portions were addressed and designs considering low and high degrees of coupling between desired and undesirable displacements were investigated to evaluate the performance of the design method. Prototypes were manufactured in aluminum using a wire EDM process, and bonded to piezoceramics (PZT5A) polarized in the thickness direction and working in d31 mode. Finite element simulations were carried out using the commercial ANSYS software application. Experimental analyses were conducted using laser interferometry to measure displacement, while considering a quasi-static excitation. The coupling between the X-Y movements was measured and compared with FEM results, which showed that the coupling requirements were adequately achieved.

Carbonari, Ronny Calixto; Nader, Gilder; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

2005-05-01

402

A Comparative Study of Various Loss Functions in the Economic Tolerance Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering tolerance design plays an important role in modern manufacturing. In this paper, the Kapur's model was modified so that the economic specification limits for both symmetric and asymmetric losses can be established. Three different loss functions: (1) Taguchi's quadratic loss function; (2) Inverted Normal Loss Function; (3) Revised Inverted Normal Loss Function are compared in the economic tolerance design.

Jeh-Nan Pan; Jianbiao Pan

2006-01-01

403

Design optimization and development of CNC lathe headstock to minimize thermal deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has investigated an approach to reduce and compensate thermal displacement for high accuracy NC lathes. An efficient design and optimization method is proposed for a headstock structure design of NC lathes to minimize the thermal displacement of the spindle center position. Compared to the existing empirical methods, this method saves development time and cost. The Taguchi method and

M. Mori; H. Mizuguchi; M. Fujishima; Y. Ido; N. Mingkai; K. Konishi

2009-01-01

404

Design and Development of a Composite Dome for Experimental Characterization of Material Permeability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design and development of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic dome, including a description of the dome fabrication, method for sealing penetrations in the dome, and a summary of the planned test series. This dome will be used for the experimental permeability characterization and leakage validation of composite vessels pressurized using liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen at the Cryostat Test Facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The preliminary design of the dome was completed using membrane shell analysis. Due to the configuration of the test setup, the dome will experience some flexural stresses and stress concentrations in addition to membrane stresses. Also, a potential buckling condition exists for the dome due to external pressure during the leak testing of the cryostat facility lines. Thus, a finite element analysis was conducted to assess the overall strength and stability of the dome for each required test condition. Based on these results, additional plies of composite reinforcement material were applied to local regions on the dome to alleviate stress concentrations and limit deflections. The dome design includes a circular opening in the center for the installation of a polar boss, which introduces a geometric discontinuity that causes high stresses in the region near the hole. To attenuate these high stresses, a reinforcement system was designed using analytical and finite element analyses. The development of a low leakage polar boss system is also investigated.

Estrada, Hector; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

1999-01-01

405

The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at rothamsted experimental station, 1919-1933.  

PubMed

During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

Parolini, Giuditta

2015-05-01

406

CAD-based design, analysis and experimental verification of an outrunner permanent magnet synchronous generator for small scale wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the CAD-based design procedure, analysis and experimental verification of a 1 kW out-runner permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with radial magnetic flux for small-scale wind turbine systems. Firstly, the CAD and mechanical model used in the design procedure of the PMSG are presented. The generator is designed via developed CAD-procedure and design interface in which the basic

D. Uygun; C. Ocak; Y. Cetinceviz; E. Demir; Y. Gungor

2012-01-01

407

Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Sheth, Rubik; Le, Hung

2013-01-01

408

Experimental Design Optimization of a Sequential Injection Method for Promazine Assay in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations  

PubMed Central

Experimental design optimization approach was utilized to develop a sequential injection analysis (SIA) method for promazine assay in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the oxidation of promazine by Ce(IV) in sulfuric acidic media resulting in a spectrophotometrically detectable species at 512 nm. A 33 full factorial design and response surface methods were applied to optimize experimental conditions potentially controlling the analysis. The optimum conditions obtained were 1.0 × 10?4 M sulphuric acid, 0.01 M Ce(IV), and 10 ?L/s flow rate. Good analytical parameters were obtained including range of linearity 1–150 ?g/mL, linearity with correlation coefficient 0.9997, accuracy with mean recovery 98.2%, repeatability with RSD 1.4% (n = 7 consequent injections), intermediate precision with RSD 2.1% (n = 5 runs over a week), limits of detection 0.34 ?g/mL, limits of quantification 0.93 ?g/mL, and sampling frequency 23 samples/h. The obtained results were realized by the British Pharmacopoeia method and comparable results were obtained. The provided SIA method enjoys the advantages of the technique with respect to rapidity, reagent/sample saving, and safety in solution handling and to the environment. PMID:18350124

Idris, Abubakr M.; Assubaie, Fahad N.; Sultan, Salah M.

2007-01-01

409

Supersonic Retro-Propulsion Experimental Design for Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of supersonic retro-propulsion, an enabling technology for heavy payload exploration missions to Mars, is the primary focus for the present paper. A new experimental model, intended to provide computational fluid dynamics model validation data, was recently designed for the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2. Pre-test computations were instrumental for sizing and refining the model, over the Mach number range of 2.4 to 4.6, such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separation issues would be minimized. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody, which accommodates up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was developed for this study based on the computational results. The model was designed to allow for a large number of surface pressure measurements on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Some preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, although detailed analyses of the data and uncertainties are still on going.

Berry, Scott A.; Laws, Christopher T.; Kleb, W. L.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Spells, Courtney; McCrea, Andrew C.; Truble, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Oberkampf, William L.

2011-01-01

410

A validated spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of nifuroxazide through coumarin formation using experimental design  

PubMed Central

Background Nifuroxazide (NF) is an oral nitrofuran antibiotic, having a wide range of bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative enteropathogenic organisms. It is formulated either in single form, as intestinal antiseptic or in combination with drotaverine (DV) for the treatment of gastroenteritis accompanied with gastrointestinal spasm. Spectrofluorimetry is a convenient and sensitive technique for pharmaceutical quality control. The new proposed spectrofluorimetric method allows its determination either in single form or in binary mixture with DV. Furthermore, experimental conditions were optimized using the new approach: Experimental design, which has many advantages over the old one, one variable at a time (OVAT approach). Results A novel and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was designed and validated for the determination of NF in pharmaceutical formulation. The method was based upon the formation of a highly fluorescent coumarin compound by the reaction between NF and ethylacetoacetate (EAA) using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The fluorescence was measured at 390 nm upon excitation at 340 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize experimental conditions. Volumes of EAA and sulfuric acid, temperature and heating time were considered the critical factors to be studied in order to establish an optimum fluorescence. Each two factors were co-tried at three levels. Regression analysis revealed good correlation between fluorescence intensity and concentration over the range 20–400 ng ml-1. The suggested method was successfully applied for the determination of NF in pure and capsule forms. The procedure was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The selectivity of the method was investigated by analysis of NF in presence of the co-mixed drug DV where no interference was observed. The reaction pathway was suggested and the structure of the fluorescent product was proposed. Statistical comparison between the presented method and a reported spectrophotometric one was carried out on pure and pharmaceutical formulation and revealed no significant difference. Conclusion The proposed method was considered economic, accurate, precise and highly sensitive. It could be easily applied in laboratory quality control for the analysis of NF in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage form. PMID:23702256

2013-01-01

411

Experimental Guidelines for Studies Designed to Investigate the Impact of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance  

PubMed Central

Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance. PMID:20190346

Powers, Scott K.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Hudson, Matthew B.

2010-01-01

412

Network Pharmacology Strategies Toward Multi-Target Anticancer Therapies: From Computational Models to Experimental Design Principles  

PubMed Central

Polypharmacology has emerged as novel means in drug discovery for improving treatment response in clinical use. However, to really capitalize on the polypharmacological effects of drugs, there is a critical need to better model and understand how the complex interactions between drugs and their cellular targets contribute to drug efficacy and possible side effects. Network graphs provide a convenient modeling framework for dealing with the fact that most drugs act on cellular systems through targeting multiple proteins both through on-target and off-target binding. Network pharmacology models aim at addressing questions such as how and where in the disease network should one target to inhibit disease phenotypes, such as cancer growth, ideally leading to therapies that are less vulnerable to drug resistance and side effects by means of attacking the disease network at the systems level through synergistic and synthetic lethal interactions. Since the exponentially increasing number of potential drug target combinations makes pure experimental approach quickly unfeasible, this review depicts a number of computational models and algorithms that can effectively reduce the search space for determining the most promising combinations for experimental evaluation. Such computational-experimental strategies are geared toward realizing the full potential of multi-target treatments in different disease phenotypes. Our specific focus is on system-level network approaches to polypharmacology designs in anticancer drug discovery, where we give representative examples of how network-centric modeling may offer systematic strategies toward better understanding and even predicting the phenotypic responses to multi-target therapies.

Tang, Jing; Aittokallio, Tero

2014-01-01

413

Design of an experimental loop for post-LOCA heat transfer regimes in a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to design an experimental thermal-hydraulic loop capable of generating accurate, reliable data in various convection heat transfer regimes for use in the formulation of a comprehensive convection ...

Cochran, Peter A. (Peter Andrew)

2005-01-01

414

Adaptive Experimental Design For Drug Combinations Electrical and Computer Engineering,The University ofTexas at Austin  

E-print Network

Adaptive Experimental Design For Drug Combinations Electrical and Computer Engineering- parameters nonlinearity likelihood Gaussian process prior responsedrugs generative model 1. Drug combinations expected info gain about f 4. Application to EGFR network x1 xn Drugs { nonlinear noise biological system

Evans, Brian L.

415

Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community's desire for large capacity, constant altitude, long duration stratospheric platforms is not likely going to be met by un-reinforced spherical super-pressure balloons. More likely, the pneumatic envelope for the large-scale super-pressure balloon of the future will be a tendon reinforced structure in which the tendons perform the primary pressure load confining function and the skin serves as a gas barrier and transfers the local pressure load to the tendons. NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which is currently under development, is of that type. By separating the load carrying function of the tendons and the skin a number of advantages are gained. Perhaps most important is the fact that the required skin strength remains to first order independent of the balloon size. Only the size and number of tendons are dictated by the balloon size. By designing the balloon to be at least quasi statically determinate, the stress distributions are more certain, and stress raisers due to fabrication imperfections are more easily controlled and it becomes unnecessary to account for load path uncertainties by providing everywhere excessive strength and structural weight. Furthermore, it becomes possible to use for the envelope skin a visco-elastic film (polyethylene) that has proven performance in the stratospheric environment. The silhouette shape of this balloon type has prompted early researchers to name this design a "pumpkin" shape balloon. Later investigators accepted this terminology. The pumpkin shape balloon concept was adopted by NASA for its ULDB design at the end of 1998 when advantages of that design over a spherical shape design were convincingly demonstrated. Two stratospheric test flights of large-scale super-pressure balloons demonstrated the functioning of this balloon type. In the second successful flight the switch was made from an excessively strong and heavy skin, a holdover from the earlier concept of a spherical design, to a visco-elastic film. The balloons of a third and fourth full-scale test flights experienced structural problems during a campaign in Australia in 2001. Post-flight investigations identified two problems. The first problem was apparently caused by lack of dynamic strength of the film material in its transverse direction, a property that has theretofore not been tested in balloon films. The second problem was identified through photographic evidence on the second of the two balloons. Images of the launch spool configuration and of the balloon at float altitude, indicated that excess gore-width might prevent full deployment to the design shape. This is a dangerous situation, as the proper functioning of the design requires full deployment. Search in the literature confirmed one other case of flawed but stable deployment of a pumpkin shape balloon that has been investigated by researchers. This balloon is the "Endeavor", which is an adventurer balloon that was intended for manned circumnavigation. The experimental work documented in this paper sought to identify what design aspects of pumpkin shape balloons promote faulty deployment into undesired stable equilibria and w at design aspects assure full deployment ofh pumpkin type balloons. It is argued that the features of a constant bulge shape design (the apparent design of the "Endeavor") make it unnecessarily prone to flawed deployment. The constant bulge radius design is a superior choice, but could be improved by using a smaller bulge radius between the "tropics" of the quasi-spheroid while using a larger bulge radius for the remainder of the balloon when deployment issue become critical. In that case, of course, the strength critical region is the one with the larger bulge radius. Adequate understanding of these aspects is required to design pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons with confidence. Results from studies and tests conducted as a part of the ULDB Project are discussed.

Schur, W.

416

Design and experimental verification of a direct-drive interior PM synchronous machine using a saturable lumped-parameter model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and experimental verification of a 6 kW interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine intended for an automotive direct-drive starter\\/alternator application. The machine was designed using a saturable lumped-parameter magnetic circuit model in combination with a Monte Carlo optimization process that minimized the machine-plus-converter cost. An experimental IPM machine has been constructed based on the resulting

Edward C. Lovelace; Thomas Keim; Jeffrey H. Lang; David D. Wentzloff; Thomas M. Jahns; Jackson Wai; P. J. McCleer

2002-01-01

417

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

2008-01-01

418

Experimental study designs to improve the evaluation of road mitigation measures for wildlife.  

PubMed

An experimental approach to road mitigation that maximizes inferential power is essential to ensure that mitigation is both ecologically-effective and cost-effective. Here, we set out the need for and standards of using an experimental approach to road mitigation, in order to improve knowledge of the influence of mitigation measures on wildlife populations. We point out two key areas that need to be considered when conducting mitigation experiments. First, researchers need to get involved at the earliest stage of the road or mitigation project to ensure the necessary planning and funds are available for conducting a high quality experiment. Second, experimentation will generate new knowledge about the parameters that influence mitigation effectiveness, which ultimately allows better prediction for future road mitigation projects. We identify seven key questions about mitigation structures (i.e., wildlife crossing structures and fencing) that remain largely or entirely unanswered at the population-level: (1) Does a given crossing structure work? What type and size of crossing structures should we use? (2) How many crossing structures should we build? (3) Is it more effective to install a small number of large-sized crossing structures or a large number of small-sized crossing structures? (4) How much barrier fencing is needed for a given length of road? (5) Do we need funnel fencing to lead animals to crossing structures, and how long does such fencing have to be? (6) How should we manage/manipulate the environment in the area around the crossing structures and fencing? (7) Where should we place crossing structures and barrier fencing? We provide experimental approaches to answering each of them using example Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study designs for two stages in the road/mitigation project where researchers may become involved: (1) at the beginning of a road/mitigation project, and (2) after the mitigation has been constructed; highlighting real case studies when available. PMID:25704749

Rytwinski, Trina; van der Ree, Rodney; Cunnington, Glenn M; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Soanes, Kylie; van der Grift, Edgar A

2015-05-01

419

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

420

Design and Experimental Verification of Deployable/Inflatable Ultra-Lightweight Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because launch cost of a space structural system is often proportional to the launch volume and mass and there is no significant gravity in space, NASA's space exploration programs and various science missions have stimulated extensive use of ultra-lightweight deployable/inflatable structures. These structures are named here as Highly Flexible Structures (HFSs) because they are designed to undergo large displacements, rotations, and/or buckling without plastic deformation under normal operation conditions. Except recent applications to space structural systems, HFSs have been used in many mechanical systems, civil structures, aerospace vehicles, home appliances, and medical devices to satisfy space limitations, provide special mechanisms, and/or reduce structural weight. The extensive use of HFSs in today's structural engineering reveals the need of a design and analysis software and a database system with design guidelines for practicing engineers to perform computer-aided design and rapid prototyping of HFSs. Also to prepare engineering students for future structural engineering requires a new and easy-to- understand method of presenting the complex mathematics of the modeling and analysis of HFSs. However, because of the high flexibility of HFSs, many unique challenging problems in the modeling, design and analysis of HFSs need to be studied. The current state of research on HFSs needs advances in the following areas: (1) modeling of large rotations using appropriate strain measures, (2) modeling of cross-section warpings of structures, (3) how to account for both large rotations and cross- section warpings in 2D (two-dimensional) and 1D structural theories, (4) modeling of thickness thinning of membranes due to inflation pressure, pretension, and temperature change, (5) prediction of inflated shapes and wrinkles of inflatable structures, (6) development of efficient numerical methods for nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, and (7) filling the gap between geometrically exact elastic analysis and elastoplastic analysis. The objectives of this research project were: (1) to study the modeling, design, and analysis of deployable/inflatable ultra-lightweight structures, (2) to perform numerical and experimental studies on the static and dynamic characteristics and deployability of HFSs, (3) to derive guidelines for designing HFSs, (4) to develop a MATLAB toolbox for the design, analysis, and dynamic animation of HFSs, and (5) to perform experiments and establish an adequate database of post-buckling characteristics of HFSs.

Pai, P. Frank

2004-01-01

421

The Effectiveness of New York City's Career Magnet Schools: An Evaluation of Ninth Grade Performance Using an Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career magnet high school programs of the New York City (NYC) public school system were evaluated in an experimental study. The experimental design compared the ninth-grade performance of students randomly selected for magnet schools with those who "lost the lottery." It included 91 pools of students: 3,272 with average reading scores and 986…

Crain, Robert L.; And Others

422

Using Taguchi method to optimize differential evolution algorithm parameters to minimize workload smoothness index in SALBP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assembly line is a flow-oriented production system where the productive units performing the operations, referred to as stations, are aligned in a serial manner. The assembly line balancing problem arises and has to be solved when an assembly line has to be configured or redesigned. The so-called simple assembly line balancing problem (SALBP), a basic version of the general problem, has attracted attention of researchers and practitioners of operations research for almost half a century. There are four types of objective functions which are considered to this kind of problem. The versions of SALBP may be complemented by a secondary objective which consists of smoothing station loads. Many heuristics have been proposed for the assembly line balancing problem due to its computational complexity and difficulty in identifying an optimal solution and so many heuristic solutions are supposed to solve this problem. In this paper a differential evolution algorithm is developed to minimize workload smoothness index in SALBP-2 and the algorithm parameters are optimized using Taguchi method.

Mozdgir, A.; Mahdavi, Iraj; Seyyedi, I.; Shiraqei, M. E.

2011-06-01

423

Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.  

PubMed

This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. PMID:23907063

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

2013-09-01

424

Optimization and evaluation of clarithromycin floating tablets using experimental mixture design.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate clarithromycin (CLA) floating tablets using experimental mixture design for treatment of Helicobacter pylori provided by prolonged gastric residence time and controlled plasma level. Ten different formulations were generated based on different molecular weight of hypromellose (HPMC K100, K4M, K15M) by using simplex lattice design (a sub-class of mixture design) with Minitab 16 software. Sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid were used as gas generating agents. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique. All of the process variables were fixed. Results of cumulative drug release at 8th h (CDR 8th) were statistically analyzed to get optimized formulation (OF). Optimized formulation, which gave floating lag time lower than 15 s and total floating time more than 10 h, was analyzed and compared with target for CDR 8th (80%). A good agreement was shown between predicted and actual values of CDR 8th with a variation lower than 1%. The activity of clarithromycin contained optimizedformula against H. pylori were quantified using well diffusion agar assay. Diameters of inhibition zones vs. log10 clarithromycin concentrations were plotted in order to obtain a standard curve and clarithromycin activity. PMID:25272652

U?urlu, Timucin; Karaçiçek, U?ur; Rayaman, Erkan

2014-01-01

425

Design considerations for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) toroidal field coils  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the US TIBER concept. The nuclear heating generated during operation is removed from the windings by helium flowing through the conductor. The heat in the coil case is removed through a separate cooling circuit operating at approximately 20 K. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete coil cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

1987-01-01

426

Learning from our GWAS mistakes: from experimental design to scientific method  

PubMed Central

Many public and private genome-wide association studies that we have analyzed include flaws in design, with avoidable confounding appearing as a norm rather than the exception. Rather than recognizing flawed research design and addressing that, a category of quality-control statistical methods has arisen to treat only the symptoms. Reflecting more deeply, we examine elements of current genomic research in light of the traditional scientific method and find that hypotheses are often detached from data collection, experimental design, and causal theories. Association studies independent of causal theories, along with multiple testing errors, too often drive health care and public policy decisions. In an era of large-scale biological research, we ask questions about the role of statistical analyses in advancing coherent theories of diseases and their mechanisms. We advocate for reinterpretation of the scientific method in the context of large-scale data analysis opportunities and for renewed appreciation of falsifiable hypotheses, so that we can learn more from our best mistakes. PMID:22285994

Lambert, Christophe G.; Black, Laura J.

2012-01-01

427

A Fundamental Study of Smoldering with Emphasis on Experimental Design for Zero-G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program to study smoldering combustion with emphasis on the design of an experiment to be conducted in the space shuttle was conducted at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley. The motivation of the research is the interest in smoldering both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a serious fire risk. Research conducted included theoretical and experimental studies that have brought considerable new information about smolder combustion, the effect that buoyancy has on the process, and specific information for the design of a space experiment. Experiments were conducted at normal gravity, in opposed and forward mode of propagation and in the upward and downward direction to determine the effect and range of influence of gravity on smolder. Experiments were also conducted in microgravity, in a drop tower and in parabolic aircraft flights, where the brief microgravity periods were used to analyze transient aspects of the problem. Significant progress was made on the study of one-dimensional smolder, particularly in the opposed-flow configuration. These studies provided enough information to design a small-scale space-based experiment that was successfully conducted in the Spacelab Glovebox in the June 1992 USML-1/STS-50 mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Pagni, Patrick J.

1995-01-01

428

Experimental studies on the optimization design of a low specific speed centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Start your abstract here... For a low specific speed centrifugal pump with the requirement of high efficiency of 68% and non-overload power characteristics, series experimental studies, by matching 9 volutes with 19 impellers were done. By combining the former research results about the splitters and the non-overload theory in centrifugal pump, the theoretical conditions to achieve the property of non-overload in a centrifugal pump with splitters was analyzed, and formulas to estimate the maximum shaft power and its position are derived. Based on the requirement of high efficiency and non-overload, blade outlet angle ?2, blade outlet width b2, volute throat area Ft and the inlet diameter of splitters Di were chosen with three levels to design a normal L9 (34) orthogonal test scheme. Meanwhile, the optimized design scheme was determined, and corresponding test was done also, it demonstrates that the experiment purpose was reached, the design method to combine the splitters and non-overload theory is reasonable, which can get the property of high efficiency and non-overload.

Zhang, J. F.; Yuan, Y.; Yuan, S. Q.; Lu, W. G.; Yuan, J. P.

2012-11-01

429

Modeling NIF Experimental Designs with Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Lagrangian Hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Incorporation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) into Lagrangian hydrodynamics algorithms allows for the creation of a highly powerful simulation tool effective for complex target designs with three-dimensional structure. We are developing an advanced modeling tool that includes AMR and traditional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques. Our goal is the accurate prediction of vaporization, disintegration and fragmentation in National Ignition Facility (NIF) experimental target elements. Although our focus is on minimizing the generation of shrapnel in target designs and protecting the optics, the general techniques are applicable to modern advanced targets that include three-dimensional effects such as those associated with capsule fill tubes. Several essential computations in ordinary radiation hydrodynamics need to be redesigned in order to allow for AMR to work well with ALE, including algorithms associated with radiation transport. Additionally, for our goal of predicting fragmentation, we include elastic/plastic flow into our computations. We discuss the integration of these effects into a new ALE-AMR simulation code. Applications of this newly developed modeling tool as well as traditional ALE simulations in two and three dimensions are applied to NIF early-light target designs.

Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B N; Becker, R; Eder, D C; MacGowan, B J

2005-08-31

430

Design and Experimental Validation for Direct-Drive Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Vernier Machines  

PubMed Central

A fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier (FT-PMV) machine is designed for direct-drive applications, incorporating the merits of high torque density and high reliability. Based on the so-called magnetic gearing effect, PMV machines have the ability of high torque density by introducing the flux-modulation poles (FMPs). This paper investigates the fault-tolerant characteristic of PMV machines and provides a design method, which is able to not only meet the fault-tolerant requirements but also keep the ability of high torque density. The operation principle of the proposed machine has been analyzed. The design process and optimization are presented specifically, such as the combination of slots and poles, the winding distribution, and the dimensions of PMs and teeth. By using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM), the machine performances are evaluated. Finally, the FT-PMV machine is manufactured, and the experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:25045729

Liu, Guohai; Yang, Junqin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Qian

2014-01-01

431

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College; )

2003-11-01

432

The Propagation of Errors in Experimental Data Analysis: A Comparison of Pre-and Post-Test Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental designs involving the randomization of cases to treatment and control groups are powerful and under-used in many areas of social science and social policy. This paper reminds readers of the pre-and post-test, and the post-test only, designs, before explaining briefly how measurement errors propagate according to error theory. The…

Gorard, Stephen

2013-01-01

433

Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange rates are fast relative to stream-water velocity and all solute is exchanged with the storage zone over the experimental reach. As DaI increases, tracer dispersion caused by hyporheic exchange eventually reaches an equilibrium condition and storage-zone exchange parameters become essentially nonidentifiable.

Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

1997-01-01

434

Design, characterization, and experimental use of the second generation MEMS acoustic emission device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, fabrication, testing and application (in structural experiments) of our 2004 (second generation) MEMS device, designed for acoustic emission sensing based upon experiments with our 2002 (first generation) device. Both devices feature a suite of resonant-type transducers in the frequency range between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The 2002 device was designed to operate in an evacuated housing because of high squeeze film damping, as confirmed in our earlier experiments. In additional studies involving the 2002 device, experimental simulation of acoustic emissions in a steel plate, using pencil lead break or ball impact loading, showed that the transducers in the frequency range of 100 kHz-500 kHz presented clearer output signals than the transducers with frequencies higher than 500 kHz. Using the knowledge gained from the 2002 device, we designed and fabricated our second generation device in 2004 using the multi-user polysilicon surface micromachining (MUMPs) process. The 2004 device has 7 independent capacitive type transducers, compared to 18 independent transducers in the 2002 device, including 6 piston type transducers in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 500 kHz and 1 piston type transducer at 1 MHz to capture high frequency information. Piston type transducers developed in our research have two uncoupled modes so that twofold information can be acquired from a single transducer. In addition, the piston shape helps to reduce residual stress effect of surface micromachining process. The center to center distance between etch holes in the vibrating plate was reduced from 30 ?m to 13 ?m, in order to reduce squeeze film damping. As a result, the Q factor under atmospheric pressure for the 100 kHz transducer was increased to 2.37 from 0.18, and therefore the vacuum housing has been eliminated from the 2004 device. Sensitivities of transducers were also increased, by enlarging transducer area, in order to capture significant small amplitude acoustic emission events. The average individual transducer area in the 2004 device was increased to 6.97 mm2 as compared to 2.51 mm2 in the 2002 device. In this paper, we report the new experimental results on the characterization of the 2004 device and compare them with analytical results. We show improvements in sensitivity as measured by capacitance and as measured by pencil lead break experiments. Improvement in damping is also evaluated by admittance measurement in atmosphere. Pencil lead break experiments also show that transducers can operate in atmospheric pressure. Finally, we apply the device to acoustic emission experiments on crack propagation in a steel beam specimen, precracked in fatigue, in a four-point bending test.

Ozevin, Didem; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Pessiki, Stephen

2005-05-01

435

Designing of the massive gas injection valve for the joint Texas experimental tokamak.  

PubMed

In order to mitigate the negative effects of the plasma disruption a massive gas injection (MGI) valve is designed for the joint Texas experimental tokamak. The MGI valve is based on the eddy-current repulsion mechanism. It has a fueling volume of 30 ml. The piston of the MGI valve is made by non-ferromagnetic material, so it can be installed close to the vacuum vessel which has a strong toroidal magnetic field. A diode is use to prevent current oscillation in the discharge circuit. The drive coil of the valve is installed outside the gas chamber. The opening characteristics and the gas flow of the MGI valve have been tested by a 60 l vacuum chamber. Owing to the large electromagnetic force the reaction time of the valve is shorter than 0.3 ms. Duration for the opening of the MGI valve is in the order of 10 ms. PMID:25173266

Luo, Y H; Chen, Z Y; Tang, Y; Wang, S Y; Ba, W G; Wei, Y N; Ma, T K; Huang, D W; Tong, R H; Yan, W; Geng, P; Shao, J; Zhuang, G

2014-08-01

436

Design of an experimental configuration for studying the dynamic fragmentation of ceramics under impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the penetration resistance of a ceramic target during impact, it is necessary to take into consideration the mechanical behaviour of the fragmented ceramic. In the present work, a series of numerical simulations have been performed to design an experimental configuration named the "normal impact test". The aim of this configuration is to generate a strong fragmentation of the ceramic tile and to prevent any ejection of debris in order to analyse the fragmentation properties of the impacted ceramic. An anisotropic damage model has been used to perform these computations. The Weibull parameters that constitute input data of this model have been identified from four-point flexural tests performed on the so-called Hexoloy® silicon carbide. Finally, the numerical predictions are compared to the failure pattern of the fragmented ceramic.

Zinszner, J.-L.; Forquin, P.; Rossiquet, G.

2012-05-01

437

Designing of the massive gas injection valve for the joint Texas experimental tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mitigate the negative effects of the plasma disruption a massive gas injection (MGI) valve is designed for the joint Texas experimental tokamak. The MGI valve is based on the eddy-current repulsion mechanism. It has a fueling volume of 30 ml. The piston of the MGI valve is made by non-ferromagnetic material, so it can be installed close to the vacuum vessel which has a strong toroidal magnetic field. A diode is use to prevent current oscillation in the discharge circuit. The drive coil of the valve is installed outside the gas chamber. The opening characteristics and the gas flow of the MGI valve have been tested by a 60 l vacuum chamber. Owing to the large electromagnetic force the reaction time of the valve is shorter than 0.3 ms. Duration for the opening of the MGI valve is in the order of 10 ms.

Luo, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Tang, Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Ba, W. G.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Geng, P.; Shao, J.; Zhuang, G.

2014-08-01

438

Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: brief review and guidelines.  

PubMed

Visual analysis of graphic displays of data is a cornerstone of studies using a single case experimental design (SCED). Data are graphed for each participant during a study with trend, level, and stability of data assessed within and between conditions. Reliable interpretations of effects of an intervention are dependent on researchers' understanding and use of systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to provide readers with a rationale for visual analysis of data when using a SCED, a step-by-step guide for conducting a visual analysis of graphed data, as well as to highlight considerations for persons interested in using visual analysis to evaluate an intervention, especially the importance of collecting reliability data for dependent measures and fidelity of implementation of study procedures. PMID:23883189

Lane, Justin D; Gast, David L

2014-01-01

439

An experimental design approach to the chemical characterisation of pectin polysaccharides extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus.  

PubMed

Extracted pectins have been utilised in a number of applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries where they are generally used as gelling agents, thickeners and stabilisers, although a number of pectins have been shown to be bioactive. These functional properties will depend upon extraction conditions. A statistical experimental design approach was used to study the effects of extraction conditions pH, time and temperature on pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. The results show that the chemical composition is very sensitive to these conditions and that this has a great influence on for example the degree of branching. Higher temperatures, lower pHs and longer extraction times lead to a loss of the more acid labile arabinofuranose residues present on the pectin side chain. The fitting of regression equations relating yield and composition to extraction conditions can therefore lead to tailor-made pectins for specific properties and/or applications. PMID:25498647

Denman, Laura J; Morris, Gordon A

2015-03-01

440

Deployment of RFID in healthcare facilities-experimental design in MRI department.  

PubMed

Patient safety has become an important issue due to medical errors. Some health care systems use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to identify patients during medical procedures. However, the RFID data readability especially depends upon the environment, an investigation of data reliability and signal loss is essential to making an effective deployment plan. The operation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the major source of electromagnetic interference in the hospital. Therefore, this research conducts an experimental design of reading performance considering various notable factors in the MRI department. In addition to the readability experiment, this paper also measures the efficiency and reliability of implementing RFID technology in the MRI department using a simulation approach and helps hospitals by providing the measured outcomes. PMID:22072278

Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chai, Jyh-Wen

2012-12-01

441

Compact infrared cryogenic wafer-level camera: design and experimental validation.  

PubMed

We present a compact infrared cryogenic multichannel camera with a wide field of view equal to 120°. By merging the optics with the detector, the concept is compatible with both cryogenic constraints and wafer-level fabrication. The design strategy of such a camera is described, as well as its fabrication and integration process. Its characterization has been carried out in terms of the modulation transfer function and the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD). The optical system is limited by the diffraction. By cooling the optics, we achieve a very low NETD equal to 15 mK compared with traditional infrared cameras. A postprocessing algorithm that aims at reconstructing a well-sampled image from the set of undersampled raw subimages produced by the camera is proposed and validated on experimental images. PMID:22410982

de la Barrière, Florence; Druart, Guillaume; Guérineau, Nicolas; Lasfargues, Gilles; Fendler, Manuel; Lhermet, Nicolas; Taboury, Jean

2012-03-10

442

An experimental study on nonlinear function computation for neural/fuzzy hardware design.  

PubMed

An experimental study on the influence of the computation of basic nodal nonlinear functions on the performance of (NFSs) is described in this paper. Systems' architecture size, their approximation capability, and the smoothness of provided mappings are used as performance indexes for this comparative paper. Two widely used kernel functions, the sigmoid-logistic function and the Gaussian function, are analyzed by their computation through an accuracy-controllable approximation algorithm designed for hardware implementation. Two artificial neural network (ANN) paradigms are selected for the analysis: backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) with one hidden layer and radial basis function (RBF) networks. Extensive simulation of simple benchmark approximation problems is used in order to achieve generalizable conclusions. For the performance analysis of fuzzy systems, a functional equivalence theorem is used to extend obtained results to fuzzy inference systems (FISs). Finally, the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) paradigm is used to observe the behavior of neurofuzzy systems with learning capabilities. PMID:17278477

Basterretxea, Koldo; Tarela, José Manuel; del Campo, Inés; Bosque, Guillermo

2007-01-01

443

Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

NONE

1997-04-18

444

Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

1994-01-01

445

Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris using orthogonal experimental design.  

PubMed

This study reports on the optimization of the extraction conditions of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris by using ultrasonication. For this purpose, the orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate the effects of factors on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Four factors: extraction time (min), ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (°C) and extraction frequency (kHz), were studied. The results showed that the highest cordycepin yield of 7.04 mg/g (86.98% ± 0.23%) was obtained with an extraction time of 60 min, ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction temperature of 65 °C and extraction frequency of 56 kHz. It was found that the cordycepin extraction yield increased with the effect of ultrasonication during the extraction process. Therefore, UAE can be used as an alternative to conventional immersion extraction with respect to the recovery of cordycepin from C. militaris, with the advantages of shorter extraction time and reduced solvent consumption. PMID:25514223

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Pan, Meng-Chun; Chang, Chao-Kai; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

2014-01-01

446

Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application  

PubMed Central

Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08). They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 ?g/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy proved an enhanced permeation of coumarin-6-loaded transfersomes, to a depth of approximately160 ?M, as compared with rigid liposomes. These ex vivo findings proved that a raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersome formulation could be a superior alternative to oral delivery of the drug. PMID:25246789

Mahmood, Syed; Taher, Muhammad; Mandal, Uttam Kumar

2014-01-01

447

Inferring the temperature dependence of population parameters: the effects of experimental design and inference algorithm  

PubMed Central

Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius equation, so that activation energy drives the temperature dependence of population parameters. We simulated different experimental designs and used different inference methods, varying the likelihood functions and other aspects of the parameter estimation methods. Finally, we applied the best performing inference methods to real data for the species Paramecium caudatum. The relative error of the estimates of activation energy varied between 5% and 30%. The fraction of habitat sampled played the most important role in determining the relative error; sampling at least 1% of the habitat kept it below 50%. We found that methods that simultaneously use all time series data (direct methods) and methods that estimate population parameters separately for each temperature (indirect methods) are complementary. Indirect methods provide a clearer insight into the shape of the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters; direct methods enable a more accurate estimation of the parameters of such functional forms. Using both methods, we found that growth rate and carrying capacity of Paramecium caudatum scale with temperature according to different activation energies. Our study shows how careful choice of experimental