Sample records for taguchi experimental design

  1. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  2. Spacecraft design optimization using Taguchi analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1991-01-01

    The quality engineering methods of Dr. Genichi Taguchi, employing design of experiments, are important statistical tools for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. The Taguchi method was utilized to study several simultaneous parameter level variations of a lunar aerobrake structure to arrive at the lightest weight configuration. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the unique experimental aerobrake configurations selected by Taguchi method. Important design parameters affecting weight and global buckling were identified and the lowest weight design configuration was selected.

  3. Statistical analysis of sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals using Taguchi experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Sima [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halladj, Rouein, E-mail: halladj@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Mahdi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals. ? Using Taguchi experimental design (L9) for optimizing the experimental procedure. ? The significant effects of all the ultrasonic parameters on the response. - Abstract: SAPO-34 nanocrystals with high crystallinity were synthesized by means of sonochemical method. An L9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was implemented to investigate the effects of sonication conditions on the preparation of SAPO-34 with respect to crystallinity of the final product phase. The experimental data establish the favorable phase crystallinity which is improved by increasing the ultrasonic power and the sonication temperature. In the case of ultrasonic irradiation time, however, an initial increases in crystallinity from 5 min to 15 min is followed by a decrease in crystallinity for longer sonication time.

  4. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  5. Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. PMID:23201522

  6. Vertically aligned N-doped CNTs growth using Taguchi experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ricardo M.; Fernandes, António J. S.; Ferro, Marta C.; Pinna, Nicola; Silva, Rui F.

    2015-07-01

    The Taguchi method with a parameter design L9 orthogonal array was implemented for optimizing the nitrogen incorporation in the structure of vertically aligned N-doped CNTs grown by thermal chemical deposition (TCVD). The maximization of the ID/IG ratio of the Raman spectra was selected as the target value. As a result, the optimal deposition configuration was NH3 = 90 sccm, growth temperature = 825 °C and catalyst pretreatment time of 2 min, the first parameter having the main effect on nitrogen incorporation. A confirmation experiment with these values was performed, ratifying the predicted ID/IG ratio of 1.42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization revealed a uniform completely vertically aligned array of multiwalled CNTs which individually exhibit a bamboo-like structure, consisting of periodically curved graphitic layers, as depicted by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated a 2.00 at.% of N incorporation in the CNTs in pyridine-like and graphite-like, as the predominant species.

  7. Taguchi's Parameter Design: A Panel Discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijayan N. Nair; Bovas Abraham; Jock MacKay; George Box; Raghu N. Kacker; Thomas J. Lorenzen; James M. Lucas; Raymond H. Myers; G. Geoffrey Vining; John A. Nelder; Madhav S. Phadke; Jerome Sacks; William J. Welch; Anne C. Shoemaker; Kwok L. Tsui; Shin Taguchi; C. F. Jeff Wu

    1992-01-01

    It is more than a decade since Genichi Taguchi's ideas on quality improvement were inrroduced in the United States. His parameter-design approach for reducing variation in products and processes has generated a great deal of interest among both quality practitioners and statisticians. The statistical techniques used by Taguchi to implement parameter design have been the subject of much debate, however,

  8. Metal recovery enhancement using Taguchi style experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Manufacturing Technology Lab.; Andreas, R.E.; Fox, T.M. [Reynolds Metals Co., Sheffield, AL (United States). Alabama Reclamation Plant

    1995-12-31

    In the remelting of scrap, the ultimate goal is to produce clean aluminum while minimizing metal losses. Recently, it has become more difficult to make significant recovery improvements in Reynolds` Reclamation Plants since metal recoveries were nearing the theoretical maximum. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the factors impacting Reynolds remelting process, a series of experiments using a Taguchi-type design was performed. Specifically, the critical variables and interactions affecting metal recovery of shredded, delacquered Used Beverage Containers (UBC) melted in a side-well reverbatory furnace were examined. This furnace was equipped with plunger-style puddlers and metal circulation. Both delacquering and melting processes operated continuously with downtime only for necessary mechanical repairs. The experimental design consisted of an orthogonal array with eight trials, each using nominal 500,000 lb shred charge volumes. Final recovery results included molten output and metal easily recovered from dross generated during the test.

  9. A study on flowshop scheduling problem combining Taguchi experimental design and genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-wen Cheng; Chun-lang Chang

    2007-01-01

    As genetic algorithm parameters vary depending on different problem types when applying genetic algorithm to reach global optimum, appropriate design value selection has significant impact on the efficiency of genetic algorithm. However, most users adjust parameters manually based on the reference values of previous literature. Such trial-and-error method is time-consuming, ineffective, and often it could not locate the optimal combination.

  10. Application of Taguchi L32 orthogonal array design to optimize copper biosorption by using Spaghnum moss.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Utkan; Ozbay, Bilge; Ozbay, Ismail; Veli, Sevil

    2014-09-01

    In this work, Taguchi L32 experimental design was applied to optimize biosorption of Cu(2+) ions by an easily available biosorbent, Spaghnum moss. With this aim, batch biosorption tests were performed to achieve targeted experimental design with five factors (concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature and agitation time) at two different levels. Optimal experimental conditions were determined by calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Higher is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain high metal removal efficiencies. The impact ratios of factors were determined by the model. Within the study, Cu(2+) biosorption efficiencies were also predicted by using Taguchi method. Results of the model showed that experimental and predicted values were close to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach. Furthermore, thermodynamic, isotherm and kinetic studies were performed to explain the biosorption mechanism. Calculated thermodynamic parameters were in good accordance with the results of Taguchi model. PMID:25011119

  11. TAGUCHI-AIDED SEARCH METHOD FOR DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K'Uang J. Ku; S. S. RAO; LI CHEN

    1998-01-01

    The Taguchi method emphasizes the design of a robust product that is insensitive to disturbances (noises). This feature of the Taguchi method is useful in mechanical design since an optimal design obtained through the application of the Taguchi method will also be inherently robust. The Taguchi concept of design of experiments (DOE) is used to solve unconstrained and constrained optimization

  12. Design for Circuit Quality: Yield Maximization, Minimax, and Taguchi Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Styblinski

    1990-01-01

    A relationship between yield optimization, deterministic minimax design, and the Taguchi `on-target' design with variability reduction is established. It is shown that all these and other design approaches can be combined into one coherent methodology, using the same statistical optimization algorithms and the same generic gradient evaluation formulas. A specific choice is controlled by the selection of the generalized membership

  13. Process parameter selection for strontium ferrite sintered magnets using Taguchi L9 orthogonal design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puneet Sharma; Amitabh Verma; R. K. Sidhu; O. P. Pandey

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the selection of process parameters for obtaining optimal magnetic properties in strontium ferrite sintered magnets. The magnetic properties have several quality characteristics, such as remanence, coercivity and energy product, etc. To consider these quality characteristics in the selection of process parameters, the Taguchi L9 design is adopted. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  14. A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

  15. Optimal Multiobjective Design of Digital Filters Using Taguchi Optimization Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadi, Abderrahmane; Bentarzi, Hamid; Recioui, Abdelmadjid

    2014-01-01

    The multiobjective design of digital filters using the powerful Taguchi optimization technique is considered in this paper. This relatively new optimization tool has been recently introduced to the field of engineering and is based on orthogonal arrays. It is characterized by its robustness, immunity to local optima trapping, relative fast convergence and ease of implementation. The objectives of filter design include matching some desired frequency response while having minimum linear phase; hence, reducing the time response. The results demonstrate that the proposed problem solving approach blended with the use of the Taguchi optimization technique produced filters that fulfill the desired characteristics and are of practical use.

  16. A Parameter Design Study In a Turning Operation Using The Taguchi Method

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirby, Daniel

    Modern manufacturers, seeking to remain competitive in the market, rely on their manufacturing engineers and production personnel to quickly and effectively set up manufacturing processes for new products. Taguchi Parameter Design is a powerful and efficient method for optimizing quality and performance output of manufacturing processes, thus a powerful tool for meeting this challenge. This paper discusses an investigation into the use of Taguchi Parameter Design for optimizing surface roughness generated by a CNC turning operation. This study utilizes a standard orthogonal array for determining the optimum turning parameters, with an applied noise factor. Controlled factors include spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut; and the noise factor is slightly damaged jaws. The noise factor is included to increase the robustness and applicability of this study. After experimentally turning sample workpieces using the selected orthogonal array and parameters, this study produced a verified combination of controlled factors and a predictive equation for determining surface roughness with a given set of parameters.

  17. Product design by application of Taguchi's robust engineering using computer simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Gijo; Johny Scaria

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the application of Taguchi's robust parameter design (RPD) approach in the design of a motor in a large electrical company in India. There used to be specific customer requirements related to temperature rise and low efficiency of the existing model of motor, which the organisation was unable to meet. Taguchi's parameter design approach was successfully applied to

  18. Applications of Taguchi approach to statistical design of experiments in Czech Republican industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiju Antony; V. Somasundarum; Craig Fergusson; Pavel Blecharz

    2004-01-01

    Dr Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese engineer and quality consultant who has promoted the use of statistical design of experiments for improving process\\/product quality at minimal costs. Taguchi has developed a practical and strategic approach for designing quality into products and processes at the product planning, design and development stages, which is often referred to as off-line quality control. Although

  19. Design of an Ultra-Wideband Antenna Using Taguchi's Optimization Method Wei-Chung Weng 1

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    , and UWB antennas. 1. Introduction In 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released the ultra-widebandDesign of an Ultra-Wideband Antenna Using Taguchi's Optimization Method Wei-Chung Weng 1 , Fan Yang (UWB) antenna, where Taguchi's method is applied as an external optimizer to drive IE3D and optimize

  20. Application of Taguchi robust design method to SAW mass sensing device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der Ho Wu; Hsin Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    It is essential that measurement systems provide an accurate and robust performance over a wide range of input conditions. This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis to develop a robust design for the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensing device operated in a conventional delay-line configuration. The goal of the present Taguchi design activity is to increase the

  1. El diseño experimental y los métodos de Taguchi: Conceptos y aplicaciones en la industria farmacéutica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Yacuzzi; Fernando Martín; Hugo M. Quiñones; Matías Popovsky

    2004-01-01

    Los orígenes del diseño experimental se remontan a las primeras décadas del siglo XX, cuando Ronald Fisher introdujo el concepto de aleatorización y el análisis de varianza. En estos últimos años, la teoría y aplicaciones del diseño de experimentos se consolidaron y expandieron y, en varias industrias, las contribuciones de Gen'ichi Taguchi, abrieron el camino de aplicaciones rutinarias. En este

  2. Taguchi design and equilibrium modeling for fluoride adsorption on cerium loaded cellulose nanocomposite bead.

    PubMed

    Santra, Dhiman; Joarder, Rajib; Sarkar, Mitali

    2014-10-13

    The cooperative influence of operational variables for fluoride adsorption on cerium loaded cellulose nanocomposite bead (CCNB) was assessed using Taguchi design tool. The percentage contribution of each operational variable was determined. The solution pH, with a maximum contribution of 80.78%, indicates its highest influence on the response, the adsorption percent of fluoride. The quality and validity of the experimental design were assessed from ANOVA and subsequently by the confirmation experiment. The equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Temkin isotherm is the most suited one compared to the Langmuir and Freundlich model. It is found that almost 90% adsorbed fluoride can be eluted with 0.01 (N) NaOH and the regenerated bead can successively be reused for at least three times. PMID:25037420

  3. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Hybrid Nanocarrier for Cancer Therapy: Taguchi Orthogonal Array Based Design

    PubMed Central

    Tekade, Rakesh K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

    2013-01-01

    Taguchi orthogonal array design is a statistical approach that helps to overcome limitations associated with time consuming full factorial experimental design. In this study, the Taguchi orthogonal array design was applied to establish the optimum conditions for bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanocarrier (ANC) preparation. Taguchi method with L9 type of robust orthogonal array design was adopted to optimize the experimental conditions. Three key dependent factors namely, BSA concentration (% w/v), volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio (v?:?v), and concentration of diluted ethanolic aqueous solution (% v/v), were studied at three levels 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v; 1?:?0.75, 1?:?0.90, and 1?:?1.05?v/v; 40%, 70%, and 100% v/v, respectively. The ethanolic aqueous solution was used to impart less harsh condition for desolvation and attain controlled nanoparticle formation. The interaction plot studies inferred the ethanolic aqueous solution concentration to be the most influential parameter that affects the particle size of nanoformulation. This method (BSA, 4% w/v; volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio, 1?:?0.90?v/v; concentration of diluted ethanolic solution, 70% v/v) was able to successfully develop Gemcitabine (G) loaded modified albumin nanocarrier (M-ANC-G) of size 25.07 ± 2.81?nm (? = ?23.03 ± 1.015?mV) as against to 78.01 ± 4.99?nm (? = ?24.88 ± 1.37?mV) using conventional method albumin nanocarrier (C-ANC-G). Hybrid nanocarriers were generated by chitosan layering (solvent gelation technique) of respective ANC to form C-HNC-G and M-HNC-G of sizes 125.29 ± 5.62?nm (? = 12.01 ± 0.51?mV) and 46.28 ± 2.21?nm (? = 15.05 ± 0.39?mV), respectively. Zeta potential, entrapment, in vitro release, and pH-based stability studies were investigated and influence of formulation parameters are discussed. Cell-line-based cytotoxicity assay (A549 and H460 cells) and cell internalization assay (H460 cell line) were performed to assess the influence on the bioperformance of these nanoformulations. PMID:24106715

  4. Properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete designed by Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monita Olivia; Hamid Nikraz

    This paper presents an optimization of fly ash geopolymer mixtures by Taguchi method, and a study on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete produced from the optimal mixes. A total of nine mixtures were evaluated by considering the effects of aggregate content, alkaline solution to fly ash ratio, sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio, and curing method. Ordinary Portland

  5. Robust Design of Power System Stabilizer Using Taguchi Technique and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Karnik; A. B. Raju; M. S. Raviprakasha

    2009-01-01

    The tuning of PSS parameters for satisfactory power system response over a wide range of operating conditions requires an efficient robust optimization technique. This paper presents a novel concept of integrating the Taguchi robust design principle with particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the PSS design. The objective is to build an intrinsic robustness in the design of PSS over a

  6. A feasibility study using simulation-based optimization and Taguchi experimental design method for material handling—transfer system in the automobile industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemal Subulan; Mehmet Cakmakci

    Nowadays, so as to adapt to the global market, where competition is getting tougher, firms producing through the modern production\\u000a approach need to bring not the only performance of the system designed both during the research and development phase and\\u000a the production phase but also the performance of the product to be developed as well as the process to be

  7. Genetic Algorithm Based Robust Power System Stabilizer Design Using Taguchi Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Karnik; A. B. Raju; M. S. Raviprakasha

    2008-01-01

    Power system stabilizer (PSS) is used to damp out local mode oscillations of synchronous generators. PSS are usually designed to provide a proper phase lead which is load dependent. Thus, PSS parameters have to be adjusted at each operating condition. A novel robust PSS design based on Taguchi principle is presented in this paper that can properly function over a

  8. Modeling a Dynamic Design System Using the Mahalanobis Taguchi System - Two-Step Optimal Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Shin Hsu; Ching-Lien Huang

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This work presents a novel algorithm, the Mahalanobis Taguchi System- Two Step Optimal algorithm (MTS-TSO), which combines\\u000a the Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) and Two-Step Optimal (TSO) algorithm for parameter selection of product design, and parameter\\u000a adjustment under the dynamic service industry environments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a From the results of the confirm experiment, a service industry company is adopted to applies in the methodology,

  9. Prediction of surface roughness in CNC face milling using neural networks and Taguchi's design of experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G Benardos; G. C Vosniakos

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network modeling approach is presented for the prediction of surface roughness (Ra) in CNC face milling. The data used for the training and checking of the networks’ performance derived from experiments conducted on a CNC milling machine according to the principles of Taguchi design of experiments (DoE) method. The factors considered in the experiment were

  10. Design of a DC power supply with power factor corrector by Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Jen Cheng; Chin-Hsing Cheng; Yao-An Lee

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a study of Taguchi optimization method for a switching mode DC power supply with power factor corrector (PFC). Power factor and efficiency are the basic indicators for both of power quality and power saving. To attain these two factors in switching mode power supply design is the goal for power engineers. The

  11. Applying Taguchi dynamic characteristics to the robust design of a piezoelectric sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der Ho Wu; Wen Tung Chien; Yng Jyi Tsai

    2005-01-01

    It is important that measurement systems provide an accurate and robust performance over a wide range of input conditions. Under these conditions, the measurement system is said to have a robust design with dynamic characteristics. This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio analysis to optimize the dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric gas sensor system whose output response is linearly related to

  12. Surface Roughness Optimization in a Drilling Operation Using the Taguchi Design Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Z. Zhang; Joseph C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study where the Taguchi Design was applied to optimize the surface quality in a computer numerical control (CNC) drilling operation. The control factors in this study included feed rate, spindle speed, peck rate, and tool type while the noise factors simulated were shop vibration and the presence or absence of magnetism in the workpiece material. Through

  13. Taguchi statistical design and analysis of cleaning methods for spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Chung, S.; Kazarians, G. A.; Blosiu, J. O.; Beaudet, R. A.; Quigley, M. S.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we have extensively tested various cleaning protocols. The variant parameters included the type and concentration of solvent, type of wipe, pretreatment conditions, and various rinsing systems. Taguchi statistical method was used to design and evaluate various cleaning conditions on ten common spacecraft materials.

  14. Application of the Taguchi method to chip scale package (CSP) design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atila Mertol

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear finite element model of an overmolded chip scale package (CSP) on flex-tape carrier has been developed by using ANSYSTM finite element simulation code. The model has been used to optimize the package for robust design and to determine design rules to keep package warpage within acceptable Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) limits. An L18 Taguchi

  15. Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.

    1990-01-01

    Calibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establish human presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In order for SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost this time, even with tremendous increases in quality and performance requirements, such as extremely high reliability. This implies that both government and industry must change the way they do business. Therefore, new philosophy and technology must be employed to design and produce reliable, high quality space systems at low cost. In recognizing the need to reduce cost and improve quality and productivity, Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is a revolutionary management strategy in quality assurance and cost reduction. TQM requires complete management commitment, employee involvement, and use of statistical tools. The quality engineering methods of Dr. Taguchi, employing design of experiments (DOE), is one of the most important statistical tools of TQM for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. Taguchi methods provide an efficient and systematic way to optimize designs for performance, quality, and cost. Taguchi methods have been used successfully in Japan and the United States in designing reliable, high quality products at low cost in such areas as automobiles and consumer electronics. However, these methods are just beginning to see application in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the Taguchi methods for improving quality and reducing cost, describe the current state of applications and its role in identifying cost sensitive design parameters.

  16. Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Yang; Y. S. Tarng

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the Taguchi method, a powerful tool to design optimization for quality, is used to find the optimal cutting parameters for turning operations. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the cutting characteristics of S45C steel bars using tungsten carbide cutting tools. Through this study, not only can

  17. Multidisciplinary design of a rocket-based combined cycle SSTO launch vehicle using Taguchi methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the optimization process of a winged-cone configuration SSTO launch vehicle that employs a rocket-based ejector/ramjet/scramjet/rocket operational mode variable-cycle engine. The Taguchi multidisciplinary parametric-design method was used to evaluate the effects of simultaneously changing a total of eight design variables, rather than changing them one at a time as in conventional tradeoff studies. A combination of design variables was in this way identified which yields very attractive vehicle dry and gross weights.

  18. Effect of processing parameters on the magnetic properties of strontium ferrite sintered magnets using Taguchi orthogonal array design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Puneet; Verma, Amitabh; Sidhu, R. K.; Pandey, O. P.

    2006-12-01

    In the present paper, influence of various processing parameters on the magnetic properties of strontium ferrite sintered permanent magnets has been studied. Taguchi L-9 orthogonal array design is used for analyzing the effect of Fe 2O 3/SrO mole ratio, milling time, calcination temperature and sintering temperature on the magnetic properties. The individual effect of each parameter on the magnetic properties in correlation with microstructure and phase formation is discussed. It is found that Taguchi design is adequate to understand the effect of processing parameter in the limited number of experiments.

  19. Application of the Taguchi method on the robust design of molded 225 plastic ball grid array packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atila Mertol

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of a molded plastic ball grid array (PBGA) has been developed using the ANSYSTM finite element simulation code. The model has been used to optimize the package for robust design and to determine design rules to keep package warpage within acceptable limits. An L18 Taguchi matrix has been developed to investigate the effect of

  20. Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.

    PubMed

    Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong. PMID:24291584

  1. Application of Taguchi Method to Study Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ceramic-Coated Specimens with Plasma Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Gök; Y. Küçük; O. Gencel; V. Koç; W. Brostow

    2011-01-01

    Different types of ceramic powders were coated on the surface of middle carbon steel using a plasma method. Coated surfaces were tested experimentally with regard to their abrasive wear resistance. To evaluate test data obtained, an experimental design method, which is based on the Taguchi method, was used. By using the Taguchi method, influence of test parameters, such as normal

  2. Robust Design of Credit Scoring System by the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Ton su; Huei-Chun Wang

    2004-01-01

    Credit scoring is widely used to make credit decisions, to reduce the cost of credit analysis and enable faster decisions. However, traditional credit scoring models do not account for the influence of noises. This study proposes a robust credit scoring system based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). The MTS, primary proposed by Taguchi, is a diagnostic and forecasting method using multivariate

  3. Robust manufacturing system design using petri nets and bayesian methods

    E-print Network

    Sharda, Bikram

    2008-10-10

    are an integral part of Taguchi?s orthogonal array based Experimental design procedures and they provide a useful way to consider both mean 7 and variance components of a performance measure. Interested readers can refer to literature presented... suggested for the robust design of manufacturing systems. Major literature in this area can be classified into experimental design, risk analysis and Genetic Algorithms (GA) based approaches. Taguchi?s (1986, 1987) signal to noise ratio based methods...

  4. Optimization of die casting conditions for wear properties of alloy AZ91D components using the Taguchi method and design of experiments analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Lian Wen; Yung-Kuang Yang; Ming-Chang Jeng

    2009-01-01

    This investigation applied the Taguchi method and designs of experiments (DOE) approach to optimize parameters for magnesium\\u000a alloy AZ91D. Tribological properties of wear mass loss and friction coefficients were studied. Planning of experiments was\\u000a based on a Taguchi orthogonal array table, and applied signal-to-noise ratios to determine an optimal setting. Furthermore,\\u000a as the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to

  5. Multi-facilities tactical planning robustness with experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Genin; S. Lamouri; A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of tactical planning robustness of a three-level multi-facilities supply chain. Robustness to uncontrollable factors such as demand is an increasing concern because of the key role played in supply chain planning. This study aims at proposing an approach based on an experimental design and the use of signal to noise ratio as developed by Taguchi

  6. Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jen-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Ma, Chi-Tang

    2011-10-01

    In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of the array of LED and the semi-cylindrical diffuser in which the intensity distribution of LED is based on Lambertian and the characteristics of diffuser are BTDF: 63%, transmission: 27%, and absorption: 10%. We design the triangular-prism structure at the both sides of the semi-circular diffuser to control the wide-angle light and use the Taguchi method to optimize the parameters of the structure that will control the 10.41% of total flux to light the area between 90 degree and 135 degree and to avoid the total internal reflection. According to the optical simulation results, the 89.59% of total flux is within 90 degree and the 10.41% of total flux is between 90 degree and 135 degree that match with the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Criteria V. 1.1 of ENERGY STAR.

  7. Microencapsulation of (deoxythymidine)??-DOTAP complexes in stealth liposomes optimized by Taguchi design.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Shirin; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad; Golkar, Nasim; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Stealth liposomes encapsulating oligonucleotides are considered as promising non-viral gene delivery carriers; however, general preparation procedures are not capable to encapsulate nucleic acids (NAs) efficiently. In this study, the lyophobic complexes of deoxythymidine20 oligonucleotide (dT20) and DOTAP were used instead of free dT20 for nano-encapsulation process by reverse phase evaporation method. Regarding the various factors that can potentially affect the liposome characteristics, Taguchi design was applied to analyze the simultaneous effects of factors comprising PEG-lipid (%), dT20/total lipid molar ratio, cholesterol (Chol%) and organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (o/w) at three levels. The response variables, hydrodynamic diameter, loading efficiency (LE%) and capacity (LC%), were studied by dynamic light scattering and ethidium bromide exclusion assay, respectively. The optimum condition described by minimum particle size as well as high LE% and LC% was obtained at 5% PEG-lipid, dT20/total lipid of 7, 20% Chol and o/w of 3 with an average size of 84?nm, LE%?=?83.4% and LC%?=?11.6%. Moreover, stability assessments in presence of heparin sulfate revealed the noticeable resistance, unlike DOTAP/dT20 lipoplexes, to premature release of NA. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed formation of discrete and circular vesicles encapsulating dT20. PMID:24960449

  8. Optimizing the die probe process using Taguchi techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT TRAHAN; REX KIANG; ARTHUR FRERICHS

    1992-01-01

    Standard Taguchi methods such as orthogonal experimental design, loss function, and response graphs are used to examine a typical CMOS IG die probe test setup. Particular emphasis was placed on probe needles and contact resistance. Parameters investigated include the probe needle type, test current levels, probe map, probe tip force (or overtravel), and final wafer surface processing. The experiment provided

  9. Design and optimzation of high precision CMOS voltage reference using Taguchi orthogonal array technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hande Vinayak; Maryam Shojaei Baghini; Prakash Apte

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS voltage reference, which is based on the weighted compensation of thermal voltage and threshold voltage temperature variations is presented. Subthreshold NMOS transistors and resistive divider configuration are used to achieve reference voltage with low temperature coefficient. Taguchi orthogonal array technique is presented to optimize the circuit to attain precise reference voltage with high PSRR. The proposed voltage reference

  10. Validation of Taguchi design using a quality parameter of cosmetic soap manufactured in a local industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. S. Pathirana; S. B. Nawarathne

    The objective of this study is to investigate the applicability of Taguchi method to the production process of a local industry. Harishchandra Mills (Pvt.) Ltd, Matara, which is engaged in soap manufacturing process has been selected as the local industry. This process is entangled with different kinds of variables. Four critical variables - two types of oil, coconut oil (a1)

  11. Optimization design on salient pole rotor of BDFRM using the Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Liangzhou; Yang Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, it proposed a novel test method, which combined the Taguchi method with the finite element analysis, to optimize the average electromagnetic torque and coupling ability of a salient pole rotor of BDFRM. According to practical situations, four controllable factors' level, such as the air-gap length, rotor pole arc coefficient, lateral radius, the diameter of the shaft are

  12. Ad-hoc network design with multiple metrics using Taguchi's loss function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazura Mohamed; Muhammad Hisyam Lee; Shaharuddin Salleh; Bahrom Sanugi; Mazalan Sarahintu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for tackling multiple metrics and various network parameters simultaneously to investigate the performance of wireless ad-hoc network routing protocols. The study uses Taguchi's loss function to determine the best condition in yielding maximum throughput and minimum packet drop and routing overhead simultaneously for dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol. Studying the parameters one at a time

  13. Evaluating space transportation sensitivities with Taguchi methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.; Patel, Saroj

    1992-01-01

    The lunar and Mars transportation system sensitivities and their effect on cost is discussed with reference to several design concepts using Taguchi analysis. The general features of the approach are outlined, and the selected Taguchi matrix (L18) is described. The modeling results are displayed in a Design of Experiments format to aid the evaluation of sensitivities.

  14. Experimental Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Lunt

    2010-06-07

    What is Experimental Design? How Do I conduct an experiment? Is there a process to follow? This interactive lesson will allow for you to explore the questions above and many more Assignment #1: Scroll down to the link entitled "Steps of the Scientific Method " click on the link and go through the the Powerpoint on the Scientific Method.Scientific Method PowerPoint Assignment #2: This assisgnment has two parts. a) Click on " What is the Scientific Method" link and using the scientific method, solve the mystry. Please write your ...

  15. Designing hybrid onconase nanocarriers for mesothelioma therapy: a Taguchi orthogonal array and multivariate component driven analysis.

    PubMed

    Tekade, Rakesh K; Youngren-Ortiz, Susanne R; Yang, Haining; Haware, Rahul; Chougule, Mahavir B

    2014-10-01

    Onconase (ONC) is a member of a ribonuclease superfamily that has cytostatic activity against malignant mesothelioma (MM). The objective of this investigation was to develop bovine serum albumin (BSA)-chitosan based hybrid nanoformulations for the efficient delivery of ONC to MM while minimizing the exposure to normal tissues. Taguchi orthogonal array L9 type design was used to formulate ONC loaded BSA nanocarriers (ONC-ANC) with a mean particle size of 15.78 ± 0.24 nm (? = -21.89 ± 0.11 mV). The ONC-ANC surface was hybridized using varying chitosan concentrations ranging between 0.100 and 0.175% w/v to form various ONC loaded hybrid nanocarriers (ONC-HNC). The obtained data set was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regressions (PCR) to decode the effects of investigated design variables. PCA showed positive correlations between investigated design variables like BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol with particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE) of formulated nanocarriers. PCR showed that the particle size depends on BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol content, while EE was only influenced by BSA content. Further analysis of chitosan and TPP effects used for coating of ONC-ANC by PCR confirmed their positive impacts on the particle size, zeta potential, and prolongation of ONC release compared to uncoated ONC-ANC. PCR analysis of preliminary stability studies showed increase in the particle size and zeta potential at lower pH. However, particle size, zeta potential, and EE of developed HNC were below 63 nm, 31 mV, and 96%, respectively, indicating their stability under subjected buffer conditions. Out of the developed formulations, HNC showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability with lower IC50 against human MM-REN cells compared to ONC and ONC-ANC. This might be attributed to the better cell uptake of HNC, which was confirmed in the cell uptake fluorescence studies. These studies indicated that a developed nanotherapeutic approach might aid in reducing the therapeutic dose of ONC, minimizing adverse effects by limiting the exposure of ONC to normal tissues, and help in the development of new therapeutic forms and routes of administration. PMID:25179221

  16. Optimal Molding Parameter Design of PLA Micro Lancet Needles Using the Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Wen Wang; Jia-Haur Jeng

    2009-01-01

    A micro lancet needle of 623 µm in length, 203 µm in width, and 106 µm in thickness was analyzed and fabricated with ANSYSY software and LIGA-like process. Biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) was used as molding material. Taguchi method was utilized in the experiment to study the effects of molding parameters on the stiffness of the microneedle. Results showed that melt temperature has

  17. Optimization of Process Parameters in Vertical CNC Mill Machines Using Taguchi's Design of Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalgobind MAHTO; Anjani KUMAR

    With the more precise demands of modern engineering products, the control of surface texture together with dimensional accuracy has become more important. This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize cutting parameters in end milling operation. The study was conducted in machining operation in hardened steel DIN GX40CRMOV5-1. The processing of the job was done by

  18. Optimal design of loudspeaker arrays for robust cross-talk cancellation using the Taguchi method and the genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mingsian R.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Lee, Chih-Chung

    2005-05-01

    An optimal design technique of loudspeaker arrays for cross-talk cancellation with application in three-dimensional audio is presented. An array focusing scheme is presented on the basis of the inverse propagation that relates the transducers to a set of chosen control points. Tikhonov regularization is employed in designing the inverse cancellation filters. An extensive analysis is conducted to explore the cancellation performance and robustness issues. To best compromise the performance and robustness of the cross-talk cancellation system, optimal configurations are obtained with the aid of the Taguchi method and the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed systems are further justified by physical as well as subjective experiments. The results reveal that large number of loudspeakers, closely spaced configuration, and optimal control point design all contribute to the robustness of cross-talk cancellation systems (CCS) against head misalignment. .

  19. Prediction of grain size, thickness and absorbance of nanocrystalline tin oxide thin film by Taguchi robust design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zin Wan Yunus, Wan Md.; Kassim, Anuar; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2010-08-01

    Transparent conductive films of tin oxide were deposited on glass substrates under various deposition conditions. Taguchi analysis was used to model the dependence of the grain size, thickness and absorbance of nanocrystalline tin oxide on the process parameters namely pH value, concentration, time of deposition and bath temperature. The effect of the mentioned process parameters on the grain size, thickness and absorbance of deposited layer during the deposition of nanocrystalline was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Comparison between the model predictions and the experimental observations predicted a remarkable agreement between them. The predictions of the model and sensitivity analysis showed that among the effective process parameters, deposition time and concentration were the main parameters having significant effect on crystalline size. Bath temperature had the most significant effect on absorbance and deposition time had a dominant effect on thickness.

  20. Experimental Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-08-01

    This SciGuide addresses how students can improve the design of investigations and understand how scientists do science. The format of this SciGuide is designed to help all precollege teachers (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) design inquiry investigations.

  1. Analyze and optimize the silicide thickness in 45nm CMOS technology using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Salehuddin; I. Ahmad; F. A. Hamid; A. Zaharim

    2010-01-01

    Taguchi method was used to analyze the experimental data in order to get the optimum average of silicide thickness in 45nm devices. The virtually fabrication of the devices was performed by using ATHENA module. While the electrical characterization of the devices was implemented by using ATLAS module. These two modules were used as design tools and helps to reduce design

  2. Multi-response optimization using Taguchi design and principle component analysis for removing binary mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solution by nano ?-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjrani, Neda; Bagtash, Maryam; Azimi, Gholamhasan

    The nanostructure of ?-alumina was used as an effective adsorbent for simultaneous removing of a mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solutions. The Taguchi design and principle component analysis were applied to explore effective parameters for achieving a higher adsorption capacity and removal percentage of the binary mixture containing alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Seven factors including temperature, contact time, initial pH value, the shaker rate, the sorbent dose, and initial concentrations of alizarin red and alizarin yellow in three levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. A L27 orthogonal array was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio. Then, the removal percentage (R%) and adsorption capacity (q) of the above-mentioned dyes were transformed into an accurate S/N ratio. The Taguchi method indicates that the solution pH has the most contribution in controlling the removal percentage of alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Under optimal condition, the maximum removal percentages of 99% and 78.5%, and the capacity uptake of 54.4 and 39.0 mg g-1 were obtained for both alizarin red and alizarin yellow, respectively. Isotherm modeling and kinetic investigations showed that Langmuir, modified Langmuir, and pseudo-second-order models describe both the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic behavior well. The Fourier transform infrared analysis also firmly confirmed the involving active sites of nano ?-alumina in the adsorption process.

  3. Multi-response optimization using Taguchi design and principle component analysis for removing binary mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solution by nano ?-alumina.

    PubMed

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjrani, Neda; Bagtash, Maryam; Azimi, Gholamhasan

    2014-05-21

    The nanostructure of ?-alumina was used as an effective adsorbent for simultaneous removing of a mixture of alizarin red and alizarin yellow from aqueous solutions. The Taguchi design and principle component analysis were applied to explore effective parameters for achieving a higher adsorption capacity and removal percentage of the binary mixture containing alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Seven factors including temperature, contact time, initial pH value, the shaker rate, the sorbent dose, and initial concentrations of alizarin red and alizarin yellow in three levels were considered through the Taguchi technique. A L27 orthogonal array was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio. Then, the removal percentage (R%) and adsorption capacity (q) of the above-mentioned dyes were transformed into an accurate S/N ratio. The Taguchi method indicates that the solution pH has the most contribution in controlling the removal percentage of alizarin red and alizarin yellow. Under optimal condition, the maximum removal percentages of 99% and 78.5%, and the capacity uptake of 54.4 and 39.0mg g(-1) were obtained for both alizarin red and alizarin yellow, respectively. Isotherm modeling and kinetic investigations showed that Langmuir, modified Langmuir, and pseudo-second-order models describe both the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic behavior well. The Fourier transform infrared analysis also firmly confirmed the involving active sites of nano ?-alumina in the adsorption process. PMID:24608013

  4. Microwave assisted extraction of curcumin by sample-solvent dual heating mechanism using Taguchi L9 orthogonal design.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Mohan, Yogesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2008-01-22

    The present work reports on a novel extraction method using microwaves based on solvent-sample duo-heating synergism, for the extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa L. The duo-heating mechanism is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol soaked plant material was used as a modifier to bring about selective and effective heating of the sample under microwave. Acetone was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent curcumin solubilizing capacity and heats up under microwave owing to its good dissipation factor. Extraction conditions, namely microwave power, irradiation time, particle size and modifier volume were optimized using Taguchi design approach and curcumin was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The optimum conditions as obtained from signal-to-noise ratio analysis and interaction studies between factors were as follows: 20% microwave power, 4 min irradiation time, particles screened through sieve 20 and 8 ml of modifier. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) under the influence of dual heating mechanism showed better precision and dramatically higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions, when compared to conventional approaches. PMID:18309573

  5. Prediction of grain size, thickness and absorbance of nanocrystalline tin oxide thin film by Taguchi robust design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeideh Ebrahimiasl; Anuar Kassim; Zulkarnain Zainal

    2010-01-01

    Transparent conductive films of tin oxide were deposited on glass substrates under various deposition conditions. Taguchi analysis was used to model the dependence of the grain size, thickness and absorbance of nanocrystalline tin oxide on the process parameters namely pH value, concentration, time of deposition and bath temperature. The effect of the mentioned process parameters on the grain size, thickness

  6. Workbook for Taguchi Methods for Product Quality Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarghami, Ali; Benbow, Don

    Taguchi methods are methods of product quality improvement that analyze major contributions and how they can be controlled to reduce variability of poor performance. In this approach, knowledge is used to shorten testing. Taguchi methods are concerned with process improvement rather than with process measurement. This manual is designed to be used…

  7. Using Taguchi method to design LED lamp for zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Lung Yu; Yi-Yung Chen; Allen Jong-Woei Whang; Chi-Tang Ma

    2011-01-01

    In recent trend, LED begins to replace traditional light sources since it has many advantages, such as long lifespan, low power consumption, environmentally mercury-free, broad color gamut, and so on. According to the zonal lumen density requirement of ENERGY STAR, we design a triangular-prism structure for LED light tube. The optical structure of the current LED light tubes consists of

  8. Multiple response optimization using Taguchi methodology and neuro-fuzzy based model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiju Antony; Raj Bardhan Anand; Maneesh Kumar; M. K. Tiwari

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To provide a good insight into solving a multi-response optimization problem using neuro-fuzzy model and Taguchi method of experimental design. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Over the last few years in many manufacturing organizations, multiple response optimization problems were resolved using the past experience and engineering judgment, which leads to increase in uncertainty during the decision-making process. In this paper, a

  9. An Experimental Investigation into the Optimal Processing Conditions for the CO2 Laser Cladding of 20 MnCr5 Steel Using Taguchi Method and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Asish.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of laser clad profile formed by means of CO2 laser applying Taguchi method and the artificial neural network (ANN). Laser cladding is one of the surface modifying technologies in which the desired surface characteristics of any component can be achieved such as good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and hardness etc. Laser is used as a heat source to melt the anti-corrosive powder of Inconel-625 (Super Alloy) to give a coating on 20 MnCr5 substrate. The parametric study of this technique is also attempted here. The data obtained from experiments have been used to develop the linear regression equation and then to develop the neural network model. Moreover, the data obtained from regression equations have also been used as supporting data to train the neural network. The artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the input/output parameters of the process. The established ANN model is then indirectly integrated with the optimization technique. It has been seen that the developed neural network model shows a good degree of approximation with experimental data. In order to obtain the combination of process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and powder feed rate for which the output parameters become optimum, the experimental data have been used to develop the response surfaces.

  10. Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

  11. Taguchi methods in electronics: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, R.

    1992-05-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is becoming more important as a way to improve productivity. One of the technical aspects of TQM is a system called the Taguchi method. This is an optimization method that, with a few precautions, can reduce test effort by an order of magnitude over conventional techniques. The Taguchi method is specifically designed to minimize a product's sensitivity to uncontrollable system disturbances such as aging, temperature, voltage variations, etc., by simultaneously varying both design and disturbance parameters. The analysis produces an optimum set of design parameters. A 3-day class on the Taguchi method was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in May 1991. A project was needed as a follow-up after the class was over, and the motor controller was selected at that time. Exactly how to proceed was the subject of discussion for some months. It was not clear exactly what to measure, and design kept getting mixed with optimization. There was even some discussion about why the Taguchi method should be used at all.

  12. Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

  13. Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.

    1993-01-01

    A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.

  14. Cell Membrane Experimental Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The final activity of this unit, which integrates the Keepers of the Gate unit through the Go Public challenge, involves students taking part in experimental design. They design a lab that answers the challenge question: "You are spending the night with your grandmother when your throat starts to feel sore. Your grandma tells you to gargle with salt water and it will feel much better. Thinking this is an old wive's tale, you scoff, but when you try it later that night it works! Why?" Students must have their plan approved by the instructor before they begin. A formal lab write-up is due as part of the laboratory investigation.

  15. Development of a hybrid methodology for dimensionality reduction in Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using Mahalanobis distance and binary particle swarm optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avishek Pal; J. Maiti

    2010-01-01

    Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern recognition method applied to classify data into categories – “healthy” and “unhealthy” or “acceptable” and “unacceptable”. MTS has found applications in a wide range of problem domains. Dimensionality reduction of the input set of attributes forms an important step in MTS. The current practice is to apply Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE) and orthogonal

  16. Predicting the financial crisis by Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Examples of Taiwan's electronic sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-cheng Lee; Hsiao-lin Teng

    2009-01-01

    In the past researches of financial crisis early-warning model, multiple regression, linear probability model, and multiple discriminate analysis are commonly adopted, all of which have generated good discrimination effects, with over 90% accuracy. Dr. Taguchi, well known for his robust design, has lately brought up a new method – Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS), which is mainly used to conduct multivariate diagnoses

  17. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  18. Determining positivity of alcohol abuse by Taguchi methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Taner; Jiju Antony

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Aims to establish the critical score and screening accuracy of the CAGE Questionnaire in three treatment settings – primary health care, walk-in (triage) clinic and the emergency room. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Taguchi methods are applied to three screens of the CAGE questionnaire. Findings – Analysis of the sensitivity and specificity data of three CAGE screens by leveling factor (p?),

  19. Modeling and optimizing of threshold voltage of 32nm NMOS transistor using L18 orthogonal array Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgomati, Husam Ahmed; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Ahmad, Ibrahim

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes our investigation of the effect of seven processes' parameters on threshold voltage (VTH) in the fabrication of a 32nm CMOS transistor. The parameters are HALO implantation, S/D Implantation, Compensation implantations, SiO2 thickness, VTH adjustment implantation, polysilicon thickness and silicide annealing time. The setting of process parameters were determined by Taguchi method L18 experimental design. From there, the level of importance of each of the process parameters on threshold voltage was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Transistor fabrication was performed by using Silvaco ATHENA module. Silvaco ATLAS module takes care of electrical characterization for the device. These two simulators results were analyzed with Taguchi method to aid in design and optimizing process parameters. Threshold voltage (VTH) results were used as the evaluation parameters. The results show that the VTH value 0.1099 V for NMOS can be achieved respectively, much closer to the ITRS prediction than our previous L9 experiment result. As the conclusion, by utilizing L18 Taguchi Method shown that process parameters can adjust threshold voltage (VTH) to a stable value of 0.1099 V that is well within ITRS 2003 prediction for 32nm transistor

  20. Machining Characteristics and Optimization of Machining Parameters of SKH 57 High-Speed Steel Using Electrical-Discharge Machining Based on Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Cherng Lin; Chao-Hsu Cheng; Bo-Lin Su; Lih-Ren Hwang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the machining parameters in electrical-discharge machining (EDM) on the machining characteristics of SKH 57 high-speed steel were investigated. A well-designed experimental scheme was used to reduce the total number of experiments. Parts of the experiment were conducted with the L18 orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratios associated with the observed values in

  1. Experimental design: a chemometric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, S.; Morgan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques of experimental design comprise a branch of statistics often ignored by analytical chemists. Formal experimental design principles are rarely included in the chemistry curriculum, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. Moreover, many researchers fail to take advantage of these techniques when investigating the experimental factors that affect chemical analyses. Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the practicing analytical chemist. In an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation, the authors develop experimental design techniques from the basics of response surfaces to advanced techniques for multiple-factor experiments. A major goal of the work is to allow chemists with limited statistical expertise to master the principles of experimental design. In this regard, chapters are included on basic statistics, model building, and hypothesis testing. Many examples are worked and discussed in the text. In addition, each chapter is accompanied by numerous exercises. An appendix summarizes the rudiments of matrix algebra necessary for performing the matrix least-squares operations that are common throughout the last half of the book.

  2. Strength Characteristics on Resistance SPOT Welding of al Alloy Sheets by Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han-Ki; Min, Byeong-Hyeon; Lee, Chil-Soon; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Youn-Kyoum; Park, Won-Jo

    Optimal welding condition in resistance spot welding of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy sheets with the thickness of 0.4mm was investigated by the tensile-shear strength tests and Taguchi method in experimental design with changing various welding conditions respectively. The tensile-shear tests were carried out at cross-head speeds of 0.1mm/min in accordance with the KS B0851. Design methods were systematically performed using an L27(39) orthogonal array table. In the experimental design, three control factors of resistance spot welding conditions were electrode force, welding current and welding time. Electrode force conditions were 882N, 1323N and 1764N, and welding current were 13.5kA, 14kA and 14.5kA, and welding time were 3cycle, 4cycle and 5cycle.

  3. Strengths and limitations of taguchi's contributions to quality, manufacturing, and process engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Jordan; Chen-Hsiu Huang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews Genichi Taguchi's contributions to the field of quality and manufacturing engineering from both a statistical and an engineering viewpoint. His major contributions are first listed and then described in a systematic and analytical manner. The concepts underlying Taguchi's univariate quality loss functions (QLFs), his orthogonal arrays (OAs), robust designs, signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratios, and their corresponding applications to

  4. Parameter optimization of CO 2 casting process by using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Noorul Haq; S. Guharaja; K. M. Karuppannan

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates optimization of CO2 casting process parameters by using Taguchi’s design of experiments method. The CO2 casting process involves a large number of parameters affecting the various quality features of the final product. The process\\u000a parameters considered in this research work are weight of CO2 gas, mould hardness number, sand particle size, percentage of sodium silicate, sand mixing

  5. Application of Taguchi Methodology for Optimizing Test Parameters in Magneto-Optic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiwei; Xuan, Liang; Shih, William; Fitzpatrick, Gerald; Udpa, Lalita

    2003-03-01

    The optimization of experimental parameters in an NDE test is extremely crucial making accept/reject decision about a test sample. For instance, in magneto-optic imaging (MOI) defects are displayed as an analog video image that is interpreted by the inspector. Subtle images such as for small surface and subsurface defects may be difficult for the inspector to detect. Under these circumstances, digital image processing methods may assist the inspector to interpret the MOI images. The accept / reject decision for a test specimen is determined by observing the binary image obtained by thresholding the magnetic flux density distribution. The coefficient of skewness of the binary magneto-optic (MO) image can be used for calculating the probability that the image contains a crack. The larger the skewness value, implies a larger likelihood of the presence of a crack. Several test parameters affect the skewness of binary MO image and hence the likelihood of the image containing a crack. The optimal set of test parameters (frequency, threshold, etc.) that generates the maximum skewness of binary image can be found using an optimization algorithm based on the Taguchi method. The number of trials necessary for the optimization is significantly reduced with Taguchi's methodology of experimental design.

  6. Application of Taguchi approach to optimize friction stir welding parameters of polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, M. A.; Ayadi, M.; Cherouat, A.; Hamrouni, K.; Zghal, A.; Bejaoui, S.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results of butt friction stir welding of high density polyethylene. The FSW designed tool insulates the welded samples and preserves the heat gained from friction thus avoiding the appearance of blisters and splits after welding. The experimental tests, conducted according to combinations of process factors such as rotation speed, welding speed, pin diameter and hold time at beginning welding, were carried out according the Taguchi orthogonal table L27 in randomized way. Temperatures in the joint during the welding operation and flow stresses from the tensile tests of welded samples were measured and variances were analyzed. Identified models were used to simulate, by finite elements, the tensile tests performed on specimens having a weld cordon in their active area. The results show coherence between the numerical predictions and experimental observations in different cases of weld cordon mechanical behaviour.

  7. Taguchi methods in LSI fabrication process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Taguchi

    2001-01-01

    The concept of robust engineering is based on the principles of Taguchi methods. Genichi Taguchi derived these principles after several years of research. The concept systematically evolved starting from 1950s. These principles are aimed at providing the companies with a cost effective methodology to enhance their competitive position in the global market. Three case studies related to semiconductor fabrication process

  8. Optimizing Aqua Splicer Parameters for Lycra-Cotton Core Spun Yarn Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midha, Vinay Kumar; Hiremath, ShivKumar; Gupta, Vaibhav

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, optimization of the aqua splicer parameters viz opening time, splicing time, feed arm code (i.e. splice length) and duration of water joining was carried out for 37 tex lycra-cotton core spun yarn for better retained splice strength (RSS%), splice abrasion resistance (RYAR%) and splice appearance (RYA%) using Taguchi experimental design. It is observed that as opening time, splicing time and duration of water joining increase, the RSS% and RYAR% increases, whereas increase in feed arm code leads to decrease in both. The opening time and feed arm code do not have significant effect on RYA%. The optimum RSS% of 92.02 % was obtained at splicing parameters of 350 ms opening time, 180 ms splicing time, 65 feed arm code and 600 ms duration of water joining.

  9. Optimization of glucose formation in karanja biomass hydrolysis using Taguchi robust method.

    PubMed

    Radhakumari, M; Ball, Andy; Bhargava, Suresh K; Satyavathi, B

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of the present study is aimed to optimize the process parameters for the production of glucose from karanja seed cake. The Taguchi robust design method with L9 orthogonal array was applied to optimize hydrolysis reaction conditions and maximize sugar yield. Effect of temperature, acid concentration, and acid to cake weight ratio were considered as the main influencing factors which effects the percentage of glucose and amount of glucose formed. The experimental results indicated that acid concentration and liquid to solid ratio had a principal effect on the amount of glucose formed when compared to that of temperature. The maximum glucose formed was 245 g/kg extractive free cake. PMID:24951940

  10. Molecular weight determination for colloidal iron by Taguchi optimized validated gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2008-04-01

    Method development of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a time-consuming task, since finding appropriate operating conditions has traditionally been a trial-and-error process. A novel approach in the field of GPC using experimental design called Taguchi is presented. This experimental design was used to compare the net effects of various conditions which were both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Quantitative factors included mobile phase pH, flow rate, temperature of column and detector, and injection volume. The qualitative factors were treated as noise which included enclosure of GPC system and position of waste container with respect to refractive index detector. The method was efficient as opposed to a one-factor-at-a-time approach. Taguchi optimized conditions included pH of 7.2, flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, temperature of 35 degrees C for column and detector, as well as injection volume of 10 microL. The optimized factors yielded acceptable results in terms of weight average molecular weight (m.w.), standard deviation and signal-to-noise ratio. Standard curves were constructed using dextran m.w. standards (12,000-270,000 Da) over the analytical range. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Log-linear function was used for m.w. standard curve and weight average m.w. was calculated utilizing trapezoidal approach. A correlation coefficient of >0.99 was obtained for both intra-day and inter-day standard calibration curves. Inter-day accuracy ranged from 91 to 108% and precision was <2.0%. PMID:18226479

  11. A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Automotive Composite Brake Pads Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Jung Ju; Nisitani, H.

    It has many variables and factors to design the friction materials for automotive brake pads. The purpose of this study is to develop the proper method to design at low-cost and to find friction characteristics of each raw materials. For the purpose of examining the effect of each major raw materials, we used the Taguchi L9(34) orthogonal matrix and 1/5 scale dynamo machine for evaluation of the friction characteristics of composite brake pads. Using Taguchi method, it is easy to investigate the influence of each component in complicated composites friction materials. After analyzing the testing results by the Taguchi method, the effect of factors and levels influenced friction behavior was studied.

  12. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Robert A.

    Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

  13. Experimental design for gene expression microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kathleen Kerr; Gary A. Churchill

    2001-01-01

    We examine experimental design issues arising with gene expression microarray technology. Microarray experiments have multiple sources of variation, and experimental plans should ensure that effects of interest are not confounded with ancillary effects. A commonly used design is shown to violate this principle and to be generally inefficient. We explore the connection between microarray designs and classical block design and

  14. Optimizing Experimental Designs: Finding Hidden Treasure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical experimental design theory, the predominant treatment in most textbooks, promotes the use of blocking designs for control of spatial variability in field studies and other situations in which there is significant variation among heterogeneity among experimental units. Many blocking design...

  15. Study of Coating Thickness of Cold Spray Process using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarun Goyal; R. S. Walia; T. S. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Taguchi design of experiments L 18 orthogonal array have been adopted for making the electro-conductive coatings. Process parameters selected for this study are: substrate material, type of powder feeding arrangement, stagnation gas temperature, stagnation gas pressure and stand-off distance. The response parameter of cold spray coatings produced is measured in terms of coating thickness. The analyses of

  16. Study of Coating Thickness of Cold Spray Process Using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarun Goyal; Ravinderjit Singh Walia; T. S. Sidhu

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Taguchi design of experiments L 18 orthogonal array have been adopted for making the electro-conductive coatings. Process parameters selected for this study are: substrate material, type of powder feeding arrangement, stagnation gas temperature, stagnation gas pressure, and standoff distance. The response parameter of cold spray coatings produced is measured in terms of coating thickness. The analyses of

  17. Development and product integration of a reliable optoelectronic system using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Dingwall

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the successful development and optimization of an optoelectronic registration sensor that is used in a copier document handler to detect translucent documents. The Taguchi method was used as an integral part of the product development process to evaluate two design concepts, with the objective of maximizing the optical contrast between no document and translucent documents.

  18. Investigation of Structures of Microwave Microelectromechanical-System Switches by Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-Lin Lai; Chien-Hung Lin

    2007-01-01

    The optimal design of microwave microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) switches by the Taguchi method is presented. The structures of the switches are analyzed and optimized in terms of the effective stiffness constant, the maximum von Mises stress, and the natural frequency in order to improve the reliability and the performance of the MEMS switches. There are four factors, each of which has

  19. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay I. Myung; Mark A. Pitt

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values and thereby identify an optimal experimental design.

  20. The photocatalytic degradation of cationic surfactant from wastewater in the presence of nano-zinc oxide using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giahi, M.; Moradidoost, A.; Bagherinia, M. A.; Taghavi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) has been investigated in aqueous phase using ultraviolet (UV) and ZnO nanopowder. Kinetic analysis showed that the extent of surfactant photocatalytic degradation can be fitted with pseudo-first-order model and photochemical elimination of CPC could be studied by Taguchi method. Our experimental design was based on testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of CPC, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. Each factor was tested at four levels. The optimum parameters were found to be pH 5.0; amount of ZnO 11 mg; K2S2O8 3 mM; CPC 10 mg/L; irradiation time, 8 h.

  1. Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.

    PubMed

    Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design. PMID:22317428

  2. Simultaneous optimization of diesel engine parameters for low emissions using Taguchi methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.E.; Gardner, T.P.; Zakrajsek, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study which was conducted to simultaneously optimize several diesel engine design and operating parameters for low exhaust emissions using the Taguchi method. A single cylinder, research, diesel engine equipped with a high pressure, cam-driven, electronic unit injector was used in this optimization experiment. The major effects of key engine design parameters on exhaust emissions were quantified and optimum parameter settings were determined. Measurement of exhaust emissions using the optimum parameter settings showed that particulates and NO{sub x} emissions were significantly lower than those obtained for the baseline engine. The Taguchi method was found to be a useful technique for the simultaneous optimization of several engine parameters and for predicting the effect of various design parameters on diesel exhaust emissions.

  3. DESIGN & EXPERIMENTATION OF HIGH CURRENT DENSITY DC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) MICROPUMP

    E-print Network

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    DESIGN & EXPERIMENTATION OF HIGH CURRENT DENSITY DC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) MICROPUMP Nguyen: Design, Fabrication, & Experimentation of DC MHD Micropump OF THE THESIS Design, Fabrication, & Experimentation of DC MHD Micropump by Bao Thanh Nguyen Master of Science

  4. Choosing an Experimental Design (Engineering Statistics Handbook)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Filliben, James

    This section of the Engineering Statistics Handbook, created by authors Alan Heckert and James Filliben of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, describes in detail the process of choosing an experimental design to obtain the results you need. The basic designs an engineer needs to know about are described in detail. Overall, this is a great resource for anyone interested in either engineering or mathematics.

  5. Brillouin Sensing Cable: Design and Experimental Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lanticq; Marc Quiertant; Erick Merliot; Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille

    2008-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental validation of a distributed Brillouin-based optical fiber sensor embedded into concrete structures for temperature and strain measurement. A composite-made wave-like coating designed by finite-element analysis ensures the sensor is transferring optimally temperature and strain fields from the concrete to the optical fiber, where Brillouin scattering takes place. During all experiments, sensors have been

  6. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration

    E-print Network

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    modes and Mots cle´s : Syste´me frigorifique ; Syste´me a´ compression ; Compresseur a´ piston ; Conception ; Composant ; Parame´tre ; Re´duction de 1. Introduction Robust design techniques, including statistical design of experi- ment (SDE) and Taguchi... methods (Taguchi, 1976; Taguchi and Tsai, 1992), have been developed by statisticians. Taguchi methodsdescribe therobustnessof thesystemfor theevaluation and design improvements in product development, generally referred to as ‘‘quality engineering...

  7. Applying the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System to Vehicle Ride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

    The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is a diagnosis and forecasting method for multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance is a measure based on correlations between the variables and different patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The Mahalanobis Taguchi System is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting small, correlated data sets. This

  8. DATA CLASSIFICATION USING THE MAHALANOBIS—TAGUCHI SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei-Chun Wang; Chih-Chou Chiu; Chao-Ton Su

    2004-01-01

    The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern information technology developed by Dr. Taguchi. This technology is aimed at providing a better prediction for multivariate data through the construction of a multivariate measurement scale. In this study, two sets of data are analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the MTS. Implementation results reveal that the MTS outperforms traditional discriminant analysis methods.

  9. Fault diagnosis for bearing based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhipeng Wang; Zili Wang; Laifa Tao; Jian Ma

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for fault diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS), which is applied to practical fault diagnosis for rolling element bearing. Firstly, this method utilizes time\\/frequency domain analysis for feature extraction from the vibration data. Then, a computational scheme based on Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used for fault clustering. In addition, Taguchi methods are employed to reduce

  10. A CMOS sensor array IC for Van der Waals enhanced MOSFET and Taguchi type sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Sonkusale; L. Kish; M. Cheng; W. Marlow; Y. Kim; A. Agarwal

    2004-01-01

    A CMOS sensor array IC capable of performing fluctuation enhanced sensing for two different chemical sensing devices has been designed. The targeted sensing devices are the novel Van der Waals force enhanced MOSFET for gas and nano-particle detection and sputtered ZnO thin films as Taguchi-type sensors for gas detection. The sensor output contains information in the dynamic stochastic fluctuations around

  11. Surface Roughness Prediction Model using Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) Turning Inserts: Taguchi Method and Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Nilrudra; Doloi, Biswanath; Mondal, Biswanath

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to apply the Taguchi parameter design method and regression analysis for optimizing the cutting conditions on surface finish while machining AISI 4340 steel with the help of the newly developed yttria based Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) inserts. These inserts are prepared through wet chemical co-precipitation route followed by powder metallurgy process. Experiments have been carried out based on an orthogonal array L9 with three parameters (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate) at three levels (low, medium and high). Based on the mean response and signal to noise ratio (SNR), the best optimal cutting condition has been arrived at A3B1C1 i.e. cutting speed is 420 m/min, depth of cut is 0.5 mm and feed rate is 0.12 m/min considering the condition smaller is the better approach. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is applied to find out the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. The mathematical model of surface roughness has been developed using regression analysis as a function of the above mentioned independent variables. The predicted values from the developed model and experimental values are found to be very close to each other justifying the significance of the model. A confirmation run has been carried out with 95 % confidence level to verify the optimized result and the values obtained are within the prescribed limit.

  12. Integrating Taguchi Method with Desirability Function Analysis to Optimize the Laser Transmission Welding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acherjee, Bappa; Kuar, Arunanshu S.; Mitra, Souren; Misra, Dipten

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach based on Taguchi method and desirability function analysis to optimize the laser transmission welding process. The Taguchi L25 orthogonal array, for a four factor five level design, is used for the study. The welding parameters, namely: laser power, welding speed, stand-off distance and clamp pressure are optimized with considerations of multiple quality characteristics including weld strength and weld width. The multiple quality characteristics are then combined into a dimensionless measure of performance called composite desirability function to simplify the optimization procedure. Subsequently, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to determine the significance of parameters and to identify the optimum levels of parameters based on the composite desirability function. The confirmation experiment at the optimal levels shows that the targeted multiple quality characteristics can be significantly improved to achieve more desirable levels.

  13. An optimization of superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride/zinc oxide materials using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. A.; Jafari, Reza; Farzaneh, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This article is focused on the preparation and characterization of PVDF/ZnO composite materials. The superhydrophobic surface was prepared through spray coating of a mixture of PVDF polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on aluminum substrate. Stearic acid was added to improve the dispersion of ZnO. Taguchi's design of experiment method using MINITAB15 was used to rank several factors that may affect the superhydrophobic properties in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The Taguchi orthogonal array L9 was applied with three level of consideration for each factor. ANOVA were carried out to identify the significant factors that affect the water contact angle. Confirmation tests were performed on the predicted optimum process parameters. The crystallinity and morphology of PVDF-ZnO membranes were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of Taguchi method indicate that the ZnO and stearic acid contents were the parameters making significant contribution toward improvement in hydrophobicity of PVDF materials. As the content of ZnO nanoparticles increased, the values of water contact angle increased, ranging from 122° to 159°, while the contact angle hysteresis and sliding angle decreased to 3.5° and 2.5°, respectively. The SEM results show that hierarchical micro-nanostructure of ZnO plays an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface. FTIR results showed that, in the absence or present ZnO nanoparticles, the crystallization of the PVDF occurred predominantly in the ?-phase.

  14. Optimal experimental design and some related control problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Pronzato

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the strong relations between experimental design and control, such as the use of optimal inputs to obtain precise parameter estimation in dynamical systems and the introduction of suitably designed perturbations in adaptive control. The mathematical background of optimal experimental design is briefly presented, and the role of experimental design in the asymptotic properties of estimators is emphasized.

  15. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This study shows that our approach is able to 1) identify candidate measurement time points that maximize information corresponding to biologically relevant metrics and 2) determine the number at which additional measurements begin to provide insignificant information. This framework can be used to balance the availability of resources with the addition of one or more measurement time points to improve the predictability of resulting models. PMID:22436240

  16. Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

  17. Optimal Experimental Design for Inverse Problem in Groundwater Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Chang; N. Sun; W. Yeh

    2002-01-01

    This research investigates experimental design in conjunction with the inverse problem of parameter structure identification in groundwater modeling. Despite the importance of model calibration, there exists only a few published works that systematically consider experimental design, model structure complexity and model application reliability. In this research, experimental design for parameter structure identification is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming

  18. THE ROLE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IN THE HYDROMETER FIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria do Céu Ferreira; José Mendonça Dias

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the uncertainty budget of hydrometers calibration and t he error of Cuckow's method according the Signal-to-Noise Ratio Taguchi approach in order to analyse this two diffe rent kinds of methodology. The calibration of density hydrometers is influenced by some parameters; in or der to research the influence of these factors in

  19. Design and Experimental Applications of Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigoneanu, Lucian

    Acoustic metamaterials are engineered materials that were extensively investigated over the last years mainly because they promise properties otherwise hard or impossible to find in nature. Consequently, they open the door for improved or completely new applications (e.g. acoustic superlens that can exceed the diffraction limit in imaging or acoustic absorbing panels with higher transmission loss and smaller thickness than regular absorbers). Our objective is to surpass the limited frequency operating range imposed by the resonant mechanism that s1ome of these materials have. In addition, we want acoustic metamaterials that could be experimentally demonstrated and used to build devices with overall performances better than the previous ones reported in the literature. Here, we start by focusing on the need of engineered metamaterials in general and acoustic metamaterials in particular. Also, the similarities between electromagnetic metamaterials and acoustic metamaterials and possible ways to realize broadband acoustic metamaterials are briefly discussed. Then, we present the experimental realization and characterization of a two-dimensional (2D) broadband acoustic metamaterial with strongly anisotropic effective mass density. We use this metamaterial to realize a 2D broadband gradient index acoustic lens in air. Furthermore, we optimize the lens design by improving each unit cell's performance and we also realize a 2D acoustic ground cloak in air. In addition, we explore the performance of some novel applications (a 2D acoustic black hole and a three-dimensional acoustic cloak) using the currently available acoustic metamaterials. In order to overcome the limitations of our designs, we approach the active acoustic metamaterials path, which offers a broader range for the material parameters values and a better control over them. We propose two structures which contain a sensing element (microphone) and an acoustic driver (piezoelectric membrane or speaker). The material properties are controlled by tuning the response of the unit cell to the incident wave. Several samples with interesting effective mass density and bulk modulus are presented. We conclude by suggesting few natural directions that could be followed for the future research based on the theoretical and experimental results presented in this work.

  20. Laboratory Experimental Design of Molecular Cloud Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Paul; Stone, James; Trantham, Matt; Malamud, Guy; Klein, Sallee

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with its surrounding medium is a ubiquitous issue in astrophysics. Although the interaction can occur in many environments, the interaction of an ionization front with a molecular cloud is of particular interest. Material ablated form the cloud can form turbulent structure [Peters et al, 2008] and coupled with the radiatively-driven implosion of the cloud can have important consequences in stellar formation. Our understanding of stellar formation is based on computer simulations and models. To improve our understanding of these models, data is required. We present the design of an experiment to study the interaction of an ionization front with a high density sphere, which acts as a surrogate for the molecular cloud. Irradiating a high-Z foil with laser beams generates the ionization front. The ionization front will propagate in a low density medium before interacting with the sphere. We will present our experimental design along with initial simulations. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548.

  1. Experimental investigation on electrochemical grinding (ECG) of alumina-aluminum interpenetrating phase composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Goswami; S. Mitra; S. Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the evaluation of material removal rate (MRR), surface finish, and cutting forces during electrochemical\\u000a grinding of Al2O3\\/Al interpenetrating phase composite. The effect of electrolyte concentration, supply voltage, depth of cut, and electrolyte\\u000a flow rate on machining performances has been studied. The characteristic features of the electrochemical grinding (ECG) process\\u000a are explored through Taguchi-design-based experimental studies

  2. Optimization of sol-gel technique for coating of metallic substrates by hydroxyapatite using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaghi-Masouleh, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the Taguchi method of design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on various metallic substrates deposited by sol-gel dip-coating technique. The experimental design consisted of five factors including substrate material (A), surface preparation of substrate (B), dipping/withdrawal speed (C), number of layers (D), and calcination temperature (E) with three levels of each factor. An orthogonal array of L18 type with mixed levels of the control factors was utilized. The image processing of the micrographs of the coatings was conducted to determine the percentage of coated area ( PCA). Chemical and phase composition of HA coatings were studied by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDS techniques. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the PCA of HA coatings was significantly affected by the calcination temperature. The optimum conditions from signal-to-noise ( S/N) ratio analysis were A: pure Ti, B: polishing and etching for 24 h, C: 50 cm min-1, D: 1, and E: 300 °C. In the confirmation experiment using the optimum conditions, the HA coating with high PCA of 98.5 % was obtained.

  3. Lead (II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Spent Agaricus bisporus : Determination of Optimum Process Condition Using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyan Huang; Guanglei Cheng; Lan Chen; Xiaoqiang Zhu; Heng Xu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Taguchi method was applied to determine the optimum condition for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution by\\u000a spent Agaricus bisporus. An orthogonal array experiment design (L9(34) which is of four control factors (pH, t (contact time), m (sorbent mass), and C\\u000a 0 (initial Pb (II) concentration)) having three levels was employed. Biosorption capacity (mg metal\\/g biosorbent) and

  4. Design of an internal wave generator for experimental applications

    E-print Network

    Dimitriou, Christopher (Christopher J.)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the design of an internal wave generator for experimental applications. It is based on the previous design by Gostiaux, Didelle, Mercier and Dauxois, however it is constructed on a smaller scale to be ...

  5. Quantum design and experimental realization of high-power VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, S. W.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Kaneda, Y.; Wang, T.-L.; Yarborough, J. M.; Kunert, B.; Stolz, W.

    2010-02-01

    The quantum design of VECSEL structures is discusssed using a commercially available design tool. Examples of realized structures are presented and comparisons between experimental results and modelling predictions are shown.

  6. Optimal experimental design applied to DC resistivity problems

    E-print Network

    Coles, Darrell Ardon, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    The systematic design of experiments to optimally query physical systems through manipulation of the data acquisition strategy is termed optimal experimental design (OED). This dissertation introduces the state-of-the-art ...

  7. Preparation of photocatalytic ZnO nanoparticles and application in photochemical degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate using taguchi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giahi, M.; Farajpour, G.; Taghavi, H.; Shokri, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method for the first time. Taguchi method was used to identify the several factors that may affect degradation percentage of betamethasone sodium phosphate in wastewater in UV/K2S2O8/nano-ZnO system. Our experimental design consisted of testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of betamethasone sodium phosphate, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. With four levels of each factor tested. It was found that, optimum parameters are irradiation time, 180 min; pH 9.0; betamethasone sodium phosphate, 30 mg/L; amount of ZnO, 13 mg; K2S2O8, 1 mM. The percentage contribution of each factor was determined by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that irradiation time; pH; amount of ZnO; drug concentration and dosage of K2S2O8 contributed by 46.73, 28.56, 11.56, 6.70, and 6.44%, respectively. Finally, the kinetics process was studied and the photodegradation rate of betamethasone sodium phosphate was found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equation represented by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  8. Enhancement of process capability for strip force of tight sets of optical fiber using Taguchi's Quality Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen-Tsann; Wang, Shen-Tsu; Li, Meng-Hua; Huang, Chiao-Tzu

    2012-03-01

    Strip force is the key to identifying the quality of product during manufacturing tight sets of fiber. This study used Integrated computer-aided manufacturing DEFinition 0 (IDEF0) modeling to discuss detailed cladding processes of tight sets of fiber in transnational optical connector manufacturing. The results showed that, the key factor causing an instable interface connection is the extruder adjustment process. The factors causing improper strip force were analyzed through literature, practice, and gray relational analysis. The parameters design method of Taguchi's Quality Engineering was used to determine the optimal experimental combinations for processes of tight sets of fiber. This study employed case empirical analysis to obtain a model for improving the process of strip force of tight sets of fiber, and determines the correlation factors that affect the processes of quality for tight sets of fiber. The findings indicated that, process capability index (CPK) increased significantly, which can facilitate improvement of the product process capability and quality. The empirical results can serve as a reference for improving the product quality of the optical fiber industry.

  9. Experimental designs for identifying causal mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Imai, Kosuke

    Experimentation is a powerful methodology that enables scientists to establish causal claims empirically. However, one important criticism is that experiments merely provide a black box view of causality and fail to identify ...

  10. Experimental design methods and flowsheet synthesis of energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor-Martin Tveit

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a discussion of how to utilise well known methods from the field of experimental design in the flowsheet synthesis of energy systems. The work is based on an earlier work, where a methodology for improving large scale energy systems using a combination of simulation, experimental design and mathematical programming was presented. The methodology is suitable for synthesis

  11. The Implications of "Contamination" for Experimental Design in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to…

  12. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  13. Experimental Sequential Designs for Logistic Regression Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo T. De Zana

    When the usual hypotheses of normality and constant variance do not hold (e.g. in binomial or Bernoulli processes), the problem of choosing ap- propriate designs creates problems to researches when pursuing a sequential exploration of process. This paper is based on De Zan (2006), where the au- thor proposes two criteria to evaluate design strategies, that take the amount of

  14. Structural Health Monitoring Using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Jin; Duan Chendong

    2009-01-01

    In order to monitor the structural health condition in the case of damage samples shortage, a new approach is proposed by only using the healthy samples of vibration signals. By taking root mean square (RMS), variance, kurtosis and crest factor as characteristic parameters, an identification model for structural health condition monitoring is built by using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). It is

  15. Applying the Mahalanobis - Taguchi System to Vehicle Handling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Cudney; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell

    2006-01-01

    The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) is a diagnosis and forecasting method using multivariate data. Mahalanobis distance (MD) is a measure based on correlations between the variables and patterns that can be identified and analyzed with respect to a base or reference group. The MTS is of interest because of its reported accuracy in forecasting using small, correlated data sets. This is

  16. Mahalanobis Taguchi System based criteria selection for shrimp aquaculture development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mahalakshmi; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture development suitable location is not formulated from one criterion but from multiple criteria. A list of criteria was selected by reviewing the literature and consultation with aquaculture experts and then classified into five categories namely; water, soil, support, infrastructure and risk factor. Using these criteria a Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based tool was developed to facilitate the selection of

  17. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  18. Dysprosium sorption by polymeric composite bead: robust parametric optimization using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kartikey K; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Singh, Dhruva K; Varshney, Lalit; Singh, Harvinderpal

    2015-03-01

    Polyethersulfone-based beads encapsulating di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid have been synthesized and evaluated for the recovery of rare earth values from the aqueous media. Percentage recovery and the sorption behavior of Dy(III) have been investigated under wide range of experimental parameters using these beads. Taguchi method utilizing L-18 orthogonal array has been adopted to identify the most influential process parameters responsible for higher degree of recovery with enhanced sorption of Dy(III) from chloride medium. Analysis of variance indicated that the feed concentration of Dy(III) is the most influential factor for equilibrium sorption capacity, whereas aqueous phase acidity influences the percentage recovery most. The presence of polyvinyl alcohol and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified the internal structure of the composite beads and resulted in uniform distribution of organic extractant inside polymeric matrix. The experiment performed under optimum process conditions as predicted by Taguchi method resulted in enhanced Dy(III) recovery and sorption capacity by polymeric beads with minimum standard deviation. PMID:25660520

  19. Design synthesis and experimental validation of microfluidic concentration gradient generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhou; Y. Wang; T. Mukherjee; Q. Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis method and its experimental validation for microfluidic concentration gradient generators that use multi-stream laminar flow. The method is based on an iterative framework in which designs are evaluated with an analytical convection-diffusion model. Comparing to the expensive trial-and-error experimentation or the time consuming finite element simulation, this design scheme enables the efficient design of concentration

  20. DESIGN SYNTHESIS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF MICROFLUIDIC CONCENTRATION GRADIENT GENERATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhou; Y. Wang; T. Mukherjee; Q. Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis method and its experimental validation for microfluidic concentration gradient generators that use multi-stream laminar flow. The method is based on an iterative framework in which designs are evaluated with an analytical convection-diffusion model. Comparing to the expensive trial-and-error experimentation or the time consuming finite element simulation, this design scheme enables the efficient design of concentration

  1. Oncolytic adenoviruses: design, generation, and experimental procedures.

    PubMed

    Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato

    2013-07-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to take advantage of the virus' native ability to replicate in cancer cells to induce oncolysis. Subsequently, the released viral progeny spread and kill the neighboring cancer cells. These characteristics, together with the ability of adenovirus to infect a broad spectrum of cells, its well understood replication machinery, and relative ease of manufacture have led to the intensive use of adenovirus as an anticancer agent. This unit describes cloning strategies, procedures to turn the intended design into virus, and quality analyses of resultant adenoviral vectors. Most of these procedures were optimized especially for oncolytic adenoviral vectors. PMID:23853080

  2. Multiple performance characteristics optimization for Al 7075 on electric discharge drilling by Taguchi grey relational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Mohinder Pal; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-05-01

    Electric discharge drill machine (EDDM) is a spark erosion process to produce micro-holes in conductive materials. This process is widely used in aerospace, medical, dental and automobile industries. As for the performance evaluation of the electric discharge drilling machine, it is very necessary to study the process parameters of machine tool. In this research paper, a brass rod 2 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as tool wear rate (TWR). The best parameters such as pulse on-time, pulse off-time and water pressure were studied for best machining characteristics. This investigation presents the use of Taguchi approach for better TWR in drilling of Al-7075. A plan of experiments, based on L27 Taguchi design method, was selected for drilling of material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows the percentage contribution of the control factor in the machining of Al-7075 in EDDM. The optimal combination levels and the significant drilling parameters on TWR were obtained. The optimization results showed that the combination of maximum pulse on-time and minimum pulse off-time gives maximum MRR.

  3. Experimental design for equipment qualification and matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tripsas; R. Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Process qualifications are required as new equipment is added to a fab to ensure good product quality. For Ion Implanters, dose-matching of machines is a necessary first step in this procedure. Split-lot qualifications are also commonly run prior to releasing a new machine to production. The design of these experiments is crucial to efficient qualification. The use of a fractional

  4. Important considerations in experimental design for large scale simulation analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, B.

    1998-05-01

    Economic and other factors accompanying developments in physics, mathematics and particularly in computer technology are shifting a substantial portion of the experimental resources associated with large scale engineering projects from physical testing to modeling and simulation. In the process, the priorities of selecting meaningful and informative tests and simulations to perform are also changing. This paper describes issues related to experimental design and how the goals and priorities of the experimental design for these problems are changing to accommodate the this shift in experimentation. Issues, priorities and new methods of approach are discussed.

  5. Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Celis, M. A. [Unidad de Radiocirugia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramirez, V.; Paz, C. [Laboratorio de Neurofisiologia, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Insurgentes Sur 3677. Col. La Fama, C.P. 14269, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

  6. Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

  7. Collimator design for experimental minibeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, Kerry; Sidhu, Narinder; Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ali, Kaiser [Saskatoon Cancer Centre, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 4H4 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To design and optimize a minibeam collimator for minibeam radiation therapy studies using a 250 kVp x-ray machine as a simulated synchrotron source. Methods: A Philips RT250 orthovoltage x-ray machine was modeled using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo software. The resulting machine model was coupled to a model of a minibeam collimator with a beam aperture of 1 mm. Interaperture spacing and collimator thickness were varied to produce a minibeam with the desired peak-to-valley ratio. Results: Proper design of a minibeam collimator with Monte Carlo methods requires detailed knowledge of the x-ray source setup. For a cathode-ray tube source, the beam spot size, target angle, and source shielding all determine the final valley-to-peak dose ratio. Conclusions: A minibeam collimator setup was created, which can deliver a 30 Gy peak dose minibeam radiation therapy treatment at depths less than 1 cm with a valley-to-peak dose ratio on the order of 23%.

  8. Experimental Designs Applied to SolidPhase Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Bosque-Sendra; M. Nechar; M Francisca Molina

    2000-01-01

    .  ?Using two statistical models, based on the two-level full factorial designs and sequential experimental Doehlert designs,\\u000a a simultaneous determination of cadmium and zinc by solid-phase derivative spectrophotometry has been proposed. These chemometric\\u000a techniques have been used for the optimization of the instrumental and experimental variables of the system. The complexes\\u000a formed between cadmium and zinc with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol, in the

  9. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  10. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  11. Theory of Model-Based Geophysical Survey and Experimental Design

    E-print Network

    resistivity survey designs in real-time as new data, and hence new information are acquired (Stu1 Theory of Model-Based Geophysical Survey and Experimental Design Part A ­ Linear Problems Andrew logging, electromagnetic, earthquake monitoring and micro-seismic surveys, and in laboratory

  12. Optimal experimental design for estimating thermal properties of composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Taktak; J. V. Beck; E. P. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Design of optimal transient experiments is needed for the efficient estimation of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of composite materials. One criterion for optimal experiments is the minimization of the area (or volume) of the confidence region. The experimental designs are transient and involve both finite and semi-finite geometries with finite duration heating. Two cases are considered for the

  13. Design for Virtual Engineering Structural Experimental System Based on UML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Rui; Zhao Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Targeting at Civil Engineering teaching situation in China, we design Virtual Engineering Structural Experimental System using virtual technology. Based on object-oriented development process, we put up the general system frame. We complete function analysis and use case model. We work out the detailed use case description by activity diagram, and system design by class diagram. We finish all above work

  14. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  15. Modelling of Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratios for healthcare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Tolga Taner; Bülent Sezen

    2009-01-01

    Development of robust diagnostic tests depends on improving classification accuracy of patients. Finding the thresholds for classifying the normal and the diseased is considered as an optimisation problem. For this purpose, Taguchi's signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratios are applied in order to improve simultaneously the misclassification rates. Computational results of 140 diagnostic tests as well as that of a case study in

  16. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  17. Design and experimental validation of looped-tube thermoacoustic engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil; Zhibin Yu; Artur J. Jaworski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and experimental validation process for a thermoacoustic looped-tube engine. The design procedure consists of numerical modelling of the system using DELTA EC tool, Design Environment for Low-amplitude ThermoAcoustic Energy Conversion, in particular the effects of mean pressure and regenerator configuration on the pressure amplitude and acoustic power generated. This is

  18. Analysis of spinal lumbar interbody fusion cage subsidence using Taguchi method, finite element analysis, and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassau, Christopher John; Litofsky, N. Scott; Lin, Yuyi

    2012-09-01

    Subsidence, when implant penetration induces failure of the vertebral body, occurs commonly after spinal reconstruction. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages may subside into the vertebral body and lead to kyphotic deformity. No previous studies have utilized an artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a spinal interbody fusion cage. In this study, the neural network was applied after initiation from a Taguchi L 18 orthogonal design array. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to address the resistance to subsidence based on the design changes of the material and cage contact region, including design of the ridges and size of the graft area. The calculated subsidence is derived from the ANN objective function which is defined as the resulting maximum von Mises stress (VMS) on the surface of a simulated bone body after axial compressive loading. The ANN was found to have minimized the bone surface VMS, thereby optimizing the ALIF cage given the design space. Therefore, the Taguchi-FEA-ANN approach can serve as an effective procedure for designing a spinal fusion cage and improving the biomechanical properties.

  19. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A preliminary step towards students experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Girault; Cedric d’Ham; Muriel Ney; Eric Sanchez; Claire Wajeman

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students’ lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of a procedure in

  20. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A preliminary step towards students experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Girault; Cedric d’Ham; Muriel Ney; Eric Sanchez; Claire Wajeman

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students’ lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of a procedure in

  1. Microelectronics package design using experimentally-validated modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Young, Nathan Paul; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory

    2010-11-01

    Packaging high power radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) in low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) presents many challenges. Within the constraints of LTCC fabrication, the design must provide the usual electrical isolation and interconnections required to package the IC, with additional consideration given to RF isolation and thermal management. While iterative design and prototyping is an option for developing RFIC packaging, it would be expensive and most likely unsuccessful due to the complexity of the problem. To facilitate and optimize package design, thermal and mechanical simulations were used to understand and control the critical parameters in LTCC package design. The models were validated through comparisons to experimental results. This paper summarizes an experimentally-validated modeling approach to RFIC package design, and presents some results and key findings.

  2. An Evaluation of Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Neural Network for Multivariate Pattern Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Cudney; Jungeui Hong; Rajesh Jugulum; Kioumars Paryani; Kenneth M. Ragsdell; Genichi Taguchi

    The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is a diagnosis and predictive method for analyzing patterns in multivariate cases. The goal of this study is to compare the ability of the Mahalanobis- Taguchi System and a neural-network to discriminate using small data sets. We examine the discriminant ability as a function of data set size using an application area where reliable data is publicly

  3. Computer-Generated Experimental Designs for Irregular-Shaped Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Nam K.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of computer-generated designs on irregularly-shaped, constrained regions. Overviews of the Fedorov exchange algorithm (FEA) and other exchange algorithms for the construction of D-optimal designs are given. A faster implementation of the FEA is presented, which is referred to as fast-FEA (denoted FFEA). The FFEA was applied to construct D-optimal designs for several published examples with constrained experimental regions. Designs resulting from the FFEA are more D-efficient than published designs, and provide benchmarks for future comparisons of design construction algorithms. The construction of G-optimal designs for constrained regions is also discussed and illustrated with a published example.

  4. Using Taguchi method to optimize welding pool of dissimilar laser-welded components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawa, E. M.; Olabi, A. G.

    2008-03-01

    In the present work, CO 2 continuous laser welding process was successfully applied and optimized for joining a dissimilar AISI 316 stainless-steel and AISI 1009 low carbon steel plates. Laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance combinations were carefully selected with the objective of producing welded joint with complete penetration, minimum fusion zone size and acceptable welding profile. Fusion zone area and shape of dissimilar austenitic stainless-steel with ferritic low carbon steel were evaluated as a function of the selected laser welding parameters. Taguchi approach was used as statistical design of experiment (DOE) technique for optimizing the selected welding parameters in terms of minimizing the fusion zone. Mathematical models were developed to describe the influence of the selected parameters on the fusion zone area and shape, to predict its value within the limits of the variables being studied. The result indicates that the developed models can predict the responses satisfactorily.

  5. Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-06

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis with {sup 3}He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

  6. Optimal Bayesian experimental design for contaminant transport parameter estimation

    E-print Network

    Tsilifis, Panagiotis; Hajali, Paris

    2015-01-01

    Experimental design is crucial for inference where limitations in the data collection procedure are present due to cost or other restrictions. Optimal experimental designs determine parameters that in some appropriate sense make the data the most informative possible. In a Bayesian setting this is translated to updating to the best possible posterior. Information theoretic arguments have led to the formation of the expected information gain as a design criterion. This can be evaluated mainly by Monte Carlo sampling and maximized by using stochastic approximation methods, both known for being computationally expensive tasks. We propose an alternative framework where a lower bound of the expected information gain is used as the design criterion. In addition to alleviating the computational burden, this also addresses issues concerning estimation bias. The problem of permeability inference in a large contaminated area is used to demonstrate the validity of our approach where we employ the massively parallel vers...

  7. The problem of experimental design in temperate agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Stamps; M. J. Linit

    1998-01-01

    The design and execution of temperate agroforestry experiments has many problems. Difficulties include the selection of measurement\\u000a criteria, proper randomization of treatments, and issues of timing and scale of experiments. A major problem facing most experimenters\\u000a is the proper randomization of treatments to insure independence: few properly designed temperate agroforestry plots currently\\u000a exist, and it will be many years before

  8. Off-Line Quality Control In Integrated Circuit Fabrication Using Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadke, M. S.; Kackar, R. N.; Speeney, D. V.; Grieco, M. J.

    1987-04-01

    Off-line quality control is a systematic method of optimizing production processes and product designs. It is widely used in Japan to produce high quality products at low cost. The method was introduced to us by Professor Genichi Taguchi who is a Deming-award winner and a former Director of the Japanese Academy of Quality. In this paper we will i) describe the off-line quality control method, and ii) document our efforts to optimize the process for forming contact windows in 3.5 Aim CMOS circuits fabricated in the Murray Hill Integrated Circuit Design Capability Laboratory. In the fabrication of integrated circuits it is critically important to produce contact windows of size very near the target dimension. Windows which are too small or too large lead to loss of yield. The off-line quality control method has improved both the process quality and productivity. The variance of the window size has been reduced by a factor of four. Also, processing time for window photolithography has been substantially reduced. The key steps of off-line quality control are: i) Identify important manipulatable process factors and their potential working levels. ii) Perform fractional factorial experiments on the process using orthogonal array designs. iii) Analyze the resulting data to determine the optimum operating levels of the factors. Both the process mean and the process variance are considered in this analysis. iv) Conduct an additional experiment to verify that the new factor levels indeed give an improvement.

  9. Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Serving Embedded Content via Web Applications: Model, Design and Experimentation Simon Duquennoy dedicated terminals. A new trend consists in embedding Web servers in small devices, making both access of embedded Web servers, and we introduce a taxonomy of the contents possi- bly served by Web applications

  10. A proposal to support the design of experimental learning activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Verdejo; B. Barros; M. Rodríguez-Artacho

    This paper addresses the problem of designing computer environments to support collaborative scientific experimental learning from the authoring perspective. We aim at a range of learning tasks involving speculative and practical activities in the real world, so we need rich problem workspaces, as well as articulation mechanisms between the problem space and the communication space to refer to the actions

  11. A Realistic Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Myers, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A realistic applied chemical engineering experimental design and statistical analysis project is documented in this article. This project has been implemented as part of the professional development and applied statistics courses at Villanova University over the past five years. The novel aspects of this project are that the students are given a…

  12. Simulation Methods for Optimal Experimental Design in Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Simulation Methods for Optimal Experimental Design in Systems Biology D. Faller Freiburg Center of a biological system, the authors conducted quantitative dynamic experiments from which the system structure and the parameters have to be deduced. Since biological systems have to cope with different environmental conditions

  13. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  14. Modeling Experimental Design for Proteomics Jan Eriksson and David Feny

    E-print Network

    Chait, Brian T.

    the model can be applied to optimize proteomics experiments. Protein Separation Peptide Separation Separation of material b Fig. 1. (a) Model of a common proteomics experiment. (b) Generalized model223 Chapter 14 Modeling Experimental Design for Proteomics Jan Eriksson and David Fenyö Abstract

  15. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  16. Computing Optimal Experimental Designs via Interior Point Zhaosong Lu

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhaosong

    of smooth convex optimality criteria, including the classical A-, D- and pth mean criterion. In particu- lar words: Optimal experimental design, A-criterion, c-criterion, D-criterion, pth mean criterion, interior; (iii) D-criterion (X) := log det(KT X K); (iv) pth mean criterion (X) := tr((KT X K)-p ). for some p

  17. Interior Point Methods for Optimal Experimental Designs Zhaosong Lu

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhaosong

    problem with a large class of smooth convex optimality criteria, including A-, D- and pth mean criterion words: Optimal experimental design, A-criterion, c-criterion, D-criterion, pth mean criterion, interior) D-criterion (X) := log det(KT X K); (iv) pth mean criterion (X) := tr((KT X K)-p ). for some p

  18. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  19. Model Selection in Systems Biology Depends on Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D. W.; Barnes, Chris P.; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis. PMID:24922483

  20. Bioinspiration: Applying Mechanical Design to Experimental Brooke E. Flammang1,

    E-print Network

    Flammang, Brooke

    of biological accuracy they imply in their definition. This issue of semantics is especially problematicSYMPOSIUM Bioinspiration: Applying Mechanical Design to Experimental Biology Brooke E. Flammang1, * and Marianne E. Porter *Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge

  1. Design and operation of an experimental reverberatory aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Hayes, M.C.; Li, T. (Univ. of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL); Hassan, M. (Univ. of Kentucky); Golchert, B.M. (ANL)

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center, in cooperation with industrial support through Secat, Inc. has designed, built and is operating a test-bed reverberatory furnace. Studies in the Albany Research Center (ARC) experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the furnace design, experimental equipment, conditions, procedure, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the overall efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect of hanging the combustion space volume on the melting efficiency. An analytic analysis of the theoretical efficiency of the furnace is carried out to determine overall characteristics of the furnace. Experimental data is utilized to validate numerical (computational fluid dynamics) predictions.

  2. Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  3. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental and flight propulsion systems are presented. The following areas are discussed: engine core and low pressure turbine design; bearings and seals design; controls and accessories design; nacelle aerodynamic design; nacelle mechanical design; weight; and aircraft systems design.

  4. Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, H.; Birglenl, L.; Tahan, A.; Paquet, F.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated.

  5. Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)] [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  6. Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

  7. The Concept of Fashion Design on the Basis of Color Coordination Using White LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yumiko; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    This thesis focuses on the development of fashion design, especially a dress coordinated with White LED Lighting (=LED). As for the design concept a fusion of the advanced science and local culture was aimed for. For such a reason this development is a very experimental one. Here in particular I handled an Imperial Court dinner dress for the last Japanese First Lady, Mrs. Akie Abe who wore it at the Imperial Court dinner for the Indonesian First Couple held on November 2006 to. This dress made by Prof. T. Taguchi and I open up a new field in the dress design.

  8. Optimization of a total internal reflection lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Shih-Min; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chou, Chun-Han; Su, Wei-Shao; Hsieh, Tsung-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for optimization of a total internal reflection (TIR) lens by using a hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm. The conventional simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a method for solving global optimization problems and has also been used in non-imaging systems in recent years. However, the success of SA depends heavily on the annealing schedule and initial parameter setting. In this study, we successfully incorporated the Taguchi method into the SA algorithm. The new hybrid Taguchi-simulated annealing algorithm provides more precise search results and has lower initial parameter dependence.

  9. COMPONENT ANALYSES USING SINGLE-SUBJECT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of component analysis is discussed, and a notation system for evaluating the experimental designs of component analyses is described. Thirty articles that included a component analysis were identified via a literature search. The majority of the studies successfully identified a necessary component; however, most of these studies did not evaluate the sufficiency of the necessary component. The notation system may be helpful in developing experimental designs that best suit the purpose of studies aimed at conducting component analyses of treatment packages. PMID:21541152

  10. Virus adsorption in a complex system: an experimentally designed study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Quignon; F. Thomas; C. Gantzer; A. Huyard; L. Schwartzbrod

    1998-01-01

    Poliovirus-1 adsorption to Na-montmorillonite was studied in a complex, although known aqueous environment. Influences of salt concentration and valence, as well as virus load, clay concentration, and organic matter concentration were determined by the viral adsorption and\\/or loss. Use of experimentally designed experiments according to Doehlert’s matrices allowed for the detection and quantitation of the main effects on the viral

  11. Empirical investigation of experimental design properties of discrete choice experiments in health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalie Viney; Elizabeth Savage; Jordan Louviere

    2005-01-01

    Experimental design is critical to valid inference from the results of discrete choice experiments (DCEs). In health economics, DCEs have placed limited emphasis on experimental design, typically employing relatively small fractional factorial designs, which allow only strictly linear additive utility functions to be estimated. The extensive literature on optimal experimental design outside health economics has proposed potentially desirable design properties,

  12. Sloppy models, parameter uncertainty, and the role of experimental design.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Joshua F; Witmer, David K; White, Forest M; Tidor, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Computational models are increasingly used to understand and predict complex biological phenomena. These models contain many unknown parameters, at least some of which are difficult to measure directly, and instead are estimated by fitting to time-course data. Previous work has suggested that even with precise data sets, many parameters are unknowable by trajectory measurements. We examined this question in the context of a pathway model of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuronal growth factor (NGF) signaling. Computationally, we examined a palette of experimental perturbations that included different doses of EGF and NGF as well as single and multiple gene knockdowns and overexpressions. While no single experiment could accurately estimate all of the parameters, experimental design methodology identified a set of five complementary experiments that could. These results suggest optimism for the prospects for calibrating even large models, that the success of parameter estimation is intimately linked to the experimental perturbations used, and that experimental design methodology is important for parameter fitting of biological models and likely for the accuracy that can be expected from them. PMID:20556289

  13. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI).

    PubMed

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non-expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non-expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines. PMID:25185236

  14. Design of Experiment Approach to the Study of Parameters in the New Die Set Tube Hydroforming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Elyasi; M. Hossinzade

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize the effective parameters in forming cylindrical tubes by the new die set of tube hydroforming process. The process parameters evaluated in this research are axial feeding, initial and final forming pressure. The design of experiments based upon L9 orthogonal arrays by Taguchi was used and analysis of variance

  15. Design of experiments approach to gradient estimation and its application to CMOS circuit stochastic optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Zhang; M. A. Styblinski

    1991-01-01

    A method using orthogonal array (OA)-based design of experiments is applied to screening and stochastic gradient evaluation for a generalized yield\\/Taguchi `loss' function and a general CMOS statistical model. In comparison with the Taguchi approach, the method does not require `inner' and `outer' table combinations. The method is shown to be much more efficient than an equivalent Monte Carlo approach

  16. Tolerance design of robot parameters using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Rout; R. K. Mittal

    2006-01-01

    A robotic arm must be able to manipulate objects with high accuracy and repeatability. As with every physical system, there are number of noise factors cause uncertainty in the performance. A probabilistic approach has been used to model, the otherwise difficult to model, noise effects. This paper presents the approach utilised in selection of tolerance specification of robot kinematic and

  17. Design and experimental validation of looped-tube thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduljalil, Abdulrahman S.; Yu, Zhibin; Jaworski, Artur J.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and experimental validation process for a thermoacoustic looped-tube engine. The design procedure consists of numerical modelling of the system using DELTA EC tool, Design Environment for Low-amplitude ThermoAcoustic Energy Conversion, in particular the effects of mean pressure and regenerator configuration on the pressure amplitude and acoustic power generated. This is followed by the construction of a practical engine system equipped with a ceramic regenerator — a substrate used in automotive catalytic converters with fine square channels. The preliminary testing results are obtained and compared with the simulations in detail. The measurement results agree very well on the qualitative level and are reasonably close in the quantitative sense.

  18. A Hierarchical Adaptive Approach to Optimal Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojae; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Steyvers, Mark; Myung, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Experimentation is at the core of research in the behavioral and neural sciences, yet observations can be expensive and time-consuming to acquire (e.g., MRI scans, responses from infant participants). A major interest of researchers is designing experiments that lead to maximal accumulation of information about the phenomenon under study with the fewest possible number of observations. In addressing this challenge, statisticians have developed adaptive design optimization methods. This letter introduces a hierarchical Bayes extension of adaptive design optimization that provides a judicious way to exploit two complementary schemes of inference (with past and future data) to achieve even greater accuracy and efficiency in information gain. We demonstrate the method in a simulation experiment in the field of visual perception. PMID:25149697

  19. Laser spark plug numerical design process with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.; Woodruff, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the numerical modeling design procedure for a miniaturized laser spark plug. In previous work both side pumped and end pumped laser spark plugs were empirically designed and tested. Experimental data from the previous laser spark plug development cycles is compared to the output predicted by a known set of rate equations. The rate equations are used to develop interrelated inter cavity time dependent waveforms that are then used to identify key variables. These variables are then input to a set of secondary equations for determining the output pulse energy, output power, and output pulse width of the simulated laser system. The physical meaning and the operation of the rate equations is explained in detail. This paper concentrates on the process and decision points needed to successfully design a solid state passively Q-switched laser system, either side pumped or end pumped, that produces the appropriate output needed for use as a laser spark plug for internal combustion engines.

  20. Development of a cell formation heuristic by considering realistic data using principal component analysis and Taguchi's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shailendra; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four decades of research, numerous cell formation algorithms have been developed and tested, still this research remains of interest to this day. Appropriate manufacturing cells formation is the first step in designing a cellular manufacturing system. In cellular manufacturing, consideration to manufacturing flexibility and production-related data is vital for cell formation. The consideration to this realistic data makes cell formation problem very complex and tedious. It leads to the invention and implementation of highly advanced and complex cell formation methods. In this paper an effort has been made to develop a simple and easy to understand/implement manufacturing cell formation heuristic procedure with considerations to the number of production and manufacturing flexibility-related parameters. The heuristic minimizes inter-cellular movement cost/time. Further, the proposed heuristic is modified for the application of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method. Numerical example is explained to illustrate the approach. A refinement in the results is observed with adoption of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method.

  1. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs

  2. Fault identification in chemical processes through a modified mahalanobis-taguchi strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Saraiva; Nuno Faísca; Raquel Costa; Alcides Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    On the chemical process industries an appropriate identification of faults has become at present one of the most critical and challenging PSE activities. Recently, Taguchi and Jugulum (2002) described a new data based approach for diagnosis and forecasting using multivariate data, the so-called Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS). MTS is considered to be a non-parametric approach, and has been applied with success

  3. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  4. Design and numerical optimization of an easy-to-fabricate photon-to-plasmon coupler for quantum plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewes, Günter; Schell, Andreas W.; Henze, Rico; Simon Schönfeld, Rolf; Burger, Sven; Busch, Kurt; Benson, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    We design an on-chip single mode photon to surface-plasmon coupler. Our coupler consists of a tapered dielectric waveguide and a V-shaped plasmonic part. In contrast to other concepts designated to minimized-loss coupling into long-ranging waveguides, we focus on an easy-to-fabricate structure working in the visible spectral range. The air-cladded design provides full experimental access to the evanescent fields emerging from the plasmonic stripe guide. An adaptive finite element method for full three dimensional simulations is used combined with the Taguchi method for optimization, which makes our procedure extremely time-efficient and executable on standard personal computers.

  5. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  6. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  7. Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues. The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

  8. Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

    2010-10-01

    This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

  9. A method of multi-class faults classification based-on Mahalanobis-Taguchi system using vibration signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangtao Ren; Yuanwen Cai; Xiaochen Xing; Jing Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an improved Mahalanobis-Taguchi system based fault diagnosis scheme is presented, vibration signals are used as the signal resource. Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is utilized for fault clustering method in order to classify faults into different categories, Lipschitz Exponents are used to extract characteristic vectors. Firstly, the procedure of implementing Mahalanobis-Taguchi System is introduced, a multi-class faults classification method is

  10. Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Bt Corn, Lignin, and ANOVAs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Ribbens

    2002-01-01

    This case is based on a research paper about the lignin content of genetically modified corn published in the American Journal of Botany. Students are asked to analyze and discuss the paper, focusing on questions related to experimental design and interpretation and a critique of the statistical data presented. Developed for use in an upper-level undergraduate course in plant ecology and a graduate biostatistics course, the case could also be used in courses in plant anatomy, plant physiology, soil ecology, agriculture, or genetics.

  11. Experimental design methodology: the scientific tool for performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1990-09-01

    With the rapid growth of the signal and image processing technology in the last several decades has arisen the need for means of evaluating and comparing the numerous algorithms and systems that are created or are being developed. Performance evaluation, in the past, has been mostly ad hoc and incohesive. In this paper we present a systematic step by step approach for the scientific evaluation of signal and image processing algorithms and systems. This approach is based on the methodology of Experimental Design. We illustrate this method by means of an example from the field of automatic object recognition.

  12. An overview and example of application of CAEDE: a new, experimental design environment for Ada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. A. Buhr; G. M. Karam; C. M. Woodside

    1985-01-01

    CAEDE is an experimental, integrated, iconic design environment which supports (1) a structured design methodology based on Buhr's System Design With Ada book (2) an iconic design entry system, (3) a design data base, and (4) design tools. The design data base is automatically represented in Prolog and the majority of the design tools are written in Prolog. Tools are

  13. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Quan; Motamed, Mohammad; Tempone, Raúl

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  14. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  15. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated using Cl2O gas. For possibly contaminated areas (individual rooms or the whole floor of a building), the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. The numbers of judgmental samples were chosen based on guidance from experts in judgmental sampling. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using a Bayesian approach that provides for combining judgmental and probabilistic samples to make a clearance statement of the form “95% confidence that at least 99% of the room (or floor) is not contaminated”. The experimental design also provides for making 95%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples, where Y < 99. For each test event, the numbers of samples were selected for a minimal plan (containing fewer samples) and a preferred plan (containing more samples). The preferred plan is recommended over the minimal plan. The preferred plan specifies a total of 1452 samples, 912 after contamination and 540 after decontamination. The minimal plan specifies a total of 1119 samples, 744 after contamination and 375 after decontamination. If the advantages of the “after decontamination” portion of the preferred plan are judged to be small compared to the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan, it is an option to combine the “after contamination” portion of the preferred plan (912 samples) with the “after decontamination” portion of the minimal plan (375 samples). This hybrid plan would involve a total of 1287 samples.

  16. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QSCEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental propulsion systems to be built and tested in the 'quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine' program are presented. The flight propulsion systems are also presented. The following areas are discussed: acoustic design; emissions control; engine cycle and performance; fan aerodynamic design; variable-pitch actuation systems; fan rotor mechanical design; fan frame mechanical design; and reduction gear design.

  17. Experimental design schemes for learning Boolean network models

    PubMed Central

    Atias, Nir; Gershenzon, Michal; Labazin, Katia; Sharan, Roded

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein–protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model signaling regulatory circuits in human. Learning such models requires observing the system under a sufficient number of different conditions. To date, the amount of measured data is the main bottleneck in learning informative Boolean models, underscoring the need for efficient experimental design strategies. Results: We developed novel design approaches that greedily select an experiment to be performed so as to maximize the difference or the entropy in the results it induces with respect to current best-fit models. Unique to our maximum difference approach is the ability to account for all (possibly exponential number of) Boolean models displaying high fit to the available data. We applied both approaches to simulated and real data from the EFGR and IL1 signaling systems in human. We demonstrate the utility of the developed strategies in substantially improving on a random selection approach. Our design schemes highlight the redundancy in these datasets, leading up to 11-fold savings in the number of experiments to be performed. Availability and implementation: Source code will be made available upon acceptance of the manuscript. Contact: roded@post.tau.ac.il PMID:25161232

  18. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

  19. Computer Simulation Experiments with Economic Systems: The Problem of Experimental Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Naylor; Donald S. Burdick; W. Earl Sasser

    1967-01-01

    Experimental design considerations have been virtually ignored by economists who have conducted computer simulation experiments with models of economic systems. The objective of this paper is to spell out in detail the relationship between existing experimental design techniques and techniques of data analysis and the design of simulation experiments with economic systems. We begin by defining the problem of experimental

  20. An overview and example of application of CAEDE: a new, experimental design environment for Ada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. A. Buhr; G. M. Karam; C. M. Woodside

    1985-01-01

    CAEDE is an experimental, integrated, iconic design environment which supports (1) a structured design methodology based on Buhr's book (2) an iconic design entry system, (3) a design data base, and (4) design tools. The design data base is automatically represented in Prolog and the majority of the design tools are written in Prolog. Tools are currently available for structural

  1. New charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries based on the integration of Taguchi method and state of charge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Thanh Tu; Chen, Xiaopeng; Shen, Weixiang; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new charging strategy of lithium-polymer batteries (LiPBs) has been proposed based on the integration of Taguchi method (TM) and state of charge estimation. The TM is applied to search an optimal charging current pattern. An adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer (ASGSMO) is adopted to estimate the SOC which controls and terminates the charging process. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed charging strategy can successfully charge the same types of LiPBs with different capacities and cycle life. The proposed charging strategy also provides much shorter charging time, narrower temperature variation and slightly higher energy efficiency than the equivalent constant current constant voltage charging method.

  2. Experimental Design and Their Analysis Design of experiment means how to design an experiment in the sense that how the observations or

    E-print Network

    Shalabh

    to the experimental units in a random fashion. Design of experiment provides a method by which the treatments1 Chapter 4 Experimental Design and Their Analysis Design of experiment means how to design in a valid, efficient and economical way. The designing of experiment and the analysis of obtained data

  3. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  4. Experimental and numerical studies on the determination of twist drill temperature in dry drilling: A new approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babur Ozcelik; Eyup Bagci

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the influences of the spindle speed and feed rate on the drill temperature responses have been investigated. A new experimental approach was developed to measure drill temperature in drilling process. Drill temperatures were measured by inserting standard thermocouples through the coolant (oil) hole of TiAlN-coated carbide drills. Experimental parameters used in the study has based on Taguchi’s

  5. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  6. Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: Optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology

    PubMed Central

    Nandal, Preeti; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011 under solid state fermentation was optimized following Taguchi design of experiment. An orthogonal array layout of L18 (21 × 37) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with eight most influensive factors on laccase production. At individual level pH contributed higher influence, whereas, corn steep liquor (CSL) accounted for more than 50% of the severity index with biotin and KH2PO4 at the interactive level. The optimum conditions derived were; temperature 30°C, pH 5.0, wheat bran 5.0?g, inoculum size 0.5?ml (fungal cell mass = 0.015?g dry wt.), biotin 0.5% w/v, KH2PO4 0.013% w/v, CSL 0.1% v/v and 0.5?mM xylidine as an inducer. The validation experiments using optimized conditions confirmed an improvement in enzyme production by 58.01%. The laccase production to the level of 1623.55?Ugds?1 indicates that the fungus C. caperata RCK2011 has the commercial potential for laccase. PMID:23463372

  7. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. PMID:24055597

  8. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  9. Computational design of an experimental laser-powered thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald; Keefer, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thruster. The adopted physical model considers two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the laser power absorption process, geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, and the thermodynamically equilibrium (LTE) assumption for the plasma thermophysical and optical properties. A pressure based Navier-Stokes solver using body-fitted coordinate was used to calculate the laser-supported rocket flow which consists of both recirculating and transonic flow regions. The computer code was used to study the behavior of laser-sustained plasmas within a pipe over a wide range of forced convection and optical arrangements before it was applied to the thruster design, and these theoretical calculations agree well with existing experimental results. Several different throat size thrusters operated at 150 and 300 kPa chamber pressure were evaluated in the numerical experiment. It is found that the thruster performance (vacuum specific impulse) is highly dependent on the operating conditions, and that an adequately designed laser-supported thruster can have a specific impulse around 1500 sec. The heat loading on the wall of the calculated thrusters were also estimated, and it is comparable to heat loading on the conventional chemical rocket. It was also found that the specific impulse of the calculated thrusters can be reduced by 200 secs due to the finite chemical reaction rate.

  10. Multidisciplinary design optimization using response surface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    Aerospace conceptual vehicle design is a complex process which involves multidisciplinary studies of configuration and technology options considering many parameters at many values. NASA Langley's Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) has detailed computerized analysis capabilities in most of the key disciplines required by advanced vehicle design. Given a configuration, the capability exists to quickly determine its performance and lifecycle cost. The next step in vehicle design is to determine the best settings of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics. Typical approach to design optimization is experience based, trial and error variation of many parameters one at a time where possible combinations usually number in the thousands. However, this approach can either lead to a very long and expensive design process or to a premature termination of the design process due to budget and/or schedule pressures. Furthermore, one variable at a time approach can not account for the interactions that occur among parts of systems and among disciplines. As a result, vehicle design may be far from optimal. Advanced multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods are needed to direct the search in an efficient and intelligent manner in order to drastically reduce the number of candidate designs to be evaluated. The payoffs in terms of enhanced performance and reduced cost are significant. A literature review yields two such advanced MDO methods used in aerospace design optimization; Taguchi methods and response surface methods. Taguchi methods provide a systematic and efficient method for design optimization for performance and cost. However, response surface method (RSM) leads to a better, more accurate exploration of the parameter space and to estimated optimum conditions with a small expenditure on experimental data. These two methods are described.

  11. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-print Network

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

  12. Single-case experimental designs: reflections on conduct and analysis.

    PubMed

    Manolov, Rumen; Gast, David L; Perdices, Michael; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial discussion we reflect on the issues addressed by, and arising from, the papers in this special issue on Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) study methodology. We identify areas of consensus and disagreement regarding the conduct and analysis of SCED studies. Despite the long history of application of SCEDs in studies of interventions in clinical and educational settings, the field is still developing. There is an emerging consensus on methodological quality criteria for many aspects of SCEDs, but disagreement on what are the most appropriate methods of SCED data analysis. Our aim is to stimulate this ongoing debate and highlight issues requiring further attention from applied researchers and methodologists. In addition we offer tentative criteria to support decision-making in relation to the selection of analytical techniques in SCED studies. Finally, we stress that large-scale interdisciplinary collaborations, such as the current Special Issue, are necessary if SCEDs are going to play a significant role in the development of the evidence base for clinical practice. PMID:24779416

  13. Sparsely sampling the sky: a Bayesian experimental design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, P.; Jaffe, A. H.

    2013-08-01

    The next generation of galaxy surveys will observe millions of galaxies over large volumes of the Universe. These surveys are expensive both in time and cost, raising questions regarding the optimal investment of this time and money. In this work, we investigate criteria for selecting amongst observing strategies for constraining the galaxy power spectrum and a set of cosmological parameters. Depending on the parameters of interest, it may be more efficient to observe a larger, but sparsely sampled, area of sky instead of a smaller contiguous area. In this work, by making use of the principles of Bayesian experimental design, we will investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the sparse sampling of the sky and discuss the circumstances in which a sparse survey is indeed the most efficient strategy. For the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we find that by sparsely observing the same area in a smaller amount of time, we only increase the errors on the parameters by a maximum of 0.45 per cent. Conversely, investing the same amount of time as the original DES to observe a sparser but larger area of sky, we can in fact constrain the parameters with errors reduced by 28 per cent.

  14. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models Using Lisp-Stat

    E-print Network

    Marasinghe, Mervyn

    Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models Using Lisp-Stat Philip W. Iversen Mervyn of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in LISP-STAT using a software representation in an experiment. This paper describes a Lisp-Stat system for visualizing experimental designs using the Hasse

  15. Optimization of experimental design in fMRI: a general framework using a genetic algorithm

    E-print Network

    Optimization of experimental design in fMRI: a general framework using a genetic algorithm Tor D uses a genetic algorithm (GA), a class of flexible search algorithms that optimize designs with respect genetic algorithms may be applied to experimental design for fMRI, and we use the framework to explore

  16. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring with application to ultrasonic guided waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Brian Flynn

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation will present the application of a Bayesian experimental design framework to structural health monitoring (SHM). When applied to SHM, Bayesian experimental design (BED) is founded on the minimization of the expected loss, i.e., Bayes Risk, of the SHM process through the optimization of the detection algorithm and system hardware design parameters. This expected loss is a function of

  17. An experimental design criterion for minimizing meta-model prediction errors applied to die casting process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore T. Allen; Liyang Yu; John Schmitz

    2003-01-01

    We propose the expected integrated mean-squared error (EIMSE) experimental design criterion and show how we used it to design experiments to meet the needs of researchers in die casting engineering. This criterion expresses in a direct way the researchers' goal to minimize the expected meta-model prediction errors, taking into account the effects of both random experimental errors and errors deriving

  18. Asymptotic normality of nonlinear least squares under singular experimental designs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a function h() of the parameters in a nonlinear regression model with observations yi = (xi, ) + i, i = 1, 2. In nonsingular nonlinear models, a standard way to design an optimum experiment for parameter estimation design problem in a linear model is as follows. Given a set X Rk , the design space, a design (an exact

  19. SATISFYING RANGED SETS OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS USING DESIGN CAPABILITY INDICES AS METRICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WEI CHEN; TIMOTHY W. SIMPSON; JANET K. ALLEN; FARROKH MISTREE

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the notion of design capability indices is introduced for use in robust design. Design capability indices are based on process capability indices from statistical process control and provide an alternate approach to the use of Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio in robust design. Successful implementation of design capability indices ensures that a range of design solutions, representing a family

  20. Combining adaptive and designed statistical experimentation : process improvement, data classification, experimental optimization and model building

    E-print Network

    Foster, Chad Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Research interest in the use of adaptive experimentation has returned recently. This historic technique adapts and learns from each experimental run but requires quick runs and large effects. The basis of this renewed ...

  1. Statistical models and experimental designs for poultry research

    E-print Network

    Abdel Baky, Anwar Ahmed

    1972-01-01

    mortality, time-period, s involved in recording measurements, and the high cost of conducting certain experiments especially when testing the effects of more than one treatment level. The nature of poultry experimentation is discussed. with emphasis... number of birds in the experimental unit, will increase the degrees of freedom associated. with the valid. error for testing the hypothesis of no difference between treatment means which provides more precise results. The validity of experimental...

  2. Statistical models and experimental designs for poultry research 

    E-print Network

    Abdel Baky, Anwar Ahmed

    1972-01-01

    mortality, time-period, s involved in recording measurements, and the high cost of conducting certain experiments especially when testing the effects of more than one treatment level. The nature of poultry experimentation is discussed. with emphasis... number of birds in the experimental unit, will increase the degrees of freedom associated. with the valid. error for testing the hypothesis of no difference between treatment means which provides more precise results. The validity of experimental...

  3. Bearing diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Piyush; Kulkarni, Makarand S.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2015-02-01

    A methodology is developed for defect type identification in rolling element bearings using the integrated Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt (MTGS) method. Vibration data recorded from bearings with seeded defects on outer race, inner race and balls are processed in time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. Eleven damage identification parameters (RMS, Peak, Crest Factor, and Kurtosis in time domain, amplitude of outer race, inner race, and ball defect frequencies in FFT spectrum and HFRT spectrum in frequency domain and peak of HHT spectrum in time-frequency domain) are computed. Using MTGS, these damage identification parameters (DIPs) are fused into a single DIP, Mahalanobis distance (MD), and gain values for the presence of all DIPs are calculated. The gain value is used to identify the usefulness of DIP and the DIPs with positive gain are again fused into MD by using Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization process (GSP) in order to calculate Gram-Schmidt Vectors (GSVs). Among the remaining DIPs, sign of GSVs of frequency domain DIPs is checked to classify the probable defect. The approach uses MTGS method for combining the damage parameters and in conjunction with the GSV classifies the defect. A Defect Occurrence Index (DOI) is proposed to rank the probability of existence of a type of bearing damage (ball defect/inner race defect/outer race defect/other anomalies). The methodology is successfully validated on vibration data from a different machine, bearing type and shape/configuration of the defect. The proposed methodology is also applied on the vibration data acquired from the accelerated life test on the bearings, which established the applicability of the method on naturally induced and naturally progressed defect. It is observed that the methodology successfully identifies the correct type of bearing defect. The proposed methodology is also useful in identifying the time of initiation of a defect and has potential for implementation in a real time environment.

  4. Department of Mechanical Engineering Experimental Designs Inc. The Bipedal Machine

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    design and analysis components. Several existing components needed to be tested using Finite Element Analysis, the existing hip design needed improvement, and a functional pelvis structure needed including both design and analysis. The objectives included running FEA simulations on the existing calf

  5. Biodegradation of dye solution containing Malachite Green: Optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Daneshvar; A. R. Khataee; M. H. Rasoulifard; M. Pourhassan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, optimization of biological decolorization of synthetic dye solution containing Malachite Green was investigated. The effect of temperature, initial pH of the solution, type of algae, dye concentration and time of the reaction was studied and optimized using Taguchi method. Sixteen experiments were required to study the effect of parameters on biodegradation of the dye. Each of experiments

  6. Financial Crisis Dynamic Prediction Based on Sliding Window Technology and Mahalanobis-Taguchi System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhong Shi; Longsheng Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of current existing model, the financial crisis prediction dynamic model is proposed. By means of the data streams processing method, the sliding window technology is used for real-time updated samples in this paper, and then the optimal features of samples are selected by Mahalanobis-Taguchi System. The financial crisis prediction dynamic model is built

  7. Improving the quality of an optimal power flow solution by Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Dai Do

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at improving the quality of an OPF (optimal power flow solution including power demand uncertainty. The goal is to obtain a best setting of the input which results in a performance characteristic of the output close to target with minimum variability. Here, a post-optimality procedure which incorporates the philosophv and the method of Taguchi is applied. Power

  8. Teaching Simple Experimental Design to Undergraduates: Do Your Students Understand the Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides instructors with guidelines for teaching simple experimental design for the comparison of two treatment groups. Two designs with specific examples are discussed along with common misconceptions that undergraduate students typically bring to the experiment design process. Features of experiment design that maximize power and…

  9. Accelerated Bayesian experimental design for chemical kinetic models

    E-print Network

    Huan, Xun

    2010-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential in maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. A general ...

  10. Application of parameter analysis principles in design: an experimental study

    E-print Network

    Rojanavanich, Vinai

    1991-01-01

    of this stage are detailed drawings for manufacturing and operat- ing instructions. During the last two design stages, the systematic design methods are normally used. The conceptual design process is the focus of much research including cogni- tive research... division, and responsibility 7. Perception such as preference and development of appreciation o oooo Strategy eeooo oeooo Evaluation eeo eoo Hints roblem Solvin ooo oee Oe Oe oooo eeoc Skills Types 0 roblem O 0 zoo 6 ee Knowledge Q...

  11. Experimental verification of Space Platform battery discharger design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sable, Dan M.; Deuty, Scott; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed design of two candidate topologies for the Space Platform battery discharger, a four module boost converter (FMBC) and a voltage-fed push-pull autotransformer (VFPPAT), is presented. Each has unique problems. The FMBC requires careful design and analysis in order to obtain good dynamic performance. This is due to the presence of a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in the control-to-output transfer function. The VFPPAT presents a challenging power stage design in order to yield high efficiency and light component weight. The authors describe the design of each of these converters and compare their efficiency, weight, and dynamic characteristics.

  12. Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Coleman; Doug Aubrey; David Coyle; Daniels; F. Richard

    2005-01-01

    There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua

  13. Reducing manufacturing process variability using experimental design technique: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiju Antony; Michael Hughes; Mike Kaye

    1999-01-01

    Experimental design is a powerful technique for understanding a process, studying the impact of potential variables affecting a process and providing spontaneous insight for continuous quality improvement possibilities. It has proved to be very effective for improving the process yield, process performance and reducing process variability. A number of successful applications of the experimental design technique for process optimisation have

  14. EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF RESET CONTROL DESIGN1 C.V. Hollot,4

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of Massachusetts, Amherst; Presently, a Servo Design Engineer, NeoMagic Corporation, Santa Clara, CA 95054; yzhengEXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF RESET CONTROL DESIGN1 Y. Zheng,2 Y. Chait,3 C.V. Hollot,4 M/phase margins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of reset control

  15. Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design

    E-print Network

    PAPER Measurement of uranium enrichment by gamma spectroscopy: result of an experimental design Gamma spectroscopy is commonly used in nuclear safeguards to measure uranium enrichment. An experimental design has been carried out for the measurement of uranium enrichment using this technique with different

  16. Design of JT-60SA Magnets and Associated Experimental Validations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zani; P. Barabaschi; D. Duglue; L. Meunier; M. Peyrot; V. Tomarchio; M. Verrecchia; P. Decool; J.-L. Marechal; A. Torre; A. Cucchiaro; A. della Corte; A. Di Zenobio; L. Muzzi; S. Turtu; S. Ishida; K. Yoshida; K. Tsuchiya; K. Kizu; H. Murakami

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, aiming at upgrading the present JT-60U tokamak toward a fully supercon- ducting configuration, the detailed design phase led to adopt for the three main magnet systems a brand new design. Europe (EU) is expected to provide to Japan (JA) the totality of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system, while JA will provide both

  17. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

  18. Introduction to Experimental Design: Can You Smell Fear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to design appropriate experiments in order to interrogate a research question is an important skill for any scientist. The present article describes an interactive lecture-based activity centred around a comparison of two contrasting approaches to investigation of the question "Can you smell fear?" A poorly designed experiment (a video…

  19. Music and video iconicity: theory and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Roger A

    2005-01-01

    Experimental studies on the relationship between quasi-musical patterns and visual movement have largely focused on either referential, associative aspects or syntactical, accent-oriented alignments. Both of these are very important, however, between the referential and areferential lays a domain where visual pattern perceptually connects to musical pattern; this is iconicity. The temporal syntax of accent structures in iconicity is hypothesized to be important. Beyond that, a multidimensional visual space connects to musical patterning through mapping of visual time/space to musical time/magnitudes. Experimental visual and musical correlates are presented and comparisons to previous research provided. PMID:15684561

  20. Creating A Data Base For Design Of An Impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of Taguchi method of parametric design to create data base facilitating optimization of design of impeller in centrifugal pump. Data base enables systematic design analysis covering all significant design parameters. Reduces time and cost of parametric optimization of design: for particular impeller considered, one can cover 4,374 designs by computational simulations of performance for only 18 cases.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR RATINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STANLEY, JULIAN C.; WILEY, DAVID E.

    EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES FOR RATING PERSONNEL WERE INVESTIGATED AS USED IN RESEARCH GENERALLY AND FOR USE IN THE EVALUATION OF TEACHERS. HISTORICAL PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN RATING TECHNIQUES WERE PRESENTED AND COMPARED WITH RANKING TECHNIQUES. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSIS OF RATINGS WERE DETAILED AND RELATED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF RATING…

  2. Bayesian Inference and Online Experimental Design for Mapping Neural Microcircuits

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    liam@stat.columbia.edu Abstract With the advent of modern stimulation techniques in neuroscience. Due to the technical chal- lenges and sparsity of these systems, it is important to focus experimental of putative presynaptic neurons are optically stimulated while an electrophysiological trace is recorded from

  3. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  4. Experimental Design for Parameter Estimation of Gene Regulatory Networks

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linko¨ping University, Linko¨ping, Sweden Abstract Systems biology aims was applied. We analyzed identifiability and precision of the estimates by calculating the profile likelihood Editor: Avi Ma'ayan, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, United States of America Received February 8, 2012

  5. Dielectric surface flashover in vacuum. Experimental design issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Sudarshan; C. R. Li

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of intrinsic material properties of dielectric materials on high field surface flashover characteristics in vacuum, it is important that we minimize or eliminate the influence of the experimental test structure on the high field processes. In this paper we shall examine the flashover characteristics of polycrystalline alumina insulators, using a lateral test structure similar

  6. Design and experimental analysis of legged locomotive robots

    E-print Network

    Villabona, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, I present the design and motion-capture analysis of two previously well-studied dynamic-walking machines, the rimless wheel and the compass gait robot. These robots were the basis for my undergraduate ...

  7. Experimental design on the front lines of marketing: Testing new ideas to increase direct mail sales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon H. Bell; Johannes Ledolter; Arthur J. Swersey

    2006-01-01

    Marketers have recently begun to embrace complex experimental designs for marketing and advertising testing. Full-factorial, fractional-factorial and Plackett–Burman designs have given marketers new statistical tools to increase the speed, power, and profitability of their testing programs. This case study shows how well constructed and managed experimental designs offer marketing professionals clear, bottom-line benefits over common change one variable at-a-time testing

  8. Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiangjiang; Zeng, Lingzao; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Dingjiang; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameters identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from concentration measurements in identifying unknown parameters. In this approach, the sampling locations that give the maximum expected relative entropy are selected as the optimal design. After the sampling locations are determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport equation. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. It is shown that the methods can be used to assist in both single sampling location and monitoring network design for contaminant source identifications in groundwater.

  9. A microchannel experimental apparatus for heat exchanging: design and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WeiDong Wang; JianYuan Jia; ZhiWu Li; ChangQi Fan

    2005-01-01

    An experimental apparatus is developed for testing the heat-exchange performance of microchannel structures. This system mainly consists of microchannel heat exchangers, a simulated heat source, a micro-pump; a few of pipes, some three-way pipes and other test devices. The heat exchange coefficients and the fluid resistant in microchannels can be obtained by testing temperature, pressure and flow rate. The fluid

  10. Sex differences in children's speech arising from the experimental design 

    E-print Network

    Walters, Connie Jo

    1979-01-01

    selected according to sex-appropriateness. Eighty children (half boys and half girls) participated in this study. Each child was interviewed by one of eight experimenters (four of whom were males and four females). Each child was tested under only one... indicated that sex differences are apparent in language skills of boys and girls. Studies have suggested that girls achieve language at an earlier age than boys (Buffery & Gray, 1972) but that they tend to be less verbal around adults (Sause, 1976). How...

  11. Design refinements and experimental test of hybrid excitation motor for main spindle drive in machine tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sridharbabu; T. Kosaka; N. Matsui

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports design refinements to make a trial manufacturing of hybrid excitation motor (HEM) for high speed spindle drive in machine tools. The proposed HEM is intentionally designed using 3D-FEA for the target application taking into account of practical design constraints. In accordance with the redesigned specifications, a test machine with 4-pole HEM is manufactured and tested. Some experimental

  12. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  13. Biomedical Knowledge Engineering tools based on Experimental Design: A case study based on

    E-print Network

    Russ, Thomas A.

    Biomedical Knowledge Engineering tools based on Experimental Design: A case study based to that process. We are developing a general-purpose approach to representing the design of a biomedical Experimen- tal Design" (KEfED). The KEfED model allows us to impose a formal and well-grounded structure

  14. Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Temkit, M'hamed; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli. For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology, there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions. This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies. We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion. Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs, and m-sequences are also discussed. Moreover, we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices. Under certain assumptions, these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal. Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed. PMID:25071884

  15. Optimization of preservatives in a topical formulation using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Y; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Mielcarek, C; Bensouda, Y

    2009-12-01

    Optimizing the preservative regime for a preparation requires the antimicrobial effectiveness of several preservative combinations to be determined. In this study, three preservatives were tested: benzoic acid, sorbic acid and benzylic alcohol. Their preservative effects were evaluated using the antimicrobial preservative efficacy test (challenge-test) of the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A D-optimal mixture design was used to provide a maximum of information from a limited number of experiments. The results of this study were analysed with the help of the Design Expert software and enabled us to formulate emulsions satisfying both requirements A and B of the EP. PMID:19627383

  16. Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hours in engine dynamometer tests and for more than 38,600 kilimeters (24,000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

  17. Design and evaluation of experimental ceramic automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results obtained in an exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors are summarized. Candidate ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs by using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated-metal support structure exhibited the best performance, lasting 1100 hr in engine-dynamometer tests and more than 38,600 km (24000 miles) in vehicle road tests. Although reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as those containing silicon carbide, the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use with improved reactor designs.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report concerns the design of a field experiment for a military setting in which the effects of carbon monoxide on neurobehavioral variables are to be studied. ield experiment is distinguished from a survey by the fact that independent variables are manipulated, just as in t...

  19. ADAPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR CONSTRUCTION OF RESPONSE SURFACE APPROXIMATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor M. P ´; John E. Renaud; Layne T. Watson

    2001-01-01

    Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) is a class of methods available for the multidisciplinary de- sign optimization (MDO) of complex systems that are composed of several disciplines coupled together. One of the approaches used for SAO, is based on a quadratic response surface approximation, where zero and first or- der information are required. In these methods, designers must generate and query

  20. Practical microarray analysis experimental design Heidelberg, October 2003 1

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    Example LPS: The setting Problem: Differential reaction on LPS stimulation in peripheral blood of stroke patients and controls? Patient Blood Blood + LPS Gene expres. Gene expres. Pat Control Blood Blood + LPS: Affymetrix (22283 genes) #12;Working with micro-arrays 16 Example LPS: Design - Pooling Assume a linear model

  1. A Novel Manipulator for Percutaneous Needle Insertion: Design and Experimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmanpreet S. Bassan; Rajni V. Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a novel 5-DOF manipulator for percutaneous needle insertion. The requirements of the manipulator have been instigated by a relatively common medical procedure: low-dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate. The manipulator can perform orientation, insertion, and rotation of the needle and linear motion of the stylet to drop radioactive seeds contained in a

  2. The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

  3. Electron Gun Thermal Design, Analysis and Experimental Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Behnke; K. L. Montgomery; D. R. Whaley; R. B. True

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a thermal design methodology for electron guns using modern simulation tools. This consists of creating a detailed finite element model which would be able to predict gun thermal characteristics such as heater power required to produce a desired cathode temperature, warm-up characteristics of the gun, temperature distribution of internal components, and thermal

  4. Factor analysis in experimental designs in clinical and social psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Bordin

    1943-01-01

    The author presents an extension of the method of factor analysis which offers an analytical structure for the design of experiments that will avoid distortion of original data and yet permit rigorous and systematic tests of hypotheses. In this method, persons become the variables and behavior items become the population. The persons are correlated, and this is followed by factor

  5. Design and experimental investigation of portable solar thermoelectric refrigerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; Ali Elkamel; Ali M. Al-Damkhi; Is'haq A. Al-Habsi; Abdulaziz K. Al-Battashi; Ali R. Al-Tamimi; Khamis H. Al-Mamari; Muhammad U. Chutani

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to design and build an affordable solar thermoelectric refrigerator for the Bedouin people (e.g. deserts) living in remote parts of Oman where electricity is still not available. The refrigerator could be used to store perishable items and facilitate the transportation of medications as well as biological material that must be stored at low

  6. Experimental Design and Efficient Parameter Estimation in Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ene I. Ette; Catherine A. Howie; Andrew W. Kelman; Brian Whiting

    1995-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation technique used to evaluate the effect of the arrangement of concentrations on the efficiency of estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters in the preclinical setting is described. Although the simulations were restricted to the one compartment model with intravenous bolus input, they provide the basis of discussing some structural aspects involved in designing a destructive (“quantic”) preclinical population

  7. Computing Optimal Experimental Designs via Interior Point Zhaosong Lu

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhaosong

    -, D- and pth mean criterion. In particu- lar, we propose an interior point (IP) method for them design, A-criterion, c-criterion, D-criterion, pth mean criterion, interior point method 1 Introduction-criterion (X) := log det(KT X K); (iv) pth mean criterion (X) := tr((KT X K)-p ). for some p

  8. Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

  9. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    PubMed

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus report by submitting written comments during the review process and oral comments during two forum presentations at the ISPOR 16th and 17th Annual International Meetings held in Baltimore (2011) and Washington, DC (2012). PMID:23337210

  10. A Modified Experimental Hut Design for Studying Responses of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes to Indoor Interventions: The Ifakara Experimental Huts

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O.; Moore, Jason; Mbeyela, Edgar; Sherlock, Mark; Sangusangu, Robert; Ligamba, Godfrey; Russell, Tanya; Moore, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS). Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1) inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2) increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3) difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4) the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1) interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2) use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement) to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3) use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4) the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5) an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality. PMID:22347415

  11. Water markets design and evidence from experimental economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Garrido

    2007-01-01

    Market mechanisms are gaining increasing acceptance all over the world as a way of making more efficient use of scarce water\\u000a resources. Designing regulatory frameworks that ensure both inter- and intra-temporal efficient allocations is a daunting\\u000a task, especially if supply is stochastic and there is ample storage capacity. In addition to defining tradable rights, specific\\u000a provisions must regulate the use

  12. Microradiometric characterization of experimental thermal pixel array designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ronald Marlin; Richard L. Bates; Bruce W. Offord

    1999-01-01

    Advanced in integrated circuit design and micro-machining of silicon have enabled the fabrication of inexpensive, 2D arrays of resistively heated hot-plates, monolithically integrated with addressing the drive circuitry. Infrared scene simulators using these devices have broad-band spectral radiance which approximates naturally occurring thermal radiation. Characterization of these devices involves near field, far field, temporal and electrical measurements. Devices characterized here

  13. Optimal Stock Market Design: Experimental Evidence from Xetra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Loistl; Alexander Veverka

    Abstract Werely on Frankfurt’s hybrid trading system Xetra to consider the issue of a stock market’s optimal design. Xetra’s hybrid trading structure entails different features: call auctions, continuous trading as well ,as market ,maker ,mechanism. ,In this paper we investigate ,the frequency of periodic call auctions and the specific regulations governing the dealers’ quoting behaviour. We apply capital market synergetics,

  14. Experimental investigation of a newly designed supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Radespiel, R.

    2015-06-01

    The flow characteristics of the tandem nozzle supersonic wind tunnel at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität Braunschweig, a are investigated. Conventional measurement techniques were utilized. The flow development is examined by pressure sensors installed at various streamwise positions. The temperature is measured in the storage tube and the settling chamber. The influence of flow treatment in the settling chamber on the flow quality is also studied. The flow quality of test section is evaluated by a 6-probe Pitot rake. The pressure fluctuations in the test section are studied by a sharp cone model. Eventually, good agreement between the measurements and numerical simulation of the tunnel design is achieved.

  15. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 4: Gravitational field. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    Two Apollo Soyuz experiments designed to detect gravity anomalies from spacecraft motion are described. The geodynamics experiment (MA-128) measured large-scale gravity anomalies by detecting small accelerations of Apollo in the 222 km orbit, using Doppler tracking from the ATS-6 satellite. Experiment MA-089 measured 300 km anomalies on the earth's surface by detecting minute changes in the separation between Apollo and the docking module. Topics discussed in relation to these experiments include the Doppler effect, gravimeters, and the discovery of mascons on the moon.

  16. The design and implementation of the buffer manager for an experimental relational database management system

    E-print Network

    Li, Zaichun

    1994-01-01

    Buffer management is an essential component of database management. This thesis presents a design and implementation of the buffer manager for an experimental relational database management system. The relationship and difference between database...

  17. Experimental Design of Formulations Utilizing High Dimensional Model Representation.

    PubMed

    Li, Genyuan; Bastian, Caleb; Welsh, William; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-23

    Many applications involve formulations or mixtures where large numbers of components are possible to choose from, but a final composition with only a few components is sought. Finding suitable binary or ternary mixtures from all the permissible components often relies on simplex-lattice sampling in traditional design of experiments (DoE), which requires performing a large number of experiments even for just tens of permissible components. The effect rises very rapidly with increasing numbers of components and can readily become impractical. This paper proposes constructing a single model for a mixture containing all permissible components from just a modest number of experiments. Yet the model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the performance for full as well as all possible binary and ternary component mixtures. To achieve this goal, we utilize biased random sampling combined with high dimensional model representation (HDMR) to replace DoE simplex-lattice design. Compared with DoE, the required number of experiments is significantly reduced, especially when the number of permissible components is large. This study is illustrated with a solubility model for solvent mixture screening. PMID:26090693

  18. Treatment of vinasses by electrocoagulation–electroflotation using the Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier A. Davila; Fiderman Machuca; Nilson Marrianga

    2011-01-01

    Taguchi method has been applied in the treatment of vinasse from distillery for assess the performance of the process of electrocoagulation–electroflotation in the removal of total solids, turbidity and total organic carbon (TOC). The variables of study were initial pH, current density, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and material of the electrodes.We obtained removals of 50%, 89% and 25% for total

  19. Application of Taguchi method for the multi-objective optimization of aluminium foam manufacturing parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossella Surace; Luigi Alberto Ciro De Filippis; Antonio Domenico Ludovico; Giancarlo Boghetich

    2010-01-01

    In this study the Taguchi method is used to find the optimal process parameters for aluminium foam manufacturing. Porous metals\\u000a are the unique materials used for light weight structural components, for filters and electrodes and for shock or sound absorbing\\u000a products. Recently, interesting foaming technology developments have proposed metallic foams as a valid commercial chance.\\u000a Metallic foam manufacturing techniques include

  20. The Mahalanobis-Taguchi system - Neural network algorithm for data-mining in dynamic environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-lien Huang; Tsung-shin Hsu; Chih-ming Liu

    2009-01-01

    Data-mining analysis has two important processes: searching for patterns and model construction. From previous works finding that the Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) algorithm is successful and effective for data-mining. Conventional research in searching for patterns and modeling in data-mining is typically in a static state. Studies using a dynamic environment for data-mining are scarce. The artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm can

  1. Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

  2. Liquid chromatography method development and optimization by statistical experimental design and chromatogram simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Harang; A. Karlsson; M. Josefson

    2001-01-01

    Summary  A liquid chromatographic method has been optimized by the use of an experimental design and chromatogram simulations. The\\u000a strategy applied started with a statistical experimental design in which so-calledbeta coefficients were extracted from the mathematical model. Optimization was then performed by simulating the chromatographic\\u000a separation with computer software.\\u000a \\u000a The effects of the variables (factors) are visualized in a way that

  3. Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Ray F. [MIT

    2013-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  5. Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System

    E-print Network

    Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System H. Nouri, F Paris, France. An experimental study on counter-rotating axial-flow fans was carried out. The fans a pure axial discharge flow. The counter-rotating fans operate in a ducted-flow configuration

  6. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

  7. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

  8. Patient reactions to personalized medicine vignettes: An experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Butrick, Morgan; Roter, Debra; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Erby, Lori H.; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Levy, Howard P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Translational investigation on personalized medicine is in its infancy. Exploratory studies reveal attitudinal barriers to “race-based medicine” and cautious optimism regarding genetically personalized medicine. This study describes patient responses to hypothetical conventional, race-based, or genetically personalized medicine prescriptions. Methods Three hundred eighty-seven participants (mean age = 47 years; 46% white) recruited from a Baltimore outpatient center were randomized to this vignette-based experimental study. They were asked to imagine a doctor diagnosing a condition and prescribing them one of three medications. The outcomes are emotional response to vignette, belief in vignette medication efficacy, experience of respect, trust in the vignette physician, and adherence intention. Results Race-based medicine vignettes were appraised more negatively than conventional vignettes across the board (Cohen’s d = ?0.51?0.57?0.64, P < 0.001). Participants rated genetically personalized comparably with conventional medicine (? 0.14?0.15?0.17, P = 0.47), with the exception of reduced adherence intention to genetically personalized medicine (Cohen’s d = ?0.38?0.41?0.44, P = 0.009). This relative reluctance to take genetically personalized medicine was pronounced for racial minorities (Cohen’s d =?0.38?0.31?0.25, P = 0.02) and was related to trust in the vignette physician (change in R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a relative reluctance to embrace personalized medicine technology, especially among racial minorities, and highlights enhancement of adherence through improved doctor-patient relationships. PMID:21270639

  9. Experimental design and study of Free Rotor River Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nepali, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Terrace irrigation along the rivers of Nepal is the vital problem of farmers in the remote villages. The existing turbines and irrigation systems are not feasible without civil structures, and suffer from the lack of resources and financial problems. A simple and inexpensive underwater Free Rotor River Turbine (FRRT) which extracts power ranging from a fraction of a HP up to 25 HP from the velocity of the running water in a river or stream was developed. The power obtained from the turbine can be used to run a pump to lift water for drinking purposes and for irrigation along the river banks during the dry season and early part of the wet season. Various designs of models have been tested in the laboratory to find the optimum pitch angle, shape and size of blades, and optimum number of blades in order to accomplish the cheapest, simplest, and most efficient turbine. The effect of diameter of turbine, velocity of water and torque produced by the turbines were studied,and the effect of simple linear twist on blades is discussed.

  10. Experimental Design of a Magnetic Flux Compression Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuelling, Stephan; Awe, Thomas J.; Bauer, Bruno S.; Goodrich, Tasha; Lindemuth, Irvin R.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Siemon, Richard E.; Atchison, Walter L.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Salazar, Mike A.; Scudder, David W.; Turchi, Peter J.; Degnan, James H.; Ruden, Edward L.

    2007-06-01

    Generation of ultrahigh magnetic fields is an interesting topic of high-energy-density physics, and an essential aspect of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). To examine plasma formation from conductors impinged upon by ultrahigh magnetic fields, in a geometry similar to that of the MAGO experiments, an experiment is under design to compress magnetic flux in a toroidal cavity, using the Shiva Star or Atlas generator. An initial toroidal bias magnetic field is provided by a current on a central conductor. The central current is generated by diverting a fraction of the liner current using an innovative inductive current divider, thus avoiding the need for an auxiliary power supply. A 50-mm-radius cylindrical aluminum liner implodes along glide planes with velocity of about 5 km/s. Inward liner motion causes electrical closure of the toroidal chamber, after which flux in the chamber is conserved and compressed, yielding magnetic fields of 2-3 MG. Plasma is generated on the liner and central rod surfaces by Ohmic heating. Diagnostics include B-dot probes, Faraday rotation, radiography, filtered photodiodes, and VUV spectroscopy. Optical access to the chamber is provided through small holes in the walls.

  11. Experimental Design and Estimation of Growth Rate Distributions in Size-Structured Shrimp Populations

    E-print Network

    Experimental Design and Estimation of Growth Rate Distributions in Size-Structured Shrimp-structured shrimp populations and discuss a computational methodology for the design of exper- iments to validate the model and estimate growth rate distributions in shrimp pop- ulations. Parameter estimation findings

  12. Constrained MIMO dynamic discrete-time modeling exploiting optimal experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrick K. Rollins; Nidhi Bhandari

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) constrained discrete-time modeling (DTM) approach for dynamic block-oriented processes that does not require the nonlinear steady state characteristics to be known prior to model development. This approach uses an efficient statistical experimental design to provide design points for sequential step tests. The DTM is developed from this data in two

  13. Experimental Control and Threats to Internal Validity of Concurrent and Nonconcurrent Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-case research designs are often applied within school psychology. This article provides a critical review of the scientific merit of both concurrent and nonconcurrent multiple baseline (MB) designs, relative to their capacity to assess threats of internal validity and establish experimental control. Distinctions are established between AB…

  14. EXPERIMENTAL REALIZATION OF TRIPLE TCONTACTS: AN IMPROVED DESIGN FOR PREPARING DIPOLE PARALLEL

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    EXPERIMENTAL REALIZATION OF TRIPLE T­CONTACTS: AN IMPROVED DESIGN FOR PREPARING DIPOLE PARALLEL dipole parallel­aligned crystals. The design of highly polar materials is important for numerous optical parallel­alignment. The central packing motif in these systems consisted of double T­contacts. We have

  15. Design and Experimental Demonstration of Novel Optical Router Controller Capable of Asynchronous, Variable-

    E-print Network

    Kolner, Brian H.

    1 Design and Experimental Demonstration of Novel Optical Router Controller Capable of Asynchronous@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper proposes the efficient design and implementation of a hierarchical optical router communications 1. Introduction Switching asynchronous, variable-length packets directly in the optical router

  16. Scaffolding a Complex Task of Experimental Design in Chemistry with a Computer Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    When solving a scientific problem through experimentation, students may have the responsibility to design the experiment. When students work in a conventional condition, with paper and pencil, the designed procedures stay at a very general level. There is a need for additional scaffolds to help the students perform this complex task. We propose a…

  17. Experimental studies on particle impaction and bounce: effects of substrate design and material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingchih Chang; Seongheon Kim; Constantinos Sioutas

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effects of impaction substrate designs and material in reducing particle bounce and reentrainment. Particle collection without coating by using combinations of different impaction substrate designs and surface materials was conducted using a personal particle sampler (PPS) developed by the University of Southern California. The PPS operates at flow rate of 4 lmin-1

  18. Experimental Market Mechanism Design for Double Masabumi Furuhata1,2

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dongmo

    Experimental Market Mechanism Design for Double Auction Masabumi Furuhata1,2 , Laurent Perrussel2 approach to the design, analysis and implementation of market mechanisms based on double auction. We define a formal market model that specifies the market policies in a double auc- tion market. Based on this model

  19. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

  20. Silicon substrate coupling noise modeling, analysis, and experimental verification for mixed signal integrated circuit design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jin; Y. Eo; J. I. Shim; W. R. Eisenstadt; M. Y. Park; H. K. Yu

    2001-01-01

    The frequency-variant characteristics of a silicon substrate were physically modeled, analytically investigated, and experimentally verified. The scalable circuit model parameter extraction methodology was newly developed. Thus, the proposed technique can provides the efficient performance evaluations as well as the accurate design guidelines concerned with the complicated mixed signal integrated circuit designs

  1. How experimental design can improve the validation process. Studies in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, S; Orlandini, S; Mura, P; Sergent, M; Pinzauti, S

    2003-11-01

    A critical discussion about the possibility of improving the method validation process by means of experimental design is presented. The reported multivariate strategies concern the evaluation of the performance parameters robustness and intermediate precision, and the optimisation of bias and repeatability. In particular, accuracy and precision improvement constitutes a special subset of experimental design in which the bias and the relative standard deviation of the assay are optimised. D-optimal design was used in order to plan experiments for this aim. The analytical methods considered were capillary electrophoresis, HPLC, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and differential pulse polarography. All methods were applied to real pharmaceutical analysis problems. PMID:13680061

  2. Design and experimental study of high-speed low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors. Technical paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gui; T. R. Reinarts; R. P. Scaringe; J. M. Gottschlich

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a design and experimental effort to develop small centrifugal compressors for aircraft air cycle cooling systems and small vapor compression refrigeration systems (20--100 tons). Efficiency improvements at 25% are desired over current designs. Although centrifugal compressors possess excellent performance at high flow rates, low-flow-rate compressors do not have acceptable performance when designed using current approaches. The new

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Fai Kong; Luen Chow Chan; Tai Chiu Lee

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming in order\\u000a to achieve a large reduction in the volume of flash. A titanium TA2 watch-case-like component was used as an example. Sixteen\\u000a different shapes of hollow preforms were specially designed for finite-element simulation. Their diameters of the center-holes\\u000a were designed based on the values

  4. A Computational/Experimental Study of Two Optimized Supersonic Transport Designs and the Reference H Baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Baker, Timothy J.; Hicks, Raymond M.; Reuther, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Two supersonic transport configurations designed by use of non-linear aerodynamic optimization methods are compared with a linearly designed baseline configuration. One optimized configuration, designated Ames 7-04, was designed at NASA Ames Research Center using an Euler flow solver, and the other, designated Boeing W27, was designed at Boeing using a full-potential method. The two optimized configurations and the baseline were tested in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Supersonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate the non-linear design optimization methodologies. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computational predictions for each of the three configurations from the Enter flow solver, AIRPLANE. The computational and experimental results both indicate moderate to substantial performance gains for the optimized configurations over the baseline configuration. The computed performance changes with and without diverters and nacelles were in excellent agreement with experiment for all three models. Comparisons of the computational and experimental cruise drag increments for the optimized configurations relative to the baseline show excellent agreement for the model designed by the Euler method, but poorer comparisons were found for the configuration designed by the full-potential code.

  5. Unique considerations in the design and experimental evaluation of tailored wings with elastically produced chordwise camber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Zischka, Peter J.; Fentress, Michael L.; Chang, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Some of the unique considerations that are associated with the design and experimental evaluation of chordwise deformable wing structures are addressed. Since chordwise elastic camber deformations are desired and must be free to develop, traditional rib concepts and experimental methodology cannot be used. New rib design concepts are presented and discussed. An experimental methodology based upon the use of a flexible sling support and load application system has been created and utilized to evaluate a model box beam experimentally. Experimental data correlate extremely well with design analysis predictions based upon a beam model for the global properties of camber compliance and spanwise bending compliance. Local strain measurements exhibit trends in agreement with intuition and theory but depart slightly from theoretical perfection based upon beam-like behavior alone. It is conjectured that some additional refinement of experimental technique is needed to explain or eliminate these (minor) departures from asymmetric behavior of upper and lower box cover strains. Overall, a solid basis for the design of box structures based upon the bending method of elastic camber production has been confirmed by the experiments.

  6. Experimental studies on optimization of process parameters and finite element analysis of temperature and stress distribution on joining of Al–Al and Al–Al 2 O 3 using ultrasonic welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elangovan Sooriyamoorthy; Shenton Ponnayya John Henry; Prakasan Kalakkath

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to optimize the process parameters like weld time, weld pressure, and amplitude of vibration to\\u000a maximize the weld strength in Al–Al welding using Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology. Experiments are conducted using\\u000a 0.3-mm thick pieces of aluminum, and the temperature generated at the weld interface and the weld strength for all the specimens\\u000a are measured.

  7. Experimental Designs in Software Engineering: D-Optimal and Covering Array Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Hoskins; Renee Turnban; Chalres Colbourn

    For over a century, Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques have been applied to testing within large problem domains such as agri- culture, chemistry, medicine, and industrial design. Recently, the application of DOE has appeared in component-based software test- ing. This is a natural extension, as software testing is a complex problem that suffers from a combinatorial explosion. Exhaustive testing is

  8. Design and experimental study of high-speed low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gui, F.; Reinarts, T.R.; Scaringe, R.P.; Gottschlich, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a design and experimental effort to develop small centrifugal compressors for aircraft air cycle cooling systems and small vapor compression refrigeration systems (20--100 tons). Efficiency improvements at 25% are desired over current designs. Although centrifugal compressors possess excellent performance at high flow rates, low-flow-rate compressors do not have acceptable performance when designed using current approaches. The new compressors must be designed to operate at a high rotating speed to retain efficiency. The emergence of the magnetic bearing provides the possibility of developing such compressors that run at speeds several times higher than current dominating speeds.

  9. A comparison of the calculated and experimental off-design performance of a radial flow turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tirres, Lizet

    1991-01-01

    Off design aerodynamic performance of the solid version of a cooled radial inflow turbine is analyzed. Rotor surface static pressure data and other performance parameters were obtained experimentally. Overall stage performance and turbine blade surface static to inlet total pressure ratios were calculated by using a quasi-three dimensional inviscid code. The off design prediction capability of this code for radial inflow turbines shows accurate static pressure prediction. Solutions show a difference of 3 to 5 points between the experimentally obtained efficiencies and the calculated values.

  10. Product and process design optimization by quality engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangming Chen

    1990-01-01

    This research is concerned with product and process design optimization by quality engineering based on the work of Dr Taguchi, with emphasis on the optimization of dynamic systems and tolerance design. Various quality loss functions are presented in this thesis which can be used for quality evaluation. The goal of robust design for dynamic systems is to reduce the deviations

  11. [Diagnosis of liver diseases by classification of laboratory signal factor pattern findings with the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint method].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Uetake, Shinichirou; Takagi, Ichiro

    2012-02-01

    There are many autoimmune liver diseases in which diagnosis is difficult so that overlap is accepted, and this negatively affects treatment. The initial diagnosis is therefore important for later treatment and convalescence. We distinguished autoimmune cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis by the Mahalanobis·Taguchi Adjoint (MTA) method in the Mahalanobis·Taguchi system and analyzed the pattern of factor effects by the MTA method. As a result, the characteristic factor effect pattern of each disease was classified, enabling the qualitative evaluation of cases including overlapping cases which were difficult to diagnose. PMID:22306542

  12. Design, simulation, and experimental results of a 110 GHz high-power gyrotron mode converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Denison; M. Blank; T. S. Chu; B. Harper; J.-P. Hogge; K. E. Kreischer; J. A. Lorbeck; R. J. Temkin; R. J. Vernon

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. We present the design, computer simulation, and experimental results of a quasi-optical mode converter for use in a 110 GHz high-power gyrotron. The particular gyrotron under test generates a right-handed TE22.6 circular waveguide mode, and is designed to produce megawatt power levels over pulse durations on the order of 5 s. This high power level provides

  13. He-cooled divertor for DEMO: Experimental verification of the conceptual modular design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Norajitra; A. Gervash; R. Giniyatulin; T. Ihli; W. Krauss; R. Kruessmann; V. Kuznetsov; A. Makhankov; I. Mazul; I. Ovchinnikov

    2006-01-01

    A modular He-cooled divertor concept is being developed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The design goal is to withstand a high heat flux of 10MW\\/m2 at least. The work programme of 2004 focused on experiments to verify the design and thermohydraulics layout. In cooperation with the Efremov Institute, experimental investigations were performed for the joining of tungsten parts and\\/or tungsten parts

  14. OptiCat: A versatile open-source optimization platform for experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Clerc; David Farrusseng; Claude Mirodatos

    2008-01-01

    A new open-source software for experimental design is presented. It consists at a platform which enables to design specific optimization algorithms by simple drag and drop from a toolbox. Complex workflows can be implemented and tested within a few minutes by experimentalists. OptiCat can integrate MS Excel©, MatLab© and Statistica© functionalities for batch calculations. Optimization results on a custom benchmark

  15. Design and experimental study of high-speed low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Gui, F.; Reinarts, T.R.; Scaringe, R.P. [Mainstream Engineering Corp., Rockledge, FL (United States); Gottschlich, J.M. [Air Force Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a design and experimental effort to develop small centrifugal compressors for aircraft air cycle cooling systems and small vapor compression refrigeration systems (20--100 tons). Efficiency improvements at 25% are desired over current designs. Although centrifugal compressors possess excellent performance at high flow rates, low-flow-rate compressors do not have acceptable performance when designed using current approaches. The new compressors must be designed to operate at a high rotating speed to retain efficiency. The emergence of the magnetic bearing provides the possibility of developing such compressors that run at speeds several times higher than current dominating speeds. Several low-flow-rate centrifugal compressors, featured with three-dimensional blades, have been designed, manufactured and tested in this study. An experimental investigation of compressor flow characteristics and efficiency has been conducted to explore a theory for mini-centrifugal compressors. The effects of the overall impeller configuration, number of blades, and the rotational speed on compressor flow curve and efficiency have been studied. Efficiencies as high as 84% were obtained. The experimental results indicate that the current theory can still be used as a guide, but further development for the design of mini-centrifugal compressors is required.

  16. Color stabilization of low toxic antimicrobial polypropylene\\/poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate blends by Taguchi technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangmook Lee; Jae Wook Lee

    2009-01-01

    The color stabilization of antimicrobial blends was studied by using poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate (PHMG) as a highly\\u000a efficient biocidal and nontoxic agent. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the blending of\\u000a PHMG in polypropylene (PP) matrix. To improve the yellowing phenomena, two kinds of stabilizer were used together: tetrakis[methylene(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate)](IN1010)\\u000a from phenol and tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenylphosphite) (IF168) from

  17. Color Stabilization of Low Toxic Antimicrobial Polypropylene\\/Poly(hexamethylene guanidine) Phosphate Blends by Taguchi Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangmook Lee; Jae Wook Lee

    2009-01-01

    The color stabilization of antimicrobial blends was studied by using poly(hexamethylene guanidine) phosphate (PHMG) as a highly efficient biocidal and nontoxic agent. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the blending of PHMG in polypropylene (PP) matrix. To improve the yellowing phenomena, two kinds of stabilizer were used together: tetrakis(methylene(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate))(IN1010) from phenol and tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenylphosphite) (IF168) from

  18. Biomedical Knowledge Engineering tools based on Experimental Design A case study based on neuroanatomical tract-tracing experiments

    E-print Network

    Russ, Thomas A.

    Biomedical Knowledge Engineering tools based on Experimental Design A case study based and values. We are developing a general-purpose approach to representing the design of a biomedical as part of the experimental design. They are independent because their value does not depend on any other

  19. Optimized design of an active extrados structure for an experimental morphing laminar wing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Coutu; Vladimir Brailovski; Patrick Terriault

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an active extrados structure for an experimental morphing laminar wing, which has been tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. Actuators localized inside the wing box apply individually controlled displacements over the flexible structure, made from laminate composite, to modify the airfoil profile in accordance with the database, which is built using XFoil aerodynamic

  20. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  1. An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

  2. OPTIMIZING THE PRECISION OF TOXICITY THRESHOLD ESTIMATION USING A TWO-STAGE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important consideration for risk assessment is the existence of a threshold, i.e., the highest toxicant dose where the response is not distinguishable from background. We have developed methodology for finding an experimental design that optimizes the precision of threshold mo...

  3. An experimental study of thermal energy storage with phase change materials by design of experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belen Zalba; Belen Sanchez-valverde; Jose Marin

    2005-01-01

    Accurate theoretical modelling and simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) by means of phase change materials (PCM) is very complex and its results are not close enough to experimental values. This paper presents the empirical study of a thermal storage unit operating with a commercial PCM called RT25. The study is carried out by means of the statistical procedure, Design

  4. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS USED TO DETECT CHANGES IN YIELDS OF CROPS EXPOSED TO ACIDIC PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of experimental designs used to detect changes in yield of crops exposed to simulated acidic rain was performed. Seed yields were determined from field-grown soybeans(Glycine max) exposed to simulated rainfalls in which all ambient rainfalls were excluded by automati...

  5. Design of a Solar Power Management System for an Experimental UAV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau; Der-Ming Ma; Pin-Ying Yang; Geng-Feng Wang; Jhij Hua Gong

    2009-01-01

    The design of a solar power management system (SPMS) for an experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is summarized. The system will provide power required for the on-board electronic systems on the UAV. The power management system mainly consists of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT), the battery management, and the power conversion stages. The MPPT stage attempts to obtain the

  6. Integrated structure\\/control design of mechatronic systems using a recursive experimental optimization method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton C. Pil; Haruhiko H. Asada

    1996-01-01

    A recursive experimental design method for simultaneously optimizing both mechanical structure and control is presented in this paper. Control gains are optimally tuned for a given prototype of mechatronic system, and its mechanical structure is physically modified so that control performance can be further improved. The entire control tuning, evaluation, and structure alteration process is repeated until the desired performance

  7. CoSMoS: A Visual Environment for Component-Based Modeling, Experimental Design, and Simulation

    E-print Network

    CoSMoS: A Visual Environment for Component-Based Modeling, Experimental Design, and Simulation Modeler and Simulator (CoSMoS) is developed. It supports visual development of families of models languages. The underlying system- theoretic modeling framework of CoSMoS lends itself for the well

  8. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  9. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  10. LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE OF OUTCOMES

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    LEARNING FROM DAM REMOVAL MONITORING: CHALLENGES TO SELECTING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ESTABLISHING, California, USA ABSTRACT As the decommissioning of dams becomes a common restoration technique, decisions about dam removals must be based on sound predictions of expected outcomes. Results of past and ongoing

  11. This paper presents design, fabrication, and experimental results of a wireless induction heating

    E-print Network

    ABSTRACT This paper presents design, fabrication, and experimental results of a wireless induction magnetic excitation using a coil, and applied to an in-vitro skin ablation experiment. The experiment has gradient across the stratum corneum, so that deeper viable tissues are not heated. In this way

  12. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  13. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  14. RIF Final Report: Experimental Facility Design for an Integrated Space Technology Research

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    CHAFF-IV facility required significant control, measurement, and automation to prevent system damage1 RIF Final Report: Experimental Facility Design for an Integrated Space Technology Research Laboratory at USC Joseph Wang, Phil Muntz, Dan Erwin A. Background and Objectives A vacuum chamber system

  15. Application of Factorial and Response Surface Methodology in Modern Experimental Design and Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grady Hanrahan; Kenneth Lu

    2006-01-01

    This article critically examines the use of factorial and response surface methodology in modern experimental design and optimization. A survey of important screening and optimization techniques in the literature since 2000 are presented. Current applications in biological, environmental and pharmaceutical analysis, food technology and industrial-related processes are examined.

  16. Marine controlled-source electromagnetic sounding. 1. Modeling and experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Á. H. Flosadóttir; S. Constable

    1996-01-01

    Numerical forward modeling, predicting an observable response given a mathematical representation of the Earth, is an important component of practical exploration work. In addition, derivatives which relate changes in response to changes in the Earth model are useful for experimental design and are a crucial element of linearized inversion techniques. Differentiation of kernels followed by numerical integration using a fast

  17. Poly(vinyl alcohol)–collagen hydrolysate thermoplastic blends: I. Experimental design optimisation and biodegradation behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexy; D. Bakoš; S. Hanzelová; L. Kukolíková; J. Kupec; K. Charvátová; E. Chiellini; P. Cinelli

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid blends based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and collagen hydrolysate (CH), an abundant, added value waste product of the leather industry, have been processed by melt blow extrusion to environmentally degradable films. Optimisation of the blend compositions was performed in respect of mechanical properties of the films. The experimental design method (DOE) was used for the understanding of the structure–property

  18. Design and Experimental Investigation of a Single-stage Turbine with a Downstream Stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plohr, Henry W; Holeski, Donald E; Forrette, Robert E

    1957-01-01

    The high-work-output turbine had an experimental efficiency of 0.830 at the design point and a maximum efficiency of 0.857. The downstream stator was effective in providing axial flow out of the turbine for almost the whole range of turbine operation.

  19. Coupled inverse problems in groundwater modeling: 2. Identifiability and experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ne-Zheng Sun; William W.-G. Yeh

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identifiability and experimental design in the context of solving the coupled inverse problem in groundwater modeling are considered in part 2 of the two-paper series. The following three new definitions of extended identifiability for a distributed parameter system are presented: interval identifiability (INI), prediction equivalence identifiability (PEI), and management equivalence identifiability (MEI). The uniqueness requirement of the inverse solution

  20. Coupled Inverse Problems in Groundwater Modeling 2. Identifiability and Experimental Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ne-Zheng Sun; William W.-G. Yeh

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identifiability and experimental design in the context of solving the coupled inverse problem in groundwater modeling are considered in part 2 of the two-paper series. The following three new definitions of extended identifiability for a distributed parameter system are presented: interval identifiability (INI), prediction equivalence identifiability (PEI), and management equivalence identifiability (MEI). The uniqueness requirement of the inverse solution

  1. Design and Experimental Implementation of a Compliant Hybrid Zero Dynamics Controller for Walking on MABEL

    E-print Network

    Poulakakis, Ioannis

    Design and Experimental Implementation of a Compliant Hybrid Zero Dynamics Controller for Walking of underactuation, to MABEL, a planar biped with a novel compliant transmission. A time-invariant feedback. This is accomplished by incorporating the compliance into the hybrid zero dynamics. The compliant- hybrid

  2. Windback seal design for gas compressors: a numerical and experimental study

    E-print Network

    Al-Ghasem, Adnan Mahmoud

    2007-09-17

    to accurately predict the leakage rate for windback seals was evaluated. The objective is to determine if CFD simulations can be used along with a few experimental tests to study windback seals of this design with air as the working fluid. Comparison...

  3. D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of environmental compounds. A regulatory assumption is that the mixtures of chemicals act in an additive manner. However, this assumption requires experimental validation. Traditional experimental designs (full factorial) require a large number of e...

  4. Design and application of FBG strain experimental apparatus in high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhongcheng; Liu, Yueming; Gao, Xiaoliang

    2014-09-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology has many applications, and it's widely used in detection of temperature, strain and etc. Now the application of FBG sensor is limited to the temperature below 200°C owing to the so called High Temperature Erasing Phenomenon. Strain detection over 200°C is still an engineering challenge since high temperature has a bad influence on the sensor, testing equipment and test data, etc, thus effective measurement apparatus are needed to ensure the accuracy of the measurement over 200°C, but there are no suitable FBG strain experimental apparatus in high temperature to date. In this paper a high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus has been designed to detect the strain in high temperature. In order to verify working condition of the high temperature FBG strain, an application of FBG strain sensing experiment was given in this paper. The high temperature FBG strain sensor was installed in the apparatus, the internal temperature of experimental apparatus was controlled from -20 to 300°C accurately, and strain loading was given by the counterweight, then the data was recorded through electrical resistance strain measurement and optical sensing interrogator. Experimental data result shows that the high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus can work properly over 200°C. The design of the high temperature FBG strain experimental apparatus are demonstrated suitable for high temperature strain gauges and FBG strain sensors , etc, which can work under the temperature of -20 ~ 300°C, the strain of -1500 ~ +1500?epsilon and the wavelength resolution of 1pm.

  5. Validation of the Natural-Laminar-Flow Design for the National Experimental Supersonic Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Kuroda, Fumitake

    The natural-laminar-flow (NLF) design for the wing of the national experimental supersonic transport (NEXST) aims to suppress crossflow (CF) instability near the leading edge. We computationally investigate the growth of various stationary CF disturbances on the outer wing of the NEXST-1 model using the prediction system of boundary-layer transition. According to the N factors obtained, the growth of those disturbances is completely suppressed around the designed angle of attack, which shows that the NLF design for the NEXST-1 wing is valid.

  6. Near-optimal experimental design for model selection in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Hauser, Alain; Krummenacher, Gabriel; Sunnåker, Mikael; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Ong, Cheng Soon; Stelling, Jörg; Buhmann, Joachim M.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation:?Biological systems are understood through iterations of modeling and experimentation. Not all experiments, however, are equally valuable for predictive modeling. This study introduces an efficient method for experimental design aimed at selecting dynamical models from data. Motivated by biological applications, the method enables the design of crucial experiments: it determines a highly informative selection of measurement readouts and time points. Results:?We demonstrate formal guarantees of design efficiency on the basis of previous results. By reducing our task to the setting of graphical models, we prove that the method finds a near-optimal design selection with a polynomial number of evaluations. Moreover, the method exhibits the best polynomial-complexity constant approximation factor, unless P = NP. We measure the performance of the method in comparison with established alternatives, such as ensemble non-centrality, on example models of different complexity. Efficient design accelerates the loop between modeling and experimentation: it enables the inference of complex mechanisms, such as those controlling central metabolic operation. Availability:?Toolbox ‘NearOED’ available with source code under GPL on the Machine Learning Open Source Software Web site (mloss.org). Contact:?busettoa@inf.ethz.ch Supplementary information:?Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23900189

  7. Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

  8. Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  9. A 915-MHz antenna for microwave thermal ablation treatment: physical design, computer modeling and experimental measurement.

    PubMed

    Pisa, S; Cavagnaro, M; Bernardi, P; Lin, J C

    2001-05-01

    A 915-MHz antenna design that produces specific absorption rate distributions with preferential power deposition in tissues surrounding and including the distal end of the catheter antenna is described. The design features minimal reflected microwave current from the antenna flowing up the transmission line. This cap-choke antenna consists of an annular cap and a coaxial choke which matches the antenna to the coaxial transmission line. The design minimizes heating of the coaxial cable and its performance is not affected by the depth of insertion of the antenna into tissue. The paper provides a comparison of results obtained from computer modeling and experimental measurements made in tissue equivalent phantom materials. There is excellent agreement between numerical modeling and experimental measurement. The cap-choke, matched-dipole type antenna is suitable for intracavitary microwave thermal ablation therapy. PMID:11341534

  10. Thermoelastic Femoral Stress Imaging for Experimental Evaluation of Hip Prosthesis Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Koji; Inomoto, Masayoshi; Ma, Wenxiao; Miyakawa, Syunpei; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    An experimental system using the thermoelastic stress analysis method and a synthetic femur was utilized to perform reliable and convenient mechanical biocompatibility evaluation of hip prosthesis design. Unlike the conventional technique, the unique advantage of the thermoelastic stress analysis method is its ability to image whole-surface stress (?(?1+?2)) distribution in specimens. The mechanical properties of synthetic femurs agreed well with those of cadaveric femurs with little variability between specimens. We applied this experimental system for stress distribution visualization of the intact femur, and the femurs implanted with an artificial joint. The surface stress distribution of the femurs sensitively reflected the prosthesis design and the contact condition between the stem and the bone. By analyzing the relationship between the stress distribution and the clinical results of the artificial joint, this technique can be used in mechanical biocompatibility evaluation and pre-clinical performance prediction of new artificial joint design.

  11. A method of fast, sequential experimental design for linearized geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Darrell A.; Morgan, Frank Dale

    2009-07-01

    An algorithm for linear(ized) experimental design is developed for a determinant-based design objective function. This objective function is common in design theory and is used to design experiments that minimize the model entropy, a measure of posterior model uncertainty. Of primary significance in design problems is computational expediency. Several earlier papers have focused attention on posing design objective functions and opted to use global search methods for finding the critical points of these functions, but these algorithms are too slow to be practical. The proposed technique is distinguished primarily for its computational efficiency, which derives partly from a greedy optimization approach, termed sequential design. Computational efficiency is further enhanced through formulae for updating determinants and matrix inverses without need for direct calculation. The design approach is orders of magnitude faster than a genetic algorithm applied to the same design problem. However, greedy optimization often trades global optimality for increased computational speed; the ramifications of this tradeoff are discussed. The design methodology is demonstrated on a simple, single-borehole DC electrical resistivity problem. Designed surveys are compared with random and standard surveys, both with and without prior information. All surveys were compared with respect to a `relative quality' measure, the post-inversion model per cent rms error. The issue of design for inherently ill-posed inverse problems is considered and an approach for circumventing such problems is proposed. The design algorithm is also applied in an adaptive manner, with excellent results suggesting that smart, compact experiments can be designed in real time.

  12. Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-03

    The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

  13. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  14. Optimization of a pulsed carbon dioxide snow jet for cleaning CMOS image sensors by using the Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Chung Yang; Keng-Shiang Huang; Yu-Cheng Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrated the optimization of a pulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) snow jet system for the removal of particles on the surface of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors by using the Taguchi method. The parameters of the CO2 snow cleaning system, which can have an influence on the residue rate of particles, were optimized, resulting in optimal values

  15. Exploring the effects of chemical composition in hot rolled steel product using Mahalanobis distance scale under Mahalanobis–Taguchi system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasun Das; Shubhabrata Datta

    2007-01-01

    Classification of hot rolled steel product from the point of view of reaching the target mechanical property, based on chemical composition of the steel, is a common objective practiced in the industrial rolling mill. After examining the ability of measurement scale of Mahalanobis–Taguchi system in classifying the steel plate as “OK” or “Diverted”, study on the changing nature of Mahalanobis

  16. Mahalanobis-Taguchi System as a MultiSensor Based Decision Making Prognostics Tool for Centrifugal Pump Failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Soylemezoglu; Sarangapani Jagannathan; Can Saygin

    2011-01-01

    A novel Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) based fault detection, isolation, and prognostics scheme is presented. The proposed scheme fuses data from multiple sensors into a single system level performance metric using Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and generates fault clusters based on MD values. MD thresholds derived from the clustering analysis are used for fault detection and isolation. When a fault is

  17. Introduction of R-LCS and comparative analysis with FSC and Mahalanobis-Taguchi method for Breast Cancer classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Daniels; Steven M. Corns; Elizabeth A. Cudney

    2012-01-01

    Classification for medical diagnosis is an important problem in the field of pattern recognition. We introduce a new method for classification based on repeated analysis of information tailored to small data sets - the Rote Learning Classifier System. Using the Wisconsin Breast Cancer study, this method was compared to three other methods of classification: Mahalanobis-Taguchi Systems, Finite State Classifiers, and

  18. The Construction and Analysis of Prediction Model in Combining Taguchi Method and Neural Network to the Dying Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo; Te-Li Su; Liang-Lung Hung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the optimum combination of processing parameters for achieving the target required. Taguchi method has been proposed in the research. The orthogonal array is used to determine the optimum conditions and significant factors together with the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In the experiment, the color strength (K\\/S) of fabrics was chosen to be

  19. Taguchi-fuzzy multi output optimization (MOO) in high speed CNC turning of AISI P-20 tool steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Gupta; Hari Singh; Aman Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi method with logical fuzzy reasoning for multiple output optimization of high speed CNC turning of AISI P-20 tool steel using TiN coated tungsten carbide coatings. The machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, nose radius and cutting environment) are optimized with considerations of the multiple performance measures (surface roughness, tool life,

  20. Intuitive Web-Based Experimental Design for High-Throughput Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model. PMID:25954760

  1. Optimal experimental designs for the estimation of thermal properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Moncman, Deborah A.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable estimation of thermal properties is extremely important in the utilization of new advanced materials, such as composite materials. The accuracy of these estimates can be increased if the experiments are designed carefully. The objectives of this study are to design optimal experiments to be used in the prediction of these thermal properties and to then utilize these designs in the development of an estimation procedure to determine the effective thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity). The experiments were optimized by choosing experimental parameters that maximize the temperature derivatives with respect to all of the unknown thermal properties. This procedure has the effect of minimizing the confidence intervals of the resulting thermal property estimates. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional experimental designs were optimized. A heat flux boundary condition is required in both analyses for the simultaneous estimation of the thermal properties. For the one-dimensional experiment, the parameters optimized were the heating time of the applied heat flux, the temperature sensor location, and the experimental time. In addition to these parameters, the optimal location of the heat flux was also determined for the two-dimensional experiments. Utilizing the optimal one-dimensional experiment, the effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibers and the effective volumetric heat capacity were then estimated for an IM7-Bismaleimide composite material. The estimation procedure used is based on the minimization of a least squares function which incorporates both calculated and measured temperatures and allows for the parameters to be estimated simultaneously.

  2. Experimental modeling and design optimization of push-pull electret loudspeakers.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Wang, Chun-Jen; Chiang, Dar-Ming; Lin, Shu-Ru

    2010-04-01

    A fully experimental modeling technique and a design optimization procedure are presented in this paper for push-pull electret loudspeakers. Conventional electrical impedance-based parameter identification methods are not completely applicable to electret speakers due to the extremely weak electromechanical coupling. This prompts the development of an experimental technique for identifying the electroacoustic parameters of the electret speakers. Mechanical parameters are identified from the membrane velocity measured using a laser vibrometer. The voltage-force conversion factor and the motional impedance are estimated, with the aid of a test-box method. This experimentally identified model serves as the simulation platform for predicting the response of the electret loudspeaker and optimizing the design. Optimal parameters are calculated by using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to fulfill various design goals and constraints. Either the comprehensive search for various parameters or the simple search for the optimal gap distance can be conducted by this SA procedure. The results reveal that the optimized design has effectively enhanced the performance of the electret loudspeaker. PMID:20370008

  3. Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low-speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6-series airfoils was achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge was also met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show excellent agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils, both laminar flow and turbulent flow, confirm the achievement of the basic objective.

  4. Design and experimental results for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A flapped natural laminar flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0215F, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6 series airfoils has been achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge has also been met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show generally good agreement.

  5. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  6. Design, Evaluation and Experimental Effort Toward Development of a High Strain Composite Wing for Navy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Joseph; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This design development effort addressed significant technical issues concerning the use and benefits of high strain composite wing structures (Epsilon(sub ult) = 6000 micro-in/in) for future Navy aircraft. These issues were concerned primarily with the structural integrity and durability of the innovative design concepts and manufacturing techniques which permitted a 50 percent increase in design ultimate strain level (while maintaining the same fiber/resin system) as well as damage tolerance and survivability requirements. An extensive test effort consisting of a progressive series of coupon and major element tests was an integral part of this development effort, and culminated in the design, fabrication and test of a major full-scale wing box component. The successful completion of the tests demonstrated the structural integrity, durability and benefits of the design. Low energy impact testing followed by fatigue cycling verified the damage tolerance concepts incorporated within the structure. Finally, live fire ballistic testing confirmed the survivability of the design. The potential benefits of combining newer/emerging composite materials and new or previously developed high strain wing design to maximize structural efficiency and reduce fabrication costs was the subject of subsequent preliminary design and experimental evaluation effort.

  7. Development of objective-oriented groundwater models: 2. Robust experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ne-Zheng; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2007-02-01

    This paper continues the discussion in part 1 by considering the data collection strategy problem when the existing data are judged to be insufficient for constructing a reliable model. Designing an experiment for identifying a distributed parameter is very difficult because the identification of a more complex parameter structure requires more data. Moreover, without knowing the sufficiency of a design, finding an optimal design becomes meaningless. These difficulties can be avoided if we turn to the construction of objective-oriented models. The identifiability of a distributed parameter, as defined in this paper, contains the reducibility of parameter structure. Sufficient conditions for this kind of identifiability are given. When the structure error associated with a structure reduction is too large, these conditions may not be satisfied no matter how much data are collected. In this paper we formulate a new experimental design problem that consists of two objectives: minimizing the cost and maximizing the information content, with robustness and feasibility as constraints. We develop an algorithm that can find a cost-effective robust design for objective-oriented parameter identification. We also present a heuristic algorithm that can find a suboptimal design with less computational effort for real case studies. The proposed methodology is used to design a pumping test for identifying a distributed hydraulic conductivity. We verify the robustness of the obtained design by assuming that the true parameter may have continuous, discrete, random, and fractured structures. Finally, the presented procedure of constructing objective-oriented models is described step by step.

  8. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  9. Experimental designs for detecting synergy and antagonism between two drugs in a pre-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sperrin, Matthew; Thygesen, Helene; Su, Ting-Li; Harbron, Chris; Whitehead, Anne

    2015-05-01

    The identification of synergistic interactions between combinations of drugs is an important area within drug discovery and development. Pre-clinically, large numbers of screening studies to identify synergistic pairs of compounds can often be ran, necessitating efficient and robust experimental designs. We consider experimental designs for detecting interaction between two drugs in a pre-clinical in vitro assay in the presence of uncertainty of the monotherapy response. The monotherapies are assumed to follow the Hill equation with common lower and upper asymptotes, and a common variance. The optimality criterion used is the variance of the interaction parameter. We focus on ray designs and investigate two algorithms for selecting the optimum set of dose combinations. The first is a forward algorithm in which design points are added sequentially. This is found to give useful solutions in simple cases but can lack robustness when knowledge about the monotherapy parameters is insufficient. The second algorithm is a more pragmatic approach where the design points are constrained to be distributed log-normally along the rays and monotherapy doses. We find that the pragmatic algorithm is more stable than the forward algorithm, and even when the forward algorithm has converged, the pragmatic algorithm can still out-perform it. Practically, we find that good designs for detecting an interaction have equal numbers of points on monotherapies and combination therapies, with those points typically placed in positions where a 50% response is expected. More uncertainty in monotherapy parameters leads to an optimal design with design points that are more spread out. Copyright © 2015?John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25810342

  10. An experimental investigation of two 15 percent-scale wind tunnel fan-blade designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and modified NACA 65-series sections incorporated increased thickness on the upper surface, between the leading edge and the one-half-chord position. Twist and taper were the same for both blade designs. The fan blades with modified 65-series sections were found to have an increased stall margin when they were compared with the unmodified blades.

  11. Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Stoll, D.K.; Dolan, A.M.; Lunt, D.J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere-only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilises fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

  12. Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): Experimental Design and Boundary Conditions (Experiment 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.; Stoll, D. K.; Dolan, A. M.; Lunt, D. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project has expanded to include a model intercomparison for the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.29 to 2.97 million yr ago). This project is referred to as PlioMIP (the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project). Two experiments have been agreed upon and together compose the initial phase of PlioMIP. The first (Experiment 1) is being performed with atmosphere only climate models. The second (Experiment 2) utilizes fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Following on from the publication of the experimental design and boundary conditions for Experiment 1 in Geoscientific Model Development, this paper provides the necessary description of differences and/or additions to the experimental design for Experiment 2.

  13. Design and construction of an experimental pervious paved parking area to harvest reusable rainwater.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ullate, E; Novo, A V; Bayon, J R; Hernandez, Jorge R; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Pervious pavements are sustainable urban drainage systems already known as rainwater infiltration techniques which reduce runoff formation and diffuse pollution in cities. The present research is focused on the design and construction of an experimental parking area, composed of 45 pervious pavement parking bays. Every pervious pavement was experimentally designed to store rainwater and measure the levels of the stored water and its quality over time. Six different pervious surfaces are combined with four different geotextiles in order to test which materials respond better to the good quality of rainwater storage over time and under the specific weather conditions of the north of Spain. The aim of this research was to obtain a good performance of pervious pavements that offered simultaneously a positive urban service and helped to harvest rainwater with a good quality to be used for non potable demands. PMID:22020491

  14. Biological destruction of CCl[sub 4]: I -- Experimental design and data

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.N.; Amos, K.M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Skeen, R.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Waste Treatment Technology Center); Hooker, B.S. (Tri-State Univ., Angola (India). Chemical and Engineering Dept.)

    1994-03-15

    A denitrifying consortium capable of transforming carbon tetrachloride (CCl[sub 4]) was cultured from aquifer sediment from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. To understand the kinetics of the biological destruction of CCl[sub 4] by these microbes, a set of experiments, the conditions of which were chosen according to a fractional factorial experimental design, were completed. This article reports on the experimental design along with the results for CCl[sub 4], biomass, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations. These data indicate that growth is inhibited by high nitrite concentrations, whereas CCl[sub 4] degradation is slowed by the presence of nitrate and/or nitrite.

  15. Design and experimental characterization of a nonintrusive measurement system of rotating blade vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, P. (Nuovo Pignone SpA, Firenze (Italy)); Paone, N.; Rossi, G.L.; Tomasini, E.P. (Univ. di Ancona (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    1994-07-01

    A measurement system for nonintrusive monitoring of rotating blade vibration in turbomachines based on fiber optic sensors is presented. The design of the whole system is discussed; the development of special purpose sensors, their interfacing to the data acquisition system, and the signal processing are outlined.The processing algorithms are tested by software simulation for several possible blade vibrations. Experimental tests performed on different bladed rotors are presented. Results are compared to simultaneous strain gage measurements.

  16. Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

    1982-01-01

    A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

  17. Design and experimental evaluation of a solar dryer for commercial high-quality hay production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Arinze; G. J. Schoenau; S. Sokhansanj

    1999-01-01

    Design, experimental functional performance and economic evaluation of an energy efficient commercial-type solar energy dryer for production of high-quality hay, especially for the export market, are presented. The newly developed solar hay dryer consists of a solar collector with aluminum absorber plate and spaced fins, a drying shed with perforated metal grate floor above the ground level, swing-away plywood frames

  18. Teaching neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design using animal models of psychiatric and neurological disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maarten C Morsink (Leiden University of Applied Science Biology)

    2009-03-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to integrate the teaching of neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design. For this purpose, seven case studies were developed in which animal models for several psychiatric and neurological diseases were descibed and in which neuroactive drugs used to treat or study these diseases were introduced. Groups of undergraduate students were assigned to one of these case studies and asked to give a classroom presentation in which 1) the disease and underlying pathophysiology are described, 2) face and construct validity of the animal model are discussed, and 3) a pharmacological experiment with the associated neuroactive drug to assess predictive validity is presented. After evaluation of the presentations, we found that the students had gained considerable insight into disease phenomenology, its underlying neurophysiology, and the mechanism of action of the neuroactive drug. Moreover, the assignment was very useful in the teaching of experimental design, allowing an indepth discussion of experimental control groups and the prediction of outcomes in these groups if the animal model were to display predictive validity. Finally, the highly positive responses in the student evaluation forms indicated that the assignment was of great interest to the students. Hence, the currently developed case studies constitute a very useful tool for teaching neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental design.

  19. Computer-assisted experimental design for the optimization of electrostatic separation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Mihailescu; Adrian Samuila; Alin Urs; R. Morar; Alexandru Iuga; Lucian Dascalescu

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a typical multi-factorial process. Its efficiency depends on the characteristics of the granular mixtures to be sorted, the feed rate, the configuration of the electrode system, the applied high-voltage, the environmental conditions, and so on. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the usefulness of computer-assisted experimental design in the optimization of such a process.

  20. Determination of Betamethasone and Dexamethasone in Human Urine and Serum by MEKC After an Experimental Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Song; Jianguo Bai; Weihong Zhou

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method has been presented for the simultaneous determination\\u000a of betamethasone (BM) and its epimer dexamethasone (DM) in human urine and serum. A three level full factorial experimental\\u000a design was employed to search for the optimum conditions. Rapid and baseline separation of BM and DM was obtained within 7 min\\u000a with the optimum conditions

  1. Using an Animal Group Vigilance Practical Session to Give Learners a "Heads-Up" to Problems in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    The design of experimental ecological fieldwork is difficult to teach to classes, particularly when protocols for data collection are normally carefully controlled by the class organiser. Normally, reinforcement of the some problems of experimental design such as the avoidance of pseudoreplication and appropriate sampling techniques does not occur…

  2. Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2003-08-01

    This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

  3. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  4. Demonstration of decomposition and optimization in the design of experimental space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Sandridge, Chris A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1989-01-01

    Effective design strategies for a class of systems which may be termed Experimental Space Systems (ESS) are needed. These systems, which include large space antenna and observatories, space platforms, earth satellites and deep space explorers, have special characteristics which make them particularly difficult to design. It is argued here that these same characteristics encourage the use of advanced computer-aided optimization and planning techniques. The broad goal of this research is to develop optimization strategies for the design of ESS. These strategics would account for the possibly conflicting requirements of mission life, safety, scientific payoffs, initial system cost, launch limitations and maintenance costs. The strategies must also preserve the coupling between disciplines or between subsystems. Here, the specific purpose is to describe a computer-aided planning and scheduling technique. This technique provides the designer with a way to map the flow of data between multidisciplinary analyses. The technique is important because it enables the designer to decompose the system design problem into a number of smaller subproblems. The planning and scheduling technique is demonstrated by its application to a specific preliminary design problem.

  5. A Revised Design for Microarray Experiments to Account for Experimental Noise and Uncertainty of Probe Response

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Noble, Peter A.; Bryk, Jaros?aw; Tautz, Diethard

    2014-01-01

    Background Although microarrays are analysis tools in biomedical research, they are known to yield noisy output that usually requires experimental confirmation. To tackle this problem, many studies have developed rules for optimizing probe design and devised complex statistical tools to analyze the output. However, less emphasis has been placed on systematically identifying the noise component as part of the experimental procedure. One source of noise is the variance in probe binding, which can be assessed by replicating array probes. The second source is poor probe performance, which can be assessed by calibrating the array based on a dilution series of target molecules. Using model experiments for copy number variation and gene expression measurements, we investigate here a revised design for microarray experiments that addresses both of these sources of variance. Results Two custom arrays were used to evaluate the revised design: one based on 25 mer probes from an Affymetrix design and the other based on 60 mer probes from an Agilent design. To assess experimental variance in probe binding, all probes were replicated ten times. To assess probe performance, the probes were calibrated using a dilution series of target molecules and the signal response was fitted to an adsorption model. We found that significant variance of the signal could be controlled by averaging across probes and removing probes that are nonresponsive or poorly responsive in the calibration experiment. Taking this into account, one can obtain a more reliable signal with the added option of obtaining absolute rather than relative measurements. Conclusion The assessment of technical variance within the experiments, combined with the calibration of probes allows to remove poorly responding probes and yields more reliable signals for the remaining ones. Once an array is properly calibrated, absolute quantification of signals becomes straight forward, alleviating the need for normalization and reference hybridizations. PMID:24618910

  6. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Naghmeh; Kobarfard, Farzad; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Aboofazeli, Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs) was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations) was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution. PMID:21556348

  7. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  8. Design and Experimental Validation of a Ducted Counter-rotating Axial-flow Fans System

    E-print Network

    Nouri, Hussain; Bakir, Farid; Sarraf, Christophe; Rey, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study on the design of counter-rotating axial-flow fans was carried out. The fans were designed using an inverse method. In particular, the system is designed to have a pure axial discharge flow. The counter-rotating fans operate in a ducted-flow configuration and the overall performances are measured in a normalized test bench. The rotation rate of each fan is independently controlled. The relative axial spacing between fans can vary from 17% to 310%. The results show that the efficiency is strongly increased compared to a conventional rotor or to a rotor-stator stage. The effects of varying the rotation rates ratio on the overall performances are studied and show that the system has a very flexible use, with a large patch of high efficient operating points in the parameter space. The increase of axial spacing causes only a small decrease of the efficiency

  9. The Langley Research Center CSI phase-0 evolutionary model testbed-design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. K.; Horta, Lucas G.; Elliott, K. B.

    1991-01-01

    A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology is described. The design philosophy, capabilities, and early experimental results are presented to introduce some of the ongoing CSI research at NASA-Langley. The testbed, referred to as the Phase 0 version of the CSI Evolutionary model (CEM), is the first stage of model complexity designed to show the benefits of CSI technology and to identify weaknesses in current capabilities. Early closed loop test results have shown non-model based controllers can provide an order of magnitude increase in damping in the first few flexible vibration modes. Model based controllers for higher performance will need to be robust to model uncertainty as verified by System ID tests. Data are presented that show finite element model predictions of frequency differ from those obtained from tests. Plans are also presented for evolution of the CEM to study integrated controller and structure design as well as multiple payload dynamics.

  10. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation.

  11. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  12. Modeling of retardance in ferrofluid with Taguchi-based multiple regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Fung; Wu, Jyh-Shyang; Sheu, Jer-Jia

    2015-03-01

    The citric acid (CA) coated Fe3O4 ferrofluids are prepared by a co-precipitation method and the magneto-optical retardance property is measured by a Stokes polarimeter. Optimization and multiple regression of retardance in ferrofluids are executed by combining Taguchi method and Excel. From the nine tests for four parameters, including pH of suspension, molar ratio of CA to Fe3O4, volume of CA, and coating temperature, influence sequence and excellent program are found. Multiple regression analysis and F-test on the significance of regression equation are performed. It is found that the model F value is much larger than Fcritical and significance level P <0.0001. So it can be concluded that the regression model has statistically significant predictive ability. Substituting excellent program into equation, retardance is obtained as 32.703°, higher than the highest value in tests by 11.4%.

  13. Introducing Third-Year Chemistry Students to the Planning and Design of an Experimental Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; Phillips, David Norman; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm

    1997-10-01

    The design and planning of an experimental program is often an important aspect of the job description of recent graduate employees in chemical industry and time should therefore be devoted to this activity in an undergraduate course. This paper describes a pencil and paper activity which involves the design and planning of an experimental programme which may lead to the solution of the problem. These skills are an essential pre-requisite to any experimental activity. We provide the students with a list of problems similar to those that a new graduate could encounter on commencing employment in chemical industry. They are real problems, which the Inorganic Chemistry staff of the School have been previously asked to solve for local industry. A staff member acts as the "client", and the students is the "consultant". The aim is that by a series of interviews between the client and the consultant, the students can refine a vague problem statement into a quantitative statement, and then from this develop a proposal to investigate the problem in order to confirm the cause. This proposal is submitted to the client for assessment. The students are expected to arrange one meeting with the supervisor in each week. This activity is highly commended by the School of Applied Chemistry's Advisory Board, which is primarily comprised of industrial chemists.

  14. Pathobiology of aging mice and GEM: background strains and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Brayton, C F; Treuting, P M; Ward, J M

    2012-01-01

    The use of induced and spontaneous mutant mice and genetically engineered mice (and combinations thereof) to study cancers and other aging phenotypes to advance improved functional human life spans will involve studies of aging mice. Genetic background contributes to pathology phenotypes and to causes of death as well as to longevity. Increased recognition of expected phenotypes, experimental variables that influence phenotypes and research outcomes, and experimental design options and rationales can maximize the utility of genetically engineered mice (GEM) models to translational research on aging. This review aims to provide resources to enhance the design and practice of chronic and longevity studies involving GEM. C57BL6, 129, and FVB/N strains are emphasized because of their widespread use in the generation of knockout, transgenic, and conditional mutant GEM. Resources are included also for pathology of other inbred strain families, including A, AKR, BALB/c, C3H, C57L, C58, CBA, DBA, GR, NOD.scid, SAMP, and SJL/J, and non-inbred mice, including 4WC, AB6F1, Ames dwarf, B6, 129, B6C3F1, BALB/c,129, Het3, nude, SENCAR, and several Swiss stocks. Experimental strategies for long-term cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to assess causes of or contributors to death, disease burden, spectrum of pathology phenotypes, longevity, and functional healthy life spans (health spans) are compared and discussed. PMID:22215684

  15. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling, sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

  16. Experimental Validation of the Optimum Design of an Automotive Air-to-Air Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2015-06-01

    The optimization of thermoelectric air conditioners (TEAC) has been a challenging topic due to the multitude of variables that must be considered. The present work discusses an experimental validation of the optimum design for an automotive air-to-air TEAC. The TEAC optimum design was obtained by using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed. The design constraints were obtained through a previous analytical study on the same topic. To simplify the problem, a unit cell representing the entire TEAC system was analytically simulated and experimentally tested. Moreover, commercial TEC modules and heat sinks were selected and tested based on the analytical optimum design results.

  17. Issues and recent advances in optimal experimental design for site investigation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview over issues and recent advances in model-based experimental design for site exploration. The addressed issues and advances are (1) how to provide an adequate envelope to prior uncertainty, (2) how to define the information needs in a task-oriented manner, (3) how to measure the expected impact of a data set that it not yet available but only planned to be collected, and (4) how to perform best the optimization of the data collection plan. Among other shortcomings of the state-of-the-art, it is identified that there is a lack of demonstrator studies where exploration schemes based on expert judgment are compared to exploration schemes obtained by optimal experimental design. Such studies will be necessary do address the often voiced concern that experimental design is an academic exercise with little improvement potential over the well- trained gut feeling of field experts. When addressing this concern, a specific focus has to be given to uncertainty in model structure, parameterizations and parameter values, and to related surprises that data often bring about in field studies, but never in synthetic-data based studies. The background of this concern is that, initially, conceptual uncertainty may be so large that surprises are the rule rather than the exception. In such situations, field experts have a large body of experience in handling the surprises, and expert judgment may be good enough compared to meticulous optimization based on a model that is about to be falsified by the incoming data. In order to meet surprises accordingly and adapt to them, there needs to be a sufficient representation of conceptual uncertainty within the models used. Also, it is useless to optimize an entire design under this initial range of uncertainty. Thus, the goal setting of the optimization should include the objective to reduce conceptual uncertainty. A possible way out is to upgrade experimental design theory towards real-time interaction with the ongoing site investigation, such that surprises in the data are immediately accounted for to restrict the conceptual uncertainty and update the optimization of the plan.

  18. Test, episode, and programme sensitivities of screening for colorectal cancer as a public health policy in Finland: experimental design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nea Malila; Tiina Oivanen; Outi Malminiemi; Matti Hakama

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To report the sensitivities of the faecal occult blood test, screening episode, and screening programme for colorectal cancer and the benefits of applying a randomised design at the implementation phase of a new public health policy.Design Experimental design incorporated in public health evaluation using randomisation at individual level in the target population.Setting 161 of the 431 Finnish municipalities in

  19. Studying the effects of plant species richness on ecosystem functioning: does the choice of experimental design matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juha Mikola; Veikko Salonen; Heikki Setälä

    2002-01-01

    We established two parallel greenhouse experiments to empirically test the effect of experimental design on the conclusions made of the effects of plant species richness on ecosystem functioning. The experiments included an identical group of six grassland plants and were performed under identical environmental conditions, but were set up according to two different designs. In the richness design (RD), which

  20. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

  1. Experimental research of the synthetic jet generator designs based on actuation of diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimasauskiene, R.; Matejka, M.; Ostachowicz, W.; Kurowski, M.; Malinowski, P.; Wandowski, T.; Rimasauskas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental analyses of four own developed synthetic jet generator designs were presented in this paper. The main task of this work was to find the most appropriate design of the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec®PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working in resonance frequency were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental analysis of the synthetic jet generator amplitude-frequency characteristics were performed using CTA (hot wire anemometer) measuring techniques. Piezoelectric diaphragm in diameter of 27 mm was excited by sinusoidal voltage signal and it was fixed tightly inside the chamber of the synthetic jet generator. The number of the synthetic jet generator orifices (1 or 3) and volume of cavity (height of cavity vary from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm) were changed. The highest value of the synthetic jet velocity 25 m/s was obtained with synthetic jet generator which has cavity 0.5 mm and 1 orifice (resonance frequency of the piezoelectric diaphragm 2.8 kHz). It can be concluded that this type of the design is preferred in order to get the peak velocity of the synthetic jet.

  2. Experimental verification of flextensional transducers designed by using topology optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Gilder; Nelli Silva, Emilio C.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2001-08-01

    A flextensional transducer consist of a piezoceramic connected to a flexible structure which amplifies and changes the direction of generated piezoceramic displacement. In a previous work[1,2] these transducers were designed by using topology optimization method. In this work, some prototypes of these transducers were manufactured and experimental measurements were performed to characterize them. The prototypes were built by bonding a flexible structure manufactured by using a wire EDM machine to a piezoceramic with epoxy. As a result, the displacements obtained through laser interferometry at a given frequency and the electrical impedance curves are presented. The experimental results were compared with simulated results obtained by using a commercial finite element software (ANSYS), and the predicted amplification rate provided by these transducers were verified.

  3. A robust optimization approach to experimental design for model discrimination of dynamical systems

    E-print Network

    Skanda, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    A high-ranking goal of interdisciplinary modeling approaches in the natural sciences are quantitative prediction of system dynamics and model based optimization. For this purpose, mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and scientific computing techniques are indispensable. Quantitative modeling closely combined with experimental investigations is required if the model is supposed to be used for sound mechanistic analysis and model predictions. Typically, before an appropriate model of a experimental system is found different hypothetical models might be reasonable and consistent with previous knowledge and available data. The parameters of the model up to an estimated confidence region are generally not known a priori. Therefore one has to incorporate possible parameter configurations of different models into a model discrimination algorithm. In this article we present a numerical algorithm which calculates a design of experiments which allows an optimal discrimination of different hypothetic candidate m...

  4. A minimally invasive antenna for microwave ablation therapies: design, performances, and experimental assessment.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Marta; Amabile, Claudio; Bernardi, Paolo; Pisa, Stefano; Tosoratti, Nevio

    2011-04-01

    A new coaxial antenna for microwave ablation therapies is proposed. The antenna design includes a miniaturized choke and an arrowhead cap to facilitate antenna insertion into the tissues. Antenna matching and the shape and dimension of the area of ablated tissue (thermal lesion) obtained in ex vivo conditions are evaluated both numerically and experimentally, finding an optimal agreement between numerical and experimental data. Results show that the antenna is well matched, and that it is able to produce a thermal lesion with an average length of 6.5 cm and an average diameter of 4.5 cm in ex vivo bovine liver when irradiates 60 W for 10 min. Finally, the dependence of antenna performances on possible changes in the antenna's structure is investigated, finding an optimal stability with respect to manufacturing tolerances and highlighting the fundamental role played by the antenna's choke. PMID:21172749

  5. Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Massingham, Tim; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael; Cotton, James A

    2009-08-01

    In molecular phylogenetic studies, a major aspect of experimental design concerns the choice of markers and taxa. Although previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic performance of different genes and the effectiveness of increasing taxon sampling, their conclusions are partly contradictory, probably because they are highly context specific and dependent on the group of organisms used in each study. Goldman introduced a method for experimental design in phylogenetics based on the expected information to be gained that has barely been used in practice. Here we use this method to explore the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial (mt) genes, mt genomes, and nuclear rag1 for studies of the systematics of caecilian amphibians, as well as the effect of taxon addition on the stabilization of a controversial branch of the tree. Overall phylogenetic information estimates per gene, specific estimates per branch of the tree, estimates for combined (mitogenomic) data sets, and estimates as a hypothetical new taxon is added to different parts of the caecilian tree are calculated and compared. In general, the most informative data sets are those for mt transfer and ribosomal RNA genes. Our results also show at which positions in the caecilian tree the addition of taxa have the greatest potential to increase phylogenetic information with respect to the controversial relationships of Scolecomorphus, Boulengerula, and all other teresomatan caecilians. These positions are, as intuitively expected, mostly (but not all) adjacent to the controversial branch. Generating whole mitogenomic and rag1 data for additional taxa joining the Scolecomorphus branch may be a more efficient strategy than sequencing a similar amount of additional nucleotides spread across the current caecilian taxon sampling. The methodology employed in this study allows an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of the appropriateness of particular experimental designs to solve specific questions at different levels of the caecilian phylogeny. PMID:20525595

  6. Experimental observation of solitary waves in a new designed pendulum chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changqing; Lei, Juanmian; Wu, Yecun; Li, Nan; Chen, Da; Shi, Qingfan

    2015-07-01

    A new coupled pendulum chain system is developed to vividly simulate the solitary solutions of the sine-Gordon (SG) equation. Transmission processes of three kinds of solitons (kink, anti-kink and breather) are systematically observed by using a high speed camera system. The solutions of the SG equation are derived through deducing the net external torque of the pendulums. The experimental data obtained are consistent with the theoretical calculation, which verifies that the system designed is an effective device to demonstrate the nonlinear behaviour of solitary waves in teaching and learning.

  7. Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. VI - Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, Seymour

    1955-01-01

    Available experimental two-dimensional cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of blade-profile performance. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.

  8. The use of experimental design in the control of continuous processes

    E-print Network

    Schichtle, Casper Jacob

    1970-01-01

    -square distributed with degrees of freedom calcu- lated as follows:(4) df IJo 4 4 (3. 2) I 7~I ? 1), J-1) ( IIJ-ITJ L~I-1, ~J-1 Therefore, the tabulated values of the Chi-square distri- bution can be utilized to find some slightly more strin- gent control... of Committee Head of Department Member ember ~~Et 4 c'~ Member Membe Member May 1970 ABSTRACT The Use of Experimental Design in the Control of Continuous Processes. (May 1970) Casper J. Schichtle, Jr. , Capt. , USAF B. A. , Drake University...

  9. Trapped Vortex Combustion Chamber: Design and Experimental Investigations Using Hydrogen as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, D. B.; Channiwala, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The design of trapped vortex combustion chamber was undertaken as a part of ongoing research on micro combustion chamber using hydrogen as fuel. The reacting experimental studies were then carried out on the designed chamber. The fuel was injected directly into the cavity. The combustion was first initiated in the cavity with 3 % of the main flow air supplied in reverse direction to the fuel flow. The combustion in cavity was of rich type. Temperature levels in the range of 900 K were encountered in the cavity. Thereafter, diffusion combustion was initiated using the flame generated in the cavity. The temperature levels in this stage were in the range of 1,800 K. The overall pressure drop for a trapped vortex combustor was less than 5 % at all operating parameters.

  10. Use of experimental separation limits in the theoretical design of V/STOL inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, M. A.; Stockman, N. O.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data from several model inlets are used to generate two parameters which are related to the limit of operation for inlet flow separation. One parameter, called the diffusion ratio, is the ratio of the peak velocity on the inlet surface to the velocity at the diffuser exit and is related to the boundary-layer separation at low throat Mach numbers. The other parameter, the peak Mach number on the inlet surface, is related to the separation at high throat Mach numbers. These parameters are easily calculated from potential flow solutions and thus can be used as a design tool in screening proposed inlet geometries. An illustrative example of an application to an inlet design study for a tilt nacelle VTOL airplane is presented. The value of contraction ratio required to meet the operating requirements yet allow the inlet to remain free of separation as indicated by the two separation parameters is shown.

  11. Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

  12. Experimental measurement of human head motion for high-resolution computed tomography system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Xin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2010-06-01

    Human head motion has been experimentally measured for high-resolution computed tomography (CT) design using a Canon digital camera. Our goal is to identify the minimal movements of the human head under ideal conditions without rigid fixation. In our experiments, all the 19 healthy volunteers were lying down with strict self-control. All of them were asked to be calm without pressures. Our results showed that the mean absolute value of the measured translation excursion was about 0.35 mm, which was much less than the measurements on real patients. Furthermore, the head motions in different directions were correlated. These results are useful for the design of the new instant CT system for in vivo high-resolution imaging (about 40 ?m).

  13. Design and Experimental Performance of a Two Stage Partial Admission Turbine, Task B.1/B.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. F.; Boynton, J. L.; Akian, R. A.; Shea, Dan; Roschak, Edmund; Rojas, Lou; Orr, Linsey; Davis, Linda; King, Brad; Bubel, Bill

    1992-01-01

    A three-inch mean diameter, two-stage turbine with partial admission in each stage was experimentally investigated over a range of admissions and angular orientations of admission arcs. Three configurations were tested in which first stage admission varied from 37.4 percent (10 of 29 passages open, 5 per side) to 6.9 percent (2 open, 1 per side). Corresponding second stage admissions were 45.2 percent (14 of 31 passages open, 7 per side) and 12.9 percent (4 open, 2 per side). Angular positions of the second stage admission arcs with respect to the first stage varied over a range of 70 degrees. Design and off-design efficiency and flow characteristics for the three configurations are presented. The results indicated that peak efficiency and the corresponding isentropic velocity ratio decreased as the arcs of admission were decreased. Both efficiency and flow characteristics were sensitive to the second stage nozzle orientation angles.

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of multi-actuated piezoelectric device designs using topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonari, Ronny Calixto; Nader, Gilder; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2005-05-01

    Multi-actuators piezoelectric devices consist of a multi-flexible structure actuated by two or more piezoceramic portions, whose differing output displacements and forces are tailored according to the excitation properties of the piezoceramic materials and the desired working locations and directions of movement. Such devices have a wide range of application in performing biological cell manipulation, for microsurgery, and in nanotechnology equipment, and the like. However, the design of multi-flexible structures is a highly complex task since the devices have many degrees of freedom and, employ a variety of piezoceramics, but must carefully tune the movement coupling among the device parts to prevent motion in undesirable directions. In prior research, topology optimization techniques have been applied to the design of devices having minimum movement coupling among the piezoceramic parts, and in this work a number of these devices were manufactured and experimentally analyzed to validate the results of the topology optimization. X-Y nanopositioners consisting of two piezoceramic portions were addressed and designs considering low and high degrees of coupling between desired and undesirable displacements were investigated to evaluate the performance of the design method. Prototypes were manufactured in aluminum using a wire EDM process, and bonded to piezoceramics (PZT5A) polarized in the thickness direction and working in d31 mode. Finite element simulations were carried out using the commercial ANSYS software application. Experimental analyses were conducted using laser interferometry to measure displacement, while considering a quasi-static excitation. The coupling between the X-Y movements was measured and compared with FEM results, which showed that the coupling requirements were adequately achieved.

  15. Real-time detection of grip length during fastening of bolted joints: a Mahalanobis-Taguchi system (MTS) based approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Can Saygin; Deepak Mohan; Jagannathan Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS) based methodology that detects grip length of bolted joints in real-time\\u000a during fastening. Grip length is the length of the unthreaded portion of a bolt shaft. When the total thickness of joining\\u000a members is greater than the grip length of the bolt, it is called under-grip, which compromises the structural integrity of\\u000a a

  16. A magnetic design for a slim type DVD actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chau-Yuan Ke; Chi-Lone Chang; Jau-Jiu Ju; Der-Ray Huang; Ruey-Shing Huang

    2002-01-01

    In an optical disc drive, the Lorentz force, which is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, determines the gain of the closed control loop. The strength and the uniformity of the magnetic field are used as the indicators of merit, and an optimum magnetic design for a slim type CD\\/DVD actuator is completed by applying Taguchi method.

  17. A conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor for the Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, J.R.; Parker, J.M.

    1990-09-21

    Conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) superconducting magnet system is nearing completion by the ITER Design Team, and one of the Central Solenoid (CS) designs is presented. The CS part of this magnet system will be a vertical stack of eight modules, approximately 16 m high, each having a approximate dimensions of: 4.1-m o.d., 2.8-m i.d., 1.9-m h. The peak field at the bore is approximately 13.5 T. Cable-in-conduit conductor with Nb{sub 3}Sn composite wire will be used to wind the coils. The overall coil fabrication will use the insulate-wind-react-impregnate method. Coil modules will be fabricated using double-pancake coils with all splice joints located in the low-field region on the outside of the coils. All coils will be structurally graded with high-strength steel reinforcement which is co-wound with the conductor. We describe details of the CS coil design and analysis.

  18. An Efficient Taguchi Approach for the Performance Optimization of Health, Safety, Environment and Ergonomics in Generation Companies

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Ali; Sheikhalishahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background A unique framework for performance optimization of generation companies (GENCOs) based on health, safety, environment, and ergonomics (HSEE) indicators is presented. Methods To rank this sector of industry, the combination of data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA), and Taguchi are used for all branches of GENCOs. These methods are applied in an integrated manner to measure the performance of GENCO. The preferred model between DEA, PCA, and Taguchi is selected based on sensitivity analysis and maximum correlation between rankings. To achieve the stated objectives, noise is introduced into input data. Results The results show that Taguchi outperforms other methods. Moreover, a comprehensive experiment is carried out to identify the most influential factor for ranking GENCOs. Conclusion The approach developed in this study could be used for continuous assessment and improvement of GENCO's performance in supplying energy with respect to HSEE factors. The results of such studies would help managers to have better understanding of weak and strong points in terms of HSEE factors.

  19. Experimental design optimization for electrochemical removal of gentamicin: toxicity evaluation and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Dhuria, Radhey S; Bhatti, Rajbir; Bhatti, Manpreet S; Singh, Palwinder; Whitcomb, Patrick J; Thukral, Ashwani K

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of gentamicin was achieved using a laboratory scale electrochemical reactor by optimizing pH, current density and treatment time. A two step statistical optimization was performed as per factorial design and center composite design (CCD). A Pareto chart was used for selecting statistically significant effects and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) table indicated significant curvature. Thus adding additional experimental runs improved the model fitting through a second order model. Maximum degradation was predicted at a pH of 6.7, 70 A m(-2) and 45 min. The experimental data fitted well through a reduced quadratic model with R(2) equal to 0.945. The toxicity of degradation products as determined by disc diffusion assay employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was found to be reduced by 55%. The degradation pathway of gentamicin was studied using mass spectral (MS) analysis. Pure gentamicin showed a molecular ion peak at m/z 478 ([M + 1](+)), and after addition of NaCl as electrolyte, the mass peak was observed at m/z 523. After 15 min of electrochemical treatment, a new peak appeared at m/z 316 due to the loss of one pyran moiety. After 45 min of electrochemical treatment, another peak appeared at m/z of 478 due to loss of two Na(+) from gentamicin. PMID:23656945

  20. Supersonic Retro-Propulsion Experimental Design for Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Laws, Christopher T.; Kleb, W. L.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Spells, Courtney; McCrea, Andrew C.; Truble, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Oberkampf, William L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of supersonic retro-propulsion, an enabling technology for heavy payload exploration missions to Mars, is the primary focus for the present paper. A new experimental model, intended to provide computational fluid dynamics model validation data, was recently designed for the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2. Pre-test computations were instrumental for sizing and refining the model, over the Mach number range of 2.4 to 4.6, such that tunnel blockage and internal flow separation issues would be minimized. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody, which accommodates up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, followed by a 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was developed for this study based on the computational results. The model was designed to allow for a large number of surface pressure measurements on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Some preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, although detailed analyses of the data and uncertainties are still on going.

  1. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Le,Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the model development and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  2. Network Pharmacology Strategies Toward Multi-Target Anticancer Therapies: From Computational Models to Experimental Design Principles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Aittokallio, Tero

    2014-01-01

    Polypharmacology has emerged as novel means in drug discovery for improving treatment response in clinical use. However, to really capitalize on the polypharmacological effects of drugs, there is a critical need to better model and understand how the complex interactions between drugs and their cellular targets contribute to drug efficacy and possible side effects. Network graphs provide a convenient modeling framework for dealing with the fact that most drugs act on cellular systems through targeting multiple proteins both through on-target and off-target binding. Network pharmacology models aim at addressing questions such as how and where in the disease network should one target to inhibit disease phenotypes, such as cancer growth, ideally leading to therapies that are less vulnerable to drug resistance and side effects by means of attacking the disease network at the systems level through synergistic and synthetic lethal interactions. Since the exponentially increasing number of potential drug target combinations makes pure experimental approach quickly unfeasible, this review depicts a number of computational models and algorithms that can effectively reduce the search space for determining the most promising combinations for experimental evaluation. Such computational-experimental strategies are geared toward realizing the full potential of multi-target treatments in different disease phenotypes. Our specific focus is on system-level network approaches to polypharmacology designs in anticancer drug discovery, where we give representative examples of how network-centric modeling may offer systematic strategies toward better understanding and even predicting the phenotypic responses to multi-target therapies.

  3. APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

  4. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W.

    The scientific community's desire for large capacity, constant altitude, long duration stratospheric platforms is not likely going to be met by un-reinforced spherical super-pressure balloons. More likely, the pneumatic envelope for the large-scale super-pressure balloon of the future will be a tendon reinforced structure in which the tendons perform the primary pressure load confining function and the skin serves as a gas barrier and transfers the local pressure load to the tendons. NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which is currently under development, is of that type. By separating the load carrying function of the tendons and the skin a number of advantages are gained. Perhaps most important is the fact that the required skin strength remains to first order independent of the balloon size. Only the size and number of tendons are dictated by the balloon size. By designing the balloon to be at least quasi statically determinate, the stress distributions are more certain, and stress raisers due to fabrication imperfections are more easily controlled and it becomes unnecessary to account for load path uncertainties by providing everywhere excessive strength and structural weight. Furthermore, it becomes possible to use for the envelope skin a visco-elastic film (polyethylene) that has proven performance in the stratospheric environment. The silhouette shape of this balloon type has prompted early researchers to name this design a "pumpkin" shape balloon. Later investigators accepted this terminology. The pumpkin shape balloon concept was adopted by NASA for its ULDB design at the end of 1998 when advantages of that design over a spherical shape design were convincingly demonstrated. Two stratospheric test flights of large-scale super-pressure balloons demonstrated the functioning of this balloon type. In the second successful flight the switch was made from an excessively strong and heavy skin, a holdover from the earlier concept of a spherical design, to a visco-elastic film. The balloons of a third and fourth full-scale test flights experienced structural problems during a campaign in Australia in 2001. Post-flight investigations identified two problems. The first problem was apparently caused by lack of dynamic strength of the film material in its transverse direction, a property that has theretofore not been tested in balloon films. The second problem was identified through photographic evidence on the second of the two balloons. Images of the launch spool configuration and of the balloon at float altitude, indicated that excess gore-width might prevent full deployment to the design shape. This is a dangerous situation, as the proper functioning of the design requires full deployment. Search in the literature confirmed one other case of flawed but stable deployment of a pumpkin shape balloon that has been investigated by researchers. This balloon is the "Endeavor", which is an adventurer balloon that was intended for manned circumnavigation. The experimental work documented in this paper sought to identify what design aspects of pumpkin shape balloons promote faulty deployment into undesired stable equilibria and w at design aspects assure full deployment ofh pumpkin type balloons. It is argued that the features of a constant bulge shape design (the apparent design of the "Endeavor") make it unnecessarily prone to flawed deployment. The constant bulge radius design is a superior choice, but could be improved by using a smaller bulge radius between the "tropics" of the quasi-spheroid while using a larger bulge radius for the remainder of the balloon when deployment issue become critical. In that case, of course, the strength critical region is the one with the larger bulge radius. Adequate understanding of these aspects is required to design pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons with confidence. Results from studies and tests conducted as a part of the ULDB Project are discussed.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Fluence Rate from Upper Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation: Experimental Validation of a Computer-Aided Design Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen N. Rudnick; Melvin W. First; Tim Sears; Richard L. Vincent; Philip W. Brickner; Peter Y. Ngai; John Zhang; Robert E. Levin; Kenneth Chin; Ronald O. Rahn; Shelly L. Miller; Edward A. Nardell

    2012-01-01

    A commercial computer-aided design (CAD) tool used by the lighting industry was modified to predict fluence rate for upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). Experimental validation based on more than 1600 measurements and three types of commercial UV fixtures, which was done in an experimental chamber and in a homeless shelter having fixtures in continuous use for over seven years, showed

  6. Grey Matrix Application in the Optimal Design of Rifle Muzzle Noise Reducer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-shang Chang; Ren-chieh Liao; Tai-chang Hsia; Kun-li Wen

    2001-01-01

    The Taguchi method and grey system theory are used to find the optimal design for a rifle muzzle noise reducer. According to the existing research results and after interviews with domain experts, the critical design factors which influence the reducer's performance are found to be: (1) the existence of a front cover, (2) the diameter of the outside exhaust hole

  7. Application of bivariate parameter design to the optimization of the operating conditions of a turning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-Y. Chou; C.-H. Chen; C.-C. Yang; C.-C. Wu

    2005-01-01

    Parameter design, introduced by Taguchi, has been shown to be an effective approach for improving quality and productivity at low cost. The present article reports a case study of the application of parameter design to the determination of the optimal operating conditions of an integrated numerical control (NC) lathe such that the roundness and surface roughness of the cylindrical workpieces,

  8. Design and Experimental Verification of Deployable/Inflatable Ultra-Lightweight Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Because launch cost of a space structural system is often proportional to the launch volume and mass and there is no significant gravity in space, NASA's space exploration programs and various science missions have stimulated extensive use of ultra-lightweight deployable/inflatable structures. These structures are named here as Highly Flexible Structures (HFSs) because they are designed to undergo large displacements, rotations, and/or buckling without plastic deformation under normal operation conditions. Except recent applications to space structural systems, HFSs have been used in many mechanical systems, civil structures, aerospace vehicles, home appliances, and medical devices to satisfy space limitations, provide special mechanisms, and/or reduce structural weight. The extensive use of HFSs in today's structural engineering reveals the need of a design and analysis software and a database system with design guidelines for practicing engineers to perform computer-aided design and rapid prototyping of HFSs. Also to prepare engineering students for future structural engineering requires a new and easy-to- understand method of presenting the complex mathematics of the modeling and analysis of HFSs. However, because of the high flexibility of HFSs, many unique challenging problems in the modeling, design and analysis of HFSs need to be studied. The current state of research on HFSs needs advances in the following areas: (1) modeling of large rotations using appropriate strain measures, (2) modeling of cross-section warpings of structures, (3) how to account for both large rotations and cross- section warpings in 2D (two-dimensional) and 1D structural theories, (4) modeling of thickness thinning of membranes due to inflation pressure, pretension, and temperature change, (5) prediction of inflated shapes and wrinkles of inflatable structures, (6) development of efficient numerical methods for nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, and (7) filling the gap between geometrically exact elastic analysis and elastoplastic analysis. The objectives of this research project were: (1) to study the modeling, design, and analysis of deployable/inflatable ultra-lightweight structures, (2) to perform numerical and experimental studies on the static and dynamic characteristics and deployability of HFSs, (3) to derive guidelines for designing HFSs, (4) to develop a MATLAB toolbox for the design, analysis, and dynamic animation of HFSs, and (5) to perform experiments and establish an adequate database of post-buckling characteristics of HFSs.

  9. De Novo Peptide Design and Experimental Validation of Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smadbeck, James; Peterson, Meghan B.; Zee, Barry M.; Garapaty, Shivani; Mago, Aashna; Lee, Christina; Giannis, Athanassios; Trojer, Patrick; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-01-01

    Histones are small proteins critical to the efficient packaging of DNA in the nucleus. DNA–protein complexes, known as nucleosomes, are formed when the DNA winds itself around the surface of the histones. The methylation of histone residues by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) maintains gene repression over successive cell generations. Overexpression of EZH2 can silence important tumor suppressor genes leading to increased invasiveness of many types of cancers. This makes the inhibition of EZH2 an important target in the development of cancer therapeutics. We employed a three-stage computational de novo peptide design method to design inhibitory peptides of EZH2. The method consists of a sequence selection stage and two validation stages for fold specificity and approximate binding affinity. The sequence selection stage consists of an integer linear optimization model that was solved to produce a rank-ordered list of amino acid sequences with increased stability in the bound peptide-EZH2 structure. These sequences were validated through the calculation of the fold specificity and approximate binding affinity of the designed peptides. Here we report the discovery of novel EZH2 inhibitory peptides using the de novo peptide design method. The computationally discovered peptides were experimentally validated in vitro using dose titrations and mechanism of action enzymatic assays. The peptide with the highest in vitro response, SQ037, was validated in nucleo using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This peptide had an IC50 of 13.5 M, demonstrated greater potency as an inhibitor when compared to the native and K27A mutant control peptides, and demonstrated competitive inhibition versus the peptide substrate. Additionally, this peptide demonstrated high specificity to the EZH2 target in comparison to other histone methyltransferases. The validated peptides are the first computationally designed peptides that directly inhibit EZH2. These inhibitors should prove useful for further chromatin biology investigations. PMID:24587223

  10. Optimal molding parameter design of PLA micro lancet needles using Taguchi method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Wen Wang; Gong-Loung Fu; Jia-Haur Jeng

    2008-01-01

    Microneedles can be used for biomedical applications such as skin prick, blood collection, and drug delivery, etc. Many of the microneedles were fabricated by traditional machining. In this study, a micro lancet needle for blood test application was fabricated using micro injection molding technique, biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) was used as molding material. The dimension of the microneedle is 623

  11. SCREENING FOR OPTIMAL OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR THE POWERED ROLL GIN STAND USING TAGUCHI'S ROBUST DESIGN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The powered roll gin stand (PRGS) is a new saw-type ginning technology that has shown increased production and turnout without adversely affecting fiber properties. In some cases, improvements in fiber properties over a conventional gin stand were demonstrated. The new gin stand has three primary co...

  12. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Parametric Optimization Using Taguchi Design of Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic R. Maestas; Ron Lumia; Gregory P. Starr; John E. Wood

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Traditional SIFT methods require a priori of object knowledge in order to complete accurate feature matching. The usual means\\u000a is via trained databases of objects. In order to be able to get the pose of an object, accurate object recognition is required.\\u000a Without accurate object recognition, detection can occur but no information about 3-D location will be available. The goal

  13. Supersonic, nonlinear, attached-flow wing design for high lift with experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, J. L.; Miller, D. S.; Mason, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Results of the experimental validation are presented for the three dimensional cambered wing which was designed to achieve attached supercritical cross flow for lifting conditions typical of supersonic maneuver. The design point was a lift coefficient of 0.4 at Mach 1.62 and 12 deg angle of attack. Results from the nonlinear full potential method are presented to show the validity of the design process along with results from linear theory codes. Longitudinal force and moment data and static pressure data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.58, 1.62, 1.66, 1.70, and 2.00 over an angle of attack range of 0 to 14 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Oil flow photographs of the upper surface were obtained at M = 1.62 for alpha approx. = 8, 10, 12, and 14 deg.

  14. Design and experimental evidence of a flat graded-index photonic crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaufillet, F.; Akmansoy, É.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the design and the experimental evidence of a flat graded index photonic crystal lens. The gradient has been designed so that the flat slab focuses a plane wave and so that it converts the wave issued from a point source into a plane wave. This graded-index photonic crystal lens operates as a convex lens. The gradient of index results from varying the filling factor of the photonic crystal in the direction perpendicular to that of the propagation of the electromagnetic field. The shape of the gradient of index has been designed by engineering the iso-frequency curves of the photonic crystal. As only a few layers were necessary and as graded photonic crystals may be fabricated by a variety of processes, this shows the ability of graded photonic crystals to efficiently apply for various photonic devices, from microwave range to the optical domain. 42.70.Qs Photonic bandgap materials, 78.67.Pt Optical properties of photonic structures, 41.20.Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation 84.40.Ba Antennas.

  15. A Fundamental Study of Smoldering with Emphasis on Experimental Design for Zero-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Pagni, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    A research program to study smoldering combustion with emphasis on the design of an experiment to be conducted in the space shuttle was conducted at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley. The motivation of the research is the interest in smoldering both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a serious fire risk. Research conducted included theoretical and experimental studies that have brought considerable new information about smolder combustion, the effect that buoyancy has on the process, and specific information for the design of a space experiment. Experiments were conducted at normal gravity, in opposed and forward mode of propagation and in the upward and downward direction to determine the effect and range of influence of gravity on smolder. Experiments were also conducted in microgravity, in a drop tower and in parabolic aircraft flights, where the brief microgravity periods were used to analyze transient aspects of the problem. Significant progress was made on the study of one-dimensional smolder, particularly in the opposed-flow configuration. These studies provided enough information to design a small-scale space-based experiment that was successfully conducted in the Spacelab Glovebox in the June 1992 USML-1/STS-50 mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

  16. Citric acid production by a novel Aspergillus niger isolate: II. Optimization of process parameters through statistical experimental designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid A. Lotfy; Khaled M. Ghanem; Ehab R. El-Helow

    2007-01-01

    In this work, sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical designs, was employed to enhance the production of citric acid in submerged culture. For screening of fermentation medium composition significantly influencing citric acid production, the two-level Plackett–Burman design was used. Under our experimental conditions, beet molasses and corn steep liquor were found to be the major factors of the acid production.

  17. Initial results of systems analysis of the ETR\\/ITER (Engineering Test Reactor\\/International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) design space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. M. Peng; J. D. Galambos; R. L. Reid; D. J. Strickler; S. Kalsi; L. Deleanu

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary versions of the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) systems code TETRA (Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), which determines design solutions by the method of constrained optimization, are used to characterize the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and its design parameter space. We find that the physics objectives of high ignition margin and high plasma current lead to minimum size at

  18. Experimental Validation of a Framework for the Design of Controllers that Induce Stable Walking in Planar Bipeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Westervelt; Gabriel Buche; J. W. Grizzle

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental validation of a frame- work for the systematic design, analysis, and performance enhancement of controllers that induce stable walking in N - link underactuated planar biped robots. Controllers designed via this framework act by enforcing virtual constraints— holonomic constraints imposed via feedback—on the robot's configuration which create an attracting two-dimensional in- variant set in the

  19. Leaching of Natural Gravel and Concrete by CO2 - Experimental Design, Leaching Behaviour and Dissolution Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Rita; Leis, Albrecht; Mittermayr, Florian; Harer, Gerhard; Wagner, Hanns; Reichl, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The durability of building material in aggressive aqueous environments is a key factor for evaluating the product quality and application as well as of high economic interest. Therefore, aspects of durability have been frequently investigated with different approaches such as monitoring, modelling and experimental work. In the present study an experimental approach based on leaching behaviour of natural calcite-containing siliceous gravel used as backfill material in tunnelling and sprayed concrete by CO2 was developed. CO2 was introduced to form carbonic acid, which is known as an important agent to induce chemical attack. The goals of this study were (i) to develop a proper experimental design to survey the leaching of building materials on-line, (ii) to decipher individual reaction mechanisms and kinetics and (iii) to estimate time-resolved chemical resistance of the used material throughout leaching. A combined flow through reactor unit was successfully installed, where both open and closed system conditions can be easily simulated by changing flow directions and rates. The chemical compositions of the experimental solutions were adjusted by CO2 addition at pHstat conditions and monitored in-situ by pH/SpC electrodes and by analysing the chemical composition of samples throughout an experimental run. From the obtained data e.g. dissolution rates with respect to calcite were obtained for the gravel material, which were dependent on the individual calcite content of the leached material. The rates were found to reflect the flow rate conditions, and the kinetic data lay within the range expected from dissolution experiments in the CaCO3-CO2-H2O system. In case of concrete the reactions throughout the leaching experiment were complex. Coupled dissolution and precipitation phenomena (e.g. portlandite dissolution, calcite formation) occurred. The coupled reactions can be followed by the evolution of the solution chemistry. The overall rates of elemental removal from the gravel and concrete samples were used to assess their durability at various boundary environmental conditions.

  20. A Robust Tolerance Design Method Based on Fuzzy Quality Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-long Cao; Jian Mao; Jiang-xin Yang; Zhao-tong Wu; Li-qun Wu

    2006-01-01

    The traditional tolerance design model ignores the impact of noise factor, so that the design may be infeasible due to variations\\u000a in design constraints. Based on the analysis of fuzzy factors in tolerance design and the limitations of the traditional Taguchi\\u000a squared quality loss function, a fuzzy quality loss function model utilizing fuzzy theory was introduced. Concepts on fuzzy\\u000a quality

  1. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam C. Hall (Smith College; )

    2003-11-01

    This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

  2. Single case experimental designs: introduction to a special issue of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan J; Gast, David L; Perdices, Michael; Manolov, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Special Issue of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation on Single Case Experimental Design (SCED) methodology. SCED studies have a long history of use in evaluating behavioural and psychological interventions, but in recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in SCED methodology, driven in part by the development of standards for conducting and reporting SCED studies. Although there is consensus on some aspects of SCED methodology, the question of how SCED data should be analysed remains unresolved. This Special Issues includes two papers discussing aspects of conducting SCED studies, five papers illustrating use of SCED methodology in clinical practice, and nine papers that present different methods of SCED data analysis. A final Discussion paper summarises points of agreement, highlights areas where further clarity is needed, and ends with a set of resources that will assist researchers conduct and analyse SCED studies. PMID:24766415

  3. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating. PMID:19748938

  4. Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

  5. Theoretical design and experimental verification of a tunable floating vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunrong; Xu, Daolin; Ji, Jianfei

    2012-10-01

    A fluid-type floating vibration isolation system was developed based on anti-resonance mechanism. The mathematical model was derived for theoretical analysis. The system enables completely isolate vibration at any specific frequency, when the frequency of anti-resonance of the floating vibration isolation system is adjusted to the vibration frequency by tuning the added mass of flowing fluid. Since the approach only alters the inertial force of added mass rather than changing the entire system stiffness, the robustness of the system's static stability remains during a tuning process, and the system can perform vibration isolation superbly at very low frequencies. A prototype of fluid-type floating vibration isolation system was designed, built and tested to validate the mathematical model. The experimental results illustrated a good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris using orthogonal experimental design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Pan, Meng-Chun; Chang, Chao-Kai; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the optimization of the extraction conditions of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris by using ultrasonication. For this purpose, the orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate the effects of factors on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Four factors: extraction time (min), ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (°C) and extraction frequency (kHz), were studied. The results showed that the highest cordycepin yield of 7.04 mg/g (86.98% ± 0.23%) was obtained with an extraction time of 60 min, ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction temperature of 65 °C and extraction frequency of 56 kHz. It was found that the cordycepin extraction yield increased with the effect of ultrasonication during the extraction process. Therefore, UAE can be used as an alternative to conventional immersion extraction with respect to the recovery of cordycepin from C. militaris, with the advantages of shorter extraction time and reduced solvent consumption. PMID:25514223

  7. Design of organic scintillators for non-standard radiation field dosimetry: experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Norman H, Machado R; Maximiliano, Trujillo T; Javier E, García G; Diana C, Narvaez G; Paula A, Marín M; Róbinson A, Torres V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental setup designed for sensing the luminescent light coming from an organic plastic scintillator stimulated with ionizing radiation. This device is intended to be a part of a complete dosimeter system for characterization of small radiation fields which is the project of the doctoral thesis of the medical physicist at the Radiation Oncology facility of Hospital San Vicente Fundación in conjunction with the Universidad de Antioquia of Medellín Colombia. Some preliminary results predict a good performance of the unit, but further studies must be conducted in order to have a completed evaluation of the system. This is the first step in the development of an accuracy tool for measurement of non-standard fields in the Radiotherapy or Radiosurgery processes. PMID:24110369

  8. Experimental design to generate strong shear layers in a high-energy-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Visco, A.; Ditmar, J. R.

    2010-06-01

    The development of a new experimental system for generating a strong shear flow in a high-energy-density plasma is described in detail. The targets were designed with the goal of producing a diagnosable Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which plays an important role in the transition turbulence but remains relatively unexplored in the high-energy-density regime. To generate the shear flow the Nike laser was used to drive a flow of Al plasma over a low-density foam surface with an initial perturbation. The interaction of the Al and foam was captured with a spherical crystal imager using 1.86 keV X-rays. The selection of the individual targets components is discussed and results are presented.

  9. Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: brief review and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin D; Gast, David L

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of graphic displays of data is a cornerstone of studies using a single case experimental design (SCED). Data are graphed for each participant during a study with trend, level, and stability of data assessed within and between conditions. Reliable interpretations of effects of an intervention are dependent on researchers' understanding and use of systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to provide readers with a rationale for visual analysis of data when using a SCED, a step-by-step guide for conducting a visual analysis of graphed data, as well as to highlight considerations for persons interested in using visual analysis to evaluate an intervention, especially the importance of collecting reliability data for dependent measures and fidelity of implementation of study procedures. PMID:23883189

  10. A wideband fractal-inspired piezoelectric energy converter: design, simulation and experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnetti, Davide

    2013-09-01

    In order to develop self-powered wireless sensor nodes, many energy harvesting devices that are able to convert available ambient energy into electrical energy have been proposed in the literature. A promising technique, in terms of simplicity and high conversion efficiency, is the harvesting of ambient kinetic energy through piezoelectric materials. The aim of this work is to design and investigate the modal response and power output of a fractal-inspired, multi-frequency, piezoelectric energy converter. The converter is a square, thin sheet structure, characterized by a fractal geometry obtained through a pattern of cuts in the plate. There are two steps involved. First, a computational analysis of the converter is performed. Second, a physical prototype of the converter is built and its eigenfrequencies and power generation under different resistive loads are experimentally examined in the range from 0 to 120 Hz. The converter exhibits three eigenfrequencies and a good power output, particularly at the first eigenfrequency.

  11. Inferring the temperature dependence of population parameters: the effects of experimental design and inference algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Palamara, Gian Marco; Childs, Dylan Z; Clements, Christopher F; Petchey, Owen L; Plebani, Marco; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius equation, so that activation energy drives the temperature dependence of population parameters. We simulated different experimental designs and used different inference methods, varying the likelihood functions and other aspects of the parameter estimation methods. Finally, we applied the best performing inference methods to real data for the species Paramecium caudatum. The relative error of the estimates of activation energy varied between 5% and 30%. The fraction of habitat sampled played the most important role in determining the relative error; sampling at least 1% of the habitat kept it below 50%. We found that methods that simultaneously use all time series data (direct methods) and methods that estimate population parameters separately for each temperature (indirect methods) are complementary. Indirect methods provide a clearer insight into the shape of the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters; direct methods enable a more accurate estimation of the parameters of such functional forms. Using both methods, we found that growth rate and carrying capacity of Paramecium caudatum scale with temperature according to different activation energies. Our study shows how careful choice of experimental design and inference methods can increase the accuracy of the inferred relationships between temperature and population parameters. The comparison of estimation methods provided here can increase the accuracy of model predictions, with important implications in understanding and predicting the effects of temperature on the dynamics of populations. PMID:25558365

  12. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

  13. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

  14. Spray drying formulation of albendazole microspheres by experimental design. In vitro-in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Mamprin, María E; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Lamas, María C

    2015-02-01

    Both an experimental design and optimization techniques were carried out for the development of chitosan-pectin-carboxymethylcellulose microspheres to improve the oral absorption of albendazole as a model drug. The effect of three different factors (chitosan, pectin and carboxy methyl cellulose concentrations) was studied on five responses: yield, morphology, dissolution rate at 30 and 60?min, and encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. During the screening phase, the factors were evaluated in order to identify those which exert a significant effect. Simultaneous multiple response optimizations were then used to find out experimental conditions where the system shows the most adequate results. The optimal conditions were found to be: chitosan concentration, 1.00% w/v, pectin concentration 0.10% w/v and carboxymethylcellulose concentration 0.20% w/v. The bioavailability of the loaded drug in the optimized microspheres was evaluated in Wistar rats which showed an area under curve (AUC) almost 10 times higher than the pure drug. PMID:24237328

  15. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results. PMID:16843592

  16. Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction–diffusion system design and control

    PubMed Central

    Szalai, István; Cuiñas, Daniel; Takács, Nándor; Horváth, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction–diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries. PMID:23919126

  17. Experimental design of a loophole-free Bell test with spin qubits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Wehner, Stephanie; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Hanson, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    50 years ago, John Bell formulated his famous theorem. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects can reveal strong correlations that violate Bell's inequality. Until now, all experimental implementations of Bell's test required additional assumptions, that open the door for so-called loopholes. These loopholes are particularly important in a cryptography setting where Bell violations enable fully device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution and certified generation of randomness. Here we will present the experimental design of a Bell test, aimed at closing the detection loophole and addressing the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. We use two qubits associated with the electronic spin of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, separated far enough to allow space-like separation between the two qubits during their measurement. The heralded nature of our remote entanglement protocol and efficient qubit readout allow us to use all entangled pairs, avoiding the fair-sampling assumption. Finally, the free-will loophole is addressed by the use of fast random number generators.

  18. Taguchi approach for co-gasification optimization of torrefied biomass and coal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hung, Chen-I

    2013-09-01

    This study employs the Taguchi method to approach the optimum co-gasification operation of torrefied biomass (eucalyptus) and coal in an entrained flow gasifier. The cold gas efficiency is adopted as the performance index of co-gasification. The influences of six parameters, namely, the biomass blending ratio, oxygen-to-fuel mass ratio (O/F ratio), biomass torrefaction temperature, gasification pressure, steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F ratio), and inlet temperature of the carrier gas, on the performance of co-gasification are considered. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests that the O/F ratio is the most important factor in determining the performance and the appropriate O/F ratio is 0.7. The performance is also significantly affected by biomass along with torrefaction, where a torrefaction temperature of 300°C is sufficient to upgrade eucalyptus. According to the recommended operating conditions, the values of cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion at the optimum co-gasification are 80.99% and 94.51%, respectively. PMID:23907063

  19. An experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers of different designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilt, Stéphane; Tombez, Lionel; Tardy, Camille; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Maulini, Richard; Terazzi, Romain; Rochat, Michel; Südmeyer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present an experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) of different designs. By quantifying the high degree of correlation occurring between fluctuations of the optical frequency and voltage between the QCL terminals, we show that electrical noise is a powerful and simple mean to study noise in QCLs. Based on this outcome, we investigated the electrical noise in a large set of 22 QCLs emitting in the range of 7.6-8 ?m and consisting of both ridge-waveguide and buried-heterostructure (BH) lasers with different geometrical designs and operation parameters. From a statistical data processing based on an analysis of variance, we assessed that ridge-waveguide lasers have a lower noise than BH lasers. Our physical interpretation is that additional current leakages or spare injection channels occur at the interface between the active region and the lateral insulator in the BH geometry, which induces some extra noise. In addition, Schottky-type contacts occurring at the interface between the n-doped regions and the lateral insulator, i.e., iron-doped InP, are also believed to be a potential source of additional noise in some BH lasers, as observed from the slight reduction in the integrated voltage noise observed at the laser threshold in several BH-QCLs.

  20. Experimental design approach for identification of the factors influencing the ?-radiolysis of ion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rébufa, C.; Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dupuy, N.; Sergent, M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiolysis was investigated on a nuclear grade mixed bed ion exchange resin and its pure components under different irradiation conditions. Screening designs were performed to identify the factors influencing gas production after their ?-radiolysis and to compare their ?-degradation stability. Only hydrogen and trimethylamine quantities were considered as the response in the experimental designs. The other detected gases and water-soluble products were used to improve the resins degradation. Aerobic irradiation atmosphere decreased the H2g production of AmbOH, MB400, and amines. The water presence increased the H2g quantities for AmbH and decreased those for MB400 resin. Liquid water had no effect on H2g production from AmbOH but was favorable to increased amine production. The H2g production of AmbH increased with the absorbed dose that had little effect on the AmbOH resin. No impact of dose on the H2g production was detected for MB400 that appeared to be less degraded.

  1. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  2. Utilization of experimental integral data for the adjustment and uncertainty evaluation of reactor design quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.; Collins, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biases and uncertainties of calculated reactor design quantities caused by errors and uncertainties of basic parameters, such as neutron cross sections, fission spectra parameters, and prompt and delayed neutron yields, are large, and in most cases, exceed reactor design requirements. Errors and uncertainties due to models and methods approximations contribute as well. An extensive data base, with presently /approximately/300 experimental integral values from 28 critical assemblies, has been assembled at Argonne National Laboratory in order to provide improvements and to investigate both sources of uncertainties. Generalized-least-squares fitting is being used. The available large data base permitted the investigation of the influence of specific input data, the constraints of the covariance information, the selection of parameters, and the reliability of the predictions. It is shown that reliable improvements of calculated quantities like enrichment, breeding ratio, sodium void, control rod worth, power distribution, and material worth can be made. Substantial reductions of the uncertainties of these quantities, which are caused by the uncertainties of the basic parameters, are obtained in most cases. The FFTF uranium-metal-core conversion is the first application of the present effort. 21 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. An experimental loop design for the detection of constitutional chromosomal aberrations by array CGH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Comparative genomic hybridization microarrays for the detection of constitutional chromosomal aberrations is the application of microarray technology coming fastest into routine clinical application. Through genotype-phenotype association, it is also an important technique towards the discovery of disease causing genes and genomewide functional annotation in human. When using a two-channel microarray of genomic DNA probes for array CGH, the basic setup consists in hybridizing a patient against a normal reference sample. Two major disadvantages of this setup are (1) the use of half of the resources to measure a (little informative) reference sample and (2) the possibility that deviating signals are caused by benign copy number variation in the "normal" reference instead of a patient aberration. Instead, we apply an experimental loop design that compares three patients in three hybridizations. Results We develop and compare two statistical methods (linear models of log ratios and mixed models of absolute measurements). In an analysis of 27 patients seen at our genetics center, we observed that the linear models of the log ratios are advantageous over the mixed models of the absolute intensities. Conclusion The loop design and the performance of the statistical analysis contribute to the quick adoption of array CGH as a routine diagnostic tool. They lower the detection limit of mosaicisms and improve the assignment of copy number variation for genetic association studies. PMID:19925645

  4. Optimal Design of Electrostatic Probe via Finite Element Method and Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lu; Miao, Fang; Yu, Haiyong

    2012-10-01

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) at the interface of different materials has been systematically investigated with a effective analytical method and appropriate values of TCR are obtained by theoretical calculation with measured parameters. In this paper, a novel optimal design used to decrease TCR in model via increasing the conical degree of AL2O3 ceramic barrel is developed, results indicated the heat transfer capability of Langmuir Probe (LP) can be improved by using this configuration. Numerical simulation of transient-state thermal analysis by ANSYS and experimental investigation have been used to evaluate the thermal state of LP under different analytical conditions, comparison of simulated results with the top-middle part of LP prepared by Pyrolytic Graphite and Carbon Fiber Composite are presented and an explanation of temperature variation based on the changes of the simulated results with the top part of LP designed by different sizes are demonstrated. Many constructive suggestions have been brought forward to define the best suited material, structures and other characteristics in order to produce the type of LP with high performance and practicability.

  5. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF CREEP-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION IN FERRITIC SUPERALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Peter

    2014-12-31

    A new class of ferritic superalloys containing B2-type zones inside parent L21-type precipitates in a disordered solid-solution matrix, also known as a hierarchical-precipitatestrengthened ferritic alloy (HPSFA), has been developed for high-temperature structural applications in fossil-energy power plants. These alloys were designed by the addition of the Ti element into a previously-studied NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy (denoted as FBB8 in this study). In the present research, systematic investigations, including advanced experimental techniques, first-principles calculations, and numerical simulations, have been integrated and conducted to characterize the complex microstructures and excellent creep resistance of HPSFAs. The experimental techniques include transmission-electron microscopy, scanningtransmission- electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography, which provide detailed microstructural information of HPSFAs. Systematic tension/compression creep tests revealed that HPSFAs exhibit the superior creep resistance, compared with the FBB8 and conventional ferritic steels (i.e., the creep rates of HPSFAs are about 4 orders of magnitude slower than the FBB8 and conventional ferritic steels.) First-principles calculations include interfacial free energies, anti-phase boundary (APB) free energies, elastic constants, and impurity diffusivities in Fe. Combined with kinetic Monte- Carlo simulations of interdiffusion coefficients, and the integration of computational thermodynamics and kinetics, these calculations provide great understanding of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of HPSFAs. In addition to the systematic experimental approach and first-principles calculations, a series of numerical tools and algorithms, which assist in the optimization of creep properties of ferritic superalloys, are utilized and developed. These numerical simulation results are compared with the available experimental data and previous first-principles calculations, providing deep insight of creep mechanisms of the creep-resistant ferritic superalloys. With the above investigations, the HPSFA has been proved with superior creep resistance, and its microstructure, creep mechanism, and thermal/mechanical properties have been well studied and understood. In the future, HPSFAs with different additions and sizes of precipitates will be investigated and developed to further enhance the creep resistance of the ferritic superalloys and provide promising applications of the fossil-energy power plants.

  6. Phospholipase A(2)-catalyzed acylation of lysophospholipids analyzed by experimental design.

    PubMed

    Lux, Gabriele; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2014-10-01

    The catalytic potential of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for the synthesis of phospholipids with defined fatty acid structure in the sn-2 position has been underestimated hitherto because of very low conversion in most organic solvents. One of the most suitable solvents for PLA2-catalyzed phospholipid synthesis is glycerol. With the aim to analyze the effect of several interacting reaction parameters on the product yield, we studied the conversion of 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) with oleic acid as model reaction in mixtures of glycerol and methanol or ethanol by methods of experimental design. PLA2 from porcine pancreas (ppPLA2) and from bee venom (bvPLA2) were compared as catalysts. For each of the four systems, nine variables were evaluated using Plackett-Burman designs. The most significant four variables were used for subsequent modified D-optimal designs with 30 runs, yielding regression equations for describing the formation of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as a function of the variables. In both solvent systems ppPLA2 was more appropriate for the acylation reaction than bvPLA2. Methanol proved to be more convenient as co-solvent than ethanol. The catalysis by ppPLA2 was more sensitive toward the variables temperature and concentration of Tris-HCl, whereas the reaction time and enzyme activity were more important in the acylation by bvPLA2. Conversion up to 87 (ppPLA2) and 50% (bvPLA2) can be anticipated. PMID:25152418

  7. A method for robust process design based on direct minimization of expected loss applied to arc welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Richardson; Gary P. Maul

    2001-01-01

    Robust process design seeks to maximize the process performance, taking into account uncertainty in the “noise” factors that cannot be controlled. A methodology for robust process design is presented that is based on direct minimization of the expected loss. The proposed methods are compared with alternatives, including methods based on Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratios. Several formulations of the expected loss are

  8. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    PubMed

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments. PMID:22286321

  9. Engineering Design Education Program for Graduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Iida, Haruhiko

    The new educational methods of engineering design have attempted to improve mechanical engineering education for graduate students in a way of the collaboration in education of engineer and designer. The education program is based on the lecture and practical exercises concerning the product design, and has engineering themes and design process themes, i.e. project management, QFD, TRIZ, robust design (Taguchi method) , ergonomics, usability, marketing, conception etc. At final exercise, all students were able to design new product related to their own research theme by applying learned knowledge and techniques. By the method of engineering design education, we have confirmed that graduate students are able to experience technological and creative interest.

  10. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q., E-mail: lixq2002@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, G. H., E-mail: lixq2002@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics, State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xia, Z. W. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610225 (China); Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  11. Experimental Designs for Robust Detection of Effects in Genome-Wide Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Roderick D.

    2011-01-01

    In genome-wide association studies hundreds of thousands of loci are scanned in thousands of cases and controls, with the goal of identifying genomic loci underpinning disease. This is a challenging statistical problem requiring strong evidence. Only a small proportion of the heritability of common diseases has so far been explained. This “dark matter of the genome” is a subject of much discussion. It is critical to have experimental design criteria that ensure that associations between genomic loci and phenotypes are robustly detected. To ensure associations are robustly detected we require good power (e.g., 0.8) and sufficiently strong evidence [i.e., a high Bayes factor (e.g., 106, meaning the data are 1 million times more likely if the association is real than if there is no association)] to overcome the low prior odds for any given marker in a genome scan to be associated with a causal locus. Power calculations are given for determining the sample sizes necessary to detect effects with the required power and Bayes factor for biallelic markers in linkage disequilibrium with causal loci in additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. Significantly stronger evidence and larger sample sizes are required than indicated by traditional hypothesis tests and power calculations. Many reported putative effects are not robustly detected and many effects including some large moderately low-frequency effects may remain undetected. These results may explain the dark matter in the genome. The power calculations have been implemented in R and will be available in the R package ldDesign. PMID:21926296

  12. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use

    PubMed Central

    Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.; Bhadra, Narendra

    2011-01-01

    Nerve cuff electrodes are a principle tool of basic and applied electro-neurophysiology studies and are championed for their ability to achieve good nerve recruitment with low thresholds. We describe the design and method of fabrication for a novel circumpolar peripheral nerve electrode for acute experimental use. This cylindrical cuff-style electrode provides approximately 270 degrees of radial electrode contact with a nerve for each of an arbitrary number of contacts, has a profile that allows for simple placement and removal in an acute nerve preparation, and is designed for adjustment of the cylindrical diameter to ensure a close fit on the nerve. For each electrode, the electrical contacts were cut from 25 µm platinum foil as an array so as to maintain their positions relative to each other within the cuff. Lead wires were welded to each intended contact. The structure was then molded in silicone elastomer, after which the individual contacts were electrically isolated. The final electrode was curved into a cylindrical shape with an inner diameter corresponding to that of the intended target nerve. The positions of these contacts were well maintained during the molding and shaping process and failure rates during fabrication due to contact displacements were very low. Established electrochemical measurements were made on one electrode to confirm expected behavior for a platinum electrode and to measure the electrode impedance to applied voltages at different frequencies. These electrodes have been successfully used for nerve stimulation, recording, and conduction block in a number of different acute animal experiments by several investigators. PMID:21187115

  13. Optimization of process parameters for dimensional accuracy in an area-forming rapid prototyping system using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Chen, Kun-Ting; Su, Chun-Hao

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been extensively applied to build products in recent decades. The area-forming rapid prototyping is an emerging RP technology with the advantages of a simple procedure with a short processing time. With the expansion in fields of application, the strictness on product quality has also increased. The dimensional accuracy of a product is one of the most critical quality characteristics. In order to improve the dimensional accuracy of a product from an area-forming RP system, this study optimizes the seven factors via the Taguchi method, and the result is verified with an extra sample.

  14. Exploring multi-metal biosorption by indigenous metal-hyperresistant Enterobacter sp. J1 using experimental design methodologies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-Bin; Kao, Wei-Chen; Shi, Jun-Ji; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-05-01

    A novel experimental design, combining mixture design and response surface methodology (RSM), was developed to investigate the competitive adsorption behavior of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 able to tolerate high concentrations of a variety of heavy metals. Using the proposed combinative experimental design, two different experiment designs in a ternary metal biosorption system can be integrated to a succinct experiment and the number of experimental trials was markedly reduced from 38 to 26 by reusing the mutual experimental data. Triangular contour diagrams and triangular three-dimensional surface plots were generated to describe the ternary metal biosorption equilibrium data in mixture design systems. The results show that the preference of metal sorption of Enterobacter sp. J1 decreased in the order of Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+). The presence of other metals resulted in a competitive effect. The influence of the other two metals in ternary metal biosorption system can be easily determined by comparing the stray distance from the single metal biosorption. The behavior of competitive biosorption was successfully described and predicted using a combined Langmuir-Freundlich model along with new three-dimensional contour-surface plots. PMID:17913351

  15. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  16. Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Victoria N; Powell, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs. PMID:25263266

  17. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  18. Design and experimental demonstration of variable curvature mirror having a large saggitus variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Hui; Ren, Guorui; Wei, Jingxuan; Menke, Neimule

    2014-11-01

    Variable curvature mirror (VCM) is a simplified active optical component being capable of changing its curvature radius. Curvature radius variation within a wide range requires that the VCM should be able to generate a large saggitus variation. Besides that, the surface form accuracy should be maintained above a reasonable level. In this paper, a piezoelectric actuation based prototype VCM is designed, constructed and experimentally tested. The thickness of the K9 plane mirror is only 3mm over the full aperture of 100mm. Six piezoelectric actuators are fixed into a base plate and the head of each actuator is connected to an annular ring through the screw thread. With such a structure, the force provided by each actuator can be transformed to the mirror backside through this annular ring. With each actuator generating the same force, the curvature radius can be changed in a uniform way. At the mean time, the surface form accuracy could be adjusted one point by point to compensation asymmetric modes as well. Mathematical analysis and FEA (finite element analysis) are used together to demonstrate the theoretical correctness. Besides that, the prototype VCM is successfully constructed and experiments have been carried out to give a quantitative assessment on the saggitus variation.

  19. Design and experimental evaluation of adjustable bone plates for mandibular fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Thomas M; Slocum, Alexander H; Seldin, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Conventional bone plates are commonly used for surgical mandibular fracture fixation. Improper alignment between bone segments, however, can result in malocclusion. Current methods of fixation require a surgeon to visually align segments of bone and affix a metal plate using bone screws, after which little can be done to adjust alignment. A method of adjusting fracture alignment after plate placement, without screw removal, presents an improvement over costly and risky revision surgery. A modified bone plate has been designed with a deformable section to give surgeons the ability to reduce misalignments at the fracture site. The mechanics of deformation for various adjustment mechanisms was explored analytically, numerically, and experimentally to ensure that the adjustable plate is comparable to conventional bone plates. A static force of 358.8 N is required to deform the adjustable bone plate, compared with predicted values of 351 N using numerical simulation and 362 N using a simple beam theory. Dynamic testing was performed to simulate in vivo loading conditions and evaluate load-capacity in both deformed and un-deformed bone plates. Results indicate that bending stiffness of a rectangular bone plate is 709 N/mm, compared with 174 N/mm for an octagonal plate and 176 N/mm for standard plates. Once deformed, the rectangular and octagonal plates had a stiffness of 323 N/mm and 228 N/mm, respectively. Un-deformed and deformed adjustable bone plates have efficacy in bone segment fixation and healing. PMID:22036033

  20. Molecular design, synthesis and physical properties of novel Cytisine-derivatives - Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper presented a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study on the molecular drugs-design, synthesis, isolation, physical spectroscopic and mass spectrometric elucidation of novel functionalization derivatives of Cytisine (Cyt), using nucleosidic residues. Since these alkaloids have established biochemical profile, related the binding affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly ?7 sub-type, the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties allowed to evaluated the highlights of the biochemical hypothesises related the Schizophrenia. The anticancer activity of ?7 subtype agonists and the crucial role of the nucleoside-based medications in the cancer therapy provided opportunity for further study on the biochemical relationship between Schizophrenia and few kinds of cancers, which has been hypothesized recently. The physical electronic absorptions (EAs), circular dichroic (CD) and Raman spectroscopic (RS) properties as well as mass spectrometric (MS) data, obtained using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods under the positive single (MS) and tandem (MS/MS) modes of operation are discussed. Taking into account reports on a fatal intoxication of Cyt, the presented data would be of interest in the field of forensic chemistry, through development of highly selective and sensitive analytical protocols. Quantum chemical method is used to predict the physical properties of the isolated alkaloids, their affinity to the receptor loop and gas-phase stabilized species, observed mass spectrometrically.