Science.gov

Sample records for tail biopsy collection

  1. Adverse effects of vapocoolant and topical anesthesia for tail biopsy of preweanling mice.

    PubMed

    Braden, Gillian C; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-05-01

    Tail biopsy of laboratory mice for genotyping purposes has been studied extensively to develop refinements for this common procedure. Our prior work assessed tail vertebral development in different mouse strains (age, 3 to 42 d) and analyzed behavior and activity in mice (age, 21 to 45 d) biopsied under isoflurane anesthesia. To assess the effects of biopsy on preweanling mice, we here evaluated BALB/cAnNCrl mice (n = 80; age, 18 to 21 d) that received topical vapocoolant (ethyl chloride), topical anesthetic (Cetacaine), or isoflurane anesthesia before undergoing a 5-mm or sham biopsy. Control mice did not receive any anesthetic intervention. Regardless of the anesthetic used, acute observation scores indicative of distress were increased at 10 min after biopsy, and locomotor activity was decreased, in biopsied compared with control mice. Acute observation scores at 10 min after biopsy were higher in mice that received ethyl chloride compared with isoflurane or no anesthesia. Microscopic analysis revealed that inflammatory changes in the distal tail remained elevated until 7 d after biopsy and were higher in tails exposed to ethyl chloride. Our findings indicate that vapocoolant, topical anesthesia, and inhaled isoflurane do not enhance the wellbeing of preweanling mice undergoing tail biopsy. Due to the lack of appreciable benefits and the presence of notable adverse effects, using vapocoolants or Cetacaine for this tail biopsy procedure in laboratory mice is unadvisable and we encourage the removal of these agents from institutional tail biopsy guidelines. PMID:26045455

  2. Adverse Effects of Vapocoolant and Topical Anesthesia for Tail Biopsy of Preweanling Mice

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Gillian C; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Tail biopsy of laboratory mice for genotyping purposes has been studied extensively to develop refinements for this common procedure. Our prior work assessed tail vertebral development in different mouse strains (age, 3 to 42 d) and analyzed behavior and activity in mice (age, 21 to 45 d) biopsied under isoflurane anesthesia. To assess the effects of biopsy on preweanling mice, we here evaluated BALB/cAnNCrl mice (n = 80; age, 18 to 21 d) that received topical vapocoolant (ethyl chloride), topical anesthetic (Cetacaine), or isoflurane anesthesia before undergoing a 5-mm or sham biopsy. Control mice did not receive any anesthetic intervention. Regardless of the anesthetic used, acute observation scores indicative of distress were increased at 10 min after biopsy, and locomotor activity was decreased, in biopsied compared with control mice. Acute observation scores at 10 min after biopsy were higher in mice that received ethyl chloride compared with isoflurane or no anesthesia. Microscopic analysis revealed that inflammatory changes in the distal tail remained elevated until 7 d after biopsy and were higher in tails exposed to ethyl chloride. Our findings indicate that vapocoolant, topical anesthesia, and inhaled isoflurane do not enhance the wellbeing of preweanling mice undergoing tail biopsy. Due to the lack of appreciable benefits and the presence of notable adverse effects, using vapocoolants or Cetacaine for this tail biopsy procedure in laboratory mice is unadvisable and we encourage the removal of these agents from institutional tail biopsy guidelines. PMID:26045455

  3. Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of biopsies. A needle biopsy is called a percutaneous biopsy. It removes tissue using a needle attached ... Practice Parameter for the Performance of Image-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy (PNB). Amended 2014 (Resolution 39). Available ...

  4. Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

  5. Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Biopsy Share | Many medical conditions, not only cases ...

  6. Emergent Data-Networks from Long-Tail Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Hedstrom, M.; Myers, J. D.; Plale, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of scientific data coming from individuals and small research group activities, known as long-tail data, with the existing resources elucidates useful scientific knowledge. In general, long-tail data are irreplaceable, expensive to reproduce, infrequently reused, follow no predefined data model, and they are often bounded in different information systems. The contextual relationships across the many attributes among such data in a data collection are herewith defined as data-network. These relationships have the potential to provide deep insights for the scientific challenges that require multidisciplinary interaction by identifying a new data object in the broader context of other data objects, and characterizing its spatial and temporal dependencies with others. Despite the advancement that has been achieved in various geoscience information models, it is not always straightforward to identify and characterize the contextual relationships among long-tail data because information models focus on profiling data attributes more than exploring data tie-ins. To address this need, we have designed the Long Tail Data Networks (LTDN) engine, which depends on a context-based approach to analyze the data attributes, predict data contextual relationships, and publish these relationships as a RDF graph. The engine groups data using their geographic location in spatial collections, and applies binary logic predicates to analyze the spatial, temporal, and variable attributes associated with data entities of each spatial collection to infer their relationships. Here we present the design of the LTDN engine and demonstrate its application for predicting the latent connectivity among long-tail data collections. To demonstrate the capabilities of the engine, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that supports long-tail data curation and preservation, and show how relationships among datasets can be extracted. Results of this work demonstrates the capabilities of LTDN engine to predict the latent connectivity among long-tail geoscience data across their domain boundaries, as well as temporal and spatial windows to establish dynamic Web-based data-networks in the Semantic Web context.

  7. Culicoides (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) collected during epizootics of hemorrhagic disease among captive white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Stallknecht, D E

    1996-05-01

    To help determine specific vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) viruses for white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, in the southeastern United States, Culicoides sp. midges were collected during epizootics of hemorrhagic disease among captive white-tailed deer in Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina. Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett), a confirmed vector of EHD and BT viruses, was present in low numbers in light-trap collections made at all sites. Collections from deer made in Georgia and North Carolina yielded only a single specimen of C. variipennis. Other Culicoides species present in far greater numbers during the epizootics included C. lahillei Lutz, C. paraensis (Goeldi), and C. stellifer (Coquillett) C. lahillei warrants particular attention as a potential vector because its readily feeds on white-tailed deer and was by far the predominant species collected from deer during the epizootics. PMID:8667402

  8. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  9. The role of collecting bladder wash fluid before biopsy procedure to help the cytological diagnosis of residual tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kiliarslan, Aydan; Sng, Nuran; Balci, Serdar; Canda, Erdem; Altinova, Serkan; Gler, Glnur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary cytology has low sensitivity and specificity in urinary neoplasm. Aim: We planned to assess whether the examination of bladder washing before biopsy (WBB) plays a role in better cytologic diagnosis of bladder wash fluid collected after biopsy procedure (WAB) in papillary urothelial neoplasms. Materials and Methods: We included 36 patients with papillary lesion of bladder. Prior to the biopsy, the bladder is washed and fluid is collected for cytology; later transurethral resection (TUR) is performed, then bladders are washed again and the fluid is separately collected for cytology. Both fluids were centrifuged and stained with May-Grnwald Giemsa (MGG). First the WAB slides were evaluated and diagnosed. After evaluation of the WBB slides, the WAB slides were rediagnosed. Presence of cellularity, papillary structure, fusiform cells, background bleeding, and cytolysis in WBB and WAB were evaluated separately. Results: We determined that 31 WBB samples were hypercellular, and 12 of them remained as hypercellular in WAB. Papillary structures were observed in 20 WBB samples; and in one WAB cytology. In 29 cases where no fusiform cells are identified in WBB, 22 showed fusiform cells in WAB. Cytolysis in WABs was noted in 15 cases whose WBBs did not show cytolysis. The decrease in cellularity, papillary structure (P < 0.001, both), cytolysis (P = 0.008), and fusiform cells (P < 0.001) were statistically significant. After seeing the WBB slides, we reevaluated the WAB slides. Out of the eight out of 36 (22.2%) samples diagnosed with degeneration previously, five (62.5%) samples were rediagnosed as benign, two (25%) as cytologic atypia which favor reactive, and one (12.5%) as malignant. Conclusion: Due to the better quality, initial evaluation of WBB may help more effective diagnoses of WAB slides. PMID:26229243

  10. Recommendation for the collection and analysis of endometrial biopsies for hormone therapies.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, C; Gude, K; Alin?i?-Kunz, S; Schfers, M

    2012-02-01

    The assessment of endometrial safety is one of the key requirements for the clinical development of new products for hormone therapy (HT) to treat menopausal symptoms in women who have a uterus. Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provide detailed guidance on the requirements for the evaluation of biopsies to prove endometrial safety. However, there are some discrepancies between the European and the US requirements, making it difficult to fulfil both guidelines simultaneously. In order to facilitate multinational clinical trials performed within clinical programs to develop novel HT products, we developed an approach considering both guidance documents as far as possible and proposed solutions for issues that are inconsistently described in these guidelines. A table with the required sample sizes is given. Our recommendation for a unified approach for the estimation of the hyperplasia rate for hormone therapies fulfils the intent of the recommendations of both the FDA and the EMA and thus leads to a globally harmonized drug development for hormone therapies. PMID:21936612

  11. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Skin Biopsy ... Preparation The Procedure Safety Results What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  12. Tongue biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - tongue ... A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. You will get numbing medicine at the place where the ... provider will gently stick the needle into the tongue and remove a tiny piece of tissue. Some ...

  13. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  14. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... biopsy or incision site for about a week. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or other pain medications that do not interfere ... biopsy or incision site for about a week. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or other pain medications that do not ...

  15. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  16. Broad-tailed force distributions and velocity ordering in a heterogeneous membrane model for collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Sarkar, Sumantra; Das, Dibyendu; Inamdar, Mandar M.

    2012-07-01

    Correlated velocity patterns and associated large length-scale transmission of traction forces have been observed in collective live cell migration as a response to a wound. We argue that a simple physical model of a force-driven heterogeneous elastic membrane sliding over a viscous substrate can qualitatively explain a few experimentally observed facts: i) the growth of velocity ordering which spreads from the wound boundary to the interior; ii) the exponential tails of the traction force distributions; and iii) the swirling pattern of velocities in the interior of the tissue.

  17. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  18. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of liver disease. This is especially important in hepatitis C infection. The biopsy also helps detect: Cancer Infections ... Chronic persistent hepatitis Disseminated coccidioidomycosis ... D Hepatocellular carcinoma Hodgkin's lymphoma Non-alcoholic ...

  19. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  20. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

  1. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical ...

  2. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... egg in the lab. This process is called in vitro fertilization. Testicular biopsy may also be done if you have found a lump during testicular self-examination . If tests ... the lump may be in the testicle, surgery may be needed to look ...

  3. Evaluation of methods for the isolation of high quality RNA from bovine and cervine hide biopsies.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jaime L; Holman, Patricia J; Olafson, Pia U; Pruett, John H; Riggs, Penny K

    2013-02-01

    Molecular investigations of the ruminant response to ectoparasites at the parasite-host interface are critically dependent upon the quality of RNA. The complexity of ruminant skin decreases the capacity to obtain high quality RNA from biopsy samples, which directly affects the reliability of data produced by gene expression experiments. Two methods for isolating total RNA from skin were compared and the use of 4M guanidinium isothiocyanate (GITC) during frozen storage of the specimens was evaluated. In addition, the best procedure for RNA isolation from bovine skin punch biopsies was also tested on white-tailed deer skin biopsies. Skin biopsy punches were collected and frozen prior to pulverization for RNA isolation. Total RNA quantity and integrity were determined by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis technology, respectively. Significantly increased total RNA yield (P < 0.05) and higher integrity (P < 0.05) were obtained with a TRI Reagent isolation method. Freezing and subsequent storage of bovine skin punch biopsies in 4 M GITC did not affect the amount or integrity of total RNA recovered by either RNA isolation method. However, quantity and integrity of total RNA extracted with the TRI Reagent method were again significantly higher than with the alternate technique, confirming it as the superior method. The TRI Reagent isolation method also yielded high quality total RNA from white-tailed deer skin punch biopsies, suggesting the usefulness of this method for obtaining RNA of a quality suitable for gene expression studies in other ruminant species. PMID:22924936

  4. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  5. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stereotactic breast biopsy; Abnormal mammogram - stereotactic breast biopsy; Breast cancer - stereotactic breast biopsy ... situ Abnormal results may mean that you have breast cancer . Two main types of breast cancer may be ...

  6. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  7. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... biopsy - ultrasound; Breast cancer-breast biopsy - ultrasound; Abnormal mammogram - breast biopsy - ultrasound ... be done to evaluate abnormal findings on a mammogram , breast ultrasound , or during a physical exam. To ...

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  9. Heritability estimation of osteoarthritis in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) with a look toward future data collection

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peter B.; Duncan, Andrea E.; Kramer, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine heritability estimation of an ordinal trait for osteoarthritis, using a population of pig-tailed macaques from the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC). This estimation is non-trivial, as the data consist of ordinal measurements on 16 intervertebral spaces throughout each macaque’s spinal cord, with many missing values. We examine the resulting heritability estimates from different model choices, and also perform a simulation study to compare the performance of heritability estimation with these different models under specific known parameter values. Under both the real data analysis and the simulation study, we find that heritability estimates from an assumption of normality of the trait differ greatly from those of ordered probit regression, which considers the ordinality of the trait. This finding indicates that some caution should be observed regarding model selection when estimating heritability of an ordinal quantity. Furthermore, we find evidence that our real data have little information for valid heritability estimation under ordered probit regression. We thus conclude with an exploration of sample size requirements for heritability estimation under this model. For an ordinal trait, an incorrect assumption of normality can lead to severely biased heritability estimation. Sample size requirements for heritability estimation of an ordinal trait under the threshold model depends on the pedigree structure, trait distribution and the degree of relatedness between each phenotyped individual. Our sample of 173 monkeys did not have enough information from which to estimate heritability, but estimable heritability can be obtained with as few as 180 related individuals under certain scenarios examined here. PMID:24860700

  10. Design of collective Thomson scattering system using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kubo, S.; Kawahata, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Notake, T.

    2008-10-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system is expected to be a strong diagnostic tool for measuring thermal and fast ion distribution function at a local point inside plasmas. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system using a gyrotron at the frequency range of 77 GHz has been installed at the large helical device (LHD). The feasibility of CTS system using the 77 GHz gyrotron is assessed in terms of scattering spectrum and a background noise of the electron cyclotron emission, which affect the signal to noise ratio, with the realistic plasma parameters and incident port locations of LHD. Based on the calculated scattering spectra for bulk and tail fast ion diagnostics, the scattering radiation receiver system with gyrotron frequency feedback circuit is proposed to avoid the frequency chirping.

  11. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  12. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. ...

  13. Transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed T; Gomella, Leonard G

    2013-11-01

    Grayscale transrectal ultrasonographic prostate biopsy using local anesthesia remains the standard approach to the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Careful patient evaluation and preparation are essential to maximize the results and minimize the complications of the biopsy procedure. PMID:24182969

  14. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  15. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  16. Skin biopsy: Biopsy issues in specific diseases.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M; Stratman, Erik J; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis may result from biopsy site selection, technique, or choice of transport media. Important potential sources of error include false-negative direct immunofluorescence results based on poor site selection, uninformative biopsy specimens based on both site selection and technique, and spurious interpretations of pigmented lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancer based on biopsy technique. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article addresses common pitfalls involving site selection and biopsy technique in the diagnosis of bullous diseases, vasculitis, panniculitis, connective tissue diseases, drug eruptions, graft-versus-host disease, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, hair disorders, and neoplastic disorders. Understanding these potential pitfalls can result in improved diagnostic yield and patient outcomes. PMID:26702794

  17. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

  18. Delayed culture of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Pratlong, F; Pradinaud, R; Moreau, B

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1997 and October 1998, 16 skin biopsies collected from 13 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana were inoculated in culture medium after travel for 3-17 days from the place of biopsy to the culture laboratory in France. Each biopsy fragment was introduced near the flame of a Bunsen burner into the transport medium (RPMI medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum) which was maintained at ambient temperature during postal delivery to France. In France the biopsies were ground in sterile saline before being inoculated into NNN culture tubes. The cultures were incubated at 25 degrees C and subcultured every week until the 5th week. The cultures were positive in 9 cases, remained negative in 4, and were contaminated in 3 cases. Positive results were obtained at all seasons and for 3 different Leishmania species. The study indicates that delayed culture can yield useful results from biopsies taken in field conditions. PMID:10717763

  19. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  20. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale Cysts of the lung Pulmonary hypertension ...

  1. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. ... the next step is to find the lymph node closest to the tumor site and retrieve it ...

  2. Biopsy catheter (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examination, a heart biopsy can be performed. A catheter is carefully threaded into an artery or vein to gain access into the heart. A bioptome (catheter with jaws in its tip) is then introduced. ...

  3. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  4. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal result means there are no signs of cancer, disease, or infection in the biopsy sample. ... cholangiocarcinoma ) Cysts in the liver Liver cancer Pancreatic cancer Swelling and scarring of the bile ducts ( primary sclerosing cholangitis )

  5. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  6. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  7. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy in pancreatic tumor diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyng, Chiang J; Almeida, Maria Fernanda A; Barbosa, Paula NV; Bitencourt, Almir GV; Berg, José Augusto AG; Maciel, Macello S; Coimbra, Felipe JF; Schiavon, Luiz Henrique O; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Guimarães, Marcos D; Zurstrassen, Charles E; Chojniak, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the techniques, results, and complications related to computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions. METHODS: CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions performed at a cancer reference center between January 2012 and September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Biopsy material was collected with a 16-20 G Tru-Core needle (10-15 cm; Angiotech, Vancouver, CA) using a coaxial system and automatic biopsy gun. When direct access to the lesion was not possible, indirect (transgastric or transhepatic) access or hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection maneuvers were used. Characteristics of the patients, lesions, procedures, and histologic results were recorded using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 103 procedures included in the study were performed on patients with a mean age of 64.8 year (range: 39-94 year). The mean size of the pancreatic lesions was 45.5 mm (range: 15-195 mm). Most (75/103, 72.8%) procedures were performed via direct access, though hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection were used in 22.2% (23/103) of cases and indirect transhepatic or transgastric access was used in 4.8% (5/103) of cases. Histologic analysis was performed on all biopsies, and diagnoses were conclusive in 98.1% (101/103) of cases, confirming 3.9% (4/103) of tumors were benign and 94.2% (97/103) were malignant; results were atypical in 1.9% (2/103) of cases, requiring a repeat biopsy to diagnose a neuroendocrine tumor, and surgical resection to confirm a primary adenocarcinoma. Only mild/moderate complications were observed in 9/103 patients (8.7%), and they were more commonly associated with biopsies of lesions located in the head/uncinate process (n = 8), than of those located in the body/tail (n = 1) of the pancreas, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: CT-guided biopsy of a pancreatic lesion is a safe procedure with a high success rate, and is an excellent option for minimally invasive diagnosis. PMID:25834323

  8. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision. PMID:12546176

  9. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are you scheduled for a biopsy? Are you eating gluten? Any changes in your diet can affect the accuracy of your biopsy results. It is necessary for you to be eating gluten every day for at least 4-8 ...

  10. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  11. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  12. Open Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Norman C.; Strangway, Donald W.

    1964-01-01

    Steady improvement in the diagnostic appraisal of obscure pulmonary and mediastinal disease has permitted more intelligent treatment, better prognosis, and where necessary more accurate assessment of compensability. Open lung biopsy is designed to obtain material for pathological study when there is no pleural, mediastinal, or airway lesion on which to base a working diagnosis. A study of 54 patients in whom lung biopsy was performed at the Toronto General Hospital and Weston Sanatorium is reported. A positive tissue diagnosis was obtained in approximately 75%. The procedure is considered relatively innocuous if sensible selection is exercised to exclude patients with terminal disease, particularly that associated with severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. No major complications occurred in this series. It is concluded that open lung biopsy might reasonably receive much wider application than in the past in cases in which a definite diagnosis cannot otherwise be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14180532

  13. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  14. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required.

  15. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Context .- There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective .- To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design .- The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results .- Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions .- We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  16. Transthoracic image guided biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dick, R.

    1988-01-01

    Transthoracic image guided biopsy is now firmly established in the armamentarium of diagnostic tests to establish the nature of a mass in the lung, pleura, mediastinum or chest wall. It may be performed under computed tomographic, ultrasonic or fluoroscopic control, and provided a fine needle technique is employed, morbidity is low. Worldwide reports show a 90% true positive yield and a false positive rate of less than 1%. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3249699

  17. Mira's Tail There All Along

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered an exceptionally long comet-like tail of material trailing behind Mira -- a star that has been studied thoroughly for about 400 years. So, why had this tail gone unnoticed for so long? The answer is that nobody had scanned the extended region around Mira in ultraviolet light until now.

    As this composite demonstrates, the tail is only visible in ultraviolet light (top), and does not show up in visible light (bottom). Incidentally, Mira is much brighter in visible than ultraviolet light due to its low surface temperature of about 3,000 kelvin (about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit).

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer, one of NASA's Small Explorer class missions, is the first all-sky survey in ultraviolet light. It found Mira's tail by chance during a routine scan. Since the mission's launch more than four years ago, it has surveyed millions of galaxies and stars. Such vast collections of data often bring welcome surprises, such as Mira's unusual tail.

    The visible-light image is from the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope in Australia, via the Digitized Sky Survey, a program affiliated with the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.

  18. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  19. [Pulmonary biopsy in interstitial pneumopathies].

    PubMed

    Kuffer, T; Kapanci, Y

    1981-12-01

    1119 pulmonary biopsies (two thirds open) have been performed in 108 patients with signs of diffuse interstitial disease of the lung. The results showed 29 cases of fibrosing alveolitis, 4 of granulomatous alveolitis, 8 of diffuse interstitial fibrosis, 12 of eosinophilic granuloma, 12 of pneumoconiosis, 16 of sarcoidosis, and 38 with other pulmonary lesions. Biopsy via thoracotomy is the best diagnostic technique, with a 97.4% yield; with transparietal biopsies the yield is 81% and with transbronchial biopsies 60%. Histology permits exact diagnosis in all pneumopathies except fibrosing alveolitis. In this case the pathologist guides the clinician's investigations towards a search for an allergic etiology. PMID:6977183

  20. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  1. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue ... a microscope slide. The specimen is stained with crystal violet stain and goes through more processing before ...

  2. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

  3. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  4. Arterioportal Fistula Following Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    JABBOUR, NICOLAS; REYES, JORGE; ZAJKO, ALBERT; NOUR, BAKR; TZAKIS, ANDREAS G.; STARZL, THOMAS E.; VAN THIEL, DAVID H.

    2010-01-01

    Liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure which is utilized frequently in liver transplant recipients. Here we report the experience of the University of Pittsburgh with an unusual complication of this procedure occurring in liver transplant recipients. PMID:7729261

  5. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

  6. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagaria, Sanjay P.; Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are critical for surgical expertise with SN biopsy. PMID:20512942

  7. [Renal biopsy of nephrologic origin. Report of 283 biopsies].

    PubMed

    Blasco Casares, F J; Pinsach Elias, L; Ibarz Servio, L; Valero Milin, J; Areal Calama, J; Bucar Terrades, S; Saladi Roig, J M

    1991-01-01

    Two techniques are utilized for renal biopsy (RB): open renal biopsy (ORB) and percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). We reviewed 283 renal biopsies: 140 ORBs and 143 PRBs. The number of glomeruli obtained were 34.6 and 13.4, respectively. Sufficient biopsy material for the pathological analyses was obtained in 100% of the ORBs and 91% of the PRBs. These were diagnostic in 98.5% and 91%, respectively. The two groups were significantly different. Patients submitted to ORB had a worse general condition (analytically more uremic and anemic). The creatinine and urea values prior to RB were higher for the complicated ORB group versus the overall ORB group. Statistically, the complicated ORB group is related with hyperpotassemia and hypernatremia. The sodium values were higher and the urea values were lower for the complicated ORB group, although we believe the foregoing findings to have no clinical value. The remaining analytical studies were not different for the groups or subgroups of the present study. PMID:1772271

  8. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

  9. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  10. Estimating tail probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  11. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail around high activity comets. We present a brief overview of neutral sodium tail observations to date and discuss the importance of theoretical modelling in understanding these data. We have developed a new, 3D Monte-Carlo model of cometary sodium that incorporates several advancements over previous models. It includes weightings due to solar flux variation with heliocentric distance, and comprehensive handling of the Swings and Greenstein effects on the neutral sodium tail, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets. Some preliminary results from this model are presented, including predictions of the structure of the eagerly anticipated neutral sodium tail at Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  12. An approach to duodenal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Serra, S; Jani, P A

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis. PMID:16679353

  13. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  15. Geochemistry of Metals from mine tailing in Taxco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; ARMIENTA, A.; BARRERA, M.; TALAVERA, O.; HERNANDEZ, E.

    2001-12-01

    The mining district of Taxco in Central Mexico has been exploited since prehispanic times. The processing of metals produced tailings with high heavy metal concentrations. Those tailings constitute a potential risk to the environment. To assess the effects of the mine tailing on water quality, tailing samples and water samples from rivers, wells and tailing effluents were collected and analyzed for Cu, Zn, As and Pb. Metals were analyzed with by ICP-MS. Tailing samples were leached with water to determine pH and sulfate concentration. The highest metal contents were found in the samples with a pH acid. As, Pb and Zn are over the drinking water standards in some of the water samples.

  16. Comparison of detection of Bovine virus diarrhea virus antigen in various types of tissue and fluid samples collected from persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    VanderLey, Brian; Ridpath, Julia; Sweiger, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most infections in susceptible animals are acquired from animals persistently infected with the virus. Surveillance programs rely on skin biopsies of persistently infected (PI) cattle to detect the infection. The purpose of this study was to compare antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) testing results using different types of samples from PI animals. The intent was to determine comparative detection rates in types of samples that are frequently submitted to diagnostic laboratories for evaluation of cases of unknown etiology or samples that could be easily collected for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) screening. Eight types of samples were collected from 40 PI animals. The sample types were ear notches, serum, nasal swabs, conjunctival swabs, oral swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal/preputial swabs, and a tail skin fold biopsy. Each type of sample (n ?=? 8) for each animal (n ?=? 40) was evaluated with a commercial ACE kit. When using ACE, tail-skin fold and nasal swab samples were 100% sensitive compared with results using ear notches. Sensitivity using other samples was as follows: serum and vaginal/preputial swabs, 92%; conjunctival swabs, 64%; rectal swabs, 10%; oral swabs, 8%. Testing of tail skin fold biopsies, nasal swabs, and ear notch samples resulted in reliable results. In contrast, other sample types were unreliable for diagnosis of persistent infection in calves. PMID:21217032

  17. Biopsies

    MedlinePLUS

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  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  19. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Saved Articles My ACS Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  20. Assessment of leaching from lead mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Raised bed test plots containing 15-20 cm of mine tailings from the Old Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri were used in studying the effects of cover materials on leaching of Pb, Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents from the tailings. The following cover materials, chosen to simulate the effects of vegetative stabilization of tailings piles, were studied: anaerobically digested sewage sludge (''S''), silver maple leaves (''L''), sod (''G''), fertilizer/seed mixture (''F''), and untreated (''U''). The plots were situated outdoors, and the rainfall leachates collected in vinyl receiving pools. Comparison of filtrable metal concentrations in leachates utilized the Bonferroni multiple comparison method (p < 0.05) applied to ranked data. The following effects were observed during the first study season: Pb-L > U > F; Cd-S-L > U; Zn-S > U > F. During the second season, leaching of Pb and Zn from the leaf covered plot was greater than from the control plot.

  1. Bone marrow biopsy from the flipper of a dolphin.

    PubMed

    Itou, Takuya; Koie, Hiroshi; Segawa, Takao; Kato, Masako; Yanagisawa, Makio; Ueda, Keiichi; Kuwano, Ryo; Suzuki, Miwa; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-08-01

    To find macroscopically palpable bone marrow cavities in dolphins is difficult because of their extremely retrogressive limbs and pelvis and because they do not contain abundant modular cavities (as in terrestrial mammals) that can serve as sites for bone marrow biopsies. Three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of dolphin skeletons suggests that bone marrow could be harvested from the humerus and radius. In this report, post-mortem paracentesis of the humerus from a captive rough-toothed dolphin using a biopsy needle provided a marrow preparation containing myelocytes, erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. This type of bone marrow collection from the flipper might be useful for clinical diagnostic work in cetaceans. PMID:19553147

  2. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

  3. Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications. PMID:24436527

  4. Microvillous inclusion disease diagnosed by gastric biopsy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Niranjan; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin; Kumar, Manish; Jana, Atanu Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Protracted diarrhea in neonates is uncommon and usually requires an intestinal biopsy for etiological diagnosis. Gastric biopsy has not been used in the routine diagnosis of this condition. We report the first documented patient with microvillous inclusion disease from India, where the diagnosis was established by a gastric biopsy. PMID:22318102

  5. For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACS » For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy Benign breast conditions: Not all lumps are cancer Diagnostic tests for breast conditions Types of biopsy ...

  6. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Prostate Biopsy for the Interventional Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Amalou, Hayet; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Yan, Pingkun; Kruecker, Jochen; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are usually performed by urologists in the office setting using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The current standard of care involves obtaining 10–14 cores from different anatomical sections. These biopsies are usually not directed into a specific lesion as most prostate cancers are not visible on TRUS. Color-Doppler, ultrasound contrast agents, elastography, MRI, and MRI/ultrasound fusion are proposed as imaging methods to guide prostate biopsies. Prostate MRI and fusion biopsy create opportunities for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to play an increasingly important role in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, targeted biopsy, surveillance and focal therapy of the prostate cancer patient. PMID:24581731

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Majithia, Raj; Diehl, David L.; Baron, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    Liver biopsy remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis and management of liver disorders. Results of liver biopsy can often drive therapeutic decision-making. Unfortunately, studies have shown conventional biopsy techniques to carry significant sampling variability that can potentially impact patient care. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is gaining traction as an alternative method of biopsy. For parenchymal disease, it can decrease sampling variability. It offers a more targeted approach for focal lesions. Its diagnostic yield and limited adverse event profile make it a promising approach for liver biopsy. PMID:26020041

  9. Efficient utilization of washery tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadov, V.V.; Litmanovich, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The quality and quantity of coal recoverable from jigging machine tailings from the washeries at the Makeevha and Yasinovka Coke Works was investigated. Recleaning of tailings from these washeries can provide over 5 X 10/sup 5/ ton/year of coal suitable for use as an energy fuel. Tailings were processed using a dense medium separator.

  10. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Kpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  11. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  12. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  13. Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    See, Teik Choon; Thompson, Barbara C.; Howie, Alexander J.; Karamshi, M.; Papadopoulou, Anthie M.; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient was temporarily dialyzed; the remaining patient required ureteric stenting. In conclusion, TJRB provides an adequate yield for diagnosis. Complication rates are relatively high, but patients are also at high risk from the conventional percutaneous approach. Patient selection and optimization are critical to avoid major complications.

  14. Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 μmol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

  15. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Welsh pony embryos after biopsy and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Guignot, F; Reigner, F; Perreau, C; Tartarin, P; Babilliot, J M; Bed'hom, B; Vidament, M; Mermillod, P; Duchamp, G

    2015-11-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and embryo cryopreservation are important tools to improve genetic management in equine species with marked consequences on the economic value, health, biodiversity, and preservation of the animals. This study aimed to develop a biopsy method at the blastocyst stage that provides viable genotyped cryopreserved Welsh pony embryos. Embryos were collected at d 6.75 to 7 after ovulation. Biopsies were performed with either a microblade or a micropipette. After biopsy, embryos were cryopreserved. The survival rate of biopsied embryos was evaluated on fresh and cryopreserved embryos either 24 h after in vitro culture or after transfer to recipients. Fresh and nonbiopsied embryos were used as controls. Sex, coat color genes, myotony (neuromuscular disorder) diagnosis, and markers of parentage were investigated using PCR on biopsied cells after whole-genome amplification and on remaining embryos. The embryo survival rate after transfer was not affected by the micropipette biopsy (50%, = 8; 43%, = 7; and 50%, = 12, at d 30 for fresh biopsied embryos, vitrified biopsied embryos, and control embryos, respectively) but was significantly reduced by the use of microblade biopsy: 9 ( = 11) vs. 67% ( = 12) for control embryos. Successful sex determination was achieved for 82% ( = 28) of the micropipette biopsies and 100% ( = 50) of the microblade biopsies. Sex determined on biopsied cells was found to correspond completely (100%) with that determined on the remaining embryo ( = 37). More than 90% of the parentage checking markers, coat color, and myotony diagnosis were successfully determined on biopsies obtained with either a micropipette or a microblade. Mendelian incompatibility (7.5 and 5.5%) and embryo genotyping errors (6.6 and 8.6%) were low and not significantly different between the 2 methods. In conclusion, for the first time, pregnancy at Day 30 was obtained after transfer of Welsh pony biopsied and vitrified embryos >300 ?m in diameter to recipient pony mares. The biopsied cells collected enabled multigenetic embryo diagnoses to be performed to a high degree of accuracy. The micropipette biopsy is the better method to apply on Welsh pony embryos. PMID:26641042

  16. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from VimSilverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  17. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  18. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  19. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Dez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

  20. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  1. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  2. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology: Results of 1836 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Hamidi, Nurullah; Suer, Evren; Tangal, Semih; Huseynov, Adil; Ibi?, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the role of NLR prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated data of patients underwent prostate biopsy between May 2005 and March 2015. We collected the following data: age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy histology, Gleason score (GS) in prostate cancer patients, neutrophil counts, and lymphocyte counts. Patients were grouped as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The Chi square test was used to compare categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for continuous variables. Results: Data of 1836 patients were investigated. The mean age, total PSA and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the population were 66.8 8.17 years, 9.38 4.7 ng/dL, and 3.11 1.71, respectively. Patients were divided as follows: 625 in the group with BPH history, 600 in the prostatitis group, and 611 in the prostate cancer histology group. The mean NLR of the prostatitis group was higher compared to the prostate cancer and BPH groups (p = 0.0001). The mean NLR of the prostate cancer group was significantly higher compared to the BPH group (p = 0.002). The GS 810 group had a significantly higher mean NLR compared to GS 56 (3.64 vs. 2.54, p = 0.0001) and GS 7 (3.64 vs. 2.58, p = 0.0001) patients. Conclusions: NLR was found to differ with regard to histology of prostate biopsy and higher GS was associated with higher NLR in patients with prostate cancer. However prostatitis prevents the use of NLR in predicting prostate cancer before a prostate biopsy. Also, the retrospective nature and lack of multivariate analysis in this study somewhat limits the relevance of these results. PMID:26600880

  3. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  5. Improving clay-based tailings disposal: Case study on coal tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Kretser, R. de; Scales, P.J.; Boger, D.V.

    1997-07-01

    The role of swelling clays in hindering the compressional dewatering characteristics of coal-mine tailings is examined. The effects of electrolyte concentration and ion exchange in improving the shear and compressional rheology are compared. Suspensions studied include actual mine tailings (thickener feed and thickener underflow) as well as synthetic clay dispersions made from clay collected from the coal seam. It was shown that the most important parameter in controlling the properties of the tailings suspension is controlled dispersion in the presence of a Ca{sup 2+} electrolyte concentration in excess of that required to (1) prevent initial swelling and (2) provide full cation exchange of the clay. Under these electrolyte conditions, complete delamination of the clay did not occur, and both the dewatering and handling characteristics of the resultant suspensions improved dramatically.

  6. Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Jung, Sang-Ok; Cho, Min-Ji; Kang, Da-Hyun; Chung, Chae-Uk; Park, Dong-Il; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from mesothelial surfaces of the pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, tunica vaginalis, or pericardium. Typically, pleural fluid cytology or closed pleural biopsy, surgical intervention (video thoracoscopic biopsy or open thoracotomy) is conducted to obtain pleural tissue specimens. However, endobronchial lesions are rarely seen and cases diagnosed from bronchoscopic biopsy are also rarely reported. We reported the case of a 77-year-old male who was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma on bronchoscopic biopsy from obstructing masses of the endobronchial lesion. PMID:26175790

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Diagnostic needle muscle biopsy. A practical and reliable alternative to open biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Heckmatt, J Z; Moosa, A; Hutson, C; Maunder-Sewry, C A; Dubowitz, V

    1984-01-01

    The technique of needle muscle biopsy using the Bergstr m needle has been in routine use in our muscle clinic since 1978. In an initial feasibility study 24 children had a needle and an open biopsy performed simultaneously through extension of the same incision and 22 had identical interpretation of the needle and open biopsies. Needle biopsies have subsequently been performed in 674 children and have been satisfactory for diagnostic assessment in 656. The samples have been of adequate size and comparable in quality to our previous open biopsies, with good preservation and orientation. Needle muscle biopsy under local anaesthetic is quicker and less traumatic than open biopsy and leaves only a very small scar. Sufficient muscle can be obtained for routine histological, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic diagnosis, as well as for specialised biochemical and research purposes. There seems little justification for the continued use of open biopsy for routine investigation of neuromuscular disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6742872

  9. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  10. [Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thvenon, A; Rouaix, N; Valle, L

    2013-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415children by a retrospective study of 419biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16cases. In 184patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise orientation in 45% of patients, leading to a genetic hypothesis. PMID:23993361

  11. Multiple biopsies are superior to a single biopsy in detecting cervical cancer precursors

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopyvisual inspection of the cervixis more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach may help to detect disease early and avoid repeated biopsies for women with initial negative findings, according to a new study by Nicolas Wentzensen, M.D., Ph.D., in DCEG's Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, and colleagues.

  12. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  13. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann–Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants. We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing “medullary tissue only” were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk). In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  15. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-02-01

    Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication.All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann-Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants.We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing "medullary tissue only" were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk).In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  16. Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

  17. Clinical usefulness of temporal artery biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, J; Gonzlez, A; Cid, M C; Lopez-Vivancos, J; Ortega, A

    1987-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic usefulness of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis (TA) and establish clinical features capable of predicting its positivity we have retrospectively studied the biopsy specimens and the clinical features of 103 patients who had undergone temporal artery biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy reached a positive predictive value of 90.2% with respect to the final diagnosis based on the criteria proposed by Ellis and Ralston and the clinical course. The simultaneous presence of recent onset headache, jaw claudication, and abnormalities of the temporal arteries on physical examination had a specificity of 94.8% with respect to the histological diagnosis and of 100% with respect to final diagnosis. The presence of any of these clinical features, though of little specificity (34.4%), had a sensitivity of 100% with respect to histological diagnosis, selecting a group of patients in whom temporal artery biopsy has more discriminative value. PMID:3592783

  18. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  19. Molecular profile of liquid biopsies: next generation biomarkers to improve lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Molecular profiling of liquid biopsies is now emerging as pivotal for cancer biomarker discovery. The low-invasive nature of the approach used for collecting biospecimens (i.e. blood, urine, saliva, etc.) may allow a widespread application of novel molecular diagnostics based on liquid biopsies. This is relevant, for example, in cancer screening programmes where it is essential to reduce costs and the complexity of screening tests in order to increase study compliance and effectiveness. Here, I discuss recent advances in biomarkers for the early cancer detection and prediction of chemotherapy response based on the molecular profiling of liquid biopsies. PMID:26635902

  20. Lift generation by the avian tail.

    PubMed

    Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

    2001-07-22

    Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

  1. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  2. Stereofluoroscopic image-guided robotic biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Minyan; Liu, Hong; Tao, Gang; Fajardo, Laurie L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the key techniques of a stereo- fluoroscopic image-guided robotic biopsy system: 3D position reconstruction, 3D path planning, path registration and robot trajectory control with safety considerations. This system automatically adjusts the needle inserting path according to a real-time 3D position error feedback. This system is particularly applicable to the soft tissue and organ biopsy, with advantages of increased accuracy, short completion time and minimum invasiveness to the patient. Simulation shows the safety and accuracy of this robotic biopsy system.

  3. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  4. Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

    2013-02-01

    Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

  5. The relationship of GH and LEP gene polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in fat-tailed Makooei breed of Iranian sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hajihosseinlo, Abbas; Jafari, Shoja; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the association of GH and LEP genes’ single-nucleotide polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in Makooei sheep. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from whole blood samples collected from 100 sheep. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were collected at the Makooei Sheep Breeding Station in Makoo (36°, 35′S and 48°, 22′E) of West Azerbaijan province. Climatically, this location has temperate summers and cold winters and receives a mean annual rainfall of about 400 mm. Ewes are raised in an annual breeding cycle starting in September. In general, the flock is managed under a semi-migratory system. Results: In the tested Makooei sheep population, significant statistical results were found in all traits of fat-tail measurements for GH and LEP genes. Individuals with the G4, L4 genotype of GH and LEP genes had lower tail length (rump length), fat thickness (the thick rump), and tail width (rump width) when compared to those of individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that individuals with the G5, L5 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail length (rump length) and fat thickness (the thick rump) compared to those individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Individuals with the G2, L2 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail width (rump width) compared individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results confirmed potential usefulness of GH and LEP genes in marker-assisted selection programs of sheep breeding. PMID:26605211

  6. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  7. [Renal mass biopsy: usefulness and indications].

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Jos; Schwartz, Julien; De Perot, Thomas; Valle, Jean-Paul; Iselin, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    Whereas renal biopsy is routinely performed in nephrology for the management of renal failure or follow-up of kidney grafts, it has historically been seldom used in urology for the work-up of kidney tumours because of its low yield. Since a few years however, some authors recommend to biopsy select renal lesions to improve their diagnosis and management. Indeed, biopsy technique has evolved, leading to better tissue sampling. Moreover, the risk of tumoral seeding of the needle tract has proven to be negligeable. Renal biopsy appears now to be useful for managing atypical solid renal lesions, those < or =3 cm, possible neoplastic lesions in solitary kidneys, bilateral renal tumours, putative renal metastasis, so as lesions in functionally deficient kidneys. PMID:21290868

  8. Muscle Biopsy Evaluation in Neuromuscular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Nanette C.; Oskarsson, Bjrn; Jin, Lee-Way

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Muscle biopsy is a commonly ordered diagnostic procedure, used by clinicians who evaluate patients with weakness suspected to be caused by muscle disease. This article reviews the indications for a muscle biopsy, and then serves as a step-by-step guide reviewing the processes of muscle selection through to interpreting the biopsy report. The goal of this article is to aid the clinician in preparing for a muscle biopsy procedure so that they may avoid common pitfalls and obtain optimal results from this minimally invasive procedure. We review the basic anatomical structure of normal muscle to provide a foundation for understanding common patterns of pathologic change observed in muscle disease, and then present both common and disease-specific histopathologic findings, focused for illustrative purposes on a select group of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:22938878

  9. [New technique of liver biopsy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ordnung, W; Fischer, R

    1980-12-01

    A new one way set of instruments for liver biopsy (Histocan) dissects a neat cylinder of liver parenchyma harbouring it in a special reservoir. Manipulation of Histocan is very well controllable, independent of timing, and easy to perform, making it an ideal biopsy instrument for laparoscopy. since it is a one way set, sharpening and gliding qualities are invariably good, and better prophylaxis of infection is possible. PMID:6456394

  10. Case Report: Ischaemic appendicitis post mesenteric biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zukiwskyj, Marianna; Tun, June; Desai, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    A common indication for laparoscopic mesenteric lymph node biopsy is to provide a tissue diagnosis in the absence of palpable peripheral nodes via a minimally invasive approach. There are no reports to date of ischaemia to the appendix as a complication of this procedure. We report the case of a 34-year-old lady who underwent a mesenteric biopsy for a lesion found incidentally on CT to investigate longstanding abdominal pain, and 2 days later required an appendicectomy for ischaemic appendicitis.

  11. Efficient utilization of washery tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadov, V.V.; Litmanovich, I.M.

    1982-05-01

    The possibility of building a plant in Makeevka for the utilization of jigging machine tailings from the Yasinovka and Makeevka Coke Works washeries for production of lightweight concrete fillers and wall materials is being investigated.

  12. Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Rassam, D.W.; Williams, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with respect to matric suction is established by testing reconstituted tailings samples in a modified triaxial cell, in which matric suction can be controlled. The contribution of matric suction to the shear strength is interpreted as an additional apparent cohesion for use in bearing-capacity calculations. Because of the nonlinearity of the shear-strength profile, a numerical method of analysis is adopted to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the desiccated tailings. A subsequent decrease in bearing capacity following 2D water infiltration into a partially capped tailings deposit and accompanying suction loss is investigated.

  13. Theseus Tail Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  14. Renal evaluation in the healthy green iguana (Iguana iguana): assessment of plasma biochemistry, glomerular filtration rate, and endoscopic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; Stedman, Nancy L; Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Hanley, Christopher S; Wilson, Heather; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Zhao, Ying; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2005-06-01

    Plasma biochemistry, iohexol clearance, endoscopic renal evaluation, and biopsy were performed in 23 clinically healthy 2-yr-old green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Mean (+/- SD) values for packed cell volume (30 +/- 3%), total protein (62 +/- 7 g/L, 6.2 +/- 0.7 g/dl), albumin (25 +/- 2 g/L, 2.5 +/- 0.2 g/dl), globulin (37 +/- 6 g/L, 3.7 +/- 0.6 g/ dl), total calcium (3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, 12.0 +/- 0.7 mg/dl), ionized calcium (1.38 +/- 0.1 mmol/L), phosphorus (1.32 +/- 0.28 mmol/L, 4.1 +/- 0.9 mg/dl), uric acid (222 +/- 100 micromol/L, 3.8 +/- 1.7 mg/dl), sodium (148 +/- 3 mmol/L or mEq/ L), and potassium (2.6 +/- 0.4 mmol/L or mEq/L) were considered within normal limits. Values for urea were low (< 1.4 mmol/L, < 4 mg/dl) with 70% of samples below the detectable analyzer range. After the i.v. injection of 75 mg/ kg iohexol into the caudal (ventral coccygeal or tail) vein, serial blood collections were performed over 32 hr. Iohexol assays by high-performance liquid chromatography produced plasma iohexol clearance graphs for each lizard. A three-compartment model was used to fit area under the curve values and to obtain the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using regression analysis. The mean GFR (SD) was 16.56 +/- 3.90 ml/kg/hr, with a 95% confidence interval of 14.78-18.34 ml/kg/hr. Bilateral endoscopic renal evaluation and biopsy provided tissue samples of excellent diagnostic quality, which correlated with tissue harvested at necropsy and evaluated histologically. None of the 23 animals demonstrated any adverse effects of iohexol clearance or endoscopy. Recommended diagnostics for the evaluation of renal function and disease in the green iguana include plasma biochemical profiles, iohexol clearance, endoscopic examination, and renal biopsy. PMID:17323554

  15. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

  16. Molycorp Guadalupe Mountain tailings disposal facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Molycorp proposes to construct and operate a molybdenum tailings disposal facility on 1,230 acres of public land near Questa, New Mexico and has located mill site claims for this purpose. The project would consist of a 568-acre tailings pond in the saddle of Guadalupe Mountain. The pond would be formed by the construction of two rock-filled dams at either end of the saddle. Other facilities would include a tailings pump station, an extension of the tailings pipeline, tailings distribution lines, access roads and a patrol road, a powerline, a seepage collection pond, surface water diversion channels, and a decant water channel. The project would provide additional storage for approximately 200 million tons of tailings from Molycorp's molybdenum mine located approximately 12 miles east of Guadalupe Mountain. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) completed an Environmental Assessment (EA) for this project in February 1985. As a result of that EA, the BLM determined that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would be required. The EIS analyzes and documents the environmental impacts of the proposed project through construction, operation, and closure.

  17. Endoscopic video manifolds for targeted optical biopsy.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Selen; Mateus, Diana; Meining, Alexander; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Navab, Nassir

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy is a widely used clinical procedure for screening and surveillance of digestive tract diseases ranging from Barrett's Oesophagus to oesophageal cancer. Current surveillance protocol consists of periodic endoscopic examinations performed in 3-4 month intervals including expert's visual assessment and biopsies taken from suspicious tissue regions. Recent development of a new imaging technology, called probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), enabled the acquisition of in vivo optical biopsies without removing any tissue sample. Besides its several advantages, i.e., noninvasiveness, real-time and in vivo feedback, optical biopsies involve a new challenge for the endoscopic expert. Due to their noninvasive nature, optical biopsies do not leave any scar on the tissue and therefore recognition of the previous optical biopsy sites in surveillance endoscopy becomes very challenging. In this work, we introduce a clustering and classification framework to facilitate retargeting previous optical biopsy sites in surveillance upper GI-endoscopies. A new representation of endoscopic videos based on manifold learning, "endoscopic video manifolds" (EVMs), is proposed. The low dimensional EVM representation is adapted to facilitate two different clustering tasks; i.e., clustering of informative frames and patient specific endoscopic segments, only by changing the similarity measure. Each step of the proposed framework is validated on three in vivo patient datasets containing 1834, 3445, and 1546 frames, corresponding to endoscopic videos of 73.36, 137.80, and 61.84 s, respectively. Improvements achieved by the introduced EVM representation are demonstrated by quantitative analysis in comparison to the original image representation and principal component analysis. Final experiments evaluating the complete framework demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method as a promising step for assisting the endoscopic expert in retargeting the optical biopsy sites. PMID:22057050

  18. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

  19. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  20. Clinical Validation of an Epigenetic Assay to Predict Negative Histopathological Results in Repeat Prostate Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Partin, Alan W.; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A.; Marks, Leonard S.; Gee, Jason R.; Troyer, Dean A.; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J. Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lance, Raymond S.; Bigley, Joseph W.; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. Materials and Methods We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. Results The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85–91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60–4.51). Conclusions The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. PMID:24747657

  1. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. PMID:25132483

  2. A snail in the long tail: a new Plekocheilus species collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Amphibulimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S. H.; Araujo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among the historical collection gathered by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ during 1862–1865, type material was found of one of the species described on the basis of the material collected shortly afterwards. Inspection of the types revealed that only one specimen may be considered as type material of Bulimus aristaceus Crosse, 1869; this specimen is now designated as the lectotype. The other specimens are described as a new species, Plekocheilus (Plekocheilus) cecepeus. PMID:26312021

  3. Open rib biopsy guided by radionuclide technique

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Magoun, S.; Dillon, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    When abnormally increased radioactivity is seen in a rib or ribs by bone imaging in a patient with suspected or known malignancy, it frequently is difficult to differentiate fracture from metastatic disease. Histological examination of the lesion is crucial for diagnosis, staging, and planning of therapy. To assess the value of external localization of the site or sites of abnormal uptake in a rib as a guide for open rib biopsy, 10 patients (7 men, 3 women; age range, 34 to 68 years) with known or suspected malignancy were studied. With reference to the oscilloscope image, a cobalt 57 marker was placed on the skin overlying the focus of increased uptake, and the area of increased activity was marked on the skin as a guide to surgical resection. Of ten resected ribs, four showed metastatic disease and five had fractures. (One patient underwent two external marking procedures and two surgical procedures.) Rib biopsy was not performed in 1 patient because prior to the surgical procedure, a small subcutaneous nodule adjacent to the skin marker was excised and confirmed to be carcinoma. Appropriate courses of management (operation, irradiation, chemotherapy) were taken after the biopsies. The surgeon responsible for the biopsy should be present during the skin-marking procedure, and the area beneath the scapula and the region adjacent to the spine should be avoided. Our results indicate that the technique is a very useful aid for approaching open rib biopsies more precisely.

  4. Liver biopsy: complications and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thampanitchawong, Pornpen; Piratvisuth, Teerha

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the complications and the risk factors of percutaneous liver biopsy, and to compare the complication rate between the periods o f 1987-1993 and 1994-1996. METHODS: Medical records of all patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy between January 1, 1987 to September 31, 1996 in Songklanagarind Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: There were 484 percutaneous liver biopsies performed. The total complication rate was 6.4%, of which 4.5% were due to major bleeding; the death rate was 1.6%. The important risk factors correlated with bleeding complications and deaths were a platelet count of 70 109/L or less, a prolonged prothrombin time of > 3 s over control, or a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of > 10 s over control. Although physician inexperience was not statistically significantly associated with bleeding complications and deaths, there was a reduction of death rate from 2.2% in 1987-1993 to 0% in 1993-1996. This reduction is thought to result from both increased experience o f senior staff and increased supervision of residents. CONCLUSIONS: Screening of platelet count, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time should be done and need to be corrected in case of abnormality before liver biopsy. Percutaneous liver biopsy should be performed or supervised by an expert in gastrointestinal diseases, especially in high risk cases. PMID:11819452

  5. Histological and Clinicopathological Evaluation of Liver Allograft Biopsy: An Initial Experience of Fifty Six Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A.V.; Modi, P.R.; Patel, R.D.; Suthar, K. S.; Nigam, L. K.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. Aim The aim of study was to evaluate liver allograft biopsies performed for graft dysfunction, study the pattern of injury and intensity, and timeline of occurrence of graft dysfunction. Materials and Methods Retrospective study was carried out of 56 liver allograft biopsies and their histological findings with clinical presentation were correlated. Totally 56 needle liver allograft biopsies from January 1210 to July 2014, obtained from 35 patients were studied for histological and clinicopathological evaluation. Results The mean age was 53.25.48 years. The most common original disease was alcoholic cirrhosis. The most common histological lesion was acute cellular rejection (ACR) in 31 (55.36%) biopsies followed by preservation-reperfusion injury (PRI) in 10 (17.86%) biopsies and drug toxicity in 8 (14.29%) biopsies. Chronic rejection was reported in 2 (3.57%) and recurrence of HCV in 3 (5.36%). Ischemic coagulative necrosis and acute cholangitis were seen in 1 (1.79 %) case each. Conclusion Alcoholic cirrhosis was the most common etiology for end stage liver disease. ACR and PRI were the major complications in liver allograft biopsies at our centre. PMID:26673862

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

  7. Skin biopsy: Identifying and overcoming errors in the skin biopsy pathway.

    PubMed

    Stratman, Erik J; Elston, Dirk M; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    The skin biopsy pathway involves numerous communication requirements, technical events, human handoffs, and cognitive decisions. Every step in the process has an error rate >0. To deliver the highest quality care, dermatologists obtaining skin biopsy specimens should implement systems in their office to minimize errors. This includes the prevention of wrong-site surgery, which in most instances involves accurate communication of the correct biopsy location to the performing surgeon. Part II of this continuing medical education article presents techniques for assessing and planning improvement to the skin biopsy pathway in your office, and provides a simple online quality improvement activity that allows Board-certified dermatologists the opportunity to potentially improve aspects of the skin biopsy process in their own practices, and in the process obtain Maintenance of Certification credit. PMID:26702795

  8. Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Eugenia; Agraz, Irene; Ibernon, Meritxell; Ramos, Natalia; Fort, Joan; Serón, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. PMID:26239461

  9. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5 yrs). PMID:25960275

  10. Human feasibility study of fluorescence spectroscopy guided optical biopsy needle for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Werahera, Priya N; Jasion, Edward A; Yongjun Liu; Daily, John W; Arangua, Paul; Jones, Clifford; Nash, S Russell; Morrell, Michael; Crawford, E David

    2015-08-01

    Current prostate biopsy cores have a very low diagnostic yield. These biopsies often fail to diagnose prostate cancer since 90% of cores are histopathologically classified as benign. The concentrations of endogenous fluorophores in prostate tissue vary with disease states. Thus, fluorescence spectroscopy could be utilized to quantify these variations for identification of malignant lesions. We investigated clinical feasibility of a 14 gauge (1.98 mm) optical biopsy needle guided by fluorescence spectroscopy for real-time in vivo prostate cancer diagnosis. Built-in optical sensor has 8100?m fibers for tissue excitation and a single 200?m fiber to collect spectral data. Custom-made fluorometer has 2 light-emitting diodes at 290 and 340 nm and a spectrometer. User interface for fluorometer operation and data collection was developed using LabView software. Each spectral data acquisition required ~2 seconds. The in vivo biopsies were performed during radical retropubic prostatectomy surgery on the exposed prostate with blood flow to the gland intact. A tissue biopsy core was obtained from each biopsy site after acquisition of spectral data. Above procedure was repeated ex vivo after surgical excision of the prostate. Biopsy cores were histopathologically classified as either benign or malignant and correlated with corresponding spectral data. Partial Least Square analysis was performed to determine diagnostically significant principal components as potential classifiers. A linear support vector machine and leave-one-out cross validation method was employed for tissue classification. Thirteen patients were consented to the study. Histopathological analysis found cancer in 29/208 in vivo and 51/224 ex vivo viable biopsy cores. Study results show 72% sensitivity, 66% specificity, and 93% negative predictive value for in vivo and 75%, 80%, and 93%, respectively, for ex vivo malignant versus benign prostatic tissue classification. Optical biopsy needle has a very high negative predictive value to indicate benign tissue while sufficient sensitivity for targeting areas suspicious for cancer within the prostate gland. Hence, the optical biopsy needle can increase the diagnostic yield of prostate biopsies with consequent improvement in patient care. PMID:26737991

  11. Best way to perform a punch biopsy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Gutiérrez Mendoza, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Nail punch biopsy is used to obtain a tissue sample for the diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases. The best results will be possible if the surgeon is familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the nail apparatus. A punch biopsy can be used in all regions of the nail apparatus in the presence or absence of nail plate. When the procedure is performed with a careful handling of the anatomic site and specimen, in most cases a successful diagnosis can be achieved. PMID:25828717

  12. Morphological features of nerves in skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Wendelschafer-Crabb, G; Kennedy, W R; Walk, D

    2006-03-15

    Skin biopsy is an effective test for diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. The most commonly reported indication of abnormality in a skin biopsy is reduction of epidermal nerve density. Morphological changes of epidermal nerves and the underlying subepidermal nerve plexus provide added evidence for the presence of neuropathy. We determined the prevalence of epidermal axon swellings, dermal axon swellings, and a unique type of epidermal nerve that we call a crawler, in a group of normal subjects, diabetic subjects, and patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy. Other morphologic features examined include thinning of the subepidermal nerve plexus, sprouts at nerve terminals, encapsulated endings, and immunoreactive basal cells. PMID:16448669

  13. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  14. Transjugular Liver Biopsy: A Review of 77 Biopsies Using a Spring-Propelled Cutting Needle (Biopsy Gun)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorriz, Elias; Reyes, Ricardo; Lobrano, Mary Beth; Pulido-Duque, Juan M.; San Roman, Jose L.; Lonjedo, Elena; Ferral, Hector; Maynar, Manuel

    1996-11-15

    Seventy-seven transjugular liver biopsies were performed with a coaxial, spring-loaded, 18-gauge cutting needle, the Biopty gun (Bard Biopsy System, Covington, GA, USA) on consecutive patients between July 1993 and February 1995. Fifty men and 27 women were included in the study; the mean age was 45 years (range 15-69 years). The average number of punctures per patient was 5.2, with a range of 2-9, yielding an average of 4.8 samples per patient (range 1-7). The length of the samples varied from 10 to 22 mm with a constant diameter of 1 mm. The mean time required to complete the procedure was 48 min (43-52 min). Histological diagnoses were obtained in 74 of 77 patients (96%), with non-diagnostic specimens attributed to excessive fragmentation (3 cases). Complications occurred in 10 patients (puncture site hematoma, carotid artery puncture, abdominal pain, vasovagal reaction, hepatic capsule perforation, and hemobilia). The latter two complications were self-limited. In our experience this transjugular hepatic biopsy method is promising for performing biopsies in patients with chronic liver disease, due to its high success rate and low morbidity rate.

  15. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  16. Reliability of receptor assessment on core needle biopsy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seferina, S C; Nap, M; van den Berkmortel, F; Wals, J; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2013-04-01

    We compared the breast core needle biopsy and the resection specimen with respect to estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status to identify predictors for discordant findings. We retrospectively collected data from 526 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. ER, PR and HER2 status had been assessed in both the core needle biopsy and resection specimen. The assessment of ER by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in core needle biopsy was false negative in 26.5% and false positive in 6.8% of patients. For the PR status the false negative and false positive results of core needle biopsy were 29.6% and 10.3%, respectively. The results of the HER2 status, as determined by IHC and silver in situ hybridization (SISH), were false negative in 5.4% and false positive in 50.0%. We need to be aware of the problem of false negative and false positive test results in ER, PR and HER2 assessment in core needle biopsy and the potential impact on adjuvant systemic treatment. With current techniques, we recommend using the resection specimen to measure these receptors in patients without neoadjuvant treatment. A better alternative might be the use of tissue microarray, combining both core needle biopsy and resection specimen. PMID:23269610

  17. A Structured Assessment to Decrease the Amount of Inconclusive Endometrial Biopsies in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Visser, N. C. M.; van Hanegem, N.; van der Wurff, A. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; van Doorn, H. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Timmermans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether structured assessment of outpatient endometrial biopsies decreases the number of inconclusive samples. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Single hospital pathology laboratory. Population. Endometrial biopsy samples of 66 women with postmenopausal bleeding, collected during the usual diagnostic work-up and assessed as insufficient for a reliable histological diagnosis. Methods. Endometrial biopsy samples were requested from the pathology laboratories. The retrieved samples were systematically reassessed by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology. Main Outcome Measure. Disagreement between initial assessment and conclusion after structured reassessment. Results. We retrieved 36 of 66 endometrial biopsy samples from six different pathology laboratories. Structured reassessment of the retrieved samples by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology did not change the conclusion in 35 of the 36 samples. The remaining sample contained a large amount of endometrial tissue and the diagnosis at reassessment was endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All other samples contained insufficient material for a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion. A structured reassessment of endometrial biopsies samples, which were classified as inconclusive due to insufficient material, did not change the conclusion. Although it might be helpful for pathologists to have diagnostic criteria for adequacy and/or inadequacy of an endometrial biopsy sample, the gain in efficiency is likely to be small.

  18. Performance feedback in a spine biopsy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Cleary, Kevin R.

    1998-06-01

    A surgical simulator for needle biopsy of the spine is being developed in the Radiology Department at Georgetown University Medical Center to assist in learning the procedure as well as to maximize accuracy and efficiency. Spine biopsies are often done under computed tomography (CT) guidance and while this technique is effective, it can be time consuming since the biopsy needle must be advanced slowly and its position checked several times to ensure vital organs are not damaged. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback tot eh surgeon as well as the design engineers. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback to the surgeon as well as the design engineers. Performance measures are also important to determine transfer of simulator training skills to actual surgical skills. The simulation protocol is in advanced development, and the steps include selecting the best CT slice for viewing the lesion, choosing the skin entry point, and advancing the needle to the biopsy location. Our methods for developing the system include the following: 1) A task analysis, which produces a detailed list of tasks needed to complete a goal, their order, and time to completion, 2) A function allocation assessment, which identifies critical task components with the goal of relieving the human workload by a reallocation of system functions, and 3) A simulator evaluation through subjective ratings and objective human performance measures.

  19. External validation of extended prostate biopsy nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Minrik, Ivo; Sieger, Tom; Babjuk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Historical nomograms for the prediction of cancer on prostate biopsy, developed in the sextant biopsy era are no more accurate today. The aim of this study was an independent external validation of a 10-core biopsy nomogram by Chun et al. (2007). Material and methods A total of 322 patients who presented for their initial biopsy in a tertiary care center and had all the necessary data available were included in the retrospective analysis. To validate the nomogram, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and calibration plots were constructed. Results Area under the ROC curve calculated for our data using the nomogram was 0.773, similar to that reported originally. However, the nomogram systematically overestimated prostate cancer risk, which, for our data, could be resolved by subtracting 24 points from the total number of points of the nomogram. Conclusions The nomogram yielded overall good predictive accuracy as measured by the area under the ROC curve, but it systematically overestimated PC probability in individual patients. However, we showed how the nomogram could easily be adapted to our patient sample, resolving the bias issue. PMID:26251732

  20. Biopsy with thermally-responsive untethered microtools

    PubMed Central

    Gultepe, Evin; Randhawa, Jatinder S.; Kadam, Sachin; Yamanaka, Sumitaka; Selaru, Florin M.; Shin, Eun J.; Kalloo, Anthony N.

    2013-01-01

    Thermally activated, untethered ?-grippers can reach narrow conduits in the body and be used to excise tissue for diagnostic analyses. As depicted in the figure, we show the feasibility of an in vivo biopsy of the porcine bile duct using untethered ?-grippers. PMID:23047708

  1. Endoscopic renal evaluation and biopsy of Chelonia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Divers, S J

    2004-01-17

    Sixty-nine tortoises, turtles and terrapins representing 28 species of the order Chelonia, class Reptilia were evaluated by endoscopy for renal disease. Under general anaesthesia, coelomic and/or extracoelomic endoscopic evaluations and biopsies of the kidney(s) were undertaken. Endoscopic approaches required a 2 to 4 mm skin incision in the prefemoral fossa, and minimal blunt dissection through the subcutaneous tissues. For the coelomic approach the coelomic aponeurosis of the transverse and oblique abdominal muscles was penetrated so that the cranioventral kidney(s) could be examined and biopsied. The extracoelomic approach required the endoscope to be advanced in a caudodorsal direction, between the coelomic aponeurosis and the broad iliacus muscle, so that the dorsolateral kidney(s) could be examined and biopsied. Both techniques were safe and effective for obtaining renal biopsies for histological examination and microbiological culture. Several renal pathologies were identified including glomerulonephrosis, tubulonephrosis, interstitial nephritis, uric acid accumulation, tubulonephritis, glomerulonephritis, renal oedema, glomerulosclerosis, nephrosclerosis, soft tissue mineralisation, and pyelonephritis. Several infectious conditions were identified, including a predominance of Gram-negative bacterial infections, two cases of hexamitiosis, and one case of mycobacteriosis. PMID:14756502

  2. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO... miner who died prior to March 31, 1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall be considered even when the... concerning a miner who died prior to March 31, 1980, shall be accorded the appropriate weight in light of...

  3. [Liver biopsy in surgery of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Eggert, A; Becker, J; Kopf, R; Hartmann, V

    1984-05-01

    Biopsy of the liver with the menghini needle was done as a routine diagnostic procedure during surgery in 581 cases. During earlier decades morphological changes of the liver could be demonstrated by that procedure in 80-100% of the patients. In contrast such changes could be found only in 55% of our cases; in 5,5% these changes were severe. From these numbers it should be concluded that liver biopsy during gall bladder surgery is not necessary as a routine procedure. If patients are selected for biopsy on the basis of history, ultrasonography, laboratory data and intraoperative microscopical liver findings this procedure is necessary only in 14% of the cases, complication rate being 0,09%. In this particularly selected group changes of the liver can be found in 90,4%, severe changes in 33% of the cases. Pathological changes of the liver are likely to occur in 65-91% of patients with complicated gall stone disease and/or accompanying diseases like diabetes, obesitas, alcoholism, or a history of hepatitis. In this particular group biopsy and histological examination during surgery seem to be indicated as it was the case before. PMID:6738291

  4. Fluorescence as a guide to bronchial biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Homasson, J P; Bonniot, J P; Angebault, M; Renault, P; Carnot, F; Santelli, G

    1985-01-01

    The presence of fluorescence was assessed in 34 unselected patients undergoing bronchoscopy, 11 of whom suffered from bronchial carcinoma. Bronchoscopic inspection was carried out with white light and then repeated with blue light after the injection of 2 ml of 10% sodium fluoresceinate. Fluorescence was graded visually. Seventy six pairs of biopsy specimens were obtained. Of 38 specimens from non fluorescent areas, histological appearances were normal in 34. Slight inflammation was observed in three biopsy specimens, and in one there was evidence of tumour even though the specimen was obtained some distance from the primary tumour. Of 38 biopsy specimens from fluorescent areas, histological examination showed appearances of moderate inflammation in 10, severe inflammation in 10, tuberculosis in one, and carcinoma in 11. In six instances histological appearances were normal. Five normal subjects who were smokers were also examined by the same technique. Appearances of metaplasia were found more often in areas showing fluorescence than in areas not showing fluorescence. Bronchial fluorescence is considered to be related to alteration in vascularity and is not specific for carcinoma. The most fluorescent areas are generally the most pathological and visible tumour is very fluorescent, but moderate degrees of fluorescence are difficult to interpret. Biopsy of every fluorescent area seems excessive. PMID:3969654

  5. Subdiffusive exciton motion in systems with heavy-tailed disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaming, S. M.; Malyshev, V. A.; Eisfeld, A.; Knoester, J.

    2013-06-01

    We study the transport of collective excitations (Frenkel excitons) in systems with static disorder in the transition energies, not limiting ourselves to Gaussian transition energy distributions. Instead, we generalize this model to the wider class of Lvy stable distributions, characterized by heavy tails. Phonon-assisted scattering of excitons, localized by the disorder, leads to thermally activated exciton motion. The time evolution of the second moment of the exciton distribution is shown to be sublinear, thus indicating that the exciton dynamics in such systems is not diffusive, but rather subdiffusive instead. The heavier the tail in the transition energy distribution is, the larger are the deviations from the diffusive regime. This from fluctuations of site energies larger than the exciton band width (outliers). We show that the occurrence of subdiffusive transport for heavy-tailed disorder distributions can be understood from the scattering rate distributions, which possess a (second) peak at zero scattering rate.

  6. Acceleration of cometary plasma tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundt, Wolfgang; Krishan, V.

    1988-04-01

    Cometary plasma tails are accelerated by the solar wind to ? half its velocity, corresponding to some 102 times the solar-wind momentum density. The authors corroborate Alfvn's (1957) "wind-sock" mechanism according to which the momentum transfer is brought about by magnetic rigidity.

  7. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  8. Comparison of echocardiography-guided and fluoroscopy-guided endomyocardial biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of bioptome placement for endomyocardial biopsy was evaluated using standard fluoroscopic guidance and compared simultaneously with two-dimensional echocardiography in six healthy subadult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Despite perceived adequate positioning of the bioptome toward the septum when judged using fluoroscopy, only one out of the six placements were actually positioned in the right ventricular apex toward the septum when evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography. The bioptome was readily relocated to the right ventricular apex/septal location by echocardiography. The forceps were easily visualized at all times and the open cups were readily directed into the desired location for biopsy. Based on a subjective score for tissue quantity from 1 to 4 (poor to excellent), biopsies collected by echocardiographic-guided technique had a mean score of 3.4, while biopsies collected by fluoroscopic-guided technique had a mean score of 1.8. In summary, this study suggests that endomyocardial biopsy locations can be accurately positioned using two-dimensional echocardiography with the advantages of less radiation, lower procedural costs, and direct visualization of the sampling site. Clear definition of endocardial surface as afforded by echocardiography may enhance tissue sample quality and lower potential complications from this procedure. PMID:15869156

  9. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression and amplification in endoscopic biopsies and resection specimens in esophageal and junctional adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Hagen, P; Biermann, K; Boers, J E; Stoss, O; Sleddens, H F; van Lanschot, J J B; Dinjens, W N M; Rueschoff, J; Wijnhoven, B P L

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Frequently, biopsy material is used for evaluation of HER2 status. The aim of the study was to determine if HER2 expression in preoperative endoscopic biopsies is representative for the entire tumor. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies and matched resection specimens were collected from 75 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) on HER2 and dual-color in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed. HER2 status was determined by following a clinical algorithm, first determining HER2 overexpression on immunohistochemistry and, when equivocal (2+), determining HER2 amplification on ISH. Seventy-one of 75 (95%) biopsies and 69/75 (92%) resection specimens could be analyzed due to technical failure. HER2 positivity was seen in 18/71 (25%) biopsies and in 15/69 (22%) resection specimens. Overall, HER2 status in the biopsy was concordant with HER2 status in the resection specimen in 94% of cases. Interobserver agreement on IHC scoring for all three observers was 83% in biopsies and 85% in resection specimens. HER2 positivity was detected in 22% of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Although interobserver agreement was moderate, HER2 status of a primary tumor can be reliably determined based on the endoscopically obtained pretreatment biopsy. PMID:24611982

  10. Image-Guided Percutaneous Splenic Biopsy and Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Jennifer; Twomey, Maria; Crush, Lee; Maher, Michael M.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous splenic biopsy and drainage are relatively safe and accurate procedures. The risk of major complication (1.3%) following percutaneous splenic biopsy does not exceed that of other solid intra-abdominal organ biopsies, and it has less morbidity and mortality than splenectomy. Both computed tomography and ultrasound can be used to provide image guidance for biopsy and drainage. The safety profile of fine-needle aspiration cytology is better than core needle biopsy, but core biopsy has superior diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24293803

  11. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  12. Comparison of MR/Ultrasound FusionGuided Biopsy With Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; George, Arvin K.; Rothwax, Jason; Shakir, Nabeel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Parnes, Howard L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Simon, Richard M.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Targeted magnetic resonance (MR)/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy has been shown to detect prostate cancer. The implications of targeted biopsy alone vs standard extended-sextant biopsy or the 2 modalities combined are not well understood. Objective To assess targeted vs standard biopsy and the 2 approaches combined for the diagnosis of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Design, Setting, And Participants Prospective cohort study of 1003 men undergoing both targeted and standard biopsy concurrently from 2007 through 2014 at the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Patients were referred for elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination results, often with prior negative biopsy results. Risk categorization was compared among targeted and standard biopsy and, when available, whole-gland pathology after prostatectomy as the gold standard. Interventions Patients underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging to identify regions of prostate cancer suspicion followed by targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy and concurrent standard biopsy. Main Outcomes And Measures The primary objective was to compare targeted and standard biopsy approaches for detection of high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score ?4 + 3); secondary end points focused on detection of low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score 3 + 3 or low-volume 3 + 4) and the biopsy ability to predict whole-gland pathology at prostatectomy. Results Targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy diagnosed 461 prostate cancer cases, and standard biopsy diagnosed 469 cases. There was exact agreement between targeted and standard biopsy in 690 men (69%) undergoing biopsy. Targeted biopsy diagnosed 30% more high-risk cancers vs standard biopsy (173 vs 122 cases, P < .001) and 17% fewer low-risk cancers (213 vs 258 cases, P < .001). When standard biopsy cores were combined with the targeted approach, an additional 103 cases (22%) of mostly low-risk prostate cancer were diagnosed (83% low risk, 12% intermediate risk, and 5% high risk). The predictive ability of targeted biopsy for differentiating low-risk from intermediate- and high-risk disease in 170 men with whole-gland pathology after prostatectomy was greater than that of standard biopsy or the 2 approaches combined (area under the curve, 0.73, 0.59, and 0.67, respectively; P < .05 for all comparisons). Conclusions and Relevance Among men undergoing biopsy for suspected prostate cancer, targeted MR/ultrasound fusion biopsy, compared with standard extended-sextant ultrasound-guided biopsy, was associated with increased detection of high-risk prostate cancer and decreased detection of low-risk prostate cancer. Future studies will be needed to assess the ultimate clinical implications of targeted biopsy. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00102544 PMID:25626035

  13. Axillary Web Syndrome after Sentinel Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Aydogan, Fatih; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Baghaki, Semih; Karabulut, Kagan; Tahan, Gulgun; Uras, Cihan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a self-limiting cause of morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery, but it is encountered also after sentinel lymph node biopsy. The syndrome is characterized by cords of subcutaneous tissue extending from the axilla into the medial arm. Case Report Here, we report a patient presenting with AWS several weeks after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion AWS has been reported to be resolved spontaneously in all patients 816 weeks after axillary surgery, and shoulder movements improve in this period. There is no definitive treatment modality for AWS. Patients should be reassured and informed that this condition will improve even without treatment. PMID:21076609

  14. Measuring optical properties of microvolume biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taraz, Majid; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2004-07-01

    Special tissue sampler was developed, allowing measuring concentration of photosensitizer in various biopsy materials with high accuracy. The method is based on simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and reflectance spectra and biopsy of tissue sample embedded in a spherical aperture by a diameter of 1.5 mm and a depth of 1 mm. Both surfaces of the sampler were covered with an impenetrable black film. Meterological measurements were done on standard solutions consisting solutions "Photoscence" and "Intralipid" in various ratios. We used a fiber optic spectrometer LESA-01-BIOSPEC to measure optical properties of the solution with various concentrations of "Intralipid" and "Photoscence." Results follow theory. To measure concentration of photosensitizer in micro volumes and thin layers, special multifiber catheters with external diameter from 0.5 mm to 1.8 mm were prepared.

  15. Conjunctival biopsy in adult form galactosialidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Usui, T; Sawaguchi, S; Abe, H; Iwata, K; Oyanagi, K

    1993-01-01

    Conjunctival biopsy was performed in two siblings with adult-form galactosialidosis. Electron microscopically, several types of intracytoplasmic inclusion were observed in the fibroblasts in conjunctival stroma, lymphatic capillary endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and epithelial cells. Membrane-bound vesicles with fibrillogranular content were frequently observed, and occasional lamellar structures were noted in these inclusions. Dense granular inclusions and oil droplets were also seen. Dense granular inclusions have not been reported in this disease previously. Images PMID:8384473

  16. Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

    2005-10-01

    The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

  17. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  18. Microbial colonization of normal skin: Direct visualization of 194 skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Anika C; Alexeyev, Oleg A

    2016-04-01

    Recent genetic studies have suggested the presence of numerous microbial species on and in the skin. We characterised microbial colonization of a large collection of skin biopsies from 194 healthy subjects by fluorescence assay. Forty per cent of all biopsies did not show any evidence for microbial colonization. Propionibacterium acnes was the sole predominant bacterial species in both sebaceous and non-sebaceous areas. Non- P. acnes species were present in approximately 30% of all colonized samples. . Only hair follicles and stratum corneum were colonized. Understanding of cutaneous microbiota requires validation from a variety of approaches and techniques. PMID:26655456

  19. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-03-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time.

  20. Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Latkovich, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

  1. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  2. Tidal Tails of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2002-06-01

    We present N-body simulations of globular clusters including gravitational field of the Galaxy, in order to study effects of tidal field systematically on the shape of outer parts of globular clusters using NBODY6. The Galaxy is assumed to be composed of central bulge and outer halo. We investigate the cluster of multi-mass models with a power-law initial mass function (IMF) starting with different initial masses, initial number of particles, different slopes of the IMF and different orbits of the cluster. We have examined the general evolution of the clusters, the shape of outer parts of the clusters, density profiles and the direction of tidal tails. The density profiles appear to become somewhat shallower just outside the tidal boundary consistent with some observed data. The position angle of the tidal tail depends on the location in the Galaxy as well as the direction of the motion of clusters. We found that the clusters become more elongated at the apogalacticon than at the perigalacticon. The tidal tails may be used to trace the orbital paths of globular clusters.

  3. Comet Tails of Type 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probstein, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of a theory for the head and tail regions of Type 2 (dust) comets, wherein dust particles having a wide distribution of sizes are assumed to be released from the comet nucleus in an essentially continuous manner in time during the period of distinctive cometary phenomena. The dust particles are assumed to be accelerated radially outward from the nucleus as a result of a drag interaction with the expanding gas in the comet head. In the tail region the only significant forces assumed to act on the dust particles are solar gravity and the force of solar radiation pressure. It is shown how results describing the surface density in the tail are obtained and how by matching calculated distributions with measured ones it is possible to determine the dust and head-gas emission rates as a function of time, the distribution of dust particle sizes, and the emission velocity from the inner head region as a function of particle size and time. The results of matching calculated density distributions with light intensity measurements from Comet Arend-Roland 1956h are summarized.

  4. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  5. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-08-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  6. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  7. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  8. Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) Guided Suction Catheter-Biopsy in Histological Diagnosis of Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Carapic, Vladimir; Kovacevic, Tomi; Stojanovic, Goran; Panjkovic, Milana; Kioumis, Ioannis; Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Stratakos, Grigoris; Tsavlis, Drosos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sachpekidis, Nikos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Perin, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Background: EBUS guided trans-bronchial biopsy became routine in diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). Suction catheter-biopsy is a technique for obtaining a tissue sample from peripheral lung parenchyma. Aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic efficiency, feasibility and safety of EBUS guided suction catheter-biopsy (SCB) in comparison to trans-bronchial biopsy (TBB) in diagnosis of PPL. The main intention was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the technique over trans-bronchial biopsy, especially when used under navigation of the EBUS. Methods: Radial EBUS probe (UM-3R, Olympus Co, Japan.) without guiding sheath was used to navigate suction catheter and TBB forceps to the PPL. The catheter was connected to the collection canister via vacuum pump. The SCB specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Results: There were 168 patients enrolled in this study; 69.9% males and 30.1% females. Main lesion diameter was 4.1±1.9 cm. Majority of patients, 131(77.9%) were diagnosed with lung cancer. Per-biopsy calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for EBUS-SCB were 92.4%, 100%, 100% and 67.7%, respectively. Corresponding values for EBUS-TBB were 92.3%, 100%, 100% and 69.7%. Only the size of the lesion significantly influenced (p=0.005) diagnostic performance. Complications occurred in 2 patients; one pneumothorax and one excessive bleeding. Conclusion: EBUS guided SCB is efficient, feasible and safe in diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. The technique is complementary to trans-bronchial biopsy. PMID:26722354

  9. Factors Associated With Diagnostic Accuracy When Performing a Pre-Ablation Renal Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Gideon; Jorda, Merce; Leveillee, Raymond John

    2014-08-01

    Introduction Long-term management of patients undergoing definitive treatment of a small renal mass depends largely on the final pathology. Pre-ablation renal biopsy (PABx) is often the only source of pathology in patients undergoing thermal ablation of a small renal mass. We sought to evaluate patient and tumor characteristics which may play a role in determining the accuracy of a PABx obtained during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and methods This retrospective study included a review of our prospectively collected database of all laparoscopic and computer tomography guided RFA (LRFA;CTRFA) performed in our center November 2001- July 2013. Three 18-gauge core biopsies were obtained per tumor. Pathology samples were stratified into diagnostic (group 1) and non-diagnostic (ND) (group 2). We used univariate and multivariate analysis to identify potential biopsy result-modifying factors including patient characteristics (age, BMI), biopsy approach (CTRFA versus LRFA), tumor size, orientation, depth and polarity Results A total of 463 treatments in 411 patients were evaluated. Of these, 66% were CTRFA while 34% were LRFA. Mean patient age was 67.4 years (31-88), mean BMI was 28.3 kg/m2 (16.6-47.2) and mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (0.3-5.5). There were a total of 73 (15.8%) ND biopsies. On multivariate analysis CTRFA and medial tumors treated with either CTRFA or LRFA were found to be associated with an increased likelihood of a ND biopsy. Conclusion PABx obtained in patients undergoing CTRFA and from medial tumors treated with either CTRFA or LRFA were more likely to be ND. Future RFA patients should be counseled appropriately. Additional biopsy cores may be required in these subgroups. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25105972

  10. 21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy plug. (a) Identification. A preformed (polymerized) absorbable lung biopsy plug is intended to...

  11. Biopsy findings in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dylan V; Salvarani, Carlo; Hunder, Gene G; Brown, Robert D; Parisi, Joseph E; Christianson, Teresa J; Giannini, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a form of vasculitis restricted to the brain and spinal cord, with protean clinical manifestations and often slowly progressive course. Outcomes vary, ranging from spontaneous resolution to rapid decline and death. Diagnosis of PACNS is based on angiography and/or biopsy. We reviewed surgical biopsies from 46 patients (53 biopsies) with PACNS, including 25 men and 21 women (median age 46, range: 25 to 84 y) and correlated the findings with relevant clinical parameters. Biopsies (51 brain, 2 spinal) were diagnostic of vasculitis in 29 (63%) patients. Three morphologic patterns of vasculitis were observed: acute necrotizing (n=4, 14%); purely lymphocytic (n=8, 28%); and granulomatous (n=17, 58%), 8 associated with deposition of beta-A4 amyloid. Biopsies not diagnostic of PACNS (n=17, 37%) showed nonspecific gliosis (53%), mild perivascular mononuclear inflammation (18%), and parenchymal ischemic damage/infarct (18%). All positive biopsies were among those directed to an imaging abnormality (targeted biopsies) and biopsies including leptomeninges were more often positive than those that did not. Thus, where possible, a targeted biopsy that includes leptomeninges is recommended to maximize diagnostic potential. No statistically significant differences in outcome were noted among the 3 histopathologic groups or when comparing biopsy positive versus biopsy negative PACNS groups. Overall the outcomes were relatively favorable, with only 14% mortality or severe morbidity at 1.14 years (mean) after biopsy. PMID:18941399

  12. Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country. PMID:23691338

  13. Emerging platforms using liquid biopsy to detect EGFR mutations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Wei-Lun; Wei, Fang; Su, Wu-Chou; Wong, David T

    2015-01-01

    Advances in target therapies for lung cancer have enabled detection of gene mutations, specifically those of EGFR. Assays largely depend on the acquisition of tumor tissue biopsy, which is invasive and may not reflect the genomic profile of the tumor at treatment due to tumor heterogeneity or changes that occur during treatment through acquired resistance. Liquid biopsy, a blood test that detects evidence of cancer cells or tumor DNA, has generated considerable interest for its ability to detect EGFR mutations. However, its clinical application is limited by complicated collection methods and the need for technique-dependent platforms. Recently, simpler techniques for EGFR mutant detection in urine or saliva samples have been developed. This review focuses on advances in liquid biopsy and discusses its potential for clinical implementation in lung cancer. PMID:26420338

  14. A biopsy procedure for determining filet and predicting whole-fish mercury concentration.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S A; Van Sickle, J; Hughes, R M; Schacher, J A; Echols, S F

    2005-01-01

    Although mercury contamination of fish is a widespread phenomenon, its regional evaluation is hindered by the reluctance of permitting agencies to grant collection permits, problems in securing adequate freezer space, and time to process whole, large fish or filets. We evaluated mercury concentrations in 210 filet biopsies from 65 sites in 12 western states relative to whole-body mercury concentration in the same fish. We found a highly significant relationship (r(2) = 0.96) between biopsy and whole-fish mercury concentrations for 13 piscivorous and nonpiscivorous fish species. We concluded that relative to conventional fish-tissue sampling and analysis procedures for whole fish or filets, the biopsy procedure for mercury in fish tissue is nonlethal, less cumbersome, more likely to be permitted by fisheries agencies, and a precise and accurate means for determining both filet and whole-fish mercury concentrations. PMID:15657811

  15. A diagnostic paradigm for resectable liver lesions: to biopsy or not to biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Adrian B; Welsh, Fenella K S; Rees, Myrddin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of evidence reporting the deleterious mechanical and oncological complications of biopsy of hepatic malignancy, a small but significant number of patients undergo the procedure prior to specialist surgical referral. Biopsy has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and advances in modern imaging modalities provide equivalent, or better, diagnostic accuracy. Methods: The literature relating to needle-tract seeding of primary and secondary liver cancers was reviewed. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for case reports and series relating to the oncological complications of biopsy of liver malignancies. Current non-invasive diagnostic modalities are reviewed and their diagnostic accuracy presented. Results: Biopsy of malignant liver lesions has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and does not confer any diagnostic advantage over a combination of non-invasive imaging techniques and serum tumour markers. Conclusions: Given that chemotherapeutic advances now often permit downstaging and subsequent resection of unresectable disease, the time has come to abandon biopsy of solid lesions outside the setting of a specialist multi-disciplinary team meeting (MDT). PMID:20495704

  16. Comparison of Swabbing and Biopsy for Studying the Flora of the Bovine Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Messier, S.; Higgins, R.; Couture, Y.; Morin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of uterine biopsy as a sampling procedure for bacteriological examination, and to assess the importance of obligate anaerobes in the bovine uterus. The aerobic and anaerobic uterine flora of cows with postpartum metritis, cows in postpartum period without metritis and repeat-breeder cows was examined by using swab and biopsy sampling techniques. Obligate anaerobes were isolated in all the 11 cows with postpartum metritis and in three of the five normal cows. No obligate anaerobes were isolated from the six repeatbreeder cows. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the number of bacterial isolates obtained from samples collected by biopsy and by swabbing. A total of 72 isolates was obtained with the biopsies compared to 48 by swabbing. Obligate anaerobes make up an important part of the postpartum uterine bacterial flora, and it seems that in some instances uterine biopsy would be more satisfactory than swabbing for bacteriological examination of the uterus. PMID:17422427

  17. Seeding of the Rectus Sheath with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Image Guided Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Using Coaxial Biopsy Needle System

    PubMed Central

    Tchatalbachev, Vladislav V.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel L.; Duff, Deiter J.; Travis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Needle track seeding following image guided needle biopsy is a known but uncommon complication in the workup of hepatocellular carcinoma. We present the case of a 55 year-old male who was found to have a recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in the rectus sheath five years following a CT guided biopsy with the biopsy needle passing through the anterior abdominal wall muscles. PMID:25926917

  18. Parelaphostrongyliasis in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Banks, S M; Ashley, D C

    2000-07-01

    The heads of 137 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected on the opening day of the 1996 Missouri (USA) fire-arms deer season and surveyed for the presence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Eighteen percent of the deer examined were infected. Mean intensity of infection was 2.0 (range 1-7). There were no significant differences of infection or mean intensity when deer were classified and compared according to sex or age class. PMID:10941746

  19. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  20. Gamma-Guided Stereotactic Breast Biopsy System

    SciTech Connect

    B. Welch, R. Brem, B. Kross, V. Popov, R. Wojcik, S. Majewski

    2006-10-01

    A gamma-ray imaging system has been developed for acquiring stereo images of the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in breast tissue. The system consists of a small field-of-view gamma-ray camera mounted to a stereotactic biopsy table. The camera is mounted on a rotational arm such that it can be used to image the breast from two 15deg stereo views. These stereo images can be used to determine the three dimensional spatial location of a region of focal uptake. Once the location of this region is determined, this information can be used as a guide for stereotactic core needle biopsy. The accuracy that the spatial location of a source can be determined was investigated by moving a point source within the field of view. A center-of gravity calculation was used to localize the centroid of the image of the source and this was used to determine the spatial location. Measurements indicate that the source can be localized to within 1 mm. A comparison of the operation of the gamma imaging system and an x-ray imaging system has been done using a dual modality phantom. These measurements indicated that the spatial location of an isolated source can be determined by the gamma imaging system to within approximately the same performance criteria as required for the X-ray system (1 mm). Collimators were tested to determine the spatial resolution in the transverse dimension and the impact of this transverse resolution on the axial resolution was investigated. The performance of this gamma-guided stereotactic biopsy system will be presented.

  1. Pathologic features the urologist should expect on a prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Che, Mingxin; Sakr, Wael; Grignon, David

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the pathological evaluation of prostate biopsy specimens has made great improvements in diagnostic accuracy and comprehensiveness. In this article, we review major pathological findings on prostate biopsy, their interpretation and reporting, as well as their clinical significance and utility. We discuss especially the clinically relevant histological features in either a positive or negative biopsy. We emphasize that both Gleason score and extent of cancer involvement in a needle core biopsy are important predictors of clinical outcome after either radical prostatectomy or radiation. Special issues regarding diagnosis and grading of minimal cancer on needle core biopsies are discussed. We also highlight the current standards on high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation on needle core biopsies. In summary, the pathology reports on needle biopsies are far beyond the simple presence or absence of cancer; they contain invaluable information to clinicians on patient management and counseling. PMID:12856645

  2. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. To biopsy or not to biopsy? Should we screen the histology of stable renal grafts?

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Olivier; Legendre, Christophe; Morelon, Emmanuel; Kreis, Henry; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France

    2007-09-27

    Chronic allograft dysfunction is currently the main cause of late allograft failure. Recent encouraging evidence suggests that it may be possible to delay the development of graft damages if adequate management is initiated early in the course of the disease. These observations have renewed interest in the performance of protocol biopsies as routine follow-up procedure for the screening of renal transplants. In the present review, we summarize the available data from the literature to determine the pros and cons of protocol renal allograft biopsies. On the basis of this evidence, we discuss the ethical concerns raised by this procedure. PMID:17893596

  4. Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer Is More Frequently Detected by Multiparametric MRI Targeted Biopsy Compared With Standard Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Gordetsky, Jennifer B; Nix, Jeffrey W; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-04-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) incorporates high-resolution imaging to aid in the detection of lesions suspicious for prostate cancer (PCa). MP-MRI and MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy has been shown to detect more clinically significant PCa. However, to date there have been no studies in fusion-guided biopsies evaluating the detection of perineural invasion. We assessed whether MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsies diagnosed more perineural invasion compared with standard techniques. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database evaluating men who underwent MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy between January 2014 and June 2015. Patients underwent MP-MRI followed by 12-core standard biopsy and fusion-guided biopsies of MRI-identified lesions. Patients' clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. A total of 114 patients underwent both 12-core standard biopsy and MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy. The mean age and prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen of our patient cohort was 64.5 years and 10.7 ng/mL, respectively. Sixty-four of 114 (56%) patients were found to have PCa. Perineural invasion was identified in 19/64 (30%) patients. Of the patients with perineural invasion, 9 were diagnosed on the fusion biopsy only, 2 were diagnosed on standard biopsy only, and 8 were diagnosed on both standard and fusion biopsies. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with higher prostate-specific antigen and with a higher number of cores involved by cancer (P<0.05). Compared with standard biopsy, MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy improves detection of perineural invasion in PCa. As perineural invasion has only been studied on standard biopsies to date, it is unclear whether this finding has the same clinical significance for MP-MRI targeted lesions. PMID:26523543

  5. Preprostate Biopsy Rectal Culture and Postbiopsy Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Aisha Khalali; Murphy, Adam Bryant

    2015-11-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSP) remains the primary procedure for the accurate histologic diagnosis of prostate cancer. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are still recommended as the agents of choice for antimicrobial prophylaxis for TRUSP despite the alarming increasing incidence of FQ-resistant organisms among men undergoing TRUSP. This article reviews the current TRUSP antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines, antimicrobial resistance and its implications for these guidelines, the incidence of post-TRUSP infectious complications including urosepsis, the seminal data supporting pre-TRUSP rectal swab (RS), RS technique and protocol, and the current available literature surrounding the efficacy of RS in reducing post-TRUSP infectious complications. PMID:26475942

  6. Microcomputer use in an oral biopsy service.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K V; Jones, D L

    1986-04-01

    The need for rapid and accurate retrieval of the data generated by an oral biopsy service and the adjacent medical center was met with the purchase and programming of a microcomputer and hard disk drive. The planning phase involved an assessment of the needs of the department, creation of an ideal form to be displayed on the video screen that can be easily used to enter the information, selection of coding systems, and selection of compatible hardware and software. Customized in-house programming using a commercially available database management system has created an entry form and menu-driven information retrieval system tailored to the needs of the department. PMID:3458147

  7. Imaging, procedural, and clinical variables associated with tumor yield on bone biopsy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Rana R.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Werner, Lillian; Voznesensky, Olga; Wu, Jim S.; Smith, Stacy E.; Jiang, Zhenyang; Melnick, Kevin; Yuan, Xin; Kantoff, Philip W.; Montgomery, Bruce; Balk, Steven P.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms driving disease progression is fundamental to identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Due to the prevalence of bone metastases in mCRPC, obtaining sufficient tumor tissue for analysis has historically been a challenge. In this exploratory analysis, we evaluated imaging, procedural, and clinical variables associated with tumor yield on image-guided bone biopsy in men with mCRPC. Methods Clinical data were collected prospectively from men with mCRPC enrolled on a phase II trial with serial metastasis biopsies performed according to standard clinical protocol. Imaging was retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the percent positive biopsy cores (PPC), calculated as the number of positive cores divided by the total number of cores collected per biopsy. Results Twenty-nine men had 39 bone biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of bone biopsies had at least 1 positive biopsy core. We determined that lesion size and distance from the skin to the lesion edge correlated with tumor yield on biopsy (median PPC 75% versus 42% for lesions > 8.8 cm3 versus ? 8.8 cm3, respectively, p=0.05; median PPC 33% versus 71% for distance ? 6.1 versus < 6.1 cm, respectively, p=0.02). There was a trend towards increased tumor yield in patients with increased uptake on radionuclide bone scan, higher calcium levels, and shorter duration of osteoclast-targeting therapy, though this was not statistically significant. Ten men had 14 soft tissue biopsies. All soft tissue biopsies had at least 1 positive biopsy core. Conclusions This exploratory analysis suggests there are imaging, procedural, and clinical variables which impact image-guided bone biopsy yield. In order to maximize harvest of prostate cancer tissue, we have incorporated a prospective analysis of the metrics described here as part of a multi-institutional project aiming to use molecular characterization of mCRPC tumors to direct individual therapy. PMID:25091040

  8. Ion populations in the tail of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Fedorov, A.; Dunjushkin, F.; Kozhukhovsky, A.; Smirnov, V.; Avanov, L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma measurements in the tails of Venus showed the existence of several ion populations. Measurements performed on Venera and Pioneer Venus spacecraft at different planetocentric distances showed the evolution of the plasma parameters along the tail. Low-energy ion fluxes measured in the tail at close downstream distances, are also observed farther downstream, and show low acceleration from 0.5 R(sub V) to 12 R(sub V). High energy ions (energetic O(+) ions) reported from Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observations in the tail at 10-12 R(sub V) seem to be the same ion component that was observed as energetic ions at the tail boundary close to the planet on Venera spacecraft. We give evidence that these ions are accelerated in the narrow shear layer near the tail boundary.

  9. Nonlethal acquisition of large liver samples from free-ranging river sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) using single-entry endoscopic biopsy forceps.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J; Boone, Shaun S; Berliner, Aimee; Kurimo, Elizabeth A; Boysen, Krista A; Johnson, David R; Killgore, K Jack; George, Steven G; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Harvesting of liver samples for toxicologic and other laboratory analyses is frequently undertaken in free-ranging fish to evaluate accumulations of various pollutants and chemicals. However, commonly used, lethal techniques for collecting liver tissues are unacceptable when dealing with protected species. We report the use of a nonlethal, single-entry, endoscopic technique using saline infusion to examine and collect large liver samples using optical biopsy forceps from 16 free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus spp.) during 25 and 27 January 2010. Under tricaine methanesulfonate anesthesia and following the introduction of the optical biopsy forceps (with a 5-mm telescope) through a 1-2-cm ventral midline skin incision, liver examination and collection of biopsies averaging 0.9 g, ranging up to 1.4 g, and representing up to 12% of total liver tissue were successful. All fish made uneventful recoveries and necropsy examinations the following day failed to indicate any significant hemorrhage or iatrogenic trauma. We recommend the use of large optical biopsy forceps as a practical, nonlethal alternative for collection of large liver biopsies from sturgeon and other fish. PMID:23568907

  10. [Prostate biopsy: Diagnostic responsibility and recent changes].

    PubMed

    Martnez-Ballesteros, Claudio; Martnez-Salamanca, Juan Ignacio; Carballido Rodrguez, Joaqun Alberto

    2011-10-01

    In this bibliographic review we reexamine the different features in relation to indication, performance and interpretation of prostatic biopsy (PB). The main objective is to place methodological features involving PB in the current scientific scenario, establishing the correlation between the most relevant and analyzing the historic evolution this procedure has followed, particularly over the last two decades. Prostate biopsy has evolved to be a regular element in urologists` daily practice and its learning process has been simplified to the point it can be approached with adequacy during the first years of residency in Urology. This privileged position PB enjoys in daily practice and the performance obtained from it would have not been a reality without optimization of transrectal ultrasound or local anesthesia techniques, yet reviled in some forums, the real responsible of such success. The consensus reached in the various scientific associations, the clinical guidelines of which are widely consulted worldwide, is the best to support the current state of the art, being the starting point for the addition of new improvements to PB. PMID:22052756

  11. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, ?). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  12. Consistent and reproducible outcomes of blastocyst biopsy and aneuploidy screening across different biopsy practitioners: a multicentre study involving 2586 embryo biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Cimadomo, Danilo; Maggiulli, Roberta; Patassini, Cristina; Dusi, Ludovica; Sanges, Federica; Buffo, Laura; Venturella, Roberta; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is blastocyst biopsy and quantitative real-time PCR based comprehensive chromosome screening a consistent and reproducible approach across different biopsy practitioners? SUMMARY ANSWER The blastocyst biopsy approach provides highly consistent and reproducible laboratory and clinical outcomes across multiple practitioners from different IVF centres when all of the embryologists received identical training and use similar equipment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Recently there has been a trend towards trophectoderm (TE) biopsy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the reproducibility that can be obtained from multiple biopsy practitioners in different IVF centres in relation also to blastocysts of different morphology. Although it has been demonstrated that biopsy at the blastocyst stage has no impact on embryo viability, it remains a possibility that less experienced individual biopsy practitioners or laboratories performing TE biopsy may affect certain outcomes. We investigated whether TE biopsy practitioners can have an impact on the quality of the genetic test and the subsequent clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This longitudinal cohort study, between April 2013 and December 2014, involved 2586 consecutive blastocyst biopsies performed at three different IVF centres and the analysis of 494 single frozen euploid embryo transfer cycles (FEET). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Seven biopsy practitioners performed the blastocyst biopsies in the study period and quantitative PCR was used for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The same practitioner performed both the biopsy and tubing procedures for each blastocyst they biopsied. To investigate the quality of the biopsied samples, the diagnostic rate, sample-specific concurrence and the cell number retrieved in the biopsy were evaluated for each biopsy operator. Clinical outcomes following FEET cycles were stratified by biopsy operator and compared. Cellularity of the biopsy sample was also correlated with clinical outcomes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The seven practitioners performed 2586 biopsies, five in centre IVF-1 and one in each of the other two IVF centres (IVF-2 and IVF-3). Overall, 2437 out of 2586 (94.2%) blastocyst biopsies resulted in a conclusive diagnosis, 119 (4.6%) showed a nonconcurrent result and 30 (1.2%) failed to amplify, suggesting the absence of TE cells in the test tube or presence of degenerated/lysed cells only. Among the samples producing a conclusive diagnosis, a mean concurrence value of 0.253 (95% CI = 0.250–0.257) was observed. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors showed no differences in the diagnosis rate and in the concurrence of the genetic analysis between different biopsy practitioners. An overall mean number of 7.32 cells (95% CI = 6.82–7.81; range 2–15) were predicted from all biopsies. Higher cellularity was significantly associated with a better quality of the CCS diagnosis (P < 0.01) and with the conclusive diagnosis rate, with nonconcurrent samples showing significantly lower numbers of cells (2.1; 95% CI=1.5–2.7) compared with samples resulting in a conclusive diagnosis (mean cells number 7.5; 95% CI = 7.1–7.9, P < 0.01). However, no differences were recorded between different biopsy practitioners regarding cellularity of the biopsy. Finally, logistic analysis showed no impact of the biopsy practitioners on the observed ongoing rates of implantation, biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriage after the FEET cycles. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data come from a restricted set of laboratories where all of the embryologists received identical training and use identical equipment. A single TE biopsy method and CCS technology was used and these data particularly apply to PGS programmes using blastocyst biopsy without zona opening at the cleavage stage and using qPCR-based CCS. To make firm conclusions on the potential impact of biopsy on biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriages according to practitioner and biopsy cellularity, a larger sample size is needed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS We reported a very high consistency and reproducibility of the blastocyst biopsy approach coupled with qPCR-based CSS for both genetic and clinical outcomes across different practitioners working in different IVF centres when appropriate training is provided and when the same laboratory setting is used. These data are important considering the trend towards the use of blastocyst biopsy worldwide for PGD/PGS applications. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) None. PMID:26637492

  13. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  14. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 μM and a concentrated pocket of 300 μM occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 μM) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

  15. CT-Guided Needle Biopsy of Deep Pelvic Lesions by Extraperitoneal Approach Through Iliopsoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay; Madoff, David C.; Ahrar, Kamran; Morello, Frank A.; Wallace, Michael J.; Murthy, Ravi; Hicks, Marshall E.

    2003-11-15

    We report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided coaxial needle biopsy of deep pelvic lesions by an extraperitoneal approach through the iliopsoas muscle, using a curved needle for difficult-to-reach lesions. We reviewed the records of all patients with pelvic masses who underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy via iliopsoas muscle between January 1999 and December 2001. Direct anterior or posterior approach to the lesion was obstructed by bowel, bladder, vessels, or bones in all patients. An 18-gauge guide needle was advanced through the iliopsoas muscle and a 22-gauge Chiba needle was used to perform the biopsy. A custom-tailored curved 22-g needle was used in 17 procedures when the location of the iliac vessels and the slope of the iliac wing obstructed a straight path to the lesion. Fifty-three patients underwent 57 CT-guided needle biopsies during the study period. The lesions comprised obturator (n = 25), internal iliac (n = 11), anterior external iliac (n = 4), and common iliac nodes (n = 4); soft tissue masses along pelvic side-wall (n = 6); adnexal lesions (n = 5); a loculated fluid collection, and a perirectal node. All lesions were safely accessed, and major vessels and viscera were avoided in all cases. Of the 57 biopsies, 53 (93%) yielded diagnostic specimens. No major complications were encountered. CT-guided coaxial needle biopsy by an anterolateral approach through the iliopsoas muscle, with the use of a curved needle in selected cases is safe and effective for obtaining samples from deep pelvic lesions.

  16. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  17. Terror management theory in dermatology: skin biopsy influences patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joonhwan; Jung, You-Hee; Yi, Youjae; Ahn, Hyo Hyun

    2010-05-01

    A skin biopsy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in the dermatology outpatient clinic, but doctors often do not consider the cognitive impact of the biopsy procedure. Based on "terror management theory," we reasoned that a skin biopsy increases patient compliance by unconsciously stimulating mortality salience. To study this hypothesis, trust toward doctors, authoritarian personality, mood, attitude toward recommendations, and intention to accept recommendations were compared be-tween skin biopsy and non-skin biopsy groups of patients. Eighty-three patients participated in the study, and 78 responses were used for the analysis. The results showed that patients who had a skin biopsy had a more positive attitude toward doctors' recommendations and a higher intention to follow the recommendations. These effects were not moderated by the patient's own personality (patient trust and authoritarian personality). The outcome of this study implies that performing a procedure itself can subliminally influence a patient's attitude toward a doctor's recommendations. PMID:20526540

  18. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.; Blendis, L.; Evans, W.K.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In this group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.

  19. Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Akalin, Taner; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and Methods. Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. Findings. Squamous metaplastic changes on conjunctival epithelium and intense highly reflective extracellular punctiform deposits in conjunctival substantia propria were detected. Corneal epithelium was normal. Highly reflective punctiform deposits starting from anterior to mid-stroma and increasing through Descemet's membrane were evident. Corneal endothelium could not be evaluated due to intense stromal deposits. Conclusion. Confocal microscopy not only supports diagnosis in ocular argyrosis, but also demonstrates the intensity of the deposition in these patients. PMID:23970986

  20. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  1. Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

  2. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized. PMID:23960981

  4. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  5. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Dust Wind Tails Around Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 32. The Pathfinder lander is at right and is about 9 meters away. Wind tails of dust are clearly seen extending from the left side of many of the small rocks in the foreground. The large rocks on the horizon at left center are the next goal of Sojourner as it continues our exploration of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Tail suspension increases energy expenditure independently of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, Pei San; Wong, Davie; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Leckstrom, Arnold; Schwartz, Jacquie; Dodd, Janice G; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2009-10-01

    Space travelers experience anorexia and body weight loss in a microgravity environment, and microgravity-like situations cause changes in hypothalamic activity. Hypothalamic melanocortins play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that microgravity affects metabolism through alterations in specific hypothalamic signaling pathways, including melanocortin signaling. To address this hypothesis, the microgravity-like situation was produced by an antiorthostatic tail suspension in wild-type and agouti mice, and the effect of tail suspension on energy expenditure and hypothalamic gene expression was examined. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry before and during the tail suspension protocol. Hypothalamic tissues were collected for gene expression analysis at the end of the 3 h tail suspension period. Tail suspension significantly increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat production in wild-type mice. Tail suspension-induced increases in energy expenditure were not attenuated in agouti mice. Although tail suspension did not alter hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels, it significantly increased hypothalamic interleukin 6 (Il-6) mRNA levels. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that microgravity increases energy expenditure and suggest that these effects are mediated through hypothalamic signaling pathways that are independent of melanocortins, but possibly used by Il-6. PMID:20052010

  8. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring options for reducing the genetic propensity to tail bite. If these various approaches to reduce tail biting are implemented we propose that the need for tail docking will be reduced. PMID:25130712

  9. Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with needle guide by nephrologists decreases post-biopsy complications

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Shashi; Manjunath, Revanasiddappa; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama; Sharma, Raj K; Gupta, Amit; Lal, Hira; Jain, Manoj; Agrawal, Vinita

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) can result in serious complications. The study is aimed to compare the biopsy yield and complications rate of the real-time ultrasonagram (USG)-guided PRB and needle tracking with and without needle guide in two different study periods. Methods We compared the yield and complications of 2138 kidney biopsies performed in two different periods, 1510 biopsies during the first period from April 2004December 2010 and 628 biopsies during second period from January 2011March 2013. All biopsies in both periods were performed by nephrologists. Radiologists provided the real-time image without needle guide during the first period while nephrologists performed both imaging and biopsy with needle guide during the second period. Results Of all the 2138 patients, 226 (10.5%) patients developed 118 minor and 108 major complications. Only 13 (2.1%) major complications occurred in the second period and 95 (6.7%) in the first period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing a major complication without guide was 3.04 times greater than that of the biopsies performed with use of the guide. The mean number of glomeruli per biopsy obtained during the second period (17.98 6.75) was significantly greater than that of the first period (14.14 6.01) (P = 0.004). The number of passes to acquire adequate tissue (P = 0.001) and percentage of cortex on biopsy (P = 0.001) were also significantly better in the second period. The optimal observation period post biopsy is 24 h. Conclusions Real-time USG imaging supported by needle guide device is associated with better biopsy yield and fewer complications. PMID:25815170

  10. Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Martinho, Herculano

    2011-03-01

    Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

  11. Required thoracic drainage through the respiratory tract during transbronchial biopsy using EBUS-GS.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Inoue, Noriko; Matsuura, Akinobu; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki

    2015-12-01

    A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an abnormal chest shadow. Imaging revealed a pulmonary nodule shadow in the left S6 segment, multiple small nodule shadows in the left pleura, and left pleural effusion. Transbronchial biopsy using endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) with a guide sheath was conducted. EBUS showed the probe of the sheath located in the lesion and biopsy was performed in this area. A yellow turbid fluid appeared in the sheath and vacuum aspiration resulted in collection of 200?mL of this fluid. We suspected that drainage occurred because the sheath tip had ruptured the pleural cavity. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. It is likely that the EBUS images reflected pleural effusion adjacent to the lesion, and that the complication occurred because the biopsy was performed without awareness of these findings. This complication may be prevented by closer examination of echo findings and rotation of the X-ray source to ensure performance of the biopsy directly under the pleura. PMID:26740878

  12. Isolation and cytokine analysis of lamina propria lymphocytes from mucosal biopsies of the human colon

    PubMed Central

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Malter, Lisa B; Chen, Lea Ann; Wolff, Martin J; Robertson, Ian; Rifkin, Daniel B; Poles, Michael; Cho, Ilseug; Loke, Png

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of gut-microbial interactions has come from mouse models. Intestinal immunity is complex and a combination of host genetics and environmental factors play a significant role in regulating intestinal immunity. Due to this complexity, no mouse model to date gives a complete and accurate representation of human intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. However, intestinal tissue from patients undergoing bowel resection reflects a condition of severe disease that has failed treatment, hence a more dynamic perspective of varying inflammatory states in IBD could be obtained through the analyses of pinch biopsy material. Here we describe our protocol for analyzing mucosal pinch biopsies collected predominantly during colonoscopies. We have optimized flow cytometry panels to analyze up to 8 cytokines produced by CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as for characterizing nuclear proteins and transcription factors such as Ki67 and Foxp3. Furthermore, we have optimized approaches to analyze the production of cytokines, including TGF-beta from direct ex vivo cultures of pinch biopsies and LPMCs isolated from biopsies. These approaches are part of our workflow to try and understand the role of the gut microbiota in complex and dynamic human intestinal diseases. PMID:25769417

  13. Chinese nomogram to predict probability of positive initial prostate biopsy: a study in Taiwan region.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shu-Chun; Hung, Shun-Hsing; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lu, Chin-Li; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Zou, Jian-Fang; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Several nomograms for prostate cancer detection have recently been developed. Because the incidence of prostate cancer is lower in Chinese men, nomograms based on other populations cannot be directly applied to Chinese men. We, therefore, developed a model for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy using clinical and laboratory data from a Chinese male population. Data were collected from 893 Chinese male referrals, 697 in the derivation set and 196 in the external validation set, who underwent initial prostate biopsies as individual screening. We analyzed age, prostate volume, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examinations (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) echogenicity. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals and P values. Independent predictors of a positive biopsy result included advanced age, small prostate volume, elevated total PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination, and hyperechoic or hypoechoic TRUS echogenicity. We developed a predictive nomogram for an initial positive biopsy using these variables. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 88.8%, which was greater than that of the prediction based on total PSA alone (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 74.7%). If externally validated, the predictive probability was 0.827 and the accuracy rate was 78.1%, respectively. Incorporating clinical and laboratory data into a prebiopsy nomogram improved the prediction of prostate cancer compared with predictions based solely on the individual factors. PMID:24121978

  14. Deliveries from trophectoderm biopsied, fresh and vitrified blastocysts derived from polar body biopsied, vitrified oocytes.

    PubMed

    Grifo, Jamie; Adler, Alexis; Lee, Hsiao Ling; Morin, Scott J; Smith, Meghan; Lu, Lucy; Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; McCaffrey, Caroline; Berkeley, Alan; Munn, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study reports preliminary findings of six patients who underwent first polar body biopsy followed by oocyte vitrification. All oocytes were warmed, inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured to blastocyst. All suitable blastocysts underwent trophectoderm biopsy for aneuploidy screening, and supernumerary blastocysts were vitrified. Euploid blastocysts were transferred either fresh or in a subsequent programmed cycle. Of the 91 metaphase II oocytes, 30 had euploid first polar bodies. Development to blastocyst was more likely in oocytes with a euploid first polar body (66.7% versus 24.6%; P < 0.001). Nineteen euploid blastocysts were produced: 10 from oocytes with a euploid first polar body and nine from oocytes with an aneuploid first polar body. Five out of six patients (83%) had a live birth or ongoing pregnancy at the time of analysis. Eleven euploid blastocysts have been transferred and seven implanted (64%). Although the chromosomal status of the first polar body was poorly predictive of embryonic ploidy, an association was found between chromosomal status of the first polar body and development to blastocyst. Further study is required to characterize these relationships, but proof of concept is provided that twice biopsied, twice cryopreserved oocytes and embryos can lead to viable pregnancies. PMID:26096028

  15. Is magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy better than systematic prostate biopsy? An updated meta- and trial sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Ji, Alin; Xie, Bo; Wang, Xiao; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junyuan; Yu, Yasai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Liu, Ben; Xie, Liping

    2015-12-22

    We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether Magnetic Resonance/Ultrasound (MR/US) fusion prostate biopsy is better than systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared for their ability to detect lesions with different degrees of suspicion on MRI and clinically significant prostate cancer, and the number of cores needed for diagnosis. The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline were searched from inception until May 1, 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.2 software. Data was expressed as risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Fourteen trials were included, encompassing a total of 3105 participants. We found that MR/US fusion biopsy detected more prostate cancers than systematic biopsy (46.9% vs. 44.2%, p=0.03). In men with moderate/high MRI suspicion, MR/US fusion biopsy did better than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.46; p < 0.05) for making a diagnosis. Moreover, MR/US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.19; p < 0.05). We recommend that MR/US fusion prostate biopsy be used to better detect prostate cancer, particularly in patients with moderate/high suspicion lesions on MRI. PMID:26498362

  16. Is magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy better than systematic prostate biopsy? an updated meta- and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xiao; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junyuan; Yu, Yasai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Liu, Ben; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether Magnetic Resonance/Ultrasound (MR/US) fusion prostate biopsy is better than systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared for their ability to detect lesions with different degrees of suspicion on MRI and clinically significant prostate cancer, and the number of cores needed for diagnosis. The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline were searched from inception until May 1, 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.2 software. Data was expressed as risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Fourteen trials were included, encompassing a total of 3105 participants. We found that MR/US fusion biopsy detected more prostate cancers than systematic biopsy (46.9% vs. 44.2%, p=0.03). In men with moderate/high MRI suspicion, MR/US fusion biopsy did better than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.46; p < 0.05) for making a diagnosis. Moreover, MR/US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.19; p < 0.05). We recommend that MR/US fusion prostate biopsy be used to better detect prostate cancer, particularly in patients with moderate/high suspicion lesions on MRI. PMID:26498362

  17. Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Pron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 2614 days (mean SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reactiondefined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate divewhen hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

  18. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

  19. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices 870.4075 Endomyocardial biopsy device. (a) Identification....

  20. Spastic paraparesis, abnormal muscle biopsy and positive antithyroid antibodies.

    PubMed

    George, A; Abdurahman, P; James, J

    2007-08-01

    A 35 year old lady presented with progressive spastic paraparesis and hyperintense signals in the spinal cord and brain. She was noted to have high titres of antithyroid antibodies and primary hypothyroidism. Her muscle biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytes around endomysial vessels. We highlight the association of spinal cord involvement and abnormal muscle biopsy in a case of Hashimotos encephalopathy. PMID:18019801

  1. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  2. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  3. Diagnosis of Amyloidosis and Differentiation from Chronic, Idiopathic Enterocolitis in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Pig-Tailed (M. nemestrina) Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529

  4. Heavy metal localisation in mycorrhizas of Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser (Orchidaceae) from zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, A; Turnau, K; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, J; Przyby?owicz, W; Godzik, B

    2001-01-01

    The metal distribution within mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of Epipactis atrorubens collected from zinc mine tailings and an area rich in heavy metal ores (both located in southern Poland) was investigated. The tailings, consisting of post-flotation material, were characterised by high levels of toxic elements such as Zn, Pb, and Cd, while soil outside the tailings was also strongly enriched in heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission analysis revealed that heavy metals were mostly accumulated within orchid roots. Elemental maps from proton-induced X-ray emission showed that plant root epidermis and fungal coils which had developed within cortical cells of roots collected from the zinc mine tailings were the main places of Zn and Pb accumulation, associated with increased concentrations of Fe, Cd, Ti, Mn, Si, Ca, and S. The mean content of Pb and Zn in the coils was 4 to 5 times higher than in the root epidermis. In mycorrhizal roots from the tailings a statistically significant decrease in Pb and Zn content towards the inside of the root was observed. The mean content of Pb in coils from roots of plants growing outside the tailings was about 1% of the concentration in root coils from the tailings. Coils selected from orchid roots originating from a site outside the tailings contained comparatively high concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu, which was probably due to the high content of these elements in the soil. The results presented suggest a biofiltering effect against heavy metals by orchid mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:11770428

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  6. Mercury's Tail Current Sheet from MESSENGER Magnetic Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Asad, M.; Johnson, C. L.; Philpott, L. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have estimated the spatial variations in the position and average thickness of Mercury's magnetospheric tail current sheet from orbital magnetic field data collected by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. We have investigated the changes in these average properties with varying solar wind conditions and magnetospheric activity. The time-averaged thickness of the current sheet was obtained from superposed epoch analysis (SEA) of the 1-s-averaged vector magnetic field data within ± 10 min of the identified magnetic equator position at different down-tail distances. The average thickness was then estimated from a given SEA by identifying the time interval during which the field completed a rotation from the sunward to the anti-sunward direction, or vice versa, accompanied by a depression in the field magnitude. We have found that the current sheet has a thickness of ~0.8 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius, or 2440 km) close to the planet (~ 1.1 RM) and thins to ~0.2 RM in the far tail region (~2.8 RM). We examined individual orbits to catalogue the existence and number of current sheet crossings encountered on each orbit. These data allow us to (1) determine whether the thickness obtained from the SEA is an actual thickness or an apparent thickness controlled by rapid motions of the current sheet, and (2) estimate the statistical likelihood of observing the current sheet as a function of down-tail distance. For example, some magnetically quiet orbits that cross the magnetic equator at down-tail distances greater than 2 RM do not record a current sheet crossing and appear to cross closed field lines in the vicinity of the magnetic equator, even though they lie in a region in which the tail current sheet is usually observed. This result suggests that the inner (near-planet) edge of the current sheet is not stationary but may move anti-sunward (or sunward) under quiet (or active) magnetospheric conditions.

  7. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ?7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  8. Guidelines for processing and reporting of prostatic needle biopsies

    PubMed Central

    van der Kwast, Th H; Lopes, C; Santonja, C; Pihl, C-G; Neetens, I; Martikainen, P; Di Lollo, S; Bubendorf, L; Hoedemaeker, R F

    2003-01-01

    The reported detection rate of prostate cancer, lesions suspicious for cancer, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in needle biopsies is highly variable. In part, technical factors, including the quality of the biopsies, the tissue processing, and histopathological reporting, may account for these differences. It has been thought that standardisation of tissue processing might reduce the observed variations in detection rate. Consensus among the members of the pathology committee of the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) concerning the optimal methodology of tissue embedding resulting in guidelines for prostatic needle biopsy processing was reached. The adoption of an unequivocal and uniform way of reporting lesions encountered in prostatic needle biopsies is considered helpful for decision taking by the clinician. The definition of parameters for quality control of prostatic needle biopsy diagnostics will further facilitate clinical epidemiological multicentre studies of prostate cancer. PMID:12719451

  9. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  10. New Techniques in Image-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2004-03-15

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy is a well-established and safe technique for obtaining tissue specimens from various regions of the body and plays a crucial role in patient management. Improvements in needle designs, development of new biopsy techniques, and continual advances in image-guidance technology have improved the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Lesions previously considered relatively inaccessible can now be safely biopsied. This review looks at the recent technologic developments in image guidance for percutaneous biopsy procedures. Improvements in needle design and other innovations intended to enhance the diagnostic yield of biopsy specimens are briefly discussed. Also described are some new techniques and unconventional approaches that help provide safe access to difficult-to-reach lesions.

  11. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  12. Uncompacted myelin lamellae in peripheral nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Bouillot, Sandrine; Favereaux, Alexandre; Lagueny, Alain; Ferrer, Xavier; Brechenmacher, Christiane; Petry, Klaus G

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the authors have studied 49 peripheral nerve biopsies presenting uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML). Based on the ultrastructural pattern of UML they propose a 3-category classification. The first category includes cases displaying regular UML, which was observed in 43 cases; it was more frequent in 9 cases with polyneuropathy organomegaly endocrinopathy m-protein skin changes (POEMS) syndrome as well as in 1 case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B with a novel point mutation in the P0 gene. The second category consists of cases showing irregular UML, observed in 4 cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. This group included 1 benign case and 3 B-cell malignant lymphomas. The third category is complex UML, which was present in 2 unrelated patients with an Arg 98 His missense mutation in the P0 protein gene. Irregular and complex UML are respectively related to MAG and P0, which play a crucial role in myelin lamellae compaction and adhesion. PMID:12554530

  13. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-11-16

    This invention relates to a microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures. The advantages include: minimal specimen handling; smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 {mu}m or greater); micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens; low cost; disposable; fabrication process which renders sterile parts; and ease of use. The cutter is a cheese-grater style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  14. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  15. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

  16. Impact of genotyping on outcome of prostatic biopsies: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Drouin, Sarah; Cancel-Tassin, Graldine; Bigot, Pierre; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmne; Koutlidis, Nicolas; Cormier, Luc; Gaffory, Ccile; Rouprt, Morgan; Sbe, Philippe; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Haab, Franois; Cussenot, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and tumor aggressiveness in retrospective studies. To assess the value of genotyping in a clinical setting, we evaluated the correlation between three genotypes (rs1447295 and rs6983267[8q24] and rs4054823[17p12]) and prostatic biopsy outcome prospectively in a French population of Caucasian men. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) >4 ng/mL or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) participated in this prospective, multicenter study. Age, familial history of PCa, body mass index (BMI), data of DRE, International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) score, PSA value and prostatic volume were collected prospectively before prostatic biopsy. Correlation between genotypes and biopsy outcome (positive or negative) and Gleason score (?6 or >6) were studied by univariate and multivariable analysis. rs1447295 and rs6983267 risk variants were found to be associated with the presence of PCa in univariate analysis. rs6983267 genotype remained significantly linked to a positive biopsy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) in multivariable analysis, but rs1447295 genotype did not (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.89-2.43, P = 0.13).When biopsy outcome was stratified according to Gleason score, risk variants of rs1447295 were associated with aggressive disease (Gleason score ?7) in univariate and multivariable analysis (OR = 2.05 95% CI: 1.10-3.79, P = 0.023). rs6983267 GG genotype was not related to aggressiveness. The results did not reach significance concerning rs4054823 for any analysis. This inaugural prospective evaluation thus confirmed potential usefulness of genotyping PCa assessment. Ongoing clinical evaluation of larger panels of SNPs will detail the actual impact of genetic markers on clinical practice. PMID:21308149

  17. Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

    2002-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

  18. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Matushita Junior, João Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paresthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. PMID:25741100

  19. The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Characterization and monitoring of transverse beam tails

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.; Decker, F.J.; Hsu, I.; Young, C.

    1991-05-01

    Low emittance electron beams accelerated to high energy in a linac experience transverse effects (wakefield, filamentation, optics) which produce non-Gaussian projected transverse beam distributions. Characterizations of the beam shapes are difficult because the shapes are asymmetric and change with betatron phase. In this note several methods to describe beam distributions are discussed including an accelerator physics model of these tails. The uses of these characterizations in monitoring the beam emittances in the SLC are described in this paper. First, two dimensional distributions from profile monitor screens are reviewed showing correlated tails. Second, a fitting technique for non-Gaussian one dimensional distributions is used to extract the core from the tail areas. Finally, a model for tail propagation in the linac is given. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. PMID:26138983

  2. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Danielsen, Carl Chr.; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S.; Rydtoft, Louise M.; Mortensen, Martin B.; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Wang, Tobias; Thgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments. PMID:23284771

  3. Effects of Tail on Spinning Aircraft Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takafumi; Horichi, Takao; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The experiment on aircraft spin phenomena was conducted at the low speed wind tunnel of Nagoya University with its exit test section inclined vertically. The model used in this experiment consists of three parts: a main wing, a fuselage, and a tail. Due to the stability effect of the tail, rotation of the model is decreased at low angles of attack, while it is increased at high angles of attack. As a result of pressure measurements, the horizontal tail wing was found to be the cause of this phenomenon. More specifically, a vortex is created from the leading edge of the windward horizontal tail wing, so that negative pressure regions appear on the windward horizontal wing and the vertical wing.

  4. Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A; Donegan, James J

    1951-01-01

    A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided deep and large biopsy for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hang-Hai; Usman, Ali; Ji, Feng; Jin, Xi; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Chen, Hong-Tan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic yield and safety of a deep and large biopsy technique under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies. METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2014, 36 patients in whom gastric infiltrating tumors had been diagnosed by EUS received negative results for malignancy after endoscopic biopsies. The deep and large biopsy technique combined bite-on-bite technique with or without endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to obtain submucosal tissue from lesions. EUS was used to select the appropriate biopsy sites. If the lesion protruded into the cavity, EMR was performed for removal of the overlying mucosa and then bite-on-bite technique was conducted in the resected area to obtain submucosal tissue. If the lesion appeared to be flat or was difficult to lift by injection, the bite-on-bite technique was directly used. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 36 patients were treated by EMR followed by bite-on-bite technique, while 8 patients only underwent bite-on-bite technique. Histological results showed 23 of the 36 lesions were poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 4 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas, and 7 undiagnosed. The deep and large biopsy technique provided a definitive and conclusive diagnosis in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients. The 12 gastric linitis plastica and 6 lymphoma patients received chemotherapy and avoided surgery. Minor oozing of blood in 2 mucosal resection wounds was managed by argon plasma coagulation and in 5 cases after deep biopsies by epinephrine (0.001%). Neither severe hemorrhage nor perforation occurred in any patient. CONCLUSION: The deep and large biopsy technique is superior to ordinary endoscopic biopsy for achieving an accurate diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors. This procedure guided by EUS is an effective and safe diagnostic method for gastric infiltrating tumors in which endoscopic biopsy results were negative for malignancy. PMID:25834327

  6. Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

  7. Submandibular gland needle biopsy for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugger, Brittany N.; Hinni, Michael L.; Lott, David G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Hidalgo, Jose; Henry-Watson, Jonette; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I.; Nagel, Thomas; Duffy, Amy; Shill, Holly A.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Walker, Douglas G.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates salivary gland biopsies in living patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Patients with PD for ?5 years underwent outpatient transcutaneous needle core biopsies (18-gauge or 16-gauge) of 1 submandibular gland. Minor salivary glands were removed via a small incision in the lower lip. Tissue was fixed in formalin and serial 6-m paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained for phosphorylated ?-synuclein and reviewed for evidence of Lewy type ?-synucleinopathy (LTS). Results: Fifteen patients with PD were biopsied: 9 female/6 male, mean age 68.7 years, mean PD duration 11.8 years. Twelve of the needle core biopsies had microscopically evident submandibular gland tissue to assess and 9/12 (75%) had LTS. Only 1/15 (6.7%) minor salivary gland biopsies were positive for LTS. Five patients had an adverse event; all were minor and transient. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing needle core biopsies of the submandibular gland in living patients with PD to assess LTS. Although this was a small study, this tissue biopsy method may be important for tissue confirmation of PD in patients being considered for invasive procedures and in research studies of other PD biomarkers. PMID:24500652

  8. Complications of Ultrasound-Guided Renal Transplant Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T A; Chandran, S; Burger, I M; Zhang, C A; Goldstein, R B

    2016-04-01

    Renal transplant biopsies to diagnose transplant pathology are routinely performed using ultrasound guidance. Few large studies have assessed the rate and risk factors of major biopsy complications. This study is a single-center 5-year retrospective cohort analysis of 2514 biopsies. Major complications occurred in 47 of 2514 patients (1.9%) and included hospitalization, transfusion of blood products, operative exploration and interventional radiology procedures. The complication rate among "cause" biopsies was significantly higher than in "protocol" biopsies (2.7% vs. 0.33%, p < 0.001). Complications presented on postbiopsy days 0-14, with the majority diagnosed on the same day as the biopsy and manifested by hematocrit drop, although the presence of such delayed presentation of complications occurring >24 h after the biopsy on days 2-14 is previously unreported. Specific patient characteristics associated with increased risk of a complication were increased age and blood urea nitrogen, decreased platelet count, history of prior renal transplant, deceased donor transplant type and use of anticoagulant medications but not aspirin. PMID:26601796

  9. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  10. Brain biopsy in AIDS. Diagnostic value and consequence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C J; Gjerris, F; Pedersen, H; Jensen, F K; Wagn, P

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen male patients with AIDS were investigated by biopsy of brain lesions. Six patients had progressive multiple leucoencephalopathy and no specific treatment was given. Toxoplasmosis (two patients), bacterial abscesses (two cases), viral encephalitis (two patients) and only gliosis (two cases) accounted for almost half of the cases. A fungal infection, a lymphoma and a sarcoma-like tumour were found in three patients. In two patients the biopsy was not diagnostic: one had only necrosis and one had normal findings. The biopsy findings gave reason for modifying the treatment in only three cases. The mean survival rate was relatively short, only 76 days with a range from 1 to 1041 days. Two patients were in a very bad clinical condition at the time of biopsy and one died of a haemorrhagic complication due to the biopsy. In ten cases an autopsy was carried out. In five cases there was agreement between the biopsy and autopsy findings. In the other five cases the autopsy findings differed widely. In our experience we can recommend cerebral biopsy in patients with AIDS only after treatment for toxoplasmosis and mainly to estimate the prognosis. PMID:7942191

  11. Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H.; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V.

    2015-01-01

    Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 out of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25661242

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker and Brain Biopsy Findings in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Pyykk, Okko T.; Lumela, Miikka; Rummukainen, Jaana; Nerg, Ossi; Seppl, Toni T.; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Koivisto, Anne M.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Puli, Lakshman; Savolainen, Sakari; Soininen, Hilkka; Jskelinen, Juha E.; Hiltunen, Mikko; Zetterberg, Henrik; Leinonen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Background The significance of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neuroinflammation in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. Objective To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP) and amyloid beta (A?) isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to brain biopsy A? and hyperphosphorylated tau (HP?) findings. Methods The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders), 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD), and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against A? and HP?. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (A?42, p-tau, total tau), non-AD-related A? isoforms (A?38, A?40), sAPP isoforms (sAPP?, sAPP?), proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL), interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein) were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE. Results Lumbar CSF levels of sAPP? were lower (p<0.05) in patients with shunt-responsive iNPH compared to non-iNPH patients. sAPP? showed a similar trend (p?=?0.06). CSF sAPP isoform levels showed no association to A? or HP? in the brain biopsy. Quantified A? load in the brain biopsy showed a negative correlation with CSF levels of A?42 in ventricular (r?=??0.295, p?=?0.003) and lumbar (r?=??0.356, p?=?0.01) samples, while the levels of A?38 and A?40 showed no correlation. CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of neuronal damage did not associate to the brain biopsy findings, diagnosis, or shunt response. Higher lumbar/ventricular CSF IL-8 ratios (p<0.001) were seen in lumbar samples collected after ventriculostomy compared to the samples collected before the procedure. Conclusions The role of sAPP isoforms in iNPH seems to be independent from the amyloid cascade. No neuroinflammatory background was observed in iNPH or AD. PMID:24638077

  13. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  14. Field investigation of evaporation from freshwater tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyasu, Yoshimasa; Fahey, M.; Newson, T.

    2000-06-01

    Safe and economical storage of tailings is now a major consideration in the operation of many mining operations. Tailings in slurried form, particularly if they have a significant clay content, can take a very long time to consolidate under the action of self-weight consolidation alone. However, if the operation is located in an area of high potential evaporation, this can be used to accelerate the rate of tailings densification. This paper presents a study of the evaporation behavior of a clayey tailings slurry deposited into an evaporation pond in the southwest of Western Australia. Over a six-month period, the rate of evaporation from the tailings surface was monitored using the Bowen Ratio method and the microlysimeter method. This was compared with the evaporation from a Class A pan located nearby. The tailings underwent very significant cracking as drying proceeded, and it was found that these cracks had a significant influence on the overall rate of evaporation once the top surface of the deposit started to desaturate. A large strain consolidation model was used to model the behavior, and the algorithm used in this model to include the effects of evaporation is shown to provide a reasonable prediction of the observed evaporation behavior.

  15. Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Senčilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Österlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function. PMID:23470522

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

  17. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  18. The new idea of transporting tailings-logs in tailings slurry pipeline and the innovation of technology of mining waste-fill method

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Yu; Wang Fuji; Tao Yan

    2000-07-01

    This paper introduced a new idea of transporting mine tailings-logs in mine tailings-slurry pipeline and a new technology of mine cemented filing of tailings-logs with tailings-slurry. The hydraulic principles, the compaction of tailings-logs and the mechanic function of fillbody of tailings-logs cemented by tailings-slurry have been discussed.

  19. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil Karabay, Oguz; Gurel, Safiye; Hildebolt, Charles

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

  20. The current role of percutaneous needle biopsies of renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Scarpa, Roberto M

    2009-06-01

    The role of percutaneous biopsy of renal masses has been traditionally limited by concerns about its safety, accuracy and sampling errors. The increasing incidence in the diagnosis of incidental small renal masses (SRMs), the development of conservative and minimally invasive treatments for low risk renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and the discovery of novel targeted treatments for metastatic disease are now leading to wider indications for renal tumor biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy of renal tumors can be performed in an outpatient setting under ultrasound and/or CT guidance. 18 gauge needles loaded in an automatic biopsy gun are used to retrieve cores and 21 gauge needles to obtain FNA specimens through a 17 gauge coaxial cannula placed close to the tumor. A careful check of the quality of biopsies and aspirates is paramount to maximize the diagnostic yield of the procedure. With the development of new biopsy techniques the risk of tumor seeding appears negligible and significant bleeding is unusual and very rarely clinically significant. In centres with expertise, needle core biopsy with or without FNA can provide adequate specimens for an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Incidental SRMs are frequently detected in elderly patients and have a very heterogeneous biological behaviour At surgery up to one third have benign histologies and most of those that are malignant are low grade RCCs. Pretreatment percutaneous biopsy can significantly decrease the number of unnecessary surgeries for benign disease and assist the urologist in clinical decision making, especially for elderly and unfit patients who are possible candidates for active surveillance and/or minimally invasive ablative therapies. Finally, there is potential for stratifying initial therapy of metastatic RCC by histological subtype on needle biopsies. PMID:19760866

  1. Prostate needle biopsy examination by means of virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chargari, Cyrus; Comperat, Eva; Magn, Nicolas; Vdrine, Lionel; Houlgatte, Alain; Egevad, Lars; Camparo, Philippe

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed at determining whether virtual microscopy improves the accuracy in the pathological examination of prostate needle biopsies regarding maximum tumor length, percentage of positive cores, and Gleason grading. We assessed a series of 816 prostate needle biopsy cores in 68 consecutive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma. Biopsy specimens were reviewed using conventional examination. Then, slides were converted to whole slide imaging (Olympus BX51). Tumor was measured, and Gleason score was assigned using the OlyVia software. Optically evaluated pathological features were compared with digital findings to determine whether one of these two methods for the assignment of a preoperative Gleason score is appropriate for predicting the definitive Gleason score of radical prostatectomy. When comparing optical and digital measurements, maximum tumor length in biopsy cores and percent prostate needle biopsy with cancer showed no significant difference. The mean variation in the measurement of tumor length was 2.65mm per biopsy. Among 240 biopsy cores involved with cancer, the concordance rate for Gleason score assignment was 75.8% (?=0.49, good agreement). When considering the higher Gleason score assignment as the score for the entire case (ISUP 2005), the concordance rate was 69.1% (?=0.46, good agreement). When comparing the biopsy scores with the definitive score of radical prostatectomy, the concordance rate was significantly increased from 54.4% for conventional examination (?=0.23, marginal agreement) to 66.2% for virtual slide examination (?=0.42, good agreement). Virtual microscopy does not compromise, but might improve, the accuracy of grading in prostate needle biopsies. This requires further assessment. PMID:21570778

  2. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  4. Brain biopsy in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Alrawi, A; Trobe, J D; Blaivas, M; Musch, D C

    1999-09-11

    To determine the yield of brain biopsy and the predictive value of clinical features and ancillary studies, we retrospectively analyzed hospital chart data from 61 consecutive patients suspected of having primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS). Biopsies disclosed PACNS in 22 (36%), alternative diagnoses in 24 (39%), and no diagnosis in 15 (25%). Clinical indicators and angiography were not useful predictors of PACNS. Brain biopsy should be the primary diagnostic tool in this setting because of the poor reliability of other indicators and because of the high yield of alternative diagnoses requiring different management. PMID:10489055

  5. The precision of three enamel biopsy methods for fluoride determination.

    PubMed

    Sprri, S; Belser, U; Mhlemann, H R

    1975-10-01

    3 different enamel biopsy methods were tested on 2 maxillary permanent incisors on each of 90 schoolchildren. In methods A and B the round biopsy field was bordered by copalite varnish, while method C utilized a scotch tape border. The biopsy itself resulted from etching the enamel surface with 2N perchloric acid for 7 sec for method A, and 14 sec for methods B and C. Flouride was measured with the fluoride activity electrode. The doubled etching time caused only a 30 to 40% increase of enamel removal. Method C showed the best reproducibility. PMID:1225873

  6. [Bone biopsies of cortical bone segments (technique, evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Pfister, A; Ochsner, P E; Jundt, G

    1993-12-01

    13 drill biopsies were microscopically examined and evaluated in respect of their histologic quality. 8 biopsies were obtained with a diamond hollow cutter, the other 5 specimens were sampled with a modified milling cutter according to Burkhardt. Regarding proper evaluation of bone biopsies e.g. in cases of osteomyelitis, factors as presence of bone marrow cavity or drill powder play an important role. Considering these factors the modified milling cutter according to Burkhardt yields, precise and careful handling provided, better results than the diamond hollow cutter. PMID:8147260

  7. Fulminant sepsis after liver biopsy: A long forgotten complication?

    PubMed

    Claudi, Corinna; Henschel, Martin; Vogel, Jrgen; Schepke, Michael; Biecker, Erwin

    2013-04-16

    We report on a 74-year-old patient with recurrent cholangitis and a large juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. Despite drainage of the common bile duct by an endoscopically placed stent, the elevated liver enzymes normalized only partially. To rule out other possible causes of liver injury, a percutaneous liver biopsy was done. After the liver biopsy the patient developed fulminant septic shock and died within 24 h. We discuss the possible causes of the septic shock following percutaneous liver biopsy in our patient and give a concise overview of the literature. PMID:24303461

  8. "Semi-open" muscle biopsy technique. A simple outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, K G

    1979-06-01

    An easy and safe method for muscle biopsy is described. The biopsy instrument is an alligator forceps (Weil-Bladesley's conchotome). With this method an adequate amount of muscle tissue can be obtained for both chemical and morphological studies. The method combines the advantage of the "open-surgical" method - sufficient quantity of material - with the advantages of the needle methods - easy to perform, not incapacitating and only slightly uncomfortable for the patient. Out of 959 consecutive biopsies with this method only 19 were impossible to evaluate because of too much artefact or too little tissue. PMID:484204

  9. MRI-Targeted Biopsies versus Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Localized Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Nave Men

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Alexandre; Aoun, Fouad; Lemort, Marc; Kwizera, Flix; Paesmans, Marianne; Van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To compare, in the same cohort of men, the detection of clinically significant disease in standard (STD) cores versus multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) targeted (TAR) cores. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 129 biopsy nave men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. These patients underwent prebiopsy mpMRI with STD systematic biopsies and TAR biopsies when lesions were found. The agreement between the TAR and the STD protocols was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results. Cancer detection rate of MRI-targeted biopsy was 62.7%. TAR protocol demonstrated higher detection rate of clinically significant disease compared to STD protocol. The proportion of cores positive for clinically significant cancer in TAR cores was 28.9% versus 9.8% for STD cores (P < 0.001). The proportion of men with clinically significant cancer and the proportion of men with Gleason score 7 were higher with the TAR protocol than with the STD protocol (P = 0.003; P = 0.0008, resp.). Conclusion. mpMRI improved clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate compared to STD protocol alone with less tissue sampling and higher Gleason score. Further development in imaging as well as multicentre studies using the START recommendation is needed to elucidate the role of mpMRI targeted biopsy in the management of prostate cancer. PMID:25692142

  10. Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8??2.4, 8.8??4.0 and 10.4??3.9days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.256.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.164.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.0512.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

  11. EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

  12. High-Resolution Rapid Diagnostic Imaging of Whole Prostate Biopsies Using Video-Rate Fluorescence Structured Illumination Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Kimbrell, Hillary Z; Sholl, Andrew B; Tulman, David B; Elfer, Katherine N; Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C; Lee, Benjamin R; Lacey, Michelle; Brown, J Quincy

    2015-10-01

    Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced transrectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histologic, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols, such as frozen section analysis (FSA), are destructive and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical. Ex vivo microscopy of the excised specimens, stained with fast-acting fluorescent histology dyes, could be an attractive nondestructive alternative to FSA. In this work, we report the first demonstration of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) for rapid high-resolution diagnostic imaging of prostate biopsies in realistic point-of-procedure timeframes. Large mosaic images of prostate biopsies stained with acridine orange are rendered in seconds and contain excellent contrast and detail, exhibiting close correlation with corresponding hematoxylin and eosin histology. A clinically relevant review of VR-SIM images of 34 unfixed and uncut prostate core biopsies by two independent pathologists resulted in an area under the receiver operative curve (AUC) of 0.82-0.88, with a sensitivity ranging from 63% to 88% and a specificity ranging from 78% to 89%. When biopsies contained more than 5% tumor content, the sensitivity improved to 75% to 92%. The image quality, speed, minimal complexity, and ease of use of VR-SIM could prove to be features in favor of adoption as an alternative to destructive pathology at the point-of-procedure. PMID:26282168

  13. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to be easily adapted to any other neutral cometary sodium tail observations available.

  14. [Biopsy of lung tissue in the diagnosis of disseminated transformations].

    PubMed

    Lewaschow, J N; Orsheschkowskij, O W

    1988-01-01

    The results of complex studies in 440 patients with disseminated processes are presented. In 135 of them the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical, roentgenologic and laboratory data and by biopsies of skin, muscles and subcutaneous lymph nodes. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed in 218 patients. It gave positive results in 65% of the cases. Open biopsy of lung was performed in 134 cases. Hemodynamic and gas exchange studies during the operation indicated its insignificant traumatism. Complications (limited hemothorax, partial pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, wound suppuration) were noted in 10 (7.5%) cases in the postoperative period. Pulmonary tests performed three weeks after the operation did not reveal significant changes in the subjects, even those with considerable initial disorders. Open biopsy permitted to verify the diagnosis in 131 (98%) patients. In 52% of these cases the diagnosis did not correspond to the presumed one and considerably influenced the subsequent treatment. PMID:3222971

  15. Meditation May Ease Pain, Anxiety from Breast Cancer Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... From Breast Cancer Biopsy: Study Researchers also found music helps during the procedure To use the sharing ... THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Meditation and music may reduce pain, anxiety and fatigue associated with ...

  16. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that involves ... gifts are tax deductible. Donate Now Source Date: Mar 20 2014 About PDF About PDF PDF People ...

  17. [Current role of biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatic disease].

    PubMed

    Morisod, J; Fontolliet, C; Haller, E; Gardiol, D; Hofstetter, J R; Gonvers, J J

    1988-01-31

    The criteria for the use of liver biopsy as a diagnostic tool were retrospectively analyzed over a ten-year period in 390 consecutive patients. The four principal conditions in which this procedure was employed were alcoholism (33%), hepatitis (18%), abnormal hepatic tests (16%) and tumors (10%). The development of new, "non-invasive", investigative methods such as echography and tomodensitometry has led to an decrease in the number of liver biopsies performed annually, but no change in the relative frequency of the various indications. In this paper, evidence is presented which demonstrates that hepatic biopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 62.4% of the cases reviewed and fundamentally modified the diagnosis in 20.2%. Based upon these findings, it can be concluded that liver biopsy remains an indispensable diagnostic procedure in the field of hepatology, since it can result in modification of the clinician's diagnosis in one out of five cases. PMID:3278372

  18. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

    PubMed

    Hnse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status. PMID:24640925

  19. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  20. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  1. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: Implications for biogeography and host associations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic distribution for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer, remain poorly defined particularly in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from the northern population of Columbia white-tailed deer (Odocoi...

  2. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\...

  3. Transsternal surgical biopsy of a mediastinal mass under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Amedeo Vittorio; Libretti, Lidia; Pirondini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    We describe a minimally invasive transsternal surgical approach to obtain biopsies from retrosternal masses under local anesthesia. This original procedure was carried out in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome because she was unfit to undergo a CT-guided biopsy and at high risk for narcosis. In patients with such features this procedure could be preferable to conventional techniques. The transsternal approach is reliable, produces minimal trauma and no risk of pleural or vessel injury, and is very fast. PMID:23748825

  4. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in childhood: diagnosis by transbronchial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C; Whitehead, B; Malone, M; Dinwiddie, R

    1996-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl of Arabic origin by consanguineous parents presented with a miliary pattern on chest x-ray. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histological diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, a condition rarely described in childhood. This report highlights the clinical and radiological features, documents the transbronchial lung biopsy as a useful diagnostic procedure, and suggests a possible genetic etiology with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:8776269

  5. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  6. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  7. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  8. ERCP-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Pancreatic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Freeny, Patrick C.; Kidd, Reiley; Ball, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    In patients with a radiologic diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, exploratory laparotomy for tissue diagnosis is no longer required. Histologic confirmation of the diagnosis may be obtained safely and accurately with percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) precisely localized the biopsy site for cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in 13 of 14 patients (93 percent) with pancreatic carcinoma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7385832

  9. Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography-Guided Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cerci, Juliano J; Tabacchi, Elena; Bogoni, Mateos

    2016-01-01

    PET/computed tomography (CT) combines the anatomic information from CT with PET metabolic characterization. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is helpful to differentiate malignant lesions from benign ones, that usually show lower or no uptake. However, active inflammation or infectious disease might also present FDG uptake. Studies confirm the great value of PET/CT as the imaging method of choice for guiding biopsy procedures. Novel PET radiopharmaceuticals are also being investigated for guiding biopsies. PMID:26590444

  10. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ii; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

  11. Iatrogenic Extraprostatic Extension of Prostate Cancer From a Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael H.; Khani, Francesca; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Seeding of prostate cancer along a needle biopsy track is a rare complication. The diagnosis of this presents a significant upstaging of the disease and profound potential changes to the treatment strategy. In this report, we present a 71 year-old male with otherwise low-risk prostate cancer on final pathology except for extraprostatic extension (EPE) along a probable needle track. We further review the relevant literature regarding this rare but important complication with prostate needle biopsy.

  12. Single-Tailed Lipidoids Enhance the Transfection Activity of Their Double-Tailed Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihang; Li, Linxian; Chen, Qing; Su, Yi; Levkin, Pavel A; Davidson, Gary

    2016-01-11

    Cationic lipid-like molecules (lipidoids) are widely used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. Nearly all lipidoids developed to date employ double-tail or multiple-tail structures for transfection. Single-tail lipidoids are seldom considered for transfection as they have low efficiency in gene delivery. So far, there is no detailed study on the contribution to transfection efficiency of single-tail lipidoids when combined with standard double-tail lipidoids. Here, we use combinatorial chemistry to synthesize 17 double-tail and 17 single-tail lipidoids using thiol-yne and thiol-ene click chemistry, respectively. HEK 293T cells were used to analyze transfection efficiency by fluorescence microscopy and calculated based on the percentage of cells transfected. The size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Intracellular DNA delivery and trafficking was further examined using confocal microscopy. Our study shows that combining single with double-tail lipidoids increases uptake of lipoplexes, as well as cellular transfection efficiency. PMID:26651853

  13. [Reliability of bronchial tumor typing base on fibroscopically obtained biopsies].

    PubMed

    Pache, J C; Genton, C Y; Delaly, D; Gardiol, D

    1992-11-01

    This study is based on the bronchial tumors biopsied and later examined between 1971 and 1986 at the Institute of Pathology, Lausanne. In each case the diagnosis based on the initial biopsy material is compared with the final surgical or autopsy diagnosis (Reference: Histological typing of lung tumours, second edition, WHO, 1981, 2). The series studied is constituted by 163 cases: 144 men (88.3%) and 19 women (11.7%). In 136 cases (83.4%), the biopsy diagnoses are identical to the diagnoses based upon surgical or autopsy material; in 27 cases (16.6%) these diagnoses differ. The positive predictive value of bronchial biopsy appears to be excellent (100%) for small cell and epidermoid carcinoma (CA). It is satisfactory for adenocarcinoma (85.7%) but insufficient for large cell CA (42.3%) and the tumors grouped under "others" (50%). The diagnosis of large cell CA, in situ CA, papillary tumor, undifferentiated CA, or carcinomatous lymphangitis should be considered with caution and in some cases it is advisable to repeat the biopsy. The discrepancies between the initial and final diagnoses can, in all cases, be attributed either to the biopsy specimen being too small and therefore nonrepresentative or, less frequently, to crushing and necrosis of the tissues. PMID:1439690

  14. Heavy-tailed log hydraulic conductivity distributions imply heavy-tailed log velocity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlbecker, Matthew V.; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2006-04-01

    Equations of contaminant transport describing non-Gaussian dispersion of solute in heterogeneous porous media have been developed by several authors (e.g., Berkowitz and Scher (1995, 1998), Benson (1998, 2001), Berkowitz et al. (2000), and Baeumer et al. (2005)). The equations assume that solute particle movement in time and/or space can be described by heavy-tailed probability distributions (e.g., Levy ? stable distributions). This assumption requires a mechanism for solute particles to move through heterogeneous porous media in a manner that can be approximated with heavy-tailed probability distributions. This work investigates whether a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable distribution of increments in log hydraulic conductivity results in a heavy-tailed distribution of increments in log velocity; a heavy-tailed distribution of increments in log velocity would be a mechanism for solute particle movement in time or space that can be described by a heavy-tailed probability distribution. A computer algorithm was written to generate realistic hydraulic conductivity fields. The algorithm modifies the spectral synthesis method for generating fractional Brownian motion (i.e., Saupe (1988) and Brewer and Wheatcraft (1994)) and produces self-similar hydraulic conductivity fields with a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable distribution of increments in log hydraulic conductivity. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted in which 100 hydraulic conductivity fields were generated for each of the following values of ?: 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, and 1.7. The USGS finite difference groundwater code MODFLOW was used to calculate the velocity fields, and the increments in longitudinal log hydraulic conductivity and log velocity from the fields were analyzed to determine whether they were consistent with a heavy-tailed Levy ? stable probability density function (PDF). After determining that the distributions of increments in log hydraulic conductivity and log velocity were consistent with a Levy ? stable PDF, the tail parameters describing each pair of hydraulic conductivity and velocity fields were estimated with the Nolan (1997) maximum likelihood estimator. The relationship between the two tail parameters was then determined. There are three conclusions of this research. First, Mandelbrot and PP plots confirm that Levy ? stable distributions of increments in log hydraulic conductivity give rise to Levy ? stable distributions of increments in log velocity. Second, the tail parameter ? for the increments in log velocity is typically smaller, indicating a heavier probability tail, than the corresponding tail parameter for the increments in log hydraulic conductivity. Third, there is a positive statistical relation between the two tail parameters.

  15. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  16. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Hnse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. PMID:24640926

  17. Concomitant Colonization of Helicobacter pylori in Dental Plaque and Gastric Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Teymournejad, Omid; Karbalaei, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Frequently reported H. pylori antimicrobial therapy failures suggest that there might be a different niche where the bacteria can stay safe. Current study aims to examine potential role of oral colonization of H. pylori to feed reinfection after primary therapy. However, patients who were admitted to the gastroscopy section were chosen and gastric biopsy and dental plaque specimens were collected. Molecular and biochemical tests were applied to confirm H. pylori identity in different colonization niches. Results showed that 88.8% of dyspeptic patients had epigastric pains with nocturnal awakening when they were hungry (P = 0.023). All patients who received therapy already were again H. pylori positive while they are still carrying H. pylori in dental plaque (P = 0.001). Moreover, H. pylori infection was sought in 100% of gastric biopsy's dyspeptic patients who had ulcerated esophagitis and erosive duodenitis and who were H. pylori positive, and 75% of dyspeptic patients with duodenum deformity had this bacterium in gastric biopsies (P = 0.004). Present study showed that only successful eradication of gastric H. pylori cannot guarantee prevention of reinfection. Conclusively, a new strategy which indicates concomitant eradication in oral and gastric colonization can result in clearance of H. pylori infection. PMID:25120932

  18. Concomitant Colonization of Helicobacter pylori in Dental Plaque and Gastric Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Teymournejad, Omid; Karbalaei, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Frequently reported H. pylori antimicrobial therapy failures suggest that there might be a different niche where the bacteria can stay safe. Current study aims to examine potential role of oral colonization of H. pylori to feed reinfection after primary therapy. However, patients who were admitted to the gastroscopy section were chosen and gastric biopsy and dental plaque specimens were collected. Molecular and biochemical tests were applied to confirm H. pylori identity in different colonization niches. Results showed that 88.8% of dyspeptic patients had epigastric pains with nocturnal awakening when they were hungry (P = 0.023). All patients who received therapy already were again H. pylori positive while they are still carrying H. pylori in dental plaque (P = 0.001). Moreover, H. pylori infection was sought in 100% of gastric biopsy's dyspeptic patients who had ulcerated esophagitis and erosive duodenitis and who were H. pylori positive, and 75% of dyspeptic patients with duodenum deformity had this bacterium in gastric biopsies (P = 0.004). Present study showed that only successful eradication of gastric H. pylori cannot guarantee prevention of reinfection. Conclusively, a new strategy which indicates concomitant eradication in oral and gastric colonization can result in clearance of H. pylori infection. PMID:25120932

  19. Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

  20. Short-term clinical outcome of laparoscopic liver biopsy in dogs: 106 cases (2003-2013).

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Heidi L; Mayhew, Philipp D; Giuffrida, Michelle A; Brown, Dottie C; Culp, William T N; Runge, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique, complications, and conversion rates for laparoscopic liver biopsy (LLB) in dogs and evaluate short-term clinical outcome for dogs that underwent the procedure. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 106 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent an LLB with a single-port or multiport technique at either of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from August 2003 to September 2013. Demographic and laboratory data, preoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma, procedural and diagnostic information, intraoperative complications, and survival to discharge were recorded. The LLB specimens were obtained with 5-mm laparoscopic biopsy cup forceps and a grasp-and-twist technique. RESULTS Prior to surgery, 25 of 94 (27%) dogs had coagulopathy (prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time greater than the facility reference ranges, regardless of platelet count). Twenty-one dogs were thrombocytopenic, 14 had ascites, and 14 received fresh frozen plasma transfusion before surgery. In all cases, biopsy samples collected were of sufficient size and quality for histopathologic evaluation. Two dogs required conversion to an open laparotomy because of splenic laceration during initial port placement. One hundred one of 106 dogs survived to discharge; 5 were euthanized during hospitalization owing to progression of liver disease and poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Single-port and multiport LLB were found to be effective, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques with a low rate of complications. Results suggested LLB can be safely used in dogs with underlying coagulopathies and advanced liver disease. PMID:26684095

  1. Gastric Cancer-Specific Protein Profile Identified Using Endoscopic Biopsy Samples via MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kim, Hee Sung; Oshima, Akira; Chertov, Oleg; Colantonio, Simona; Fisher, Robert J.; Allen, Jamie L.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Green, Jeffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    To date, proteomic analyses on gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples have been performed using surgical specimens only, which are obtained after a diagnosis is made. To determine if a proteomic signature obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples could be found to assist with diagnosis, frozen endoscopic biopsy samples collected from 63 gastric cancer patients and 43 healthy volunteers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. A statistical classification model was developed to distinguish tumor from normal tissues using half the samples and validated with the other half. A protein profile was discovered consisting of 73 signals that could classify 32 cancer and 22 normal samples in the validation set with high predictive values (positive and negative predictive values for cancer, 96.8% and 91.3%; sensitivity, 93.8%; specificity, 95.5%). Signals overexpressed in tumors were identified as ?-defensin-1, ?-defensin-2, calgranulin A, and calgranulin B. A protein profile was also found to distinguish pathologic stage Ia (pT1N0M0) samples (n = 10) from more advanced stage (Ib or higher) tumors (n = 48). Thus, protein profiles obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples may be useful in assisting with the diagnosis of gastric cancer and, possibly, in identifying early stage disease. PMID:20557134

  2. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin; Lammer, Johannes; Biederer, Juergen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  3. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to estimate the tumor volume from the corresponding positive core volumes. Finally, we propose an algorithm for developing a statistically optimized prostate needle biopsy protocol. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.

  4. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  5. Reclamation of Exxon Ray Point Tailings Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L.; Strachan, C.L. ); Estey, H.P. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines key items for reclamation of uranium tailings impoundments, using the reclamation of Exxon Coal and Minerals Company's (ECMC'S) Ray Point (or Felder) uranium mill site and tailings impoundment as a case history. ECMC'S Ray Point is the first Title II site for which a final reclamation plan has been approved and constructed. Initial reclamation work of the Ray Point Site consists of mill decommissioning, mill site cleanup, and initial tailings impoundment cover placement. The licensing process in Texas consists of submitting the reclamation plan documents to Texas Department of Health (TDH), with subsequent discussion of the plans and submittal of additional data, analyses, with subsequent discussion of the plans and submittal of additional data, analysis, and clarification. Following approval of the Ray Point reclamation plan, final reclamation work is carried out, and consists of random fill placement, compacted soil cover construction, topsoiling, and revegetation.

  6. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Russo, Claudia; Lo Giudice, Rossella; Visca, Paolo; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus. PMID:25405233

  7. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 1.1 vs. 5.9 1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  8. Modeling the neutral sodium tails of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K.; Jones, G.; Coates, A.

    2014-07-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and, at some comets, a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) data taken using CoCam [1], but, since this initial detection, similar features have been observed at near-Sun comets using the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO. A full picture of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be established using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout the orbit. The high efficiency of the sodium D transition has allowed it to be detected in systems, even if the column density of sodium is extremely low. In these instances it is sometimes possible to determine some of the system's characteristics from the sodium emission detection, such as in Io's plasma torus [2] and Enceladus's plume [3,4]. It is hoped that a similar approach may be applied to the active cometary environment, but, at present, the production of neutral sodium is unknown. Various authors [5--9, thorough review presented in 10] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail, and ion tail. The morphology and evolution of the neutral cometary sodium tail are difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three-dimensional, heliocentric-distance-dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model, which incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. Our model was initially based on that of Brown et al [7]. We present preliminary results from this model. We have found initial agreement with the overall morphology and brightness of the neutral sodium tail observed at C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp, for which this phenomenon was studied most extensively) and our model, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present our initial analysis of the likely presence of neutral sodium in the SOHO LASCO images of C/2012 S1 (ISON) and a comparison of this dataset with our model. The versatility of the model allows it to be easily adapted to any other cometary sodium tail.

  9. Bacteriophage P22 tail protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, M B; Brown, H R; Casjens, S

    1985-01-01

    We have found that mutations which block bacteriophage P22 head assembly at or before the DNA packaging stage (1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 8-) cause up to a 20-fold increase in the amount of tail (gene 9) protein made during infection. This correlation seems strong enough to warrant consideration of a control mechanism in which the failure to package DNA per se causes a large increase in the synthesis of tail protein. Our results indicate that one of the repressors required for maintenance of lysogeny, the mnt gene product, may be partially responsible for this phenomenon. Images PMID:3155554

  10. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  11. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  12. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. Methods We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ2H, δ13C and δ15N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ2H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ2H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ2H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. Conclusions In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26044272

  13. (68)Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT for effective diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic tail gastrinoma with multiple liver metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shinya; Okuyama, Yusuke; Doi, Ryuichiro; Nakao, Ryuta; Urata, Yoji; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man admitted to our hospital with diarrhea underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) which showed multiple masses in the liver and pancreatic tail. Although there were no abnormal accumulations with fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F) positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), (68)Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT detected obvious abnormal accumulations for the both lobes of liver and pancreatic tail tumors. The serum gastrin was markedly high, and liver tumor biopsy demonstrated the presence of malignant cells with round nuclei that were positive for gastrin and somatostatin receptor. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic tail gastrinoma with multiple liver metastases and treated with octreotide, everolimus, and a proton pump inhibitor which functionally controlled tumor growth. This case demonstrates (68)Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT as a useful modality for the localization, qualitative diagnosis, and treatment of gastrinoma. PMID:26743558

  14. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782

    SciTech Connect

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A.; Knezek, Patricia M.; Wehner, Elizabeth E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu

    2012-04-10

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

  15. The potential for metal release by reductive dissolution of weathered mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeta, I.; Ptacek, C. J.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation programs proposed for decommissioned sulphide tailings may include the addition of a cover layer rich in organic-carbon material such as sewage sludge or composted municipal waste. These covers are designed to consume oxygen and prevent the oxidation of underlying sulphide minerals. The aerobic and anaerobic degradation of such organic-carbon-rich waste can release soluble organic compounds to infiltrating precipitation water. In laboratory experiments, and in natural settings, biotic and abiotic interactions between similar dissolved organic compounds and ferric-bearing secondary minerals have been observed to result in the reductive dissolution of ferric (oxy)hydroxides and the release of ferrous iron to pore waters. In weathered tailings, oxidation of sulphide minerals typically results in the formation of abundant ferric-bearing secondary precipitates near the tailings surface. These secondary precipitates may contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals, either coprecipitated with or adsorbed onto ferric (oxy)hydroxides. Reductive dissolution reactions, resulting from the addition of the organic-carbon covers, may remobilize metals previously attenuated near the tailings surface. To assess the potential for metal release to tailings pore water by reductive dissolution reactions, a laboratory study was conducted on weathered tailings collected from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This site was selected for study because it is representative of many tailings sites. Mineralogical study indicates that sulphide minerals originally present in the vadose zone at the time of tailings deposition have been replaced by a series of secondary precipitates. The most abundant secondary minerals are goethite, gypsum and jarosite. Scanning electron microscopy, coupled with elemental analyses by X-ray energy dispersion analysis, and electron microprobe analysis indicate that trace metals including Ni, Cr and Cu are associated with these secondary minerals. To assess the masses of trace metals associated with each of the dominant secondary mineral phases, a series of extraction procedures was used. The masses of metals determined in three fractions (water soluble, reducible and residual) suggest that the greatest accumulation of metals is in the reducible fraction. These measurements indicate that high concentrations of metals are potentially available for release by reductive dissolution of the ferric-bearing secondary minerals. The actual mass of metals that can be released by this mechanism will depend on a number of site-specific characteristics, particularly the intensity of the reducing conditions established near the tailings surface.

  16. Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

  17. [Mineral composition of selected tissues and organs of white-tailed sea eagle].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Ichihashi, H; Mizera, T; Yamasaki, S

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the concentrations of K, S, P, Mg, Na, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Ag, Cd, In, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U in tissues and organs of white-tailed sea eagle collected dead in Poland has revealed that the metal of risk is lead, and to a somewhat degree also mercury. An intoxication of white-tailed sea eagles with lead is due to ingestion of lead pellets from the waterfowl injured or killed by the hunters, which than become recaptured by the birds. In the case of mercury a source of elevated concentrations of that element in tissues and organs of some white-tailed sea eagles examined is their food (waterfowl and fish) originating from a coast of the Baltic Sea and the Firth of Szczecin. PMID:10846930

  18. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  19. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  20. Prospective audit of mucosal biopsy specimens of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, P M; Gallagher, P J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine why mucosal biopsy specimens of the gastrointestinal tract were taken and whether they were justified on clinical or pathological grounds. METHODS--A prospective audit of 190 consecutive biopsy specimens received in a university hospital histology department over six weeks. RESULTS--The 31 separate presenting symptoms included diarrhoea (34%), abdominal pain (16%) and rectal bleeding (15%). In 41% (78/190) the histology was normal, 28% (53/190) showed inflammatory changes and 11% 21/190) carcinoma. A clear justification for the procedure was identified in over 90% (171/190) of patients. In 36% (68/190) there was a change in patient management on receipt of biopsy reports and further investigations were ordered in 29% (55/190). The mean time taken to report biopsy specimens was 4.7 working days and there was no difference between the reporting time of a pathologist compared with a consultant or a trainee. CONCLUSIONS--There is no evidence that mucosal biopsy specimens are taken unnecessarily. PMID:8537494

  1. [Celebrating fifty years of percutaneous renal biopsies in Spain].

    PubMed

    Garca Nieto, V; Luis Yanes, M I; Ruiz Pons, M

    2009-01-01

    The first renal biopsies, made as much in adults as in children, were surgical. They were made to patients who were under renal decapsulation with the intention to reduce the kidney pressure, especially in cases of nephrotic syndrome. In 1944, Nils Alwall initiated the accomplishment of percutaneous kidney biopsies by means of a needle and aspiration at the University of Lund (Sweden), although his experience was published in 1952. The first article that had by subject the practice of a percutaneous renal biopsy was written in 1950 by a Cuban doctor, Antonino Prez Ara, and published in a local journal with little diffusion. The first work that appeared in a Spanish journal (1953) about the practice of the percutaneus renal biopsies was not signed by any Spanish group but by members of the Hospital "Calixto Garca" of the University of The Havana, Cuba. The first article published in Spain regarding to this subject, saw the light in 1958, now 50 years ago, in the Revista Clnica Espaola. The two first signers were Alfonso de la Pea Pineda and Vicente Gilsanz Garca, professors of the Medicine Faculty of Madrid. Later, the practice of the percutaneous renal biopsy became general in other Spanish hospitals. PMID:19240775

  2. Update on Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy: Reemergence of Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Fernando; Khl, Uwe; Pieske, Burkert; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Tschpe, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Myocarditis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle and is an important cause of acute heart failure, sudden death, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Viruses account for most cases of myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which could induce an immune response causing inflammation even when the pathogen has been cleared. Other etiologic agents responsible for myocarditis include drugs, toxic substances, or autoimmune conditions. In the last few years, advances in noninvasive techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance have been very useful in supporting diagnosis of myocarditis, but toxic, infectious-inflammatory, infiltrative, or autoimmune processes occur at a cellular level and only endomyocardial biopsy can establish the nature of the etiological agent. Furthermore, after the generalization of immunohistochemical and viral genome detection techniques, endomyocardial biopsy provides a definitive etiological diagnosis that can lead to specific treatments such as antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. Endomyocardial biopsy is not commonly performed for the diagnosis of myocarditis due to safety reasons, but both right- and left endomyocardial biopsies have very low complication rates when performed by experienced operators. This document provides a state-of-the-art review of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with special focus on the role of endomyocardial biopsy to establish specific treatments. PMID:26795929

  3. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapauff, Dirk Marnitz, Tim Freyhardt, Patrick Collettini, Federico; Hartwig, Kerstin; Joehrens, Korinna; Hamm, Bernd Kroencke, Thomas Gebauer, Bernhard

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  4. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Albitar, Ferras; Diep, Kevin; Fritsche, Herbert A.; Shore, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the need for prostate biopsy is frequently difficult and more objective criteria are needed to predict the presence of high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies, we explored the potential of using biomarkers in urine and plasma to develop a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. Methods: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR, and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). Results: Using training and validation data sets, a model for predicting the outcome of PCa biopsy was developed with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87% and 63%, respectively. We then developed a second algorithm to identify patients with high-grade PCa (GS ≥7). This algorithm's AUROC was 0.80, and had a PPV and NPV of 56% and 77%, respectively. Patients who demonstrated concordant results using both algorithms showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 93% for predicting high-grade aggressive PCa. Thus, the use of both algorithms resulted in a PPV of 90% and NPV of 89% for predicting high-grade PCa with toleration of some low-grade PCa (GS <7) being detected. Conclusions: This model of a biomarker panel with algorithmic interpretation can be used as a “liquid biopsy” to reduce the need for unnecessary tissue biopsies, and help to guide appropriate treatment decisions. PMID:26918043

  5. Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-02-01

    Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

  6. Ra-226 radioassay of soil and tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, C.S.; Rayno, D.R.; Kretz, N.D.; Zelle, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of inactive uranium tailings piles have shown that tailings sands containing Ra-226 and other radionuclides may be dispersed by wind and water erosion, causing contamination of adjacent areas. To conduct an effective cleanup operation, it is necessary that boundaries of contamination be well defined. To accomplish this, data from surface gamma-ray surveys made under the Measurement Monitoring Program of the US DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) are first used to delineate a general outline of the contaminated area. Then, data from portable scintillometer surveys and from sealed-can gamma-ray analyses of soil samples are used to more precisely define the perimeter of Ra-226 contamination. These field measurements are supported by radiochemical analyses of randomly selected samples. Because of its adaptability to the widely varying chemical composition of the material in these samples, the complexing agent EDTA is used in a complexometric leaching procedure to analyze Ra-226. By this procedure, natural concentrations of Ra-226 in soil (approx. 1 pCi/g) can be measured routinely. The potential limit of detection is in the 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/g range. Details of the method, which includes leaching of radium followed by radon de-emanation, are described. Comparative data for various soil and tailings samples are presented.

  7. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  8. Nonlinear shear viscosity and long time tails

    PubMed Central

    Zwanzig, R.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical connection between nonlinear shear viscosity and the long time tail of the equilibrium stress-stress correlation function is pointed out. The connection is a consequence of the Goddard-Miller rheological equation of state which takes into account the angular rotation of a fluid in steady uniform shear. PMID:16593025

  9. Magnetic field controls carbon arc tail flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Polarity of two electromagnets placed near the exhaust flue cancels out a high carbon-arc field. The arc tail flame is correctly drawn to the exhaust flue and contamination is diverted. This device should reduce maintenance cycles on any arc-powered illuminator.

  10. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling with Heavy Tailed Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.; Chan, Wai

    2004-01-01

    Data in social and behavioral sciences typically possess heavy tails. Structural equation modeling is commonly used in analyzing interrelations among variables of such data. Classical methods for structural equation modeling fit a proposed model to the sample covariance matrix, which can lead to very inefficient parameter estimates. By fitting a…

  12. Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  13. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  14. Identification of 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers in the Xenopus tadpole tail fin containing photosensitive melanophores.

    PubMed

    Okano, Keiko; Oishi, Tadashi; Miyashita, Yoko; Moriya, Tsuneo; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Irie, Toshiaki; Ueki, Nobuo; Seki, Takaharu

    2002-02-01

    It is well characterized that melanophores in the tail fin of Xenopus laevis tadpoles are directly photosensitive. In order to better understand the mechanism underlying this direct photosensitivity, we performed a retinal analysis of the tail fins and eyes of Xenopus tadpoles at stages 51-56 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Following the extraction of retinoids by the formaldehyde method, a fraction containing retinal and/or 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers from the first HPLC analysis were collected. These isomers were then reduced by sodium borohydride to convert retinal and/or 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers into the corresponding retinol isomers to prepare for a second HPLC analysis. Peaks of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinol were detected in the eyes and tail fins containing melanophores, but they were not detected in the tail fins without melanophores. The amounts of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinol were 27.5 and 5.7 fmol/fin, respectively, and the total quantity of 3,4-didehydroretinal was calculated at approximately 5 x 10(6) molecules/melanophore. These results strongly suggest the presence of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinal in melanophores of the tadpole tail fin, which probably function as the chromophore of photoreceptive molecules. PMID:12012782

  15. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  16. Construction and preliminary evaluation of copper tailings reclamation test plots at Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Chammas, G.A.; McCaulou, D.R.; Jones, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty pilot-scale test plots were constructed in mid-1998 at the Cyprus Miami mine to investigate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of various reclamation strategies for establishment of self-sustaining native vegetation on acidic copper tailings. Four reclamation strategies are being tested: (1) directly covering acidic tailings with varying thicknesses f cover soil; (2) removing and/or neutralizing particularly acidic surgical tailings before soil cover placement, (3) chemically and/or physically inhibiting upward water and solute movement using neutralizing and neutral capillary barriers, and (4) constructing a subgrade of neutral tailings beneath cover soil. Preliminary results suggest that thicker soil covers and capillary barrier test plots initially support vegetation to a greater extent than other test plots, probably because of their increased moisture storage capacity. Results also suggest that salts are beginning to migrate upward from underlying tailings into cover soil. Data collected from ongoing vegetation surveys and soil testing will be used to evaluate the effect of various reclamation strategies on vegetation establishment and the potential impact of upward salt migration.

  17. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg-1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg-1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg-1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  18. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 10(4) mg·kg(-1) with an average value of 4.67 × 10(3) mg·kg(-1), which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg(-1)). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N) and Gd(N)/Yb(N)). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  19. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg−1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg−1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg−1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  20. Male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. In the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. In order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from March to July 2010. The male purring rate increased during periods of male-male agonism when compared to times without intrasexual agonism, and the purring rate was positively correlated with male dominance rank. However, the purring rate was not significantly higher during winning agonistic interactions when compared with losing encounters. My results indicate that the male ring-tailed lemur purr is used most frequently as an agonistic vocalization in male-male encounters, in addition to being used less frequently in other social contexts, including during tail-waving at females, resting, scent-marking, feeding and copulation. Dominant males have higher purring rates across social situations, suggesting that the purring rate may be driven by intrinsic male qualities rather than functioning as a meaningful signal in each disparate social context. Male purring in intrasexual agonistic encounters can be added to previously described social contexts for ring-tailed lemur purring. PMID:25139722

  1. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  2. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  3. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  4. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  5. In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Wu, Hai-Yin; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    The ability to in vivo image deep tissues noninvasively with a high resolution is strongly required for optical virtual biopsy. Higher harmonic generation microscopy, combined with second- and third-harmonic generation microscopies, is applied to 17 Asian volunteers' forearm skin. After continuous observation for 30 min, no visible damage was found. Our study proves that harmonic generation biopsy (HGB) is able to satisfy the safety requirement and to provide high penetrability (approximately 300 microm) and submicron resolution all at the same time and is a promising tool for future virtual biopsy of skin diseases. In contrast to a previous study on fixed human skin specimens, a much improved penetrability and much reduced resolution-degradation versus depth are found in this in vivo examination. PMID:20059236

  6. Percutaneous renal transplant biopsy under CAT scanner guidance.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V

    1984-01-01

    The guidance of a computerized axial tomography scanner was used to locate the biopsy site in 10 instances where a previous attempt had failed to yield a satisfactory specimen. 4 of these patients were grossly obese, and the renal allograft could not be outlined by manual palpation. The scanner has facilitated the placement of the needle tip within the renal cortex, while avoiding injury to the renal pelvis, major blood vessels, and other intra-abdominal organs. Adequate tissue was obtained in each instance. There were no complications associated with this procedure. Proper use of this technique should enhance the success rate of needle biopsies and eliminate the need for open surgical biopsies in renal transplant recipients. PMID:6392914

  7. The role of laparoscopic biopsies in lumbar spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Corpataux, J M; Halkic, N; Wettstein, M; Dusmet, M

    2000-11-01

    The infection of an intervertebral disk is a serious condition. The diagnosis often is elusive and difficult to make. It is imperative to have appropriate microbiologic specimens before the initiation of treatment. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with lumbar spondylodiscitis caused by infection after the placement of an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan confirmed the diagnosis, but computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle biopsy did not yield adequate material for a microbiologic diagnosis. Laparoscopic biopsies of the involved disk provided good specimens and a diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes infection. We believe that this minimally invasive procedure should be performed when CT-guided fine-needle biopsy fails to yield a microbiologic diagnosis in spondylodiscitis. PMID:11285529

  8. The role of laparoscopic biopsies in lumbar spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Corpataux, J M; Halkic, N; Wettstein, M; Dusmet, M

    2000-12-01

    Infection of an intervertebral disk is a serious condition. Diagnosis often is elusive and difficult. It is imperative to obtain appropriate microbiological specimens before initiation of treatment. The authors describe a 51-year-old woman with lumbar spondylodiscitis that was because of infection after the placement of an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis, but computed tomography-guided fine needle biopsy did not provide adequate material for a microbiologic diagnosis. Laparoscopic biopsies of the involved disk provided good specimens and a diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes infection. The authors believe that this minimally invasive procedure should be performed when computed tomography-guided fine needle biopsy does not provide a microbiologic diagnosis in spondylodiscitis. PMID:11147923

  9. Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy.

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, M. J.; Giometti, C. S.; Manaligod, J. R.; Swisher, C.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Medical Coll.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Children's Memorial Hospital

    1997-05-01

    Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat biopsies at ages 2 and 4, which showed many atrophic type 1 muscle fibers containing central nuclei and severe type 2 fiber deficiency compatible with centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of muscle showed decreases of type II myosin light chains 2 and 3, suggestive of histochemical type I fiber deficiency. The progressive nature of morphological changes in one of our patients cannot be explained by maturational arrest. Repeat biopsies in cases of CFTD with rapid clinical deterioration may very well show CNM.

  10. Diode laser for excisional biopsy of peripheral ossifying fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kirti; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti; Ahad, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma is one of the commonest occurring reactive lesions on gingiva. It is associated with local irritational factors and often interferes with speech, mastication and maintenance of oral hygiene, in addition to being aesthetically unpleasant. It is usually treated with surgical excision using scalpel and removal of irritational factors, often resulting in mucogingival defect. Other modalities such as radiosurgery and electrocautery have also been used for its management, but they cause changes in microarchitecture of biopsy specimen, altering the histologic picture for true diagnosis. We are presenting a case of excisional biopsy of this lesion in an adult female using a diode laser with excellent post-operative results, without affecting microarchitecture of biopsy specimen. The patient is being followed for last 1 year and no sign of recurrence has been found. A diode laser may offer a good alternative modality for management of such cases. PMID:25225570

  11. The role of renal biopsy in small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Burruni, Rodolfo; Lhermitte, Benoit; Cerantola, Yannick; Tawadros, Thomas; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Berthold, Dominik; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy is being increasingly proposed as a diagnostic tool to characterize small renal masses (SRM). Indeed, the wide adoption of imaging in the diagnostic workup of many diseases had led to a substantial increased incidence of SRM (diameter ?4 cm). While modern ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have high sensitivity for detecting SRM, none is able to accurately and reliably characterize them in terms of histological features. This is currently of key importance in guiding clinical decision-making in some situations, and in these cases renal biopsy should be considered. In this review, we aim to summarize the technique, diagnostic performance, and predicting factors of nondiagnostic biopsy, as well as the future perspectives.

  12. Evaluating dermal myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on small, unmyelinated fibers in the skin, little research has investigated dermal myelinated fibers in comparison. Glabrous, non-hairy skin contains mechanoreceptors that afford a vantage point for observation of myelinated fibers that have previously been seen only with invasively obtained nerve biopsies. This review discusses current morphometric and molecular expression data of normative and pathogenic glabrous skin obtained by various processing and analysis methods for cutaneous myelinated fibers. Recent publications have shed light on the role of glabrous skin biopsy in identifying signs of peripheral neuropathy and as a potential biomarker of distal myelin and mechanoreceptor integrity. The clinical relevance of a better understanding of the role of dermal myelinated nerve terminations in peripheral neuropathy will be addressed in light of recent publications in the growing field of skin biopsy. PMID:23192899

  13. Uses of skin biopsy for sensory and autonomic nerve assessment.

    PubMed

    Myers, M Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C

    2013-01-01

    Skin biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for small-fiber-predominant neuropathy by the quantification of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). It has the unique advantage of being a minimally invasive procedure with the potential for longitudinal evaluation of both sensory and autonomic fibers. Unmyelinated small fibers are not otherwise quantified objectively with such a level of sensitivity as has been reported with IENFD. Recent advances include an expansion of the skin punch biopsy technique to evaluate larger myelinated fibers and mechanoreceptors, and recent work has also focused on additional methods of quantifying dermal fibers and densely innervated autonomic structures. This review discusses current work using skin biopsy for the pathologic analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in neuropathy of various causes as well as its use in clinical trials. PMID:23250768

  14. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  15. Value of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Using Magnetic ResonanceUltrasound Fusion in Men with Prior Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Chang, Edward; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional biopsy fails to detect the presence of some prostate cancers (PCas). Men with a prior negative biopsy but persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pose a diagnostic dilemma, as some harbor elusive cancer. Objective To determine whether use of magnetic resonanceultrasound (MR-US) fusion biopsy results in improved detection of PCa compared to repeat conventional biopsy. Design, setting, and participants In a consecutive-case series, 105 subjects with prior negative biopsy and elevated PSA values underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fusion biopsy in an outpatient setting. Intervention Suspicious areas on multiparametric MRI were delineated and graded by a radiologist; MRUS fusion biopsy was performed by a urologist using the Artemis device; targeted and systematic biopsies were obtained regardless of MRI result. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Detection rates of all PCa and clinically significant PCa (Gleason ?3 + 4 or Gleason 6 with maximal cancer core length ?4 mm) were determined. The yield of targeted biopsy was compared to systematic biopsy. The ability of an MRI grading system to predict clinically significant cancer was investigated. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of significant cancer on biopsy. Results and limitations Fusion biopsy revealed PCa in 36 of 105 men (34%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2545). Seventy-two percent of men with PCa had clinically significant disease; 21 of 23 men (91%) with PCa on targeted biopsy had significant cancer compared to 15 of 28 (54%) with systematic biopsy. Degree of suspicion on MRI was the most powerful predictor of significant cancer on multivariate analysis. Twelve of 14 (86%) subjects with a highly suspicious MRI target were diagnosed with clinically significant cancer. Conclusions MR-US fusion biopsy provides improved detection of PCa in men with prior negative biopsies and elevated PSA values. Most cancers found were clinically significant. PMID:23523537

  16. Tail and Ionospheric Signatures of Tail Fast Flows Associated with PBIs and with Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Zesta, E.; Lyons, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Glassmeier, K.; Mende, S.

    2009-05-01

    Earthward convection of the tail plasma sheet is often organized in bursts of fast ion flows restricted in azimuthally narrow channels. It has been shown that Auroral Poleward Boundary Intensifications (PBIs) are often the ionospheric signature of such fast flow channels in the midtail. Equatorward flow bursts have been observed in the ionosphere, and have been shown to be the ionospheric mapping of the tail fast flow channels in few case studies. We focus on identifying such ionospheric signatures and understanding the physics of this magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction via conjunctions of the THEMIS probes with the Sondrestrom radar. We find fundamental differences between the tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets and those associated with PBIs, as well as between their respective ionospheric flow signatures. The tail fast flows that produce PBIs are observed in the midtail. They do not typically penetrate to the inner magnetosphere and they are accompanied by plasma sheet expansion signatures in the mid tail. No dipolarization signatures are observed in the inner magnetosphere. The ionospheric signatures associated with such tail flows are PBI- type aurora and substantially enhanced equatorward flows. Tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets are typically observed only by the inner magnetosphere probes, only occasionally being seen also in the midtail. Clear dipolarizations are seen with such flows in the inner magnetosphere but not in the midtail. The ionospheric flow associated with such tail fast flows is far distinct, enhanced westward flows being occasionally seen at the higher latitude part of the Sondrestrom field of view with enhanced eastward flows observed at the lower latitudes. Enhanced equatorward flows are not seen.

  17. Tail and ionospheric signatures of tail fast flows associated with PBIs and with substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Zesta, Eftyhia; Lyons, Larry; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Donovan, Eric; McFadden, James; Carlson, Charles; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Mende, Stephen

    Earthward convection of the tail plasma sheet is often organized in bursts of fast ion flows restricted in azimuthally narrow channels. It has been shown that Auroral Poleward Boundary Intensifications (PBIs) are often the ionospheric signature of such fast flow channels in the midtail. Equatorward flow bursts have been observed in the ionosphere, and have been shown to be the ionospheric mapping of the tail fast flow channels in 2 case studies. We focus on identifying such ionospheric signatures and understanding the physics of this magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction via conjunctions of the THEMIS probes with the Sondrestrom radar. We find fundamental differences between the tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets and those associated with PBIs, as well as between their respective ionospheric flow signatures. The tail fast flows that produce PBIs are observed in the midtail. They do not typically penetrate to the inner magnetosphere and they are accompanied by dipolarizations in the mid tail. No dipolarization signatures are observed in the inner magnetosphere. The ionospheric signatures associated with such tail flows are PBI-type aurora and substantially enhanced equatorward flows around midnight. Tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets are typically observed only by the inner magnetosphere probes, only occasionally being seen in the midtail. Clear dipolarizations are seen with such flows in the inner magnetosphere but not in the midtail. The ionospheric flow associated with such tail fast flows shows a clear change after the substorm onset. We find that before onset there is generally enhanced eastward flow. Just after onset, the flow suddenly changes to westward with either similar magnitude as the preceded eastward flow or much weaker magnitude. Enhanced equatorward flows are not seen.

  18. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  19. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  20. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  1. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  2. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  3. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  4. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls...

  5. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  6. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  7. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  8. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for prostate cancer: a hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Valds-Olmos, Renato A; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2013-04-01

    To provide surgeons with optimal guidance during interventions, it is crucial that the molecular imaging data generated in the diagnostic departments finds its way to the operating room. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy provides a textbook example in which molecular imaging data acquired in the department of nuclear medicine guides the surgical management of patients. For prostate cancer, in which SLNs are generally located deep in the pelvis, procedures are preferably performed via a (robot-assisted) laparoscopic approach. Unfortunately, in the laparoscopic setting the senses of the surgeon are reduced. This topical review discusses technologic innovations that can help improve surgical guidance during SLN biopsy procedures. PMID:23492883

  10. Needle tract seeding following percutaneous biopsy of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Hariom; Lozinskiy, Mikhail; Wallace, David M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Two months later he underwent partial nephrectomy. Histology revealed a 30-mm clear cell renal cell carcinoma, up to Fuhrman grade 3. An area of the capsule was interrupted, which corresponded to a hemorrhagic area on the cortical surface. Under microscopy, this area showed a tongue of tumor tissue protruding through the renal capsule. A tumor deposit was found in the perinephric fat. These features suggest that tumor seeding may have occurred during the needle biopsy. PMID:26366280

  11. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  12. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  13. Renal Biopsy: A much needed tool in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Sumbal Nasir; Mukhtar, Kunwer Naveed; Deen, Saima; Khan, Faiza Nafees

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is an inflammatory disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Kidneys are frequently affected in SLE and various stages of lupus nephritis have been identified based on severity of the disease. Treatment varies with the staging and correct diagnosis is essential for timely intervention as it can have significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to determine whether laboratory parameters of lupus nephritis (LN); including urinalysis, serum creatinine (S. Cr) and 24 hours urine protein can accurately predict histologic staging of the disease. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in department of Nephrology, Liaquat National Hospital Karachi from January 2012 to December 2014. Fifty one patients of SLE who underwent renal biopsy were selected. Patients, urinalysis at the time of renal biopsy, serum creatinine and 24 hours urine collection for protein were noted. All patients renal biopsy was read by the same pathologist. Patients were clinically staged based on these parameters and their histologic staging based on biopsy findings were compared, to see their correlation. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical data and p<0.05 was considered significant. Cohen’s kappa (κ) analysis was used to examine the agreement by comparing lupus nephritis staging done by laboratory and histological ground. P value <0.05 indicates that agreement was unlikely due to chance alone. Results: Among 51 patients analyzed, 37 patients were females (72.5%) and 14 patients were males (27.5%) with mean age of 32.51 + 16.91 years. In stage II, kappa (κ) of 0.304 represented fair strength of agreement and a p value of 0.012 (p<0.05)which was statistically significant. In stage III, kappa was 0.209 indicating none to slight agreement and a p value of 0.131 (p>0.05). In stage IV, kappa (κ) was 0.141 (slight agreement)and p value 0.301 (p>0.05) in stage V; kappa (κ) of 0.030 represented poor agreement and a p value of 0.828 (p>0.05). Conclusion: Staging of lupus nephritis done on basis of laboratory findings did not correlate well with underlying histological staging. Therefore, renal biopsy is an essential tool in approach to lupus nephritis in order to provide timely and appropriate treatment to patients.

  14. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-12

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

  15. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481 Section 25.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down...

  17. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground at... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground... an attitude corresponding to either the stalling angle or the maximum angle allowing clearance...

  18. 14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is assumed to contact the ground at... for airplanes with tail wheels, the main and tail wheels are assumed to contact the ground... an attitude corresponding to either the stalling angle or the maximum angle allowing clearance...

  19. One-Tailed F-Tests in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Banas, John

    2002-01-01

    Documents the recent use of one-tailed F-tests in communication journals, and examines the arguments both for and against their use. Examines the use of these tests within the broader unresolved controversy surrounding the use of one-tailed tests. Recommends that future researchers should most often avoid one-tailed Fs, and generally exercise

  20. The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

  1. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  2. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  3. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  4. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  5. Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy: A Proposal of the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Min, Hye Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jang Hee; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In recent years throughout Korea, the use of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has become common for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, there is no consensus on the pathology reporting system for thyroid CNB. The Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group held a conference on thyroid CNB pathology and developed guidelines through contributions from the participants. This article discusses the outcome of the discussions that led to a consensus on the pathology reporting of thyroid CNB. PMID:26081825

  6. Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Sina, Bahram; Kao, Grace F; Deng, April C; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2009-05-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases, particularly inflammatory dermatoses, is based primarily on clinical information. Pathologic examination of the biopsied specimen often serves as a complementary or confirmative part of the diagnosis. However, the clinical diagnosis of skin diseases may be challenging, as the clinical information and appearance of skin lesions invariably overlap. Evidence for a correct diagnosis may be lacking without histopathologic examination of skin biopsies. It is well known that the histologic diagnosis of inflammatory and other skin diseases requires clinicopathologic correlation, and there is evolution of skin lesions into different stages as the diseases progress. Other factors important for accurate dermatopathologic diagnosis are optimum time, best location and preferred techniques of skin biopsy. In searching for available information concerning when, where and how to take skin biopsies, it is noted that there are only limited practical guidelines currently available. We present this review article in hopes that our collective dermatopathologic and dermatologic experience can provide a quick reference for accurate diagnosis and proper management of skin diseases. PMID:19187117

  7. Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom

    2012-11-01

    Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ∼1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ∼10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 μm size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni μ-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ∼1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ∼3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

  8. Experimental verification of a simplified vee-tail theory and analysis of available data on complete models with vee tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E; Campbell, John P

    1945-01-01

    An analysis has been made of available data on vee tail surfaces. Previously published theoretical studies of vee tails have been extended to include the control effectiveness and control forces in addition to the stability. Tests of two isolated tail surfaces with various amounts of dihedral provided a check of the theory. Methods for designing vee tails were also developed and are given in the present paper.

  9. Presumed Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Case for Biopsy Prior to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Staller, Aileen

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive primary brain tumor. Several other abnormalities (neoplastic, infectious, or vascular) can mimic symptoms seen with GBM. This article reviews GBM and presents a case study that demonstrates the rationale for biopsy and pathologic diagnosis prior to the initiation of treatment for malignant brain tumors. PMID:26800413

  10. Automatic Dissection Position Selection for Cleavage-Stage Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenan; Ang, Wei Tech

    2016-03-01

    Embryo biopsies are routinely performed for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). In order to avoid blastomere membrane rupture and cell lysis, correct selection of a suitable dissection position on the zona pellucida (ZP) is necessary. Although, the technology for automated cell manipulation has advanced greatly over the past decade, fully automated embryo biopsy in PGD has not been realized yet. Automated PGD may ultimately set a new clinical standard that improves the consistency of outcomes, increases cell survival rates, flattens the learning curve of the manual procedure, and reduces the effects of human fatigue. In this paper, we present the first approach to automatically select a suitable ZP dissection position prior to embryo biopsy from a single focused embryo image based on edge detection. The proposed method consists of a technique that estimates the elliptical ZP boundaries and another two techniques that select the suitable position for ZP dissection. These techniques achieved success rates of 96%, 94%, and 94% respectively. In addition, the proposed ZP boundary estimation technique has the potential to perform ZP thickness variation (ZPTV) test and other ZP morphology measurements with further improvement in the future. Our methods provide a starting point for fast position selection prior to automatic embryo biopsy. PMID:26259216

  11. Technical notes about soft tissues biopsies of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Pippi, R

    2006-10-01

    Oral mucosa biopsy is a simple surgical procedure in common dental practice; however, to obtain the best results from its use, it should be performed in the respect of some specific rules concerning indications, techniques, drawing sites, surgical steps and specimen management. The main purpose of biopsy, indeed, is the histopathological diagnosis and, therefore, the specimen should be suitable in size and clinical expressivity and free from artifacts. The availability of the proper instruments, the correct performance of all surgical steps and the suitable treatment of the specimen before it is processed by the pathologist are all essential means to avoid microscopic misinterpretations. The relationship between surgeon or dentist and pathologist is also an important aspect to be considered in the management of the biopsied patient. Complete clinical information should be provided to the pathologist; on the other hand, a clear microscopic response should be supplied to the clinician. Finally, when an excisional biopsy is performed, some surgical expediencies have to be carried out to guarantee the best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:17268391

  12. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner wall of the heart. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Atheromatous emboli in renal biopsies. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. B.; Iannaccone, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    In a series of 755 renal biopsies atheromatous emboli were found in biopsies of 8 men from 49 to 72 years of age. Unexplained recent deterioration of renal function was present in each. This previously unreported incidence of 8/755 biopsies is ascribed to the selection for biopsy of patients with unexplained decrease in renal function. Hypertension was a major feature in 6, hyperlipidemia in 2, a leaking aortic aneurysm in 1, carcinoma of the pancreas in 1, and chronic glomerulonephritis in 1 patient. Toluidine-blue-stained epoxy sections proved to be more effective in recognizing small emboli than paraffin sections. Ultrastructural observation concerned a) early lesions (eg, fresh emboli with endothelial distortion or injury), b) intermediate lesions (eg, histiocytic or giant cell reaction and intimal proliferation), and c) later lesions (eg, extraluminalization of the crystals eventually resulting in inert location in intimal stroma). Osmiophilic deposits on the crystal surfaces were myelin-form in structure and were felt to result from lysosomal action. Images Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:1115220

  14. [Renal needle biopsy under echography. Apropos of 413 examinations].

    PubMed

    Desrentes, M; Eynard, J P; Konde, L; Ba, A A; Morcillo, J L; Favre, Y

    1990-01-01

    Blindly executed for a long period with only X-ray detection, renal biopsy benefits nowadays of precision and security of real-time echoguiding. The authors describe their technique without bondage between needle and transducer and comment their results about 413 examinations. PMID:2131183

  15. Epidural abscess with associated spondylodiscitis following prostatic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dobson, G; Cowie, C J A; Holliman, D

    2015-07-01

    Spondylodiscitis is often iatrogenic in nature. We report the case of a 69-year-old man presenting with spondylodiscitis and associated epidural abscess following transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy despite ciprofloxacin cover. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spondylodiscitis secondary to fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli. PMID:26264110

  16. Optical spectroscopy for stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Niklas; von Berg, Anna; Fiedler, Sebastian; Goetz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Polzer, Christoph; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic biopsy procedure is performed to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis purposes. Currently, a fiber-based mechano-optical device for stereotactic biopsies of brain tumors is developed. Two different fluorophores are employed to improve the safety and reliability of this procedure: The fluorescence of intravenously applied indocyanine green (ICG) facilitates the recognition of blood vessels and thus helps minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhages. 5- aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is used to localize vital tumor tissue. ICG fluorescence detection using a 2-fiber probe turned out to be an applicable method to recognize blood vessels about 1.5 mm ahead of the fiber tip during a brain tumor biopsy. Moreover, the suitability of two different PpIX excitation wavelengths regarding practical aspects was investigated: While PpIX excitation in the violet region (at 405 nm) allows for higher sensitivity, red excitation (at 633 nm) is noticeably superior with regard to blood layers obscuring the fluorescence signal. Contact measurements on brain simulating agar phantoms demonstrated that a typical blood coverage of the tumor reduces the PpIX signal to about 75% and nearly 0% for 633 nm and 405 nm excitation, respectively. As a result, 633 nm seems to be the wavelength of choice for PpIX-assisted detection of high-grade gliomas in stereotactic biopsy.

  17. Percutaneous biopsy for risk stratification of renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Blute, Michael L.; Drewry, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to identification of more patients with incidental renal masses, and renal mass biopsy (RMB) has become a popular method to evaluate unknown renal masses prior to definitive treatment. Pathologic data obtained from biopsy may be used to guide decisions for treatment and may include the presence or absence of malignant tumor, renal cell cancer subtype, tumor grade and the presence of other aggressive pathologic features. However, prior to using RMB for risk stratification, it is important to understand whether RMB findings are equivalent to pathologic analysis of surgical specimens and to identify any potential limitations of this approach. This review outlines the advantages and limitations of the current studies that evaluate RMB as a guide for treatment decision in patients with unknown renal masses. In multiple series, RMB has demonstrated low morbidity and a theoretical reduction in cost, if patients with benign tumors are identified from biopsy and can avoid subsequent treatment. However, when considering the routine use of RMB for risk stratification, it is important to note that biopsy may underestimate risk in some patients by undergrading, understaging or failing to identify aggressive tumor features. Future studies should focus on developing treatment algorithms that integrate RMB to identify the optimal use in risk stratification of patients with unknown renal masses. PMID:26425141

  18. Percutaneous biopsy for risk stratification of renal masses.

    PubMed

    Blute, Michael L; Drewry, Anna; Abel, Edwin Jason

    2015-10-01

    The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to identification of more patients with incidental renal masses, and renal mass biopsy (RMB) has become a popular method to evaluate unknown renal masses prior to definitive treatment. Pathologic data obtained from biopsy may be used to guide decisions for treatment and may include the presence or absence of malignant tumor, renal cell cancer subtype, tumor grade and the presence of other aggressive pathologic features. However, prior to using RMB for risk stratification, it is important to understand whether RMB findings are equivalent to pathologic analysis of surgical specimens and to identify any potential limitations of this approach. This review outlines the advantages and limitations of the current studies that evaluate RMB as a guide for treatment decision in patients with unknown renal masses. In multiple series, RMB has demonstrated low morbidity and a theoretical reduction in cost, if patients with benign tumors are identified from biopsy and can avoid subsequent treatment. However, when considering the routine use of RMB for risk stratification, it is important to note that biopsy may underestimate risk in some patients by undergrading, understaging or failing to identify aggressive tumor features. Future studies should focus on developing treatment algorithms that integrate RMB to identify the optimal use in risk stratification of patients with unknown renal masses. PMID:26425141

  19. Exposures from mining and mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Cassaday, Valerie J.; Lowe, Leo M.

    The mining, milling and tailings management of uranium ores results in environmental radiation exposures. This paper describes the sources of radioactive emissions to the environment associated with these activities, reviews the basic approach used to estimate the resultant radiation exposures and presents examples of typical uranium mind and mill facilities. Similar concepts apply to radiation exposures associated with the mining of non-radioactive ores although the magnitudes of the exposures would normally be smaller than those associated with uranium mining.

  20. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  1. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders. PMID:26416245

  2. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Hai-Lin; Hong, Jisun

    2014-05-01

    Sonographic examination of the breast with state-of-the-art equipment has become an essential part of the clinical work-up of breast lesions and a valuable adjunct to mammographic screening and physical examination. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) are well-established, valuable techniques that are still used in most cases, whereas vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a more recent technique. VABB has proven clinical value and can be used under sonographic, mammographic, and magnetic resonance imaging guidance. The main indication for the use of VABB is for biopsies of clustered microcalcifications, which are usually performed under stereotactic guidance. This method has been proven reliable and should replace surgical biopsies. The ultrasound-guided procedure is still more a matter of discussion, but it should also replace surgical biopsies for nodular lesions, and it should even replace surgery for the complete removal of benign lesions. This viewpoint is gradually gaining acceptance. Different authors have shown increased diagnostic accuracy of VABB compared to FNA and CNB. VABB particularly leads to less histological underestimation. The other indications for VABB are palpable or nonpalpable nodular lesions or American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 and 4A lesions. For masses that are likely benign or indeterminate, we attempt to completely remove the lesion to eliminate uncertainty on later follow-up images. VABB offers the best possible histological sampling and aids avoidance of unnecessary operations. VABB complications include bleeding or pain during the procedure, as well as postoperative pain, hemorrhaging, and hematomas. But, these hemorrhaging could be controlled by the post-procedural compression and bed resting. Overall, VABB is a reliable sampling technique with few complications, is relatively easy to use, and is well-tolerated by patients. The larger amount of extracted tissue reduces sampling error. PMID:25083505

  3. Interventional Optical Molecular Imaging Guidance during Percutaneous Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Rahul A.; Heidari, Pedram; Esfahani, Shadi A.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indocyanine green (ICG) as a molecular beacon for malignant lesions within the liver and evaluate the ability of a developed handheld imaging system to allow measurement of ICG fluorescence within focal hepatic lesions with high target-to-background ratios in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. A handheld optical molecular imaging device was constructed to pass through the introducer needle of a standard percutaneous biopsy kit. An ex vivo phantom system was constructed to quantify tissue attenuation properties of ICG in liver parenchyma. Subsequently, intrahepatic colorectal cancer metastases were generated in nude mice, and epifluorescence imaging of ICG, as well as histologic analysis of the explanted livers, was performed at 3 weeks after implantation (n = 6). Epifluorescence imaging with the handheld imaging device was then performed on intrahepatic colorectal metastases after the administration of ICG (n = 15) at 3, 6, and 24 hours after injection. Target-to-background ratios were calculated for each time point. Subsequently, a core biopsy of intrahepatic colorectal metastases was performed by using a standard clinical 18-gauge biopsy needle. Results There was avid localization of ICG to the focal lesions at all time points. Similarly, fluorescence within the tumors was greater than that within normal liver, as detected with the handheld imaging system (mean target-to-background ratio ± standard deviation, 3.9 ± 0.2 at 24 hours). A core biopsy of tumor and normal adjacent liver by using a standard biopsy needle demonstrated a sharp margin of fluorescence intensity at the tumor-liver interface. Conclusion The custom-designed molecular imaging device, in combination with ICG, readily allowed differentiation between normal and malignant tissue in a murine model of intrahepatic colorectal metastasis. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24520946

  4. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  5. Single-engine tail interference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.

    1994-01-01

    The data presented in this contribution were obtained in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Multiple test entries were completed and the results have been completely reported in five NASA reports. The objective of the initial investigation was to determine the effect of empennage (tail) interference on the drag characteristics of an axisymmetric model with a single engine fighter aft-end with convergent divergent nozzles. Two nozzle power settings, dry and maximum afterburning, were investigated. Several empennage arrangements and afterbody modifications were investigated during the initial investigation. Subsequent investigations were used to determine the effects of other model variables including tail incidence, tail span, and nozzle shape. For the final investigation, extensive surface pressure instrumentation was added to the model in order to develop and understanding of the flow interactions associated with afterbody/empennage integration and also to provide data for code validation. Extensive computational analysis has been conducted on the staggered empennage configuration at a Mach number of 0.6 utilizing a three-dimensional Navier Stokes code. Most of the investigations were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 and at ratios of jet total pressure to free stream static pressure (nozzle pressure ratio) from 0.1 (jet off) to 8.0. Some angle of attack variation was obtained at jet off conditions.

  6. Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 total (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.

  7. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection should be considered as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. PMID:27014706

  8. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection should be considered as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. PMID:27014706

  9. Reconciling PM10 analyses by different sampling methods for Iron King Mine tailings dust.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Félix, Omar I; Gonzales, Patricia; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The overall project objective at the Iron King Mine Superfund site is to determine the level and potential risk associated with heavy metal exposure of the proximate population emanating from the site's tailings pile. To provide sufficient size-fractioned dust for multi-discipline research studies, a dust generator was built and is now being used to generate size-fractioned dust samples for toxicity investigations using in vitro cell culture and animal exposure experiments as well as studies on geochemical characterization and bioassay solubilization with simulated lung and gastric fluid extractants. The objective of this study is to provide a robust method for source identification by comparing the tailing sample produced by dust generator and that collected by MOUDI sampler. As and Pb concentrations of the PM10 fraction in the MOUDI sample were much lower than in tailing samples produced by the dust generator, indicating a dilution of Iron King tailing dust by dust from other sources. For source apportionment purposes, single element concentration method was used based on the assumption that the PM10 fraction comes from a background source plus the Iron King tailing source. The method's conclusion that nearly all arsenic and lead in the PM10 dust fraction originated from the tailings substantiates our previous Pb and Sr isotope study conclusion. As and Pb showed a similar mass fraction from Iron King for all sites suggesting that As and Pb have the same major emission source. Further validation of this simple source apportionment method is needed based on other elements and sites. PMID:26820180

  10. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Karsten; Michalik, Boguslaw; Wiegand, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Rfrence, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial (226)Ra content, (228)Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO(4)) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any. PMID:17350147

  11. The Reliability of Endoscopic Biopsies in Assessing HER2 Status in Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Study Comparing Biopsies with Surgical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, Federica; Fassan, Matteo; Ceccaroli, Chiara; Giacometti, Cinzia; Curto, Monica; Zagonel, Vittorina; Ceppa, Paola; Nitti, Donato; Castoro, Carlo; Fiocca, Roberto; Rugge, Massimo; Mastracci, Luca

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to validate the accuracy of HER2 assessment on biopsies by comparing matched biopsy/surgical material from the same patients. METHODS: HER2 status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 103 cases of gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers in coupled biopsy and surgical material. RESULT: Complete concordance between IHC and FISH results on biopsy versus surgical samples was noted in 80% and 95% of cases, respectively. At comprehensive comparison, including IHC and FISH data on biopsy and surgical samples, 89% of biopsies were predictive of HER2 status in surgical samples, whereas 11% showed variable inconsistencies. The majority of these (10 of 12 cases) showed IHC score 0/1+ on biopsy but were all IHC positive and amplified at surgery; in particular, three (3 of 35; 8.5%) IHC score 0 and four (4 of 16; 25%) IHC score 1+ cases were FISH amplified on biopsy material also, whereas the remaining three cases were FISH non-amplified on biopsy. The percentage of cases, which were FISH amplified with IHC score 1+ or 2+ on biopsies, were similar (25% and 33%, respectively) and they also shared a similar grade of amplification. These data suggest that both IHC score 1+ and 2+ on biopsy material represent equivocal cases that may merit further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive value of HER2 IHC in biopsies is high. FISH analysis should be considered for IHC score 2+ and 1+ biopsy cases. Approximately 8% of cases will not be accurately predicted by biopsy evaluation. PMID:23418612

  12. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  14. Does this baby have a tail?: a case of congenital isolated perineal lipoma presenting as human pseudo-tail

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Cho, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A pseudo-tail is defined as a tail-like lesion in the lumbosacrococcygeal region that is not a true tail but one caused by disease. Perineal lipoma is one of the conditions that may present as a pseudo-tail. Congenital perineal lipoma is a rare disease and in particular, isolated congenital perineal lipoma without other anomalies is extremely rare. Here we report a case of congenital isolated perineal lipoma presenting as a pseudo-tail and also include a literature review of the condition. PMID:26793694

  15. Touch Imprint Cytology and Stereotactically-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Suspicious Breast Lesions: 15-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Fasching, P. A.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Jud, S.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C.; Wachter, D. L.; Hartmann, A.; Beckmann, M. W.; Uder, M.; Loehberg, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stereotactically-guided core needle biopsies (CNB) of breast tumours allow histological examination of the tumour without surgery. Touch imprint cytology (TIC) of CNB promises to be useful in providing same-day diagnosis for counselling purposes and for planning future surgery. Having addressed the issue of accuracy of immediate microscopic evaluation of TIC, we wanted to re-examine the usefulness of this procedure in light of the present health care climate of cost containment by incorporating the surgical 15-year follow-up data and outcome. Patients and Methods: From January until December 1996 we performed TIC in core needle biopsies of 173 breast tumours in 169 patients, consisting of 122 malignant and 51 benign tumours. Histology of core needle biopsies was proven by surgical histology in all malignant and in 5 benign tumours. Surgical breast biopsy was not performed in 46 patients with 46 benign lesions, as the histological result from the core needle biopsy and the result of the TIC were in agreement with the suspected diagnosis from the complementary breast diagnostics. A 15-year follow-up of these patients followed in 2013 and follow-up data was collected from 40 women. Results: In the 15-year follow-up of the 40 benign lesions primarily confirmed using CNB and TIC, a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of 100 % was found. Conclusion: TIC and stereotactically guided CNB showed excellent long-term follow-up in patients with benign breast lesions. The use of TIC to complement CNB can therefore provide immediate cytological diagnosis of breast lesions. PMID:26855442

  16. The application of remote sensing in the environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond: a case study in Zhangjiakou area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Rulin; Shen, Wenming; Fu, Zhuo; Shi, Yuanli; Xiong, Wencheng; Cao, Fei

    2012-10-01

    As a kind of huge environmental risk source, tailings pond could cause a huge environmental disaster to the downstream area once an accident happened on it. Therefore it has become one key target of the environmental regulation in china. Especially, recently environmental emergencies caused by tailings pond are growing rapidly in China, the environmental emergency management of the tailings pond has been confronting with a severe situation. However, the regulatory agency is badly weak in the environmental regulation of tailings pond, due to the using of ground surveys and statistics which is costly, laborious and time consuming, and the lacking of strong technical and information support. Therefore, in this paper, according to the actual needs of the environmental emergency management of tailings pond, we firstly make a brief analysis of the characteristics of the tailings pond and the advantages and capability of remote sensing technology, and then proposed a comprehensive and systematic indexes system and the method of environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond based on remote sensing and GIS. The indexes system not only considers factors from the upstream area, the pond area and the downstream area in a perspective of the risk space theory, but also considers factors from risk source, risk receptor and risk control mechanism in a perspective of risk systems theory. Given that Zhangjiakou city has up to 580 tailings pond and is nearly located upstream of the water source of Beijing, so finally we apply the proposed indexes system and method in Zhangjiakou area in China to help collect environmental risk data of tailings pond in that area and find out it works well. Through the use case in Zhajiakou, the technique of using remote sensing to monitor environmental risk of tailings pond is feasible and effective, and would contribute to the establishment of `Space-Ground' monitoring network of tailings pond in future.

  17. Clinical utility of endorectal MRI-guided prostate biopsy: Preliminary experience

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Adam J.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John; Wang, Zhen J.; Carroll, Peter R.; Simko, Jeffry P.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential clinical utility of endorectal MRI-guided biopsy in patients with known or suspected prostate cancer. Methods We prospectively recruited 24 men with known or suspected prostate cancer in whom MRI-guided biopsy was clinically requested after multiparametric endorectal MRI showed one or more appropriate targets. One to six 18-gauge biopsy cores were obtained from each patient. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy results and post MRI-guided biopsy complications were also recorded. Results MRI-guided biopsy was positive in 5 of 7 patients with suspected prostate cancer (including 2 of 4 with prior negative ultrasound-guided biopsies), in 8 of 12 with known untreated prostate cancer (including 5 where MRI-guided biopsy demonstrated a higher Gleason score than ultrasound guided biopsy results), and in 3 of 5 with treated cancer. MRI-guided biopsies had a significantly higher maximum percentage of cancer in positive cores when compared to ultrasound guided biopsy (mean of 37 8% versus 13 4%; p = 0.01). No serious post-biopsy complications occurred. Conclusion Our preliminary experience suggests endorectal MRI-guided biopsy may safely contribute to the management of patients with known or suspected prostate cancer by making a new diagnosis of malignancy, upgrading previously diagnosed disease, or diagnosing local recurrence. PMID:24924999

  18. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of an Oil Sands Composite Tailings Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Lesley A.; Kendra, Kathryn E.; Brady, Allyson L.; Slater, Greg F.

    2016-01-01

    Composite tailings (CT), an engineered, alkaline, saline mixture of oil sands tailings (FFT), processed sand and gypsum (CaSO4; 1 kg CaSO4 per m3 FFT) are used as a dry reclamation strategy in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). It is estimated that 9.6 × 108 m3 of CT are either in, or awaiting emplacement in surface pits within the AOSR, highlighting their potential global importance in sulfur cycling. Here, in the first CT sulfur biogeochemistry investigation, integrated geochemical, pyrosequencing and lipid analyses identified high aqueous concentrations of ∑H2S (>300 μM) and highly altered sulfur compounds composition; low cell biomass (3.3 × 106– 6.0 × 106 cells g−1) and modest bacterial diversity (H' range between 1.4 and 1.9) across 5 depths spanning 34 m of an in situ CT deposit. Pyrosequence results identified a total of 29,719 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, representing 131 OTUs spanning19 phyla including 7 candidate divisions, not reported in oil sands tailings pond studies to date. Legacy FFT common phyla, notably, gamma and beta Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were represented. However, overall CT microbial diversity and PLFA values were low relative to other contexts. The identified known sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria constituted at most 2% of the abundance; however, over 90% of the 131 OTUs identified are capable of sulfur metabolism. While PCR biases caution against overinterpretation of pyrosequence surveys, bacterial sequence results identified here, align with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and geochemical results. The highest bacterial diversities were associated with the depth of highest porewater [∑H2S] (22–24 m) and joint porewater co-occurrence of Fe2+ and ∑H2S (6–8 m). Three distinct bacterial community structure depths corresponded to CT porewater regions of (1) shallow evident Fe(II) (<6 m), (2) co-occurring Fe(II) and ∑H2S (6–8 m) and (3) extensive ∑H2S (6–34 m) (UniFrac). Candidate divisions GNO2, NKB19 and Spam were present only at 6–8 m associated with co-occurring [Fe(II)] and [∑H2S]. Collectively, results indicate that CT materials are differentiated from other sulfur rich environments by modestly diverse, low abundance, but highly sulfur active and more enigmatic communities (7 candidate divisions present within the 19 phyla identified). PMID:26869997

  19. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of an Oil Sands Composite Tailings Deposit.

    PubMed

    Warren, Lesley A; Kendra, Kathryn E; Brady, Allyson L; Slater, Greg F

    2015-01-01

    Composite tailings (CT), an engineered, alkaline, saline mixture of oil sands tailings (FFT), processed sand and gypsum (CaSO4; 1 kg CaSO4 per m(3) FFT) are used as a dry reclamation strategy in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). It is estimated that 9.6 × 10(8) m(3) of CT are either in, or awaiting emplacement in surface pits within the AOSR, highlighting their potential global importance in sulfur cycling. Here, in the first CT sulfur biogeochemistry investigation, integrated geochemical, pyrosequencing and lipid analyses identified high aqueous concentrations of ∑H2S (>300 μM) and highly altered sulfur compounds composition; low cell biomass (3.3 × 10(6)- 6.0 × 10(6) cells g(-1)) and modest bacterial diversity (H' range between 1.4 and 1.9) across 5 depths spanning 34 m of an in situ CT deposit. Pyrosequence results identified a total of 29,719 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, representing 131 OTUs spanning19 phyla including 7 candidate divisions, not reported in oil sands tailings pond studies to date. Legacy FFT common phyla, notably, gamma and beta Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were represented. However, overall CT microbial diversity and PLFA values were low relative to other contexts. The identified known sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria constituted at most 2% of the abundance; however, over 90% of the 131 OTUs identified are capable of sulfur metabolism. While PCR biases caution against overinterpretation of pyrosequence surveys, bacterial sequence results identified here, align with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and geochemical results. The highest bacterial diversities were associated with the depth of highest porewater [∑H2S] (22-24 m) and joint porewater co-occurrence of Fe(2+) and ∑H2S (6-8 m). Three distinct bacterial community structure depths corresponded to CT porewater regions of (1) shallow evident Fe((II)) (<6 m), (2) co-occurring Fe((II)) and ∑H2S (6-8 m) and (3) extensive ∑H2S (6-34 m) (UniFrac). Candidate divisions GNO2, NKB19 and Spam were present only at 6-8 m associated with co-occurring [Fe((II))] and [∑H2S]. Collectively, results indicate that CT materials are differentiated from other sulfur rich environments by modestly diverse, low abundance, but highly sulfur active and more enigmatic communities (7 candidate divisions present within the 19 phyla identified). PMID:26869997

  20. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. PMID:24681363

  1. Which patients with ARDS benefit from lung biopsy?

    PubMed

    Palakshappa, Jessica A; Meyer, Nuala J

    2015-10-01

    A central tenet of caring for patients with ARDS is to treat the underlying cause, be it sepsis, pneumonia, or removal of an offending toxin. Identifying the risk factor for ARDS has even been proposed as essential to diagnosing ARDS. Not infrequently, however, the precipitant for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is unclear, and this raises the question of whether a histologic lung diagnosis would benefit the patient. In this review, we consider the historic role of pathology in establishing a diagnosis of ARDS and the published experience of surgical and transbronchial lung biopsy in patients with ARDS. We reflect on which pathologic diagnoses influence treatment and suggest a patient-centric approach to weigh the risks and benefits of a lung biopsy for critically ill patients who may have ARDS. PMID:25950989

  2. Skin Biopsy, the Allergists' Tool: How to Interpret a Report.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Brett H; Gavino, Aries Caesar P; Gavino, Alde Carlo P

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory dermatoses are frequently encountered by the allergist, and histologic evaluation achieved through skin biopsy can be of tremendous value clinically. There is no substitute for a thorough history and physical exam; however, the skin biopsy is a simple, in-office procedure with little risk of complication that can provide invaluable information when a diagnosis is uncertain. Histopathologically, many inflammatory eruptions can look similar or overlap, but information provided by the dermatopathologist can help the clinician render or refine the clinical diagnosis and guide management. This review will discuss descriptive elements contained in the pathology report to provide a framework that can be used by the allergist to comfortably and confidently diagnose inflammatory dermatologic conditions. PMID:26310278

  3. Benign endoscopic biopsies may be a red herring.

    PubMed

    Alrubaiy, Laith; Ahmed, Waqar; Sutton, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with haematemesis and melena. Repeated endoscopies showed extensive candidiasis with an exophytic mass like a shelf of tumour. Biopsies showed chronic inflammatory changes with candidiasis without evidence of malignancy. His only complaint was feeling tired and loss of energy. There was no dysphagia but slight retrostenal discomfort on swallowing. Computed tomography scan reported an opacification in the right upper lobe adjacent to the mediastinum. This contained air bronchograms and several irregular air filled cavities. There was significant mediastinal adenopathy. Two endoscopies were done after that and both of them demonstrated a fistulous connection with the bronchial tree. Biopsies failed to show any neoplasm. The patient underwent a three stage oesophagectomy with removal of the adjacent lung lobe and a reconstructive procedure. The resected mass was sent for histopathology which showed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus which locally invaded the lung. PMID:21686577

  4. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E

    1981-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

  6. Mondor's disease in a patient after a mammotome biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare, benign condition characterised by thrombophlebitis affecting subcutaneous veins of the chest and/or abdomen without an accompanying inflammatory response. The disease has a multifactorial etiology and its course is benign. It is usually self-limiting or it is eliminated by local treatment. Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region may be a rare complication of mammotome biopsy. The case presentation describes a 32-year-old patient with Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region after an ultrasound-guided mammotome biopsy of a breast. In the histopathological examination the lesion was diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Regardless of the disease's etiology, it is recommended to carry out diagnostic examinations to exclude co-occurring breast cancer. PMID:25960806

  7. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  8. Texture analysis for colorectal tumour biopsies using multispectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Peyret, Remy; Bouridane, Ahmed; Al-Maadeed, Somaya Ali; Kunhoth, Suchithra; Khelifi, Fouad

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. As part of its diagnosis, a histological analysis is often run on biopsy samples. Multispecral imagery taken from cancer tissues can be useful to capture more meaningful features. However, the resulting data is usually very large having a large number of varying feature types. This papers aims to investigate and compare the performances of multispectral imagery taken from colorectal biopsies using different techniques for texture feature extraction inclduing local binary patterns, Haraclick features and local intensity order patterns. Various classifiers such as Support Vector Machine and Random Forest are also investigated. The results show the superiority of multispectral imaging over the classical panchromatic approach. In the multispectral imagery's analysis, the local binary patterns combined with Support Vector Machine classifier gives very good results achieving an accuracy of 91.3%. PMID:26737957

  9. Robotically assisted small animal MRI-guided mouse biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Chiodo, Chris; Wong, Kenneth H.; Fricke, Stanley; Jung, Mira; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Small mammals, namely mice and rats, play an important role in biomedical research. Imaging, in conjunction with accurate therapeutic agent delivery, has tremendous value in small animal research since it enables serial, non-destructive testing of animals and facilitates the study of biomarkers of disease progression. The small size of organs in mice lends some difficulty to accurate biopsies and therapeutic agent delivery. Image guidance with the use of robotic devices should enable more accurate and repeatable targeting for biopsies and delivery of therapeutic agents, as well as the ability to acquire tissue from a pre-specified location based on image anatomy. This paper presents our work in integrating a robotic needle guide device, specialized stereotaxic mouse holder, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a long-term goal of performing accurate and repeatable targeting in anesthetized mice studies.

  10. Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

    2014-05-01

    The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

  11. Any detectable thyroglobulin in lymph node biopsy washouts suggests local recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Natalie Su-Jing; Maher, Richard; Learoyd, Diana Louise

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of local recurrence detection in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increased by measuring thyroglobulin in needle washouts from lymph node fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNA-Tg). Recent studies have proposed minimum diagnostic threshold values for FNA-Tg and have reported interference from Tg antibodies (Tg Ab), leading to low or false-negative results. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of local DTC recurrence in patients referred to a single pathology service used by our tertiary teaching hospital, the first such study in an Australian cohort. Data were collected from the pathology service database for FNA-Tg over an 18-month period, and the results of 69 FNA-Tg samples from 57 patients were obtained. FNA-Tg findings were compared with cytology and histology when patients proceeded to surgery. Using the functional sensitivity as the cut-off, detectable FNA-Tg (?0.9??g/l) had a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 50% and positive predictive value of 95.7%. Our results suggest that detectable FNA-Tg leads to histological confirmation of local nodal DTC recurrence and would support a decision to proceed to surgery. Serum Tg Ab can, however, interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Thus, we now recommend routine use of FNA-Tg washouts in all lymph node FNA biopsies for the detection of DTC recurrence. PMID:25125556

  12. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  13. Optical Biopsy of Peripheral Nerve Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A New Tool for Nerve Surgeons?

    PubMed

    Crowe, Christopher S; Liao, Joseph C; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a challenge for reconstructive surgeons with many patients obtaining suboptimal results. Understanding the level of injury is imperative for successful repair. Current methods for distinguishing healthy from damaged nerve are time consuming and possess limited efficacy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an emerging optical biopsy technology that enables dynamic, high resolution, sub-surface imaging of live tissue. Porcine sciatic nerve was either left undamaged or briefly clamped to simulate injury. Diluted fluorescein was applied topically to the nerve. CLE imaging was performed by direct contact of the probe with nerve tissue. Images representative of both damaged and undamaged nerve fibers were collected and compared to routine H&E histology. Optical biopsy of undamaged nerve revealed bands of longitudinal nerve fibers, distinct from surrounding adipose and connective tissue. When damaged, these bands appear truncated and terminate in blebs of opacity. H&E staining revealed similar features in damaged nerve fibers. These results prompt development of a protocol for imaging peripheral nerves intraoperatively. To this end, improving surgeons' ability to understand the level of injury through real-time imaging will allow for faster and more informed operative decisions than the current standard permits. PMID:26430636

  14. Optical Biopsy of Peripheral Nerve Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A New Tool for Nerve Surgeons?

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Joseph C; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a challenge for reconstructive surgeons with many patients obtaining suboptimal results. Understanding the level of injury is imperative for successful repair. Current methods for distinguishing healthy from damaged nerve are time consuming and possess limited efficacy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an emerging optical biopsy technology that enables dynamic, high resolution, sub-surface imaging of live tissue. Porcine sciatic nerve was either left undamaged or briefly clamped to simulate injury. Diluted fluorescein was applied topically to the nerve. CLE imaging was performed by direct contact of the probe with nerve tissue. Images representative of both damaged and undamaged nerve fibers were collected and compared to routine H&E histology. Optical biopsy of undamaged nerve revealed bands of longitudinal nerve fibers, distinct from surrounding adipose and connective tissue. When damaged, these bands appear truncated and terminate in blebs of opacity. H&E staining revealed similar features in damaged nerve fibers. These results prompt development of a protocol for imaging peripheral nerves intraoperatively. To this end, improving surgeons' ability to understand the level of injury through real-time imaging will allow for faster and more informed operative decisions than the current standard permits. PMID:26430636

  15. Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Kayacetin, Serra

    2004-01-01

    Liver penetration is a rare but serious complication of peptic ulcer disease. Usually the diagnosis is made by operation or autopsy. Clinical and laboratory data were no specific. A 64-year-old man was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hepatic penetration was diagnosed as the cause of bleeding. Endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with a pseudotumoral mass protruding from the ulcer bed. Definitive diagnosis was established by endoscopic biopsies of the ulcer base. PMID:15188520

  16. Dysplasia-Carcinoma Transition Specific Transcripts in Colonic Biopsy Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Ferenc; Spisk, Sndor; Krencs, Tibor; Tth, Kinga; Leiszter, Katalin; Kalmr, Alexandra; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnr, Bla

    2012-01-01

    Background The early molecular detection of the dysplasia-carcinoma transition may enhance the strength of diagnosis in the case of colonic biopsies. Our aims were to identify characteristic transcript sets in order to develop diagnostic mRNA expression patterns for objective classification of benign and malignant colorectal diseases and to test the classificatory power of these markers on an independent sample set. Methodology/Principal Findings Colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma specific transcript sets were identified using HGU133plus2 microarrays and 53 biopsies (22 CRC, 20 adenoma and 11 normal). Ninety-four independent biopsies (27 CRC, 29 adenoma and 38 normal) were analyzed on microarrays for testing the classificatory power of the discriminatory genes. Array real-time PCR validation was done on 68 independent samples (24 CRC, 24 adenoma and 20 normal). A set of 11 transcripts (including CXCL1, CHI3L1 and GREM1) was determined which could correctly discriminate between high-grade dysplastic adenoma and CRC samples by 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The discriminatory power of the marker set was proved to be high on independent samples in both microarray and RT-PCR analyses. 95.6% of original and 94.1% of cross-validated samples was correctly classified in discriminant analysis. Conclusions/Significance The identified transcripts could correctly characterize the dysplasia-carcinoma transition in biopsy samples, also on a large independent sample set. These markers can establish the basis of gene expression based diagnostic classification of colorectal cancer. Diagnostic RT-PCR cards can become part of the automated routine procedure. PMID:23155391

  17. Application of statistical cancer atlas for 3D biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. While the exact cause is still under investigation, researchers agree on certain risk factors like age, family history, dietary habits, lifestyle and race. It is also widely accepted that cancer distribution within the prostate is inhomogeneous, i.e. certain regions have a higher likelihood of developing cancer. In this regard extensive work has been done to study the distribution of cancer in order to perform biopsy more effectively. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was demonstrated along with an optimal biopsy scheme achieving a high detection rate. In this paper we discuss the complete construction and application of such an atlas that can be used in a clinical setting to effectively target high cancer zones during biopsy. The method consists of integrating intensity statistics in the form of cancer probabilities at every voxel in the image with shape statistics of the prostate in order to quickly warp the atlas onto a subject ultrasound image. While the atlas surface can be registered to a pre-segmented subject prostate surface or instead used to perform segmentation of the capsule via optimization of shape parameters to segment the subject image, the strength of our approach lies in the fast mapping of cancer statistics onto the subject using shape statistics. The shape model was trained from over 38 expert segmented prostate surfaces and the atlas registration accuracy was found to be high suggesting the use of this method to perform biopsy in near real time situations with some optimization.

  18. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

    Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

    The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

    This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  19. Tailings basin reclamation: Atlantic City Iron Mine, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gusek, J.J.; Richmond, T.C.

    1999-07-01

    An 81 ha (200 ac) tailings impoundment at a taconite operation in Wyoming abandoned in 1985 has been a source of blowing dust. The site qualified for reclamation under Wyoming's Abandoned Mine Land program. The reclamation design included: incorporating commercially available organic amendments and fertilizers into a 300 mm (12 in.) thick cap of a sterile gravelly clay loam cover material, planting trees in the protective wind/snow shadows of rock beams and rock snow fences, lowering the water level n a flooded mine pit that was feeding uncontrolled seeps, and constructing a wide tailings pond spillway that allows flood control while minimizing seasonal water level fluctuations in the pond. The construction of the earthwork aspects of the design were completed over two construction seasons, including work during the winter at this high-altitude (2,470 m [8,100 ft.]) site. This occurred because snow from an early winter storm that collected behind the rock beams and rock snow fences was slow to melt. Furthermore, the increased snow catch made the site too wet the following spring to allow seeding during the normal seeding window; a fall planting was necessary. The rocky nature of the cover material prompted the development of innovative reclamation approaches, including fabricating a rock rake bulldozer blade and applying organic soil amendments by aerial spraying. A randomly-configured two-acre test plot was installed to evaluate the benefits of various soil amendments as the site matures. Future work on the site will include tree seedling planting and plugging of a decant pipeline.

  20. Contaminant tailing in highly heterogeneous porous formations: Sensitivity on model selection and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mahdi; Jankovic, Igor; Weissmann, Gary S.; Matott, L. Shawn; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Rabideau, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled impacts of slow advection, diffusion and sorption were investigated using two heterogeneity models that differ in structure and in the mathematical framework that was used to simulate flow and transport and to quantify contaminant tailing. Both models were built using data from a highly heterogeneous exposure of the Borden Aquifer at a site located 2 km north-west of the Stanford-Waterloo experimental site at Canadian Forces Base Borden, Ontario, Canada. The inclusions-based model used a simplified representation of the different materials found at the site, while the second model was based on transitional probability geostatistics of the formation. These two models were used to investigate sensitivity of contaminant tailing on model selection and on geometric and material properties. While simulations were based on data collected at Borden, models were exercised beyond the geometric and material properties that characterize the site. Various realizations have identified very low conductive silty clay, found at volume fraction of 23.4%, as the material with dominant influence on tailing, and vertical diffusion in and out of low conductive units, affected by sorption, as the dominant transport mechanism causing tailing. The two models yielded almost identical transport results when vertical correlation lengths of silty clay were matched. Several practical implications relevant for characterization of low conductive units were identified and briefly discussed.

  1. Evaluation of microbial biofilm communities from an Alberta oil sands tailings pond.

    PubMed

    Golby, Susanne; Ceri, Howard; Gieg, Lisa M; Chatterjee, Indranil; Marques, Lyriam L R; Turner, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta has resulted in millions of cubic meters of waste stored on-site in tailings ponds. Unique microbial ecology is expected in these ponds, which may be key to their bioremediation potential. We considered that direct culturing of microbes from a tailings sample as biofilms could lead to the recovery of microbial communities that provide good representation of the ecology of the tailings. Culturing of mixed species biofilms in vitro using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) under aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic growth conditions was successful both with and without the addition of various growth nutrients. Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing revealed that unique mixed biofilm communities were recovered under each incubation condition, with the dominant species belonging to Pseudomonas, Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Rhodoferax, and Acidovorax. This work used an approach that allowed organisms to grow as a biofilm directly from a sample collected of their environment, and the biofilms cultivated in vitro were representative of the endogenous environmental community. For the first time, representative environmental mixed species biofilms have been isolated and grown under laboratory conditions from an oil sands tailings pond environment and a description of their composition is provided. PMID:22029695

  2. XAFS study of As-bearing mine tailings subjected to simulated human digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Brown, G.E. Jr.; Parks, G.A.; Tingle, T.N.

    1995-12-01

    Mine tailings containing large amounts of As present a hazard for people living in desert communities such as Trona, CA, where they have been used as landscaping material. A group of researchers at U.C. Davis chemically simulated human digestion of the tailings to assess this risk, finding < 10% As released after the procedure. We have explored the use of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy as a tool for determining the speciation of redox-sensitive elements such as As in mixtures of unknown, poorly ordered, potentially noncrystalline phases such as found in soils, sediments, and mine tailings. We collected XAFS data on three sets of pristine and simulated digestion tailings and determined the identity, number, and distance of atoms around the As out to {approximately}6 {Angstrom}. As{sup 5+}O{sub 4} is the primary As species in all samples, although minor As{sup 3}+O{sub 3} may be present in some samples. The quantity of Fe and/or Al atoms near the average As and the identification in some samples of As second neighbors suggests that As is sequestered in relatively insoluble, poorly ordered, impure precipitates such as Fe or Al hydrous oxides. These findings are in agreement with the low As mobility found in the simulated digestion study.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  4. Major Bleeding after Percutaneous Image-Guided Biopsies: Frequency, Predictors, and Periprocedural Management

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sean A.; Milovanovic, Lazar; Midia, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Major bleeding remains an uncommon yet potentially devastating complication following percutaneous image-guided biopsy. This article reviews two cases of major bleeding after percutaneous biopsy and discusses the frequency, predictors, and periprocedural management of major postprocedural bleeding. PMID:25762845

  5. A retrospective analysis of osteochondroma of scapula following excision biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, T; Ravi Kumar, N; Nataraj, A R

    2015-06-01

    Scapula is an uncommon site for osteochondroma. There is a paucity of information regarding postoperative complications, recurrence of osteochondroma, functional improvement. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients treated for osteochondroma scapula over a period of 4 years was undertaken to assess postoperative complications, recurrence, and functional improvement following excision biopsy for osteochondroma scapula. All patients of any age group who were diagnosed with osteochondroma scapula and treated with excision biopsy in the past 6 years were included in the study. Patients were followed up for recurrence, postoperative complications and functional assessment using modified UCLA shoulder rating scale. The mean age at presentation was 13.7 years. Boys were more commonly affected than girls with a male to female ratio of 7:2. There was no incidence of recurrence of osteochondroma, postoperative wound complications or functional limitation following excision biopsy of osteochondroma scapula. We conclude that preoperative functional restriction in osteochondroma of scapula is mainly due to location of tumour especially when present over ventral or ventromedial aspect scapula. After complete excision they do not cause any functional limitations. PMID:26280971

  6. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Odrzywolski, Karen J; Shah, Bharati; Henderson, Don; Fricke, Alex F.; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J; Tawil, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    Background Posited pathological mechanisms in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) include activation in somatic tissue of normally silenced genes, increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and induction of apoptosis. Objective To determine the histopathological changes in FSHD muscle biopsies and compare to possible pathological mechanisms of disease. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on quadriceps muscle biopsies from 32 genetically confirmed FSHD participants, compared to healthy volunteers and myotonic dystrophy type 1 as disease controls. Biopsies were divided into groups to evaluate apoptosis rates, capillary density, myonuclear and satellite cell counts. Results Apoptosis rates were increased in FSHD (n=10, 0.74%) compared to myotonic dystrophy type 1 (n=10, 0.14%, P=0.003) and healthy volunteers (n=14, 0.13%, P=0.002). Apoptosis was higher in FSHD patients with the smallest residual D4Z4 fragments. Capillary density was decreased in FSHD1 (n=10, 316 capillaries/mm2) compared to healthy volunteers (n=15, 448 capillaries/mm2, P=0.001). No differences were seen in myonuclear or satellite cell counts. Conclusions Preliminary evidence for increased apoptosis rates and reduced capillary density may reflect histopathological correlates of disease activity in FSHD. The molecular-pathological correlates to these changes warrants further investigation. PMID:26345300

  7. Outpatient renal needle biopsy of the transplanted kidney: safety profile.

    PubMed

    Petrone, H; Frapiccini, M G; Skare, R; Baran, M

    2011-11-01

    Since May 2005, we began performing renal graft biopsies as outpatient procedures when the patient's condition did not require hospitalization. To evaluate the safety profile of the 137 procedures performed in 111 patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of complications after all biopsies between 4 May 2005 and 6 January 6, 2011. The analysis focused on types of complications as well as needs for hospitalization with length of stay, for blood transfusion or for a further intervention. There were complications in 10.9% of procedures (n = 15) with 8% requiring hospitalization (n = 11). The complications were: gross hematuria (n = 10) including blockage of urinary flow (n = 2) with one subject requiring urologic intervention, and one patient experienced severe pain at the puncture site. Neither renal graft nor patient survival was threatened; there was no hemodynamic decompensation needing blood transfusions. The average hospital stay was 2.27 days (range = 1-8). Outpatient renal biopsies in 111 patients (137 procedures) had an 8% incidence of complications requiring admission and an average length of hospitalization of 2.27 days. Gross hematuria the most frequent problem, in no way compromised patient or graft survival showing it to be a safe outpatient procedure. PMID:22099801

  8. Computer-aided morphometry of liver inflammation in needle biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Dioguardi, N; Franceschini, B; Russo, C; Grizzi, F

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To introduce a computer-aided morphometric method for quantifying the necro-inflammatory phase in liver biopsy specimens using fractal geometry and Delaunays triangulation. METHODS: Two-micrometer thick biopsy sections taken from 78 chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients were immunohistochemically treated to identify the inflammatory cells. An automatic computer-aided image analysis system was used to define the inflammatory cell network defined on the basis of Delaunays triangulation, and the inflammatory cells were geometrically classified as forming a cluster (an aggregation of a minimum of three cells) or as being irregularly distributed within the tissue. The phase of inflammatory activity was estimated using Hursts exponent. RESULTS: The proposed automatic method was rapid and objective. It could not only provide rigorous results expressed by scalar numbers, but also allow the state of the whole organ to be represented by Hursts exponent with an error of no more than 12%. CONCLUSION: The availability of rigorous metrical measures and the reasonable representativeness of the status of the organ as a whole raise the question as to whether the indication for hepatic biopsy should be revised by establishing clear rules concerning the contraindications suggested by its invasiveness and subjective interpretation. PMID:16437605

  9. [First attempts in preimplantation genetic diagnosis: blastomere biopsy].

    PubMed

    Fancsovits, P; Bn, Z; Tthn, G Z; Urbancsek, J; Papp, Z

    2001-11-01

    There is an increasing expectation from couples that serious inherited diseases should be recognized at the earliest stages of embryonic development. A valuable tool for early prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), involves the removal of 1 or 2 blastomeres from an in vitro fertilized embryo with micromanipulator (blastomere biopsy) without affecting the viability of the embryo. Genetic analysis of the removed blastomeres is performed to determine whether the embryo carries the genes responsible for the examined disease. Based on the results of the genetic analysis it is possible to transfer only unaffected embryos to the uterus. In this study, the authors performed blastomere biopsy on 35 embryos at the 6-10 cells stage. A total of 104 blastomeres were analyzed. On follow-up, 64% of biopsied embryos were cleaved and 43% developed to the morula or blastocyst stage. The introduction of this new procedure into the field of assisted reproduction can provide an alternative for couples who do not want to give birth to children affected by a genetic disease but would reject induced abortion after a positive prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11766236

  10. Biopsychronology: live confocal imaging of biopsies to assess organ function.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Imtiaz; Fries, Dietmar; Streif, Werner; Aigner, Felix; Hengster, Paul; Troppmair, Jakob; Hermann, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged ischemia (I) times caused by organ procurement and transport are main contributors to a decrease in organ function, which is further enhanced during reperfusion (R). This combined damage, referred to as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), is a main contributor to delayed graft function, which leads to costly and lengthy follow-up treatments or even organ loss. Methods to monitor the status of a graft prior to transplantation are therefore highly desirable to optimize the clinical outcome. Here, we propose the use of fine needle biopsies, which are analyzed by real-time live confocal microscopy. Such a combination provides information about the functional and structural integrity of an organ within a few minutes. To confirm the feasibility of this approach, we obtained fine needle biopsies from rodent kidneys and exposed them to various stress conditions. Following the addition of a range of live stains, biopsies were monitored for mitochondrial function, cell viability, and tissue integrity using confocal live cell imaging. Our data demonstrate that this procedure requires minimal time for sample preparation and data acquisition and is well suitable to record organ damage resulting from unphysiological stress. PMID:24750326

  11. Molecular correlates of renal function in kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, Sakarn; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff; Jhangri, Gian S; Mueller, Thomas F; Sis, Banu; Hidalgo, Luis G; Mengel, Michael; Kayser, Daniel; Kaplan, Bruce; Halloran, Philip F

    2009-05-01

    The molecular changes in the parenchyma that reflect disturbances in the function of kidney transplants are unknown. We studied the relationships among histopathology, gene expression, and renal function in 146 human kidney transplant biopsies performed for clinical indications. Impaired function (estimated GFR) correlated with tubular atrophy and fibrosis but not with inflammation or rejection. Functional deterioration before biopsy correlated with inflammation and tubulitis and was greater in cases of rejection. Microarray analysis revealed a correlation between impaired renal function and altered expression of sets of transcripts consistent with tissue injury but not with those consistent with cytotoxic T cell infiltration or IFN-gamma effects. Multivariate analysis of clinical variables, histologic lesions, and transcript sets confirmed that expression of injury-related transcript sets independently correlated with renal function. Analysis of individual genes confirmed that the transcripts with the greatest positive or negative correlations with renal function were those suggestive of response to injury and parenchymal dedifferentiation not inflammation. We defined new sets of genes based on individual transcripts that correlated with renal function, and these highly correlated with the previously developed injury sets and with atrophy and fibrosis. Thus, in biopsies performed for clinical reasons, functional disturbances are reflected in transcriptome changes representing tissue injury and dedifferentiation but not the inflammatory burden. PMID:19389845

  12. Centrifuge modeling of coal tailing embankments

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Sutherland, H.J.; Heckes, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    Centrifuge model studies were conducted on eight homogeneous dams with 1.75:1 slopes using coal tailings (waste coal, shale, fine sand, silt, and clay) to obtain experience on the behavior of this low-strength material in a laboratory setting and, further, to examine the accuracy of predictions of embankment failure by the simplified Bishop limit equilibrium method. The failure of four of the model embankments simulated typical features of slope failures observed in the field. Centrifuge modeling verified that the simplified Bishop method using standard measurements of soil strength properly indexed the dam safety but did not accurately locate the embankment failure surface. 20 refs.

  13. A Farey tail for attractor black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Manschot, Jan; Verlinde, Erik

    2006-11-01

    The microstates of 4d BPS black holes in IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold are counted by a (generalized) elliptic genus of a (0,4) conformal field theory. By exploiting a spectral flow that relates states with different charges, and using the Rademacher formula, we find that the elliptic genus has an exact asymptotic expansion in terms of semi-classical saddle-points of the dual supergravity theory. This generalizes the known "Black Hole Farey Tail" of [1] to the case of attractor black holes.

  14. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  15. Prostate Biopsy Using Transrectal Ultrasonography; The Optimal Number of Cores Regarding Cancer Detection Rate and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Velayati, Meysam; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate is the most common modality used to diagnose prostate cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal number of cores at prostate biopsy, which have the most diagnostic value with least adverse effects. Patients and Materials: Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy was performed in 180 patients suspicious for prostate cancer due to either abnormal rectal examination or elevated PSA. The patients were divided randomly into three groups of six-core, twelve-core and eighteen-core biopsies. The detection rate of prostate cancer in each group with the rate of post biopsy urinary infection and prostatitis were compared. Results: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 8 (13.3%), 21 (35%) and 24 (40%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Urinary tract infection and prostatitis occurred in 17 (28.3%), 23 (38.3%) and 35 (58.3%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Considering the detection rate of prostate cancer, there was a significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.006) and 12-core biopsies detected more cases of prostate cancer, but there was no significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.572). Considering the infection rate, there was no significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.254), but there was a significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.028) and infectious complications occurred more frequently in 18-core biopsy group. Conclusions: The best balance between detection rate of prostate cancer and infectious complications of biopsies achieved in twelve-core biopsy protocol. Twelve-core biopsy enhances the rate of prostate cancer detection with minimum adverse effects. PMID:26060552

  16. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

  17. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  18. Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hakime, Antoine Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia; Barah, Ali; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry De

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and 'in-plane' or 'out-of-plane' needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5-60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to determine needle tip position and allows fast and accurate needle placement in targeted liver nodules.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single Wing Tail System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Makoto

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a tail system which consists of a single wing was examined experimentally. Although many conventional airplanes are equipped with one or more vertical tail(s) and a pair of horizontal tail for longitudinal and directional control, respectively, a wind tunnel experiment revealed that an appropriately configured single wing can control pitch and yaw of an airplane. The windtunnel test was performed on a model which consists of a main wing and a single wing tail. Aerodynamic forces were measured by a force balance and oil-flow visualization was performed as well. In the windtunnel test, two different steering methods of a single wing tail system were examined and both of them were shown to work compatibly.

  20. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, J.R.; Hamilton, H.R.; Taylor, B.

    1995-12-31

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters.

  1. Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Timothy A.; Strand, Nicholas S.; Tsung-Yang, Chao; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S.; Moon, Randall T.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages, as key mediators of inflammation, have defined functionally important roles in mammalian tissue repair. Although recent evidence suggests that similar cells exist in zebrafish and also migrate to sites of injury in larvae, whether these cells are functionally important for wound healing or regeneration in adult zebrafish is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC+, mpo+) and macrophages (mpeg1+) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed conserved elements of the inflammatory cell response with mammals. Next, we used transgenic zebrafish in which we could selectively ablate macrophages, which allowed us to investigate whether macrophages were required for tail fin regeneration. We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. Moreover, we also sought to detail molecular regulators of inflammation in adult zebrafish and identified Wnt/?-catenin as a signaling pathway that regulates the injury microenvironment, inflammatory cell migration and macrophage phenotype. These results provide a cellular and molecular link between components of the inflammation response and regeneration in adult zebrafish. PMID:24961798

  2. Luminescent spectroscopy of dry tailings urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander; Bordun, Oleg; Yarynovska, Ivanna

    2006-05-01

    In the work the results of research of luminescent spectrums by photo excitation in the interval of waves lengths 250 - 550 nm and ofluminescent spectrums by the nitric laser (337,1 mn) excitation ofdiy tailings urinaryby the temperature of 300 K are represented. In the spectral interval of 400 - 800 nm a wide bar of luminescence, intensity of which depends on the type of excitation. was observed. It is set, that presence of salts with oxalate, urate and phosphatic compositions in urine results in the move of maximum of luniinescent spectrums in the long-wave region of spectrum and changes the intensity of luminescence. The possible mechanisms of the observed changes in the spectrums of luminescence of dry urine tailings are examined in the work. The model of recombrnational processes which describe the looked luminescent processes is offered. Possible explanations of the looked features in the spectrums of luminescence combine with luminescence of nanobiological complexes, inorganic salts, urea and natural proteins enter in composition of which.

  3. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  5. INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi; Hsieh, Henry H.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie J.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ohta, Kouji; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Kim, Junhan; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2011-11-15

    Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

  6. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  7. Plasma tails: Comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G.A.; Wurden, A.J.; Gladstone, I.M. Jr.

    1999-02-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp was one of the largest comets ever recorded, and it exhibited both a massive dust tail and a plasma tail, which developed as it approaches the sun over the course of six months in 1996--1997. Because the dust responds to gravity and light pressure, but plasmas also respond to the local solar wind (Coulomb collisions and magnetic fields), there is typically an angular separation between the two tails, as seen in the photo above.

  8. Biopsy Needle Advancement during Bone Marrow Aspiration Increases Mesenchymal Stem Cell Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anne E.; Watts, Ashlee E.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care kits to concentrate bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in horses. A maximal number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow aspirated might be desired prior to use of a point-of-care system to concentrate MSCs. Our objective was to test a method to increase the number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow collected. We collected two BM aspirates using two different collection techniques from 12 horses. The first collection technique was to aspirate BM from a single site without advancement of the biopsy needle. The second collection technique was to aspirate marrow from multiple sites within the same sternal puncture by advancing the needle 5 mm three times for BM aspiration from four sites. Numbers of MSCs in collected BM were assessed by total nucleated cell count of BM after aspiration, total colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and total MSC number at each culture passage. The BM aspiration technique of four needle advancements during BM aspiration resulted in higher initial nucleated cell counts, more CFU-Fs, and more MSCs at the first passage. There were no differences in the number of MSCs at later passages. Multiple advancements of the BM needle during BM aspiration resulted in increased MSC concentration at the time of BM collection. If a point-of-care kit is used to concentrate MSCs, multiple advancements may result in higher MSC numbers in the BM concentrate after preparation by the point-of-care kit. For culture expanded MSCs beyond the first cell passage, the difference is of questionable clinical relevance. PMID:27014705

  9. Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

  10. Size distribution of U.S. lower tail cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadoss, Stephen; Luckstead, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Studies that analyzed the size distribution of U.S. cities have mainly focused on the upper tail and showed that these cities adhere to Zipf's law. However, even though a large number of cities are in the lower tail, very few studies have examined the distribution of these small cities because of data limitations. We apply reverse Pareto and reverse general Pareto distributions to analyze U.S. lower tail cities. Our results show the power law behavior of lower tail U.S. cities is accurately represented by both the reverse Pareto and general Pareto.

  11. Evaluating target cold spots by the use of tail EUDs *

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of cold spots below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution. It has units of Gy. We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head&neck plans. Results Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful both for plan evaluation and optimization. In addition, it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols. PMID:18440728

  12. A Tale of Two Tails: Not Just Skin Deep

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Asok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal cutaneous appendage or the so called human tail is a rare congenital anomaly protruding from the lumbo-sacro-coccygeal area. These caudal appendages are divided into true-tails and pseudo-tails. We report here two cases of congenital pseudo-tail with underlying spina bifida and lipo-meningocele. In this article we seek to emphasize that, as the skin and nervous systems are intimately linked by their similar ectodermal origin, a dorsal appendage may be regarded as a cutaneous marker of the underlying spinal dysraphism. PMID:26288414

  13. Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs

    SciTech Connect

    Bortfeld, Thomas Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

  14. A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

  15. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  16. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  17. Tail loss and thermoregulation in the common lizard Zootoca vivipara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczeg, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Török, János; Korsós, Zoltán; Merilä, Juha

    2004-10-01

    Tail autotomy in lizards is an adaptive strategy that has evolved to reduce the risk of predation. Since tail loss reduces body mass and moving ability—which in turn are expected to influence thermal balance—there is potential for a trade-off between tail autotomy and thermoregulation. To test this hypothesis, we studied a common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) population at high latitude, inhabiting a high-cost thermal environment. Z. vivipara is a small, non-territorial lizard known as a very accurate thermoregulator. We made two predictions: (1) the reduced body weight due to tail loss results in faster heating rate (a benefit), and (2) the reduction in locomotor ability after tail loss induces a shift to the use of thermally poorer microhabitats (a cost), thus decreasing the field body temperatures of active lizards. We did not find any effect of tail loss on heating rate in laboratory experiments conducted under different thermal conditions. Likewise, no significant relationship between tail condition and field body temperatures, or between tail condition and thermal microhabitat use, were detected. Thus, our results suggest that tail autotomy does not influence the accuracy of thermoregulation in small-bodied lizards.

  18. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting.

    PubMed

    Zonderland, J J; Kemp, B; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Spoolder, H A M

    2011-02-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and individually marked weaned piglets were used to observe tail-biting incidents (TBIs; piglet biting a penmate's tail). When visible tail damage was first observed in a pen (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0), the video recordings of the previous 6 (till D-6) and the following 6 days (till D6) were analysed every other day for TBIs and the identities of the biter and bitten piglet were recorded. The average TBIs per individual piglet (within each pen) per observation day were analysed to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour and to identify pronounced biters and/or bitten piglets. The (absence of) coherence for TBIs in a pen was used to test whether biters preferred a specific penmate. There was an exponential increase in the intensity (linear on log scale) of the TBIs from an average of 0.7 bites/h at D-6 to 2.3 bites/h at D6. An additional negative quadratic component suggests that a plateau for tail-biting behaviour was reached by the end of the observation period. Before any visible tail damage was observed (i.e. before D0), 82% of the piglets performed and 96% of them received tail bites. After D0, the figures were 99% and 100%, respectively. One or a few pronounced biters could be identified in almost all pens. These biters already showed more tail biting at D-6 than their penmates. Furthermore, these biters showed a greater increase in tail-biting behaviour during the observation period than the average scores of their penmates. In contrast, there was no apparent increase in the receipt of bites among the piglets that had already been bitten more than their penmates at D-6. Finally, there was no significant coherence between biters and bitten piglets, indicating that biters showed no preference for biting particular penmates, even when some of them had a damaged tail. These results show that, by using observations of TBIs, possible biters or bitten piglets can already be identified 6 days before tail damage is first apparent in a pen. PMID:22439956

  19. Isolation and Immortalization of Patient-derived Cell Lines from Muscle Biopsy for Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jerome D; Wright, Woody; Zou, Yaqun; Cossette, Stacy; Lawlor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific cell lines represents an invaluable tool for diagnostic or translational research, and these cells can be collected from skin or muscle biopsy tissue available during the patients diagnostic workup. In this protocol, we describe a technique for live cell isolation from small amounts of muscle or skin tissue for primary cell culture. Additionally, we provide a technique for the immortalization of myogenic cell lines and fibroblast cell lines from primary cells. Once cell lines are immortalized, substantial expansion of patient-derived cells can be achieved. Immortalized cells are amenable to many downstream applications, including drug screening and in vitro correction of the genetic mutation. Altogether, these protocols provide a reliable tool to generate and preserve patient-derived cells for downstream applications. PMID:25651101

  20. Discriminating nevus and melanoma on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies using FTIR microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Durlach, Anne; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2005-08-01

    FTIR microspectroscopy, in combination with cluster analysis, has been used to characterise skin tissues, in order to discriminate cancerous from non-cancerous ones. The main objective of this in vitro study was to demonstrate the applicability of infrared spectral imaging to separate, on paraffinised biopsies, pigmented nevi (benign skin lesions) from melanomas (malignant skin lesions). Infrared spectra were collected from paraffin-embedded samples of nevi and melanomas, without deparaffinisation. Despite the important contribution of the paraffin in these spectra, it was possible to find meaningful and discriminating spectral regions. Spectral imaging was first performed to localize different skin layers (dermis and epidermis). Spectra extracted from the images were subjected to hierarchical classification algorithm, which allowed the discrimination of melanomas from the nevi, using selected spectral windows that correspond to vibrations of DNA and melanin content. The diversity of skin lesions and direct accessibility to the skin make this organ an interesting field of investigation using this technique. PMID:15935560