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Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.  


Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V



Local Cryoanalgesia Is Effective for Tail-Tip Biopsy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tail-tip biopsy for genotyping of genetically modified mice older than 21 d typically is performed by using isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane-induced changes in behavior and metabolism can result in unexpected complications and death. We investigated whether cryoanalgesia by using ethylene chloride spray would be an effective local anesthetic for tail-tip biopsies in mice. C57BL/6J mice were allocated randomly into 4 groups (n = 10 each) to receive isoflurane anesthesia with tail biopsy, ethylene chloride spray on the tip of the tail before biopsy, ethylene chloride spray without biopsy, or no treatment. Blood glucose was measured periodically in both groups undergoing tail biopsy, and the tail-pinch assay was performed in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. Body weight, water, and food intake were measured daily for 2 wk. In both groups undergoing tail biopsy, blood glucose levels at 15 min were significantly higher than those after 2 min. This elevation was greater and more prolonged after 30 min in mice that received isoflurane compared with ethylene chloride spray. Tail-pinch latency at 20 min was greater than that after 2 min in all mice that received ethylene chloride spray. All mice gained weight, and there was no difference in food and water intake among groups. We conclude that ethylene chloride spray is an effective local anesthetic and a valuable alternative to isoflurane.

Matthias, Nadine; Robinson, Mary A; Crook, Robyn; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Goodwin, Bradford S



Behavioral and Activity Assessment of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) after Tail Biopsy under Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Contemporary laboratory animal guidance suggests that tail biopsy of laboratory mice can be performed before 21 d of age without anesthesia, whereas older mice must receive anesthesia before biopsy. Our objective was to determine whether administration of isoflurane anesthesia before tail biopsy produced a measurable effect on the behavior of mice (n = 196). We evaluated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice at 21 to 24 (weaning), 28 to 31 (delayed weaning), and 42 to 45 (adult) d of age. Mice were observed at the time of biopsy and then twice within the first hour after a sham or tail biopsy. Anxiety-like responses were assessed by using an elevated plus-maze. Activity was evaluated remotely for 120 min. Isoflurane did not diminish acute responses to tail biopsy in mice 31 d or younger compared with sham-biopsied animals but had a significant effect in C57BL/6 biopsied adult mice. In addition, mice of all ages and strains that received anesthesia, regardless of biopsy, spent more time in the enclosed maze arms and had decreased activity up to 5 h after isoflurane exposure. Although tail biopsy should be performed in young mice to avoid transection of distal mature vertebrae, our experimental paradigm indicates that isoflurane anesthesia does not appreciably enhance wellbeing over that of mice biopsied without anesthesia at weaning ages. The influence of inhaled isoflurane was demonstrable and indicated that acute and prolonged alterations in anxiety and activity must be considered when interpreting the impact of anesthesia on tail biopsy across various ages and strains of laboratory mice.

Hankenson, F Claire; Braden-Weiss, Gillian C; Blendy, Julie A





... types of cancer, new laboratory techniques test biopsy samples for other features of the cells, such as genetic changes. This information can be used to make a more precise diagnosis and plan more individualized therapy. A biopsy also can identify ...


C-fin: a cultured frog tadpole tail fin biopsy approach for detection of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals.  


There is a need for the development of a rapid method for identifying chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) action while maintaining complex tissue structure and biological variation. Moreover, no assay to date allows a simultaneous screen of an individual's response to multiple chemicals. A cultured tail fin biopsy or C-fin assay was developed using Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. Multiple tail fin biopsies were taken per tadpole, cultured in serum-free medium, and then each biopsy was exposed to a different treatment condition. The effects of known disruptors of TH action were evaluated in the C-fin assay. Chemical exposure was performed +/- 10 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of two TH-responsive transcripts, TH receptor beta (TRbeta) and the Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), was performed. Within 48 h of exposure to Triac (1-100 nM), roscovitine (0.6-60 microM), or genistein (1-100 microM), perturbations in TH signaling were detected. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) (10-1,000 nM) showed no effect. Acetochlor (1-100 nM) elicited a modest effect on the TH-dependent induction of TRbeta transcript. These data reveal that a direct tissue effect may not be critical for TBBPA and acetochlor to disrupt TH action previously observed in intact tadpoles. PMID:20821457

Hinther, Ashley; Domanski, Dominik; Vawda, Saadia; Helbing, Caren C



Punch and spindle-shaped biopsies for collecting oral mucosal tissue for the fabrication of transplantable autologous epithelial cell sheets.  


The oral mucosa is an easily accessible source of cells. Oral mucosal collection will be an essential surgical procedure for regenerative medicine and cell biological research. However, there is no current report that describes the details of the surgical procedure used for oral mucosal collection. Moreover, the number of cells that can be obtained has not been determined. Two different procedures, the punch biopsy and the spindle-shaped biopsy, were performed for the fabrication of transplantable autologous epithelial cell sheets. The mean values of the cells collected per square centimeter of tissue using the punch biopsy and the spindle-shaped biopsy were 76.8 ± 45 × 10(4) cells/cm(2) and 195.7 ± 120 × 10(4) cells/cm(2), respectively. There was no significant difference between the punch biopsy and the spindle-shaped biopsy. The coefficient of variation of the punch biopsy and the spindle-shaped biopsy was 58.9% and 69.8%, respectively. This result indicated that both procedures showed variations in the number of collected cells. Although the punch biopsy may be easier and simpler than the spindle-shaped biopsy, multiple punch biopsies may result in a more complicated procedure, and the spindle-shaped biopsy may be preferable when a large number of cells is necessary. PMID:22623227

Sasaki, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Ohki, Takashi; Matsumine, Hajime; Okano, Teruo; Ando, Tomohiro



Evaluation of Saphenous Venipuncture and Modified Tail-clip Blood Collection in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 methods of blood collection in unanesthetized mice. The saphenous venipuncture method was compared with a modified tail-clip technique that requires minimal restraint. Mice were evaluated through behavioral observation and plasma corticosterone levels. The results showed that the 2 methods produced similar corticosterone responses and that the tail-clip method produced fewer behavioral reactions. In addition, the effects of saphenous venipuncture method appeared to be dependent on the handler's technical expertise. When a series of 4 blood collections were performed over 1 wk, the 2 methods yielded similar corticosterone levels that did not increase over time. Some of the behavioral signs appeared to increase over the series of blood collections obtained by the saphenous venipuncture method. Serial complete blood counts showed that the tail vessels yielded higher total white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts than did the saphenous vein. Neither method appeared to cause stress-associated changes in the leukogram after serial blood collection. Overall, the effects of modified tail-clip method were similar to those of the saphenous venipuncture method in unanesthetized mice.

Abatan, Omorodola I; Welch, Kathleen B; Nemzek, Jean A



Renal biopsy  


Kidney biopsy; Biopsy - kidney ... There are many ways to do a kidney biopsy . They include: Ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy CT-guided kidney biopsy Surgical biopsy The most common kidney biopsy uses ultrasound to guide the ...


Liver biopsy  


Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. The skin will be cleansed, and a small ... chance of puncturing the lung or tearing the liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...


Pleural needle biopsy  


... sing, hum, or say "eee." This helps prevent air from getting into the chest cavity, which can cause a lung collapse ( pneumothorax ). The doctor removes the needle to collect tissue samples. Usually, three biopsy samples are taken. When the ...


Critical Parameters for Tailings Embankments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geotechnical data on copper, uranium, and phosphate tailings from 41 mines were collected and analyzed to empirically establish the variability in strength properties for tailings embankments. These data were analyzed both from geotechnical and statistica...

G. B. Baecher J. S. Lin J. A. Consla W. A. Marr



Liver Biopsy  


A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...


Liver biopsy.  


Fibrosis, the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver is a form of anatomical damage to the liver parenchyma, so that liver biopsy is the only approach for its direct assessment. Although liver biopsy has its limitations, appropriate precautions can reduce the flaws inherent in this method. The level of accuracy obtained with biopsy is particularly important for obtaining a starting point in patients with chronic liver disease who are to be followed-up over a number of years. Therefore, liver biopsy has been used as the gold standard to establish algorithm combinations of biological tests. As well as an accurate assessment of the extent of liver fibrosis, the biopsy can reveal other informations and associated features relevant to evaluation of the fibrotic process. PMID:18973842

Bedossa, P



Synovial biopsy  


Synovial biopsy may identify the following conditions: Coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) Fungal arthritis Gout Hemochromatosis (abnormal accumulation of iron deposits) Tuberculosis Synovial cancer The test may help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis , lupus, ...


Gum biopsy  


Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... the mouth in the area of the abnormal gum tissue. In some cases, a numbing injection may be used. A small piece of the gum tissue that appears abnormal is removed and checked ...


Liver biopsy.  

PubMed Central

An account is given of the findings obtained with open liver biopsy in 111 patients with various diseases, including 78 with cholecystitis and colelithiasis where unsuspected liver pathology, including biliary cirrhosis, was found in 37 patients. An exact diagnosis of hepatic metastasis by biopsy has therapeutic importance in malignant diseases, and in some patients, particularly those with argent-affinoma, liver involvement is compatible with normal life for many years.

Raven, R. W.



Design of collective Thomson scattering system using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the large helical device  

SciTech Connect

Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system is expected to be a strong diagnostic tool for measuring thermal and fast ion distribution function at a local point inside plasmas. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system using a gyrotron at the frequency range of 77 GHz has been installed at the large helical device (LHD). The feasibility of CTS system using the 77 GHz gyrotron is assessed in terms of scattering spectrum and a background noise of the electron cyclotron emission, which affect the signal to noise ratio, with the realistic plasma parameters and incident port locations of LHD. Based on the calculated scattering spectra for bulk and tail fast ion diagnostics, the scattering radiation receiver system with gyrotron frequency feedback circuit is proposed to avoid the frequency chirping.

Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kubo, S.; Kawahata, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Notake, T. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)



Skin lesion biopsy  


Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be easily done in outpatient medical offices or your doctor's office. Which procedure you have depends the location, size, ...


Tail toy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A toy having a tail attached to a flap which is tucked into clothing worn by a child at the rear so the tail appears to be part of the child. The flap is thin and has a large surface area for frictional engagement with the clothing. Both the flap and tail are soft and flexible, and the flap can detach from the clothing when the tail is pulled. In one embodiment, the flap can detach from the tail when pulled with a predetermined amount of force. Self expression, independence, knowledge and empathy for wildlife are promoted in the child by the toy. The flap can also house a story or picture relating to the animal represented by the tail, further interesting and enlightening the child.

Steiger; Vivian E. Y. (Manhattan Beach, CA)



Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.



Breast biopsy - ultrasound  


Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... to be biopsied. The doctor will use an ultrasound machine to guide the needle to the abnormal ...


Optical Biopsy III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proceedings contains papers on the following topics: Fluorescence Biopsy, Light-Scattering Biopsy, Contrast Agents and Raman Biopsy, Women's Health and Light Scattering.Research results presented at the conference showed the advancement in the applic...

R. R. Alfano



Skin and Nerve Biopsies  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Skin and Nerve Biopsies RA Malik Page 2. ... Nerve Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials • Skin Biopsy • Evidence from Clinical Trials ... More results from


Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.



Assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens collected from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent molecular changes in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). So far, 15 main RET/PTC rearrangements have been described, among which RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most common in PTC - especially in radiation-induced tumours. RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the result of intrachromosomal paracentric inversions in chromosome 10, where RET and the activating genes (H4 and ELE1, respectively) are located. Recently, RET/PTC rearrangements have been shown not only in PTC but also in benign thyroid lesions, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The aim of study was an assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods Thyroid aspirates, eligible for the study, were obtained from 26 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each aspirate was smeared for conventional cytology, while its remaining part was immediately washed out of the needle. The cells, obtained from the needle, were used in further investigation. Total RNA from FNAB was extracted by use of an RNeasy Micro Kit, based on modified Chomczynski and Sacchi's method and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was done. Quantitative evaluation of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements by real-time PCR was performed by an ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. In the study, PTC tissues with known RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements served as a reference standard (calibrator), while ?-actin gene was used as endogenous control. Results Amplification reactions were done in triplicate for each examined sample. No RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were found in the examined samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, if any, are rather rare events and further investigations should be conducted in order to determine molecular changes, connecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis with PTC.



Polar body biopsy.  


Polar body biopsy combined with array comparative genomic hybridization allows detection of maternal chromosomal aberrations. Although it has limitations, it can be seen as an alternative to blastomere and trophectoderm biopsy. PMID:23796365

Montag, Markus; Köster, Maria; Strowitzki, Thomas; Toth, Bettina



Initial result of collective Thomson scattering using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the Large Helical Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) technique has been utilized with the backscattering configuration in the collective scattering regime to diagnose the velocity distribution functions in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The receiver was equipped with 16 channels and the first test has been carried out using the eight channels for scattered radiation and these channels cover a few GHz frequency

M. Nishiura; S. Kubo; K. Tanaka; N. Tamura; T. Shimozuma; T. Mutoh; K. Kawahata; T. Watari; T. Saito; Y. Tatematsu; T. Notake



Considerations Regarding Prostate Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the current clinical practice concerning prostate biopsies and indications for prostate biopsies and to study the value of biopsies in grading and staging of prostate cancer. Methods: The literature from 1990 onwards was reviewed systematically. A selection out of the huge number of publications concerning the subject was made based on the relevance of the study (e.g.,

Harrie P. Beerlage; Theo M. de Reijke; Jean J. M. C. H. de la Rosette



Liver biopsy techniques.  


A liver biopsy is required to make the diagnosis of most non-vascular liver diseases. Liver biopsy samples can be obtained with several techniques. With proper training and adequate operator experience, the liver biopsy is a safe technique. It is important to evaluate blood coagulation and to use the biopsy in the context of evaluation of the liver and associated structures with ultrasonography, laparoscopy, or other imaging methods. The histological evaluation should be done using international standards as summarized by John Cullen elsewhere in this issue. PMID:19524789

Rothuizen, Jan; Twedt, David C



Initial result of collective Thomson scattering using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the Large Helical Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) technique has been utilized with the backscattering configuration in the collective scattering regime to diagnose the velocity distribution functions in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The receiver was equipped with 16 channels and the first test has been carried out using the eight channels for scattered radiation and these channels cover a few GHz frequency shift from the 76.95 GHz probe beam. During the discharge, the electron density and temperature at the central region of the LHD are 1×1019m-3, and 1.0 keV, respectively. The probing beam with rectangular wave modulation is injected by 50 Hz in order to be distinct from the background electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The scattered radiation is resolved successfully at each channel of CTS receiver system. The detected signals of bulk ion and electron components are by a factor of 10 ~ 102 larger than the background ECE signal. We found that the measured spectra are in reasonably agreement with the theoretical spectra calculated by using the reliable measured electron temperature and density for input parameters. The CTS receiver system will be improved to obtain more accurate velocity distributions in high temperature plasmas.

Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tamura, N.; Shimozuma, T.; Mutoh, T.; Kawahata, K.; Watari, T.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Notake, T.; LHD Experiment Group



Gastritis and Gastric Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple biopsies under endoscopic guidance have shown that chronic gastritis is frequently patchy, involving the antrum and the lesser curve and sparing often the greater curve. Anacidity and parietal cell antibodies which are thought to indicate the presence of diffuse atrophic changes may be found in patchy gastritis. Endoscopic biopsies may be superficial and unable to diagnose mucosal hyperplasia; they

F. Vilardell



Biopsy needle assemblies  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This document provides needle biopsy systems and methods for obtaining tissue biopsies. In various embodiments, the systems and methods provided can inhibit needle contamination by unwanted tissue or cells and/or regulate a negative pressure to assist sampling of target tissue or cells.



Trephine lung biopsy  

PubMed Central

Forty-five percutaneous trephine lung biopsies using the Steel apparatus were performed on 38 patients. Tissue was obtained on 42 occasions (94%) leading to histological or culture diagnosis in 33 patients (87%). Pneumothoraces (12 patients), bleeding into the airways or pleural space (4 patients), and tumour seeding along the needle track (1 patient) occurred in 38% of biopsy attempts (45% of patients). In contrast to the Vim-Silverman technique, the Steel trephine appears to produce a higher tissue yield and superior specimens for histological study. Trephine lung biopsy is comparable to open lung biopsy in providing positive diagnoses. With anticipation and expeditious management of complications, trephine lung biopsy is both safe and useful in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease. ImagesFIG. 1AFIG. 2AFIG. 2BFIG. 3AFIG. 3B

Wilson, J. R.; Jones, R. L.; Mielke, B.; King, E. G.



Biopsy Pathology in Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Uveitis is fraught with speculations and suppositions with regard to its etiology, progress and prognosis. In several clinical scenarios what may be perceived as due to a systemic infection may actually not be so and the underlying etiology may be an autoimmune process. Investigations in uveitis are sometimes the key in identification and management. Invasive techniques could be of immense value in narrowing down the etiology and help in identifying the cause. This article updates one on the invasive techniques used in biopsy such as anterior chamber paracentesis, vitreous tap and diagnostic vitrectomy, iris and ciliary body biopsy, choroidal and retinochoroidal biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). In populations where certain infections are endemic, the clinical scenario does not always respect a known presentation and the use of biopsy is resorted to as a sure way of confirming the etiology. Biopsies have a role in diagnosis of several inflammatory and infectious conditions in the eye and are pivotal in diagnosis in several dilemmas such as intraocular tumors and in inflammations. Appropriate and timely use of biopsy in uveitis could enhance the diagnosis and provide insight into the etiology, thus enabling precise management.

Biswas, Jyotirmay; Annamalai, Radha; Krishnaraj, Vaijayanthi



Remediation of Tailings Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tailings are a waste product of mining activities. The ore is crushed in processing to a size less than 0.1 to 1.0 mm, the\\u000a metal content is removed, and the remaining product is called tailings. Normally, the tailings will be pumped as slurry to\\u000a a sedimentation pond that is surrounded by dams and, sometimes, natural heights that form a tailings

A. G. Benckert


Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler



Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang



Sentinel node biopsy (image)  


Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. ... the next step is to find the lymph node closest to the tumor site and retrieve it ...


The Vacora Biopsy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Interventional methods such as ultrasonographically, mammographically, or stereotactically targeted\\/guided core vacuum biopsy\\u000a or excision biopsy (Aichinger et al. 1999; Bauer et al. 1994; Burbank 1997; D’angelo et al. 1997; Ferzli et al. 1999; Heywang-Köbrunner\\u000a et al. 1997, 1998; Jackman et al. 1997, 1998; Kelly et al. 1997; Krämer et al. 2002, 1998; Liberman 2000, 1998; Parker et\\u000a al. 1993, 1994;

R. Schulz-Wendtland


The ethical use of mandatory research biopsies  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, clinical trials incorporate translational research questions aimed at identifying biomarkers of response or resistance to agents under investigation. Biomarker assays can require tissue samples to be collected through a research biopsy before therapy, during treatment, or at the time of tumor progression. Such biopsy samples will generally not provide a direct benefit to the patient and, given the risks associated with any surgical procedure, ethical concerns have been raised when the participant’s enrollment on a clinical trial depends on their consent to undergo a research biopsy. In this Perspectives article, we present the rationale for mandatory research biopsies and offer suggestions for standardization to ensure that high-quality, patient-centered, clinical trials continue to be designed with scientific and ethical rigor.

Olson, Erin M.; Lin, Nancy U.; Krop, Ian E.; Winer, Eric P.



[Cartilage biopsy for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)].  


Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an established two-step procedure for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee. Cartilage harvest from the affected knee joint represents the first step of this procedure and is essential for further in vitro expansion of autologous chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the cartilage biopsy process itself is underrepresented in the scientific literature and currently there is only a limited amount of data available addressing this process. Biopsy location as well as the technique itself and instruments used for cartilage collection are not well defined and only little standardisation can be found. The article describes the relevant aspects of the biopsy in the context of ACI with regard to the literature available. Follow-up studies to better define and standardise the cartilage biopsy process are thus required. PMID:23794104

Pestka, J M; Salzmann, G M; Südkamp, N P; Niemeyer, P



Tails of Bacterial Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoplasm of living cells provides a complex fluid environment in which intracellular bacteria live and move. By analyzing the easily visible curved actin ``comet-tail'' of polymerization-based-motility bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, we can learn about sub-micron structure and dynamics of the tail and of the bacterial surface enzyme that catalyzes tail formation. By characterizing the motility, we can transform such motile systems into probes of the cytoplasmic environment.

Rutenberg, Andrew; Grant, Martin



[Endomyocardial biopsy in childhood].  


The experience with endomyocardial biopsy in pediatric age is still limited. From February 1986 to August 1990, 144 right ventricle endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 84 patients (age range 33 days--14 years, median age 31 months, weight range 3--57 kgs). Clinical diagnosis was: dilated cardiomyopathy in 50 patients; graft reject in 19; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 4; restrictive cardiomyopathy in 5; heart tumor in 3; ventricular arrhythmia in 3. The bioptome was introduced directly, without the use of a long sheath. There were no major complications; 2 patients experienced complete transient atrioventricular block and in 1 case right ventricular perforation occurred. In 11/45 patients (27%) with the clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy and available myocardial specimens, acute myocarditis was diagnosed. In 47/65 procedures in the transplanted patients, a moderate to severe rejection was diagnosed. In the remaining patients, endomyocardial biopsy did not help the clinical diagnosis. We conclude that the right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy is a safe procedure in pediatric age; its utility is mostly limited to the diagnosis of acute myocarditis and graft reject after cardiac transplantation. PMID:1478397

Gagliardi, M G; Bevilacqua, M; Parisi, F; Giannico, S; Marcelletti, C



Breast Lumps - Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... abnormal area is located using a special mammography machine. While the breast is still in the machine, the doctor inserts a needle in the abnormal ... Because the patient does not move in the machine, the doctor can be certain that the biopsy ...


Thyroid gland biopsy (image)  


The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...


Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero



The sensitivity and specificity of computerized brush biopsy and scalpel biopsy in diagnosing oral premalignant lesions: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis of oral malignancy and epithelial dysplasia has traditionally been based upon histopathological evaluation of full thickness biopsy from lesional tissue. As many studies had shown that incisional biopsy could cause progression of the tumors, many alternative methods of collection of samples had been tested. Oral brush biopsy is a transepithelial biopsy where it collects cells from basal cell layer noninvasively. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of brush biopsy when compared to histopathology in a group of patients with features of potentially malignancy. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 60 cases of clinically diagnosed leukoplakia are selected and subjected to histopathology and brush biopsy. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that of 16 dysplasia cases confirmed by histopathology, only 12 were positively reported in oral brush biopsy. In 44 cases, the reports are same for histopathology and brush biopsy. The sensitivity of oral brush biopsy is 43.5% and specificity is 81.25% with a positive predictive value of 58.3%. Oral brush biopsy with molecular markers like tenascin and keratins can be an accurate diagnostic test.

Reddy, Sridhar G; Kanala, Surekha; Chigurupati, Anuradha; Kumar, Shamala Ravi; Poosarla, Chandhra Sekhar; Reddy, B Venkata Ramana



Knowledge Long Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to visualize the benefits of applying contemporary technology in explicit knowledge management processes. The “Knowledge Long Tail” is a novel way of categorizing individual and organizational knowledge, and of modeling knowledge in organizations in terms of its type and frequency of use. The concept is inspired by the market long tail phenomenon raised by Chris

I. Lin; R. H. A. Seidel; D. Howell; D. Walker



The human tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is a congenital anomaly with a protruding lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region. A newborn with a tail-like structure over the coccygeal area observed since birth is presented. Lipoma accompanied by tethered spinal cord were found. In reviewing the literature from 1960 to 1997, 59 cases were described. Higher incidences of spinal dysraphism (49.15%) and tethered spinal cord

Frank L Lu; Pen-Jung Wang; Ru-Jeng Teng; Kuo-Inn Tsou Yau



Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira



Biopsy and drainage techniques in children.  


Drainage and biopsy are mainstay procedures in pediatric interventional radiology. As in the adult population, percutaneous biopsy and fluid collection drainage can be performed almost anywhere in the body, in almost all organ systems, and for myriad indications. However, there are some technique differences in children. Radiation protection is paramount, requiring alterations in imaging and guidance. Children have unique sedation and anesthetic requirements, and smaller patients provide both advantages and disadvantages that require/allow for alteration of the procedural techniques. This article will focus on these differences and describe specific techniques applicable to pediatric patients. PMID:21055674

Hogan, Mark J; Hoffer, Fredric A



Collective instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

K.Y. Ng



Telepathology and Optical Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

Ferrer-Roca, Olga



Liver biopsy in sheep.  


Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using an apparatus with a fibre optic continuous light source and a telescope. The sheep were placed in a sternal position on a special table constructed of metal pipes (3.8 cm diameter) and 4.5 cm spacing. Approximately 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be analyzed for copper or vitamin E. PMID:8343810

Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M



Human tails and pseudotails.  


A case of a tail in a 2-week-old infant is reported, and findings from a review of 33 previously reported cases of true tails and pseudotails are summarized. The true, or persistent, vestigial tail of humans arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail. It contains adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of striated muscle, blood vessels, and nerves and is covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord are lacking. The true tail arises by retention of structures found normally in fetal development. It may be as long as 13 cm, can move and contract, and occurs twice as often in males as in females. A true tail is easily removed surgically, without residual effects. It is rarely familial. Pseudotails are varied lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to persistent vestigial tails. The most frequent cause of a pseudotail in a series of ten cases obtained from the literature was an anomalous prolongation of the coccygeal vertebrae. Additional lesions included two lipomas, and one each of teratoma, chondromegaly , glioma, and a thin, elongated parasitic fetus. PMID:6373560

Dao, A H; Netsky, M G



Monitoring pool-tail fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the reach. Pebble counts between the two waterlines indicated 2-3 times more fines than grid counts, likely because grid counts did not extend exactly up to the waterline. However, when confined to the central 50% of the wetted width, grid counts indicated 1.2 and 1.6 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than pebble counts, likely because the plexiglass viewer used with grid counts improved the visibility of the bed. Volumetric armor layer samples (particles > 90 mm removed) indicated 1.4 and 1.2 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than grid counts at the same locales, while subarmor samples had 8-9 times more fines. In conclusion, methodological differences and the specific sampling locales selected by a method affect comparability of sampling results. Grid count accuracy and precision may be improved by extending both the width coverage and the sample size within a pool tail.

Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.



The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim


Computer Simulation of Prostate Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Prostate specific antigen or an abnormal digital rectal exam can indicate a statistical risk of prostate cancer in a defined population. However, the definitive diagnosis can only be made by prostate biopsy, typically guided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). The optimization of these prostate biopsies is therefore, of great importance. Systematic TRUS guided sextant biopsies have been demonstrated to be

Tillmann Loch; Michael E Chen



High-intensity focused ultrasound for liver biopsy hemostasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of HIFU application to control postliver biopsy hemorrhage. Yorkshire pigs were anesthetized and their livers were surgically exposed. Core biopsies (n=74) were performed on the exposed hepatic parenchyma with 14-gauge (n=41) and 18-gauge (n=33) core biopsy needles that were inserted 1.5-2 cm deep into the liver. Hemorrhage was determined from the weight of the blood collected from each biopsy puncture site using surgical sponges immediately after biopsy needle retraction. To stop hemorrhage, immediate HIFU was applied to the needle entry site (n=44) after needle retraction. HIFU was generated using a piezoelectric (PZT) transducer (diameter=42 mm, F number=1.2) at 4.23 MHz. Whole-blood clotting times were measured at various times throughout the experiments. Mean blood loss from control biopsy sites using a 14-gauge needle (n=18) was 1.78 g, while mean blood loss using an 18-gauge needle (n=10) was 1.22 g (two 14-gauge-needle control biopsies were excluded). Virtually no blood loss was measured from the biopsy needle entry site after HIFU application for both 14- and 18-gauge-needle biopsies. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated a marked difference between control sites and HIFU-treated sites where successful hemostasis was achieved.

Deng, Cheri; Wang, Hesheng; Zhou, Yun; Dogra, Vikram; Exner, Agata; Bhatt, Shweta; Haaga, John; Stowe, Nicholas



Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



Stereotactic and ultrasound-guided breast biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous imaging-guided needle biopsy has increasingly become an alternative to surgical biopsy for the histologic assessment of breast lesions. Percutaneous biopsy is faster, less invasive, and less expensive than surgical biopsy. Tissue acquisition is performed with automated core needles or directional vacuum-assisted biopsy probes. Guidance for percutaneous biopsy is usually provided by stereotaxis, ultrasound, and, more recently, under the guidance

T. H. Helbich; W. Matzek; M. H. Fuchsjäger



Comparison of detection of Bovine virus diarrhea virus antigen in various types of tissue and fluid samples collected from persistently infected cattle.  


Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most infections in susceptible animals are acquired from animals persistently infected with the virus. Surveillance programs rely on skin biopsies of persistently infected (PI) cattle to detect the infection. The purpose of this study was to compare antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) testing results using different types of samples from PI animals. The intent was to determine comparative detection rates in types of samples that are frequently submitted to diagnostic laboratories for evaluation of cases of unknown etiology or samples that could be easily collected for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) screening. Eight types of samples were collected from 40 PI animals. The sample types were ear notches, serum, nasal swabs, conjunctival swabs, oral swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal/preputial swabs, and a tail skin fold biopsy. Each type of sample (n ?=? 8) for each animal (n ?=? 40) was evaluated with a commercial ACE kit. When using ACE, tail-skin fold and nasal swab samples were 100% sensitive compared with results using ear notches. Sensitivity using other samples was as follows: serum and vaginal/preputial swabs, 92%; conjunctival swabs, 64%; rectal swabs, 10%; oral swabs, 8%. Testing of tail skin fold biopsies, nasal swabs, and ear notch samples resulted in reliable results. In contrast, other sample types were unreliable for diagnosis of persistent infection in calves. PMID:21217032

VanderLey, Brian; Ridpath, Julia; Sweiger, Shaun



Happy Tailings to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.


Human tail: nature's aberration.  


Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay




Microsoft Academic Search

th Febr 2007 ; accepted 13 th May 2007) Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and




Heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments impacted by a mine-tailings spill, Marinduque Island, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mine-tailings spill occurred on the island of Marinduque, Philippines, on 24 March 1996. Originating from the Marcopper Mine, tailings sludge flowed down the Boac River abruptly and during subsequent storm events. Most of the tailings material has since accumulated in the nearshore environment along the western coast of the island. Nineteen sediment cores were collected from this site and

C. P. David



"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor



Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)



Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)



Internal Lifschitz tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an Anderson model in v dimensions with a potential distribution supported in ( a, b)?( c, d), where c- b>4v. We prove the existence of Lifschitz tails at the edges of the internal gap at b+2v and c- 2v. This reproves results of Mezincescu.

Simon, Barry




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Heavy tails and currency crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

In affine models of foreign exchange rate returns, the nature of cross sectional interdependence in crisis periods hinges on the tail properties of the fundamentals' distribution. If the fundamentals exhibit thin tails like the normal distribution, the dependence vanishes asymptotically; while the dependence remains in the case of heavy tailed fundamentals as in case of the Student-t distribution. The linearity

P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C. G. de Vries



Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.



Shave and punch biopsy for skin lesions.  


Shave and punch biopsies are essential procedures for physicians who manage skin conditions. These office-based procedures can diagnose questionable dermatologic lesions, including possible malignancies. Approaches include the superficial shave biopsy, saucerization excision, punch biopsy, and elliptical excision. A superficial shave biopsy can be used for raised lesions. A saucerization biopsy may be performed for flat or pigmented lesions. Punch biopsies yield full-thickness samples and can be used for lesions that require dermal or subcutaneous tissue for diagnosis. Indications for biopsy of suspected melanoma remain controversial. Sufficient tissue may be obtained with the quicker, less costly saucerization biopsy or the more time-consuming, invasive elliptical excisional biopsy. PMID:22046939

Pickett, Heather



Gram stain of tissue biopsy  


Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue ... a microscope slide. The specimen is stained with crystal violet stain and goes through more processing before ...


Gastric tissue biopsy and culture  


... information on how the test sample is taken, see: upper endoscopy (or EGD) . ... There are no risks associated with a culture. For information on risks related to the biopsy procedure, see upper endoscopy .


Morbidity after percutaneous liver biopsy.  

PubMed Central

The safety of percutaneous liver biopsy with a 1.2 mm Menghini needle in infants aged one year or less was investigated. One hundred and eighty four procedures performed from 1975 to 1985 were reviewed. There were no deaths or major complications within 48 hours associated with the procedure. In five instances specific complications occurred: a drop in haemoglobin concentration (three), transient hypotension (one), and haematoma at the biopsy site (one). The result of liver biopsy was diagnostic in 83% of cases, compatible with unspecified metabolic disease in 8%, and normal or not diagnostic in 9%. This study suggests that percutaneous liver biopsy can be performed with relative safety in small infants if coagulation is normal and there are no major contraindications, and the results yield important diagnostic information which cannot be obtained using less invasive procedures.

Lichtman, S; Guzman, C; Moore, D; Weber, J L; Roberts, E A



[Optimized standards for prostate biopsy].  


As individual risk assessment mainly depends on the correct prediction of the tumor's biological behavior, primary diagnosis plays a key role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. Prostate core needle biopsy, as a primary diagnostic tool, should not only confirm clinical suspicion but also supply the urologist with information which is necessary for risk-adapted therapy. The experience and competence of both the urologist and the pathologist are crucial for the quality of prostate core needle biopsy diagnosis. Optimized handling and submission of prostate core needle biopsy specimens by the urologist to the pathologist are of outstanding importance for improving the number of cancer cases detected. Increasing availability of molecular markers leads to the necessity of developing new tissue sampling procedures which allow prostate core needle biopsy specimens to be simultaneously studied histologically and by molecular approaches. PMID:17479239

Wullich, B; Füssel, S; Grobholz, R



Percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions; fine needle aspiration biopsy versus core biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the results and complication rate in CT guided percutaneous trans-thoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and core biopsies of lung lesions, and to determine the applicability of these needles. Patients and methods In 242 patients (166 males; 76 females) with mean age of 58.9 years (13–84 years) CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were performed on dual slice CT equipment. The average diameter of lung lesion was 2.9 cm (1.2–6.3 cm). For FNAB’s 20 – 22 G Chiba needles and for core biopsies 14 G biopsy needles were used. The samples were sent for the histological analysis. The cytological or histological results and the eventual complications were compared. Results FNAB’s cytological samples were adequate for definitive diagnosis in 117 patients (79.60 %) and inadequate in 30 patients (20.40 %). Core biopsies samples were adequate in 92 (96.85 %) patients and non- representative (necrotic tissue) in 3 (3.15 %). Pneumothorax as the most frequent complication was detected in 14 (9.7 %) of the patients in the group of FNAB’s and in 30 (31.5 %) of the patients with the core biopsy group. Conclusions The results showed that percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of lung lesions. Core biopsy gives a higher percentage of representative samples than FNAB, and is a preferred method regardless of the higher rate of complications.

Beslic, Serif; Zukic, Fuad; Milisic, Selma



Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are critical for surgical expertise with SN biopsy.

Bagaria, Sanjay P.; Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.



An approach to duodenal biopsies  

PubMed Central

The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis.

Serra, S; Jani, P A



Risk factors for canine tail chasing behaviour in Japan.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for tail chasing behaviour that occurs when a dog spins in tight circles to chase its tail, sometimes biting it. The behaviour is a sign of canine compulsive disorder (CD). A questionnaire about tail chasing behaviour and general information about the animals was used to collect data on seven breeds of pet dogs. The data were gathered at a dog event and at veterinary practices. To determine which variables were associated with tail chasing behaviour, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. Regardless of cohort, 'breed' and 'source of acquisition' were significantly associated with tail chasing behaviour. Using a chi-square test, the association between 'source of acquisition' and the behaviour was examined separately in two breeds (Shiba inu and Dachshund) that had the largest number of individuals chasing their tails accompanied by biting and/or growling at them. This factor showed a significant and consistent association across the two breeds. With respect to the risk factors of 'breed' and 'source of acquisition', high percentages of Shiba inu and dogs originating from pet stores were included in the group chasing their tails with biting and/or growling. The results suggest that distinct risk factors exist for tail chasing behaviour and such factors appear to be regulated by both genetics and the environment. PMID:21993593

Goto, Akiko; Arata, Sayaka; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji



Geochemistry of arsenic in uranium mine mill tailings, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rabbit Lake U mine in-pit tailings management facility (TMF) (425 m long×300 m wide×91 m deep) is located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to quantify the distribution of As phases in the tailings and evaluate the present-day geochemical controls on dissolved As. These objectives were met by analyzing pore fluid samples collected from the

R Donahue; M. J Hendry



The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))



Trophectoderm biopsy in human blastocysts.  


Trophectoderm biopsy was carried out on 47 human blastocysts. A slit was made in the zona pellucida opposite the inner cell mass by micromanipulative techniques. The human blastocyst zona offered more resistance to slitting compared to that of the mouse. After 18-24 h, controlled herniation of the trophectoderm cells was observed. These cells were biopsied when the diameter of the herniation was approximately equal to that of the blastocyst. The size of the slit and the stage of embryonic development at which slitting was performed were important for successful herniation to occur. After slitting, 76% of day 5-6 blastocysts showed herniation whilst only 42% of day 7-8 blastocysts herniated. Further development of the manipulated embryos was not apparently impaired, as hatching occurred in 44% of the former and 20% of the latter, compared with 18.1% in non-manipulated controls. The biopsied cells (approximately 10-30) usually remained in a clump but 14% formed vesicles on the day after biopsy. There was, however, no evidence of adherence to the dish or formation of monolayers. These results demonstrate the feasibility of trophectoderm biopsy in human blastocysts and that sufficient extra-embryonic material can be obtained by this technique for preimplantation diagnosis of genetic disorders. PMID:2266155

Dokras, A; Sargent, I L; Ross, C; Gardner, R L; Barlow, D H



Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.



Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.



Bacteriological colonisation of uterine cavity: role of tailed intrauterine contraceptive device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) are thought to cause pelvic inflammatory disease by allowing vaginal bacteria to pass into the uterus along the tail of the device. In this study the uterine cavities of 22 women using an IUCD were examined by a multiple biopsy technique. All five uteruses with a tailless IUCD were sterile but 15 out of 17 with

R A Sparks; B G Purrier; P J Watt; M Elstein



Heavy-Tailed and Long-Tailed Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we are interested in (right-) tail properties of distributions, i.e. in properties of a distribution which, for any x, depend only on the restriction of the distribution to (x,??). More generally it is helpful to consider tail properties of functions.

Sergey Foss; Dmitry Korshunov; Stan Zachary



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Source modification special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

One of the major issues that must be addressed during the evaluation of the efficiency of tailings embankment designs for compliance with groundwater standards is the estimation of source concentrations and the change in these concentrations with time. Because any effort to predict concentrations of contaminants in the uppermost aquifer requires a source concentration, data from these analyses are essential. Thetechnical approach of this study was twofold. The first approach was to investigate the rates of natural flushing of contaminants. Two sets of tailings samples were collected at two sites on the Old Rifle tailings pile at the Rifle UMTRA Project site in Colorado. One set of samples was collected at a site where the lower portion of the profile is continuously inundated with water and the other set was collected in anarea that only receives water from precipitation. The tailings samples were refluxed in strong acid (nitric acid) and the leachate was analyzed for hazardous constituents. The results of this investigation indicate that many of the hazardous constituents have been leached from the tailings at the wet site and that there has been little redistribution of elemental hazardous constituents at the dry site. The second approach involved a laboratory investigation of contaminant removal from tailings by doubly distilled water and two lixiviants. Tailings samples from the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project site were subjected to leaching by doubly distilled water, and by the lixiviants sodium bicarbonate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The resulting data were tabulated and plotted with concentration as a function of pore volume. Evaluation of the data indicates that pore fluids should show a decrease in concentration after very few pore volumes of liquid have eluted through the tailings. It is also demonstrated that lixiviants significantly increase the solubility and rate of elution of all of the hazardous constituents.

Not Available



Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon



Human tail with spina bifida.  


A true human tail is a rare occurrence and is defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion with skin covering connective tissue, muscle, vessels and nerves. We report a case of true human tail in a child, which is a very rare happening in humans. PMID:19922280

Chauhan, S P S; Gopal, N N; Jain, Mohit; Gupta, Anurag



Trends in Tailing Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent releases of tailing effluents and solids from containment facilities around the world, including Mary Spruitt (1994), Omai (1995) and Marcopper (1996), have heightened awareness that risks associated with tailing containment must be fully addressed during all phases of a facility life. Recent studies by independent international organizations (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1996; United Stated Committee on Large Dams

Iain G. Bruce; Clint Logue; Lori-Ann Wilchek


Experience with transjugular liver biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of 193 transjugular liver biopsies performed with a modified needle are described. An adequate specimen was obtained in 97%, and complications were rare, although puncture of the liver capsule does occur and caused bleeding in two patients. Fever after the procedure was reduced by ultrasonic cleaning of the needle. Although not easy, this technique is safe and preferable

H J Bull; I T Gilmore; R D Bradley; J H Marigold; R P Thompson



Current Status of Stereotactic Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and efficacy of CT guided stereotactic biopsy (STB) has been established in several reports published since the early 1980s. Presently, STB is used for the diagnosis of intrinsic brain masses which are judged to be unsuitable for radical excision because of their location, histology or number. It can be combined with adjuvant therapy as the initial treatment of

V. Rajshekhar



Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  


A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)



[A case of human tail].  


A human tail is a rare anatomical curiosity. A case of a human tail associated with lipomyelomeningocele is reported. The made subject was born, by breech delivery, at the 39th-week with a 3,008 g body weight. He was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of a human tail and subcutaneous mass in the midline lumbosacral region. The tail was about 7.5 cm in length and 2 cm in diameter. It was elastic and covered by normal skin. No systemic anomaly was found. Spina bifida below L5 was revealed, and no bony shadow was found on the plain X-ray film. CT scan showed a low density area in the spinal canal between L3 and lower sacral region that extended into the tail through the spina bifida. MRI also revealed intraspinal long T2 mass which was attached to the spinal cord and extended into the tail. Myelogram indicated intradural extramedullary mass below the L3 level. Surgical treatment was performed on the 3rd month of life with a diagnosis of a human tail with lipomyelomeningocele. At surgery, the tail was found to consist mainly of lipomatous tissue which extended subcutaneously and entered the spinal canal through the spina bifida. The tail and subcutaneous lipomatous tissue were totally excised. The capsule of subcutaneous lipomatous tissue was followed circumferentially down into the spinal canal, and found to be transformed to arachnoid membrane. Intradural lipomatous tissue was excised piece by piece, leaving only a small remnant attached to the conus medullaris to preserve sacral nerve root function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2000165

Yamatani, K; Saitoh, T; Oi, M; Oka, N; Endoh, T; Takaku, A





... and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles ... attached to the scanner by a cord. The transducer sends out inaudible high frequency sound waves into ...


Diffusion, Peer Pressure, and Tailed Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general, physically motivated nonlinear and nonlocal advection equation in which the diffusion of interacting random walkers competes with a local drift arising from a kind of peer pressure. We show, using a mapping to an integrable dynamical system, that on varying a parameter the steady-state behavior undergoes a transition from the standard diffusive behavior to a localized stationary state characterized by a tailed distribution. Finally, we show that recent empirical laws on economic growth can be explained as a collective phenomenon due to peer pressure interaction.

Cecconi, Fabio; Marsili, Matteo; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos



[Percutaneous liver biopsy. Overview of different techniques].  


To classify a liver tumor, image-guided percutaneous biopsy of a liver lesion is indicated. Using ultrasound (US) to guide a biopsy needle into a liver lesion has been proven useful and safe. If a lesion cannot be seen on US or the access to a lesion has been complicated by its position, CT-guided biopsy can be performed. If a lesion cannot be delineated on US or CT, MR-guided biopsy is recommended. Using hepatospecific contrast agents, the time span to delineate tumor tissue can be prolonged. To differentiate diffuse liver disease, transvenous biopsy under fluoroscopic control can be performed if a percutaneous biopsy is contraindicated. In recent years fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been increasingly replaced by coaxial 14-20 G core biopsy, which is a safe and efficient technique to classify liver lesions and has a low complication rate. PMID:15619068

Kettenbach, J; Blum, M; El-RaBadi, K; Langenberger, H; Happel, B; Berger, J; Ba-Ssalamah, A



Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

SciTech Connect

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with respect to matric suction is established by testing reconstituted tailings samples in a modified triaxial cell, in which matric suction can be controlled. The contribution of matric suction to the shear strength is interpreted as an additional apparent cohesion for use in bearing-capacity calculations. Because of the nonlinearity of the shear-strength profile, a numerical method of analysis is adopted to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the desiccated tailings. A subsequent decrease in bearing capacity following 2D water infiltration into a partially capped tailings deposit and accompanying suction loss is investigated.

Rassam, D.W.; Williams, D.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering



heterogeneous long-tailed sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a generalization of the so-called model where types of long-tailed sessions enter a buffer . The instantaneous rates of the sessions are functions of the occupancy of an system with long-tailed distributions. In particular we assume that a session of type transmits cells per unit time and lasts for a ran- dom time with long

Nikolay Likhanov; Ravi R. Mazumdar


Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.  


A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G



Hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the problem of the frequency and hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers was performed in two ways. The first study was into the frequency of lung biopsy among 2907 long term asbestos insulation workers in 1981-3 and the second was into the frequency of fatal complications of lung biopsy in 168 deaths from asbestosis among 2271

Y Lerman; J Ribak; I J Selikoff



Microbiology and Geochemistry of Mine Tailings Amended with Organic Carbon for Passive Treatment of Pore Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate organic carbon amendment of mine tailings as a technique for pore water and drainage treatment. Six test cells were constructed by amending sulfide- and carbonate- rich tailings with varied mixtures of peat, spent-brewing grain and municipal biosolids. Samples were collected for microbial, geochemical and mineralogical analysis approximately three years after commencing this experiment.

Matthew B. J. Lindsay; Kathryn D. Wakeman; Owen F. Rowe; Barry M. Grail; Carol J. Ptacek; David W. Blowes; D. Barrie Johnson



Bacterial and chemical oxidation of pyritic mine tailings at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial and chemical sulfide oxidation activity and oxygen consumption was investigated in the active layer of pyritic mine tailings at Nanisivik Mine, located in a permafrost area on Baffin Island in northern Canada. Samples of tailings were collected up to a depth of 60 cm in mid-August 1998 at 4 sites, for which the metabolic activity of sulfur- and iron-oxidizing

B. Elberling; Axel Schippers; Wolfgang Sand



Longitudinal head-tail instability in a non-harmonic potential well  

SciTech Connect

A perturbation technique is developed that can be applied to study the collective instability problem when the unperturbed system is not described by a simple harmonic oscillator. The Longitudinal Head-Tail instability effect is well studied as applications of this technique. Applications of the longitudinal head-tail instability effects to the CERN SPS and the SSC are included.

Chen, B.; Chao, A.



The Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tail Gas Detection System Based on Virtual Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the multifunctional portable vehicle tail gas detection system adopts virtual instrument technology based on computer. It utilizes portable computer and USB data collecting card to control the detection. So it can detect and record the vehicle tail gas in wide range accurately, and can count and analyze the component and content of the harmful gas. This system

Wenlian Li; Yang Li; Fang Xiao



On the magnetic field fluctuations during magnetospheric tail current disruption: A statistical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the nature of the magnetic field relaxation process associated with tail current disruption on the basis of magnetic field measurements collected in the near-Earth tail regions. In detail, using magnetic field data for three current disruption (CD) events as observed by AMPTEE\\/CCE spacecraft, we investigate the scaling features of the probability distribution

Giuseppe Consolini; Matthieu Kretzschmar; Anthony T. Y. Lui; Gaetano Zimbardo; Wieslaw M. Macek



Method for treating oil sands extraction plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailings from an oil sands hot water process extraction plant are mixed with hydrolyzed starch flocculant and transferred to a settling pond. After a residence period on the order of one year, sludge from the lower region of the settling pond is withdrawn, mixed with a hydrolyzed starch dewatering agent and transferred to a collecting pond. After a residence period




[Infection and sepsis prevention in prostate biopsy].  


Prostate biopsy is currently the gold standard in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate. An estimated one million prostate biopsies are performed every year in Europe. Worldwide the most frequent form is the transrectal prostate biopsy using preoperative fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. In recent years an increasing rate of infectious complications after prostate biopsy has been observed. The main causative factor is fecal fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria. This review aims to present the current evidence regarding infectious complications after prostate biopsy and strategies to reduce symptomatic infections and urosepsis. PMID:24026889

Wagenlehner, F M E; Pilatz, A; Waliszewski, P; Dansranjavin, T; Weidner, W




Microsoft Academic Search

Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus)

Jack A. Mortenson; Arthur Abrams; Benjamin M. Rosenthal; Detiger Dunams; Eric P. Hoberg; Robert J. Bildfell; Richard L. Green


Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 ?mol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine



Experience of Ultrasonography-Guided Percutaneous Core Biopsy for Renal Masses  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the safety and accuracy of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous core biopsy collection in patients with renal masses. Materials and Methods From June 2008 to August 2012, 30 percutaneous core biopsies of renal masses were performed. The biopsies obtained were small tumors (<4 cm) with ambiguous radiologic findings or that met classic renal biopsy indications. The biopsy results were compared with the final pathological results after definitive surgical treatment. Ultrasonography was performed on the day after biopsy collection to rule out any complications. Results The mean age of the patients was 57.7 years, and the mean tumor size was 3.39 cm. Twelve of the lesions were in the left kidney, and 18 were in the right kidney. All but one core biopsy contained sufficient material for histopathological analysis. The biopsy results showed 17 renal cell carcinomas (56.7%), 3 angiomyolipomas (10.0%), 2 oncocytomas (6.7%), 1 adenocarcinoma (3.3%), and 7 benign lesions (23.3%). A total of 18 cases underwent surgery, and the pathological results confirmed the initial biopsy diagnosis for 17 of 18 cases (94.4%). The one (5.9%) inaccurate biopsy result was found to be a urothelial carcinoma of the kidney. No needle tract seeding was found in the pathological specimens or on follow-up imaging. A small perinephric hematoma (1-2 cm) was seen in 5 cases (16.7%), but all patients remained hemodynamically stable. Conclusions Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe, effective, and accurate method for evaluating small renal masses. This procedure may help in selecting treatment modalities for small renal masses.

Lee, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Ho; Yang, Hee Jo; Yang, Won Jae; Kim, Doo Sang; Lee, Nam Kyu



Magnetohydrodynamics of Mira's cometary tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The asymptotic giant-branch, long-period variable star Mira exhibits a 4 parsec long cometary tail in the far-ultraviolet. We address the issue of the origin of this structure and its emission process by simulating the transition of this star from the interstellar medium to the Local Bubble, which is a tenuous, high-pressure medium. Methods: We use the hydrodynamic and the magnetohydrodynamic modules of the PLUTO astrophysical code to carry out our simulations. We study the system without a cooling function, with a simplified exponential cooling function, and with a simplified nonequilibrium cooling function. Results: We find evidence that magnetohydrodynamics constrain the shape of the cometary tail and explain features of its far-ultraviolet emission. We suggest an emission process that involves C0 excitation through inelastic electron collisions and a two-photon continuum to explain the luminosity of Mira's tail.

Gómez, E. A.



Sentinel node biopsy for malignant melanoma: a staging procedure only?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an established staging tool for malignant melanoma. It allows identification of patients with\\u000a metastatic disease at a very early stage and to collect accurate and complete prognostic information for these patients. Having\\u000a noted that in a relevant percentage of patients the sentinel node is the only site of metastases, some authors have postulated\\u000a a therapeutic

Adriana Cordova; Salvatore D’Arpa; Francesca Toia; Claudia Liuzza; Gaetana Rinaldi; Francesco Moschella


From light tails to heavy tails through multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let X and Y be two independent nonnegative random variables, of which X has a distribution belonging to the class or for some ????0 and Y is unbounded. We study how their product XY inherits the tail behavior of X. Under some mild technical assumptions we prove that the distribution of XY belongs to the class or accordingly. Hence, the

Qihe Tang



Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features.

Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.



Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation.  


Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with elastic registration to maximize accuracy. The system is robust with only 17 registration failures out of 786 (2%) biopsy volumes acquired from 47 patients during biopsy sessions. Accuracy was evaluated to 0.76±0.52 mm using manually segmented fiducials on 687 registered volumes stemming from 40 patients. A clinical protocol for assisted biopsy acquisition was designed and implemented as a biopsy assistance system, which allows to overcome the draw-backs of the standard biopsy procedure. PMID:21705263

Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne



Design of Dams for Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes tailings disposal problems at mines throughout the United States in order to identify design principles that can be applied to all types of dams for mill tailings. The circular reviews computer programs for stability analysis and phre...

C. D. Kealy R. L. Soderberg



[Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].  


Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415 children by a retrospective study of 419 biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87 children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15 structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57 dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19 mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16 cases. In 184 patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise orientation in 45% of patients, leading to a genetic hypothesis. PMID:23993361

Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thévenon, A; Rouaix, N; Vallée, L



Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.  


No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel




Microsoft Academic Search

We study Rademacher chaos indexed by a sparse set which has a fractional combinatorial dimension. We obtain tail estimates for finite sums and a normal limit theorem as the size tends to infinity. The tails for finite sums may be much larger that the tails of the limit.




Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden


Laparoscopic splenic biopsy in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2006-2008).  


This retrospective study describes a technique and evaluates outcome associated with laparoscopic splenic biopsy in dogs and cats. Medical records of dogs (n = 10) and cats (n = 5) that had a laparoscopic splenic biopsy performed as part of their diagnostic evaluation for systemic disease were evaluated. Splenic biopsies were performed with the patient in dorsal recumbency using a two-portal approach. In some cases, concurrent organ biopsy was also performed. A pair of 5 mm cup biopsy forceps was used for biopsy collection, and an absorbable gelatin hemostatic sponge was placed at the biopsy site to aid in hemostasis. All patients recovered without major complications. Conversion to an open surgical approach was not required. Median survival time was 180 days, and nine patients were alive at the time of manuscript preparation. Four patients were diagnosed with neoplasia; however, only one had neoplasia involving the spleen. Median survival time for the nonneoplasia group (n = 11) was 300 days. Eight of those patients were alive at time of manuscript preparation. Minimal morbidity was observed in this cohort of clinical patients. Histopathology may be preferred over cytology in some clinical situations, and laparoscopic splenic biopsy provides a minimally invasive diagnostic option. PMID:23148132

Radhakrishnan, Anant; Mayhew, Philipp D



Biopsy-negative giant cell arteritis: Clinical spectrum and predictive factors for positive temporal artery biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the frequency and features of patients with biopsy-negative giant cell arteritis (GCA), establish differences with biopsy-proven GCA, and identify the optimal set of predictors for a positive temporal artery biopsy (TAB) in patients with GCA. Methods: Retrospective study of an unselected population of patients with GCA diagnosed at the reference hospital for a defined population between 1981

Miguel A. Gonzalez-Gay; Carlos Garcia-Porrua; Javier Llorca; Carmen Gonzalez-Louzao; Pilar Rodriguez-Ledo



Peroral small-intestinal biopsy: experience with the hydraulic multiple biopsy instrument in routine clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience of the peroral, hydraulic, multiple, small-bowel biopsy instrument is recorded and compared with reported experience of other peroral biopsy instruments. It is concluded that, in routine clinical practice, there is no particular danger associated with this instrument despite warnings to the contrary. Furthermore, biopsies are obtained at least as quickly as with other instruments and with great reliability. Since

B B Scott; M S Losowsky



Labial salivary gland biopsy in Sjögren's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A labial biopsy technique is described and was used to study 40 patients with connective tissue disease and 60 postmortem subjects. More than one focus of lymphocytes per 4 sq mm of minor salivary tissue was found to be a consistent finding in patients with Sjögren's disease. The labial biopsy is shown to be a further valuable investigative procedure in

D. M. Chisholm; D. K. Mason



Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy.  


A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrument is developed to study endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue as an optical biopsy tool. This instrument is able to spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolve fluorescence signal, thus providing multidimensional information to assist clinical tissue diagnosis. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is used to realize rapid wavelength switch, and a photomultiplier tube and a high-speed digitizer are used to collect the time-resolved fluorescence decay at each wavelength in real time. The performance of this instrument has been characterized and validated on fluorescence tissue phantoms and fresh porcine skin specimens. This dual-arm AOTF design achieves high spectral throughput while allowing microsecond nonsequential, random wavelength switching, which is highly desirable for time-critical applications. In the results reported here, a motorized scanning stage is used to realize spatial scanning for two-dimensional images, while a rapid beam steering technique is feasible and being developed in an ongoing project. PMID:24002188

Nie, Zhaojun; An, Ran; Hayward, Joseph E; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin



Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  


The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K



Prevalence of shigellosis and other enteric pathogens in a zoologic collection of primates.  


An epidemiologic study of shigellosis was the preliminary step in the formulation of a plan for the control of devastating infectious diseases in nonhuman primates at the National Zoological Park. Data were collected from primate groups with enzootic shigellosis and included the following species: white-cheeked and siamong gibbons (Hylobates concolor and H syndactylies); lion-tailed, celebes, and Barbary macaques (Macaca silenus, M nigera, and M sylvanus); black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guerzea); grey-cheeked mangabeys (Cerecocebus albigena); spider monkeys (Ateles susciceps robusuts); ruffed lemurs (Lemur varrigatus); lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla); and orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). Data included results of physical examination, proctoscopy with biopsy, fecal parasitologic and cytologic examinations, and bacteriologic culturing of swabbed specimens of rectum and gingiva. Repetitive fecal examinations were subsequently performed and included bacteriologic culturing of fecal specimens for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites and cytologic examination of feces. Data were collected for a 1-year period from 82 primates, and 14 gibbons were studied intensively. White-cheeked and siamang gibbons shed Shigella flexneri sporadically, but persistently. All gibbons were affected with a mean point prevalence of 30.7% (range 0 to 71%). Shigella flexneri also was isolated from feces of lion-tailed macaques. Shigella sonnei was isolated from feces of grey-cheeked mangabeys, celebes macaques, and spider monkeys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8407446

Banish, L D; Sims, R; Sack, D; Montali, R J; Phillips, L; Bush, M



Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.



Glomerular Transforming Growth Factor-?1 mRNA as a Marker of Glomerulosclerosis – Application in Renal Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As transforming growth factor- ?1 (TGF- ?1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis, the aim of the study was to demonstrate if levels of glomerular TGF- ?1 mRNA in renal biopsies correlated with glomerulosclerosis. Glomeruli were collected by microdissection from renal biopsies in patients with membranous nephropathy, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, minimal change disease and IgA nephropathy presented by

Chih-Wei Yang; Swei Hsueh; Ping-Chin Lai; Jeng-Yi Huang; Ching-Herng Wu; Sau-An Hu; Jung-Fu Chen; Chiu-Ching Huang



Carbohydrate antigens in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goal of this prospective study was to determine (a) concentrations of the carbohydrate biomarkers Thomsen Friedenreich (TF) antigen and its precursor, Tn antigen, in nipple discharge (ND) collected from women requiring biopsy because of a suspicious breast lesion; and (b) if concentration levels predicted pathologic diagnosis. METHODS: Adult women requiring biopsy to exclude breast cancer were enrolled and

Susan L Deutscher; Marie Dickerson; Gerald Gui; Jessica Newton; Jeffrey E Holm; Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm; Beth Kliethermes; John E Hewett; Senthil R Kumar; Thomas P Quinn; Edward R Sauter



Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy of Pancreatic Masses: Results of a Multicenter Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the results of ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of pancreatic masses in a large multicenter series.Methods:This study collected the data of 510 patients who had a final diagnosis available and who had undergone ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of the pancreas. Retrieval rate, sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of the whole series, by

Michele Di Stasi; Riccardo Lencioni; Luigi Solmi; Fabrizio Magnolfi; Eugenio Caturelli; Ilario De Sio; Andrea Salmi; Luigi Buscarini



Profile of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies: A Histopathological Study  

PubMed Central

Aim and Introduction: Urinary bladder lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, are collectively responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. Material and Methods: The present prospective study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the urinary bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. All patients who visited Urology Outpatients Department for haematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopy. Results: Histopathological examinations revealed an equal share of non neoplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions. Amongst the non neoplastic lesions, 84% were inflammatory lesions. Urothelial tumours (96%) formed the bulk amongst neoplastic lesions. Conclusion: This article has stressed upon the importance of histopathological examinations in evaluating bladder pathologies.

Srikousthubha; Sukesh; C.V, Raghuveer; Hingle, Sanjay



Testing the functional significance of tail streamers  

PubMed Central

Studies of the evolution of elaborate ornaments have concentrated on their role in increasing attractiveness to mates. The classic examples of such sexually selected structures are the elongated tails of some bird species. Elongated tails can be divided into three categories: graduated tails, pin tails and streamers. There seems to be little debate about whether graduated and pin tails are ornaments; i.e. costly signals used in mate choice. However, in the case of streamers there is considerable discussion about their function. It has been suggested that tail streamers could be (i) entirely naturally selected, (ii) entirely sexually selected, (iii) partly naturally and partly sexually selected. The prime example of a species with tail streamers is the swallow (Hirundo rustica) in which both sexes have tail streamers. In this paper we discuss the aerodynamic consequences of different types of manipulation of the streamer and/or outer tail feather. We make qualitative predictions about the aerodynamic performance of swallows with manipulated tail streamers; these predictions differ depending on whether streamers have a naturally or sexually selected function. We demonstrate that these hypotheses can only be separated if tail streamers are shortened and changes in aerodynamic performance measured during turning flight.

Evans, M. R.; Thomas, A. L. R.



Liver biopsy in evaluation of complications following liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To analyze the role of liver biopsies in differential diagnosis after liver transplantation. METHODS: A total of 50 biopsies from 27 patients with liver dysfunction out of 52 liver transplantation cases were included. Biopsies were obtained 0-330 d after operation, in which, 44 were fine needle biopsies, another 6 were wedge biopsies during surgery. All tissues were stained with

Ying-Yan Yu; Jun Ji; Guang-Wen Zhou; Bai-Yong Shen; Hao Chen; Ji-Qi Yan; Cheng-Hong Peng; Hong-Wei Li


Reye's syndrome; diagnosis by muscle biopsy?  

PubMed Central

Three children with Reye's syndrome are described. One child died, the second had mild and transient illness, and the third had recurrent episodes. In all 3 children a muscle biopsy showed pronounced infiltration of the myofibres with fat microdroplets as shown by the oil red O stain and by electron microscopical examination. We suggest that needle biopsy of muscle may be a quick and safe aid to the diagnosis of Reye's syndrome, and may be preferable to liver biopsy in view of the pronounced tendency to bleed in Reye's syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Shapira, Y; Deckelbaum, R; Statter, M; Tennenbaum, A; Aker, M; Yarom, R



Heavy metal concentrations in growth bands of corals: a record of mine tailings input through time (Marinduque Island, Philippines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of copper mining along the western coast of Marinduque Island was investigated. Historic input of mine tailings in the coastal region was traced through variations in heavy metal concentrations in Porites growth bands. Five samples were collected from three reefs showing different modes and extent of exposure to mine tailings. Baseline metal concentrations in Porites were established using

C. P. David



Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-enhanced soil flushing for the removal of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings containing high contents of arsenic and heavy metals are potential environmental contamination sources. Column experiments were conducted in this study to evaluate the feasibility of using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant (JBR425) to enhance the removal of arsenic and heavy metals from an oxidized mine tailings sample collected from Bathurst, Canada. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) analyses indicated that arsenate [As(V)] was

Suiling Wang; Catherine N. Mulligan



Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing



Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.



Longitudinal head-tail instability in a non-harmonic potential well  

SciTech Connect

A perturbation technique is developed that can be applied to study the collective instability problem when the unperturbed system is not described by a simple-harmonic oscillator. The longitudinal head-tail instability effect is well studied as applications of this technique. Applications of the longitudinal head-tail instability effects to the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron and the Superconducting Super Collider are included.

Chen, B.; Chao, A.



Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters.Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR)

RoseAnn Miller; John B. Kaneene; Stephen M. Schmitt; David P. Lusch; Scott D. Fitzgerald



Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types\\u000a of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O]and ammonium-aluminum alum [(NH\\u000a 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid\\/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material

A. M. Amer



Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid\\/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the

A. M. Amer



Hepatitis C Transmission after Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Prostate biopsy is a current and well-codified procedure; antibiotic prophylaxis and rectal enema limit the risk of infection. To date, there has been no reported viral transmission between patients due to a contaminated ultrasound probe. In this study, we report the case of a patient who contracted the hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer.

Ferhi, Karim; Roupret, Morgan; Mozer, Pierre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Haertig, Alain; de La Taille, Alexandre



Punch Skin Biopsy in Diabetic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of unmyelinated C and A delta nociceptors through punch skin biopsy has been an important development in diabetic\\u000a peripheral neuropathy over the past decade. The technique provides an objective pathological window into a population of fibers\\u000a that is invisible to standard electrophysiological techniques and as a result has been difficult to investigate. Clinically,\\u000a the punch biopsy technique is most

Michael Polydefkis


Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail†  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae ? has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with ? with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with ? and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures.

Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Br?ndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe



In vivo tissue sampling of embryonic resorption sites using ultrasound guided biopsy.  


In the polytocous European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) more than 23% of all successful implantations undergo embryonic resorption. The objective of the study was to establish a minimally invasive ultrasound guided biopsy technique to collect embryonic resorption tissue in vivo. The sampled material was genetically analysed to determine paternity and the sex of the embryo. Female hares were either mated or artificially inseminated and pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound on day six post ovulation. Subsequent embryonic development was ultrasonographically monitored on a regular basis to detect embryos undergoing resorption. Cell material of the resorption site was collected under ultrasonographic control via transabdominal biopsy of the placenta or aspiration of resorption fluid. To avoid breathing movements during the biopsy, the animals were intubated and a short apnoea was evoked by assisted ventilation. The presence of embryonic cells in the biopsy material was confirmed by microsatellite analysis in 11 of the fluid samples (n = 28) and six of the placental samples (n = 8). The lower success rate in the fluid samples was attributed to the abundance of maternal cells which was confirmed by the analysis of fluid sample smears. Male sex of the embryos undergoing resorption was detected by SRY analysis for ten of the fluid samples and for one of the placental samples. The two biopsy techniques did not have any negative impact on the prenatal development of the healthy siblings nor did it influence the future breeding performance of the females that were biopsied. PMID:21601265

Schroeder, K; Drews, B; Roellig, K; Menzies, B R; Goeritz, F; Hildebrandt, T B



Stereotactic vacuum biopsy of calcifications with a handheld portable biopsy system: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prospectively evaluate a compact portable 10-gauge handheld battery-operated biopsy system for stereotactic biopsy of microcalcifications.\\u000a The ethics committee of the hospital approved this prospective multicentric study, and informed consent was obtained. Biopsy\\u000a under stereotactic guidance was performed in 215 patients for 219 lesions consisting of microcalcifications without mass.\\u000a The feasibility and the tolerance of the procedure were evaluated. The

P. Taourel; D. Hoa; C. Chaveron; C. Balu-Maestro; D. Gros; M. C. Baranzelli; F. Ettore; M. F. Bretz-Grenier; P. Roger



Systematic Four-Quadrant Biopsy Detects Barrett's Dysplasia in More Patients Than Nonsystematic Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS:To compare detection of Barrett's dysplasia and adenocarcinoma by systematic versus nonsystematic surveillance biopsy protocols.METHODS:Upper GI consultation and open-access endoscopy are provided jointly at Glasgow Royal Infirmary by medical and surgical teams. The surgical team adopted annual systematic four-quadrant biopsy Barrett's surveillance in 1995. The medical team continued annual Barrett's surveillance with nonsystematic biopsy until 2004. We compare detection of

Jo-Etienne Abela; James J. Going; John F. Mackenzie; Margaret McKernan; Sylvia O'Mahoney; Robert C. Stuart



On links and tails in Italian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting Vallduví’s partition of the background into link and tail, I provide an account for Italian data. Being links pre-focal expressions, and tails post-focal, right dislocated expressions, I claim that links are shifting topics, while tails are discourse-given material. I show that a link is not iterated in discourse as long as the topic does not shift. If a link

Lisa Brunetti



The evolution of e-tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary perspective is applied to e-tailing in an attempt to capture and assess its past and projected future evolution. In the dynamics of e-tailing's evolutionary change, a four-phase pattern of process is uncovered. It shows the e-tailing ‘revolution’ was part of a longer evolutionary process. The findings and implications are integrated and applied with the evolutionary literature to offer

David E. Williams



Hysteresis-Induced Long-Time Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown analytically that the output of the standard model for complex, nonlocal hysteresis, the Preisach model, exhibits long-time tails under quite general conditions. For uncorrelated input signals the exponent of the algebraic output correlation decay is determined solely by the tails of the input and the Preisach density. Correspondingly we identify universality classes leading to identical algebraic tails. These results predict the occurrence of 1/f noise for a large class of hysteretic systems.

Radons, Günter



Tails of waiting times and their bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tails of distributions having the form of the geometric convolution are considered. In the case of light-tailed summands,\\u000a a simple proof of the famous Cramér asymptotic formula is given via the change of probability measure. Some related results\\u000a are obtained, namely, bounds of the tails of geometric convolutions, expressions for the distribution of the 1st failure time\\u000a and failure rate

Vladimir Kalashnikov; Gurami Tsitsiashvili



Raman spectroscopy: a real-time tool for identifying microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core needle biopsies  

PubMed Central

Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. We present here a Raman spectroscopic tool for detecting microcalcifications in breast tissue based on their chemical composition. We collected ex vivo Raman spectra from 159 tissue sites in fresh stereotactic breast needle biopsies from 33 patients, including 54 normal sites, 75 lesions with microcalcifications and 30 lesions without microcalcifications. Application of our Raman technique resulted in a positive predictive value of 97% for detecting microcalcifications. This study shows that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to detect microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core biopsies and provide real-time feedback to radiologists, thus reducing non-diagnostic and false negative biopsies.

Saha, A.; Barman, I.; Dingari, N. C.; McGee, S.; Volynskaya, Z.; Galindo, L. H.; Liu, W.; Plecha, D.; Klein, N.; Dasari, R. R.; Fitzmaurice, M.



Stage Determination of Breast Cancer Biopsy Using Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze biopsy biochemistry and hence distinguish between the breast cancer stages was investigated. The biopsy samples were obtained from 13 patients who were clinically diagnosed with breast cancer. A preliminary diagnosis of some breast cancer patient was realized by pathologist of the Cancer Institute. The biopsies were put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at a Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the breast cancer stages of biopsies can be discriminated when the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is applied to their Raman spectra. Ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be an excellent technique for stage determination of breast cancer.

González-Solís, J. L.; Aguiñaga-Serrano, B. I.; Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.; Oceguera-Villanueva, A.



226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.  


Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams. PMID:11379070

Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F



Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  


Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J



The human tail and spinal dysraphism.  


Recent publications have endeavoured to differentiate between the true, or vestigial tail, and the pseudotail by clinical and pathological examination, and have indicated the benign nature of the true tail. The true tail arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail, contains adipose, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue, and is covered by skin. Pseudotails represent a variety of lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to vestigial tails. A review of the case reports indicates spina bifida to be the most frequent coexisting anomaly with both. A review of occult spinal dysraphism shows it to be associated with cutaneous signs in more than 50% of instances. Three cases of spinal dysraphism with tail-like cutaneous structures are described and their radiological, operative, and pathological findings presented. The classification of each of the appendages into true tail or pseudotail remains obscure. Although the finding of these three tails was the subject of much curiosity, surgical treatment was clearly designed to adequately deal with the associated dysraphic state. The presence of a tail-like appendage in the lumbosacral region should alert the clinician to the possibility of underlying spinal dysraphism. Preoperative assessment must include a complete neurological history and examination as well as computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1779337

Belzberg, A J; Myles, S T; Trevenen, C L



Ecotechnological approach for consolidation of uranium tailings.  


Present study has been undertaken to consolidate radioactivity in uranium mill tailings at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India.Tailings that remain after processing of ore are released in tailing ponds specially designed for the purpose. The degraded tailing ponds have been capped with 30 cm. thick soil cover. For cosolidation of radioactivity in the tailings firstly the selected plant species should not have any socioeconomic relevance in that area and secondly, uptake of uranium by selected plants has to be low to avoid its dissemination in any form in environment. Seven native plant species of forestry origin were used for experimental trials. Above ground growth has been measured for two years under ex- situ and in- situ conditions. Distribution and concentration of uranium have been evaluated in tailing pond soil as well as tailings. Uranium uptake by plants has been evaluated and discussed in this paper. The highest concentration of uranium has been found in the order as: in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among seven species tried Jatropha gossypifolia and Furcraea foetida have lowest uptake (below detectable limit), while Saccharum spontaneum and Pogostemon benghalense have comparatively higher uptake among the studied species. PMID:23029938

Soni, Prafulla; Singh, Lal



Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) is previously applied for biopsy of skin due to its high lateral resolution, low out-of-focus damage, and intrinsic 3D section capability. However, for future clinical applications without surgery, current 700-850 nm based laser scanning technology still presents several limitations including low penetration depth, in-focus cell damages, multi-photon phototoxicity due to high optical intensity in the 800 nm wavelength region, and toxicity if exogenous fluorescence markers were required. Here we demonstrate a novel noninvasive optical biopsy method called harmonics optical biopsy (HOB), which combines both second harmonic generation imaging and third harmonic generation imaging. Due to virtual transition nature of harmonic generations and based on light sources with an optical wavelength located around the biological penetration window (~1300nm), our HOB can serve as a truly non-invasive biopsy tool with sub-micron three-dimensional spatial resolution without any energy deposition and exogenous contrast agents. From preliminary experiment result, our HOB can reconstruct 3D cellular and subcellular images from skin surface through dermis. Besides, by utilizing backward propagating detection geometry, we will show that this technique is ideal for non-invasive clinical biopsy of human skin diseases and even useful for the early diagnosis of skin cancer symptom such as the angiogenesis.

Tai, Shih-Peng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chu, Shi-Wei; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Liao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang



RICO Graduate Student Research Flight: The Island Tail Objective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) project was an intensive field project aimed to study and understand precipitation processes in trade wind cumulus. The project took place from Nov 23, 2004 until Jan 25, 2005 on two small islands of the Lesser Antilles, Antigua and Barbuda, where trade wind cumulus fields frequently occur during suppressed wintertime conditions. RICO provided a unique combination of research and education by offering the RICO Graduate Seminar Series and the development and implementation of a graduate student designed and directed research flight. One of the main goals of the graduate student research flight was to allow graduate students to participate in the process of developing a research flight plan and identifying scientific goals and objectives first-hand. Added benefits included the possibility of addressing scientific questions not included in the main RICO objectives. This also involved collaboration when discussing different ideas and initiatives and the full development of all stages of the research flight including the coordination of two research aircraft (NCAR-C130, University of Wyoming King Air), one research vessel (RV Seward Johnson), S-Pol radar site and real time operations center satellite information. Seventeen graduate students from both the US and Europe developed two different plans to be presented to RICO project principle investigators; both of which were approved. The island tail objective aimed at characterizing the line of clouds known as 'island tails' that frequently form off the leeward coast of the Caribbean islands. This objective was successful in its implementation on Jan 18, 2005 with measurements made in vigorous, waterspout producing tail clouds immediately downwind of Barbuda. The investigation of these 'tails' fills a void in current cloud physics research since it is the first time this ubiquitous feature of trade-wind islands has been the focus of careful study. Scientific questions to be addressed with data collected on the island tail include: 1) Are these clouds forced by a heated island effect or another dynamical mechanism? 2) Do islands serve merely as source regions of aerosol which act as nucleation sites? 3) Where in the island tail does rain develop, if at all? A description of the unique learning experience and the educational and scientific benefits of the graduate student research flight island tail objective are outlined and discussed.

Small, J. D.; Anderson-Bereznicki, S. D.; Medeiros, B.; Nuijens, L.; Henry, C. K.; O'Donnell, D. M.; Morales, F.; Shen, H.



A generalized female bias for long tails in a short-tailed widowbird.  

PubMed Central

Tail elongation in the polygynous widowbirds (Euplectes spp.) has evoked both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations. Female choice has been shown in the three longest tailed species (20-50 cm), whereas an agonistic function was proposed for a medium-tailed (10 cm) widowbird. To test the generality and directionality of sexual selection on tail length in widowbirds, we experimentally investigated selection in the relatively short-tailed (7 cm) red-shouldered widowbirds (E. axillaris). Prior to territory establishment, males were assigned to four tail-treatment groups; control, short, long and supernormal (similar to a sympatric long-tailed congener). No effects on male competition were detected as the groups were equally successful in acquiring territories of similar size and quality. However, mating success among the 92 territorial males was strongly skewed in favour of supernormal-tailed males (62% of active nests; 5.2 +/- 1.3 nests per territory). Long-tailed males also acquired more nests (1.9 +/- 0.7) than control (0.7 +/- 0.5) and short-tailed (0.5 +/- 0.3) males, while the latter two groups did not differ significantly. These results support a general, open-ended female preference for long tails in widowbirds and may represent a receiver bias that arose early in their divergence from the short-tailed weaverbirds (Ploceinae).

Pryke, Sarah R; Andersson, Staffan



Mine tailings integrated investigations: The case of Rio tailings (Panasqueira Mine, Central Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining generates huge quantities of waste materials from ore extraction and milling operations, which accumulate in tailings and open impoundments. The risks associated with mine tailings have different nature, namely stability, rupture, surface and groundwater contamination, acid mine drainage (AMD) and precipitation of secondary minerals. In fact catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments has occurred, transporting slurry, dissolved metals and fine

C. Grangeia; P. Ávila; M. Matias; E. Ferreira da Silva



Open rib biopsy guided by radionuclide technique  

SciTech Connect

When abnormally increased radioactivity is seen in a rib or ribs by bone imaging in a patient with suspected or known malignancy, it frequently is difficult to differentiate fracture from metastatic disease. Histological examination of the lesion is crucial for diagnosis, staging, and planning of therapy. To assess the value of external localization of the site or sites of abnormal uptake in a rib as a guide for open rib biopsy, 10 patients (7 men, 3 women; age range, 34 to 68 years) with known or suspected malignancy were studied. With reference to the oscilloscope image, a cobalt 57 marker was placed on the skin overlying the focus of increased uptake, and the area of increased activity was marked on the skin as a guide to surgical resection. Of ten resected ribs, four showed metastatic disease and five had fractures. (One patient underwent two external marking procedures and two surgical procedures.) Rib biopsy was not performed in 1 patient because prior to the surgical procedure, a small subcutaneous nodule adjacent to the skin marker was excised and confirmed to be carcinoma. Appropriate courses of management (operation, irradiation, chemotherapy) were taken after the biopsies. The surgeon responsible for the biopsy should be present during the skin-marking procedure, and the area beneath the scapula and the region adjacent to the spine should be avoided. Our results indicate that the technique is a very useful aid for approaching open rib biopsies more precisely.

Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Magoun, S.; Dillon, M.L.



[Detection of aneuploidy from gastrointestinal biopsy samples].  


Aim of the present work was the development of a mechanic cell separation protocol for gastrointestinal biopsy analysis. Evaluation of the technique was performed on selected group of patients who underwent routine endoscopy. Routine gastrointestinal biopsies were obtained after informed consent. 23 gastric (6 healthy, 14 gastritis, 3 adenocarcinoma) and 15 colon samples (5 healthy, 7 colitis ulcerosa, 3 adenocarcinoma) were evaluated. The mechanic disruption of the biopsies was performed by Medimachine (DAKO, Denmark), a commercially available system using a 30 microns miner and a 30 microns mesh. The cell solution was centrifuged for 5 minutes by 250 g. The cells were fixed in paraformaldehide and stained by propidium iodide. The flow cytometry analysis was performed on a BD FacStar Plus flow cytometer. The DNA data were evaluated using the Winlist software. All of the preparations were appropriate for flow cytometric analysis. The coefficient of variation of the DNA histograms (n = 7) (CV mean +/- SD. 6.45% +/- 1.21) were acceptable for analysis. In the gastric biopsy samples aneuploidy was determined only in malignant cases. In four of the seven colitis ulcerosa samples and in one of the three adenocarcinoma aneploidy was found. The histologically healthy specimen were all diploid. Mechanic cell separation and disaggregation is a useful method for preparing fresh biopsy specimen for flow cytometry. PMID:10808730

Molnár, B; Kármán, J; Németh, A; Prónai, L; Zágoni, T; Tulassay, Z



Prenatal Diagnosis of ‘True Tail’ with Cartilage Content?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human tail is a rare congenital anomaly with a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region. According to Dao and Netzky human tails are classified into ‘true tails’ and ‘pseudotails’. True tails comprise only mesenchymal tissue (adipose, connective, muscle, nerve tissue, blood vessels, and cutis). They are presumed to be remnants of the embryologic tail. All other lumbosacrococcygeal protrusions are

Frank Noack; Erich Reusche; Ulrich Gembruch



Comet tail formation: Giotto observations  

SciTech Connect

The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.



Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.  


Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry



Prostate Biopsy in Central Europe: Results of a Survey of Indication, Patient Preparation and Biopsy Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We surveyed urologists in Austria, Germany and Switzerland regarding their standard approach to prostate biopsy. Methods: Participants of Austrian and German urological meetings were asked to fill out a survey form; additionally, this was mailed to all Swiss urologists. Results: 304 surveys are available for analysis. 97% of participants perform a biopsy if digital rectal examination is abnormal. 63%

Klaus G. Fink; Hans-Peter Schmid; Ljiljana Paras; Nikolaus T. Schmeller



Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles  

SciTech Connect

Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. The Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.

Laredo, Jean-Denis, E-mail:; Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh [Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Radiologie (France)



The histone tails of the nucleosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible acetylation of core histone tails plays an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription, in the formation of repressive chromatin complexes, and in the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the nucleosome core particle, as well as earlier evidence, suggests that the histone tails are largely responsible for the assembly of nucleosomes into chromatin fibers

Karolin Luger; Timothy J Richmond



Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to

B. H. K. Lee



Human Tail: Nature’s Aberration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic

Dipti Kumar; Akshay Kapoor



Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi




Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings impoundment failures continue to occur at unacceptable rates. The worldwide mining industry has experienced roughly one significant impoundment failure per year over the past 30 years. Many of these failure events have resulted in massive damage, severe economical impact and, in several cases, loss of life. A tailings impoundment failure case history database has been developed. In addition

Michael Davies; Todd Martin; Peter Lighthall


Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper

Henrik K. Hansen; Adrián Rojo; Lisbeth M. Ottosen



Spatial Distribution of Prostate Cancers Undetected on Initial Needle Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The spatial distribution of cancer foci of prostate carcinomas with negative initial biopsies was compared to that of prostate carcinomas with positive initial biopsies to detect areas in which carcinomas were more frequently located when the initial biopsy was negative.Methods: Twenty patients with prostate cancer and a negative initial biopsy trial were detected among 218 patients with preceding systematic

Peter R. Mazal; Andrea Haitel; Christian Windischberger; Bob Djavan; Roland Sedivy; Ewald Moser; Martin Susani



Surgery and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining sentinel node is also a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with sentinel node metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether sentinel node biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.



Non - biopsy methods to determine hepatic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The prognosis and clinical management of chronic liver diseases are highly dependent on the extent of liver fibrosis. Bigger the fibrosis, worse the prognosis; and bigger the risk of progression to cirrhosis. In current practice, liver biopsy is most frequently performed to assess the grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis thereby providing prognostic information on which to base treatment decisions upon. Liver biopsy is becoming more and more useless in the management of chronic liver disease due to large sampling error, consistent inter–observer disagreement, high emotional cost of patient, enormous health care commitment in case of rare but possible severe complications, the fact that it is a snapshot of a process that is everything but a frozen one. Therefore, every methodology that avoids performing this invasive procedure is welcome. The purpose of this article is to present the noninvasive evaluation of patients with chronic liver disease as an alternative of liver biopsy in the assessment of hepatic structure and function.

Purcarea, M



Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy.  


This study was done to assess the safety and efficacy of real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and to determine the optimal period of observation required as well as to ascertain the risk factors for any ensuing complications. Between 1 st February 2006 and 31 st January 2008, a total of 86 PRBs were performed by the radiologist using an automated biopsy gun with 16-gauge needle at the National Organ Transplant Centre, Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Prior to the procedure coagulation profile was done in all the patients. All patients were kept on strict bed rest for 6-hours post-procedure. Of the 86 renal biopsies performed, 78 patients were referred from Rheumatology Department and 8 were post-kidney transplant recipients. There were 23 males with age ranging from 15 to 56 years and 63 females with age ranging from 16 to 66 years. A mean of 17.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. A glomerular yield of less than five glomeruli was seen in only four biopsies. Class I lupus nephritis (LN) was seen in one patient, class II LN in seven patients, class III LN in 13 patients and class IV LN in 29 patients. All the eight renal allografts were diagnosed as either acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial rejection. The overall complication rate was 5.8% and these complications were observed within 6 hours of biopsy. No late complications were seen. PRB under real-time ultra-sound guidance is a safe and efficacious procedure to establish the histological diagnosis of the renal disease and may be done as an out-patient procedure. A post-biopsy observation time of 6 hours appears to be optimal. PMID:21743221

Mishra, Anuj; Tarsin, Rajab; Elhabbash, Basma; Zagan, Nuri; Markus, Rabia; Drebeka, Sawsen; Abdelmola, Khaled; Shawish, Taib; Shebani, Abdulhafidh; Abdelmola, Tamer; Elusta, Ahmad; Ehtuish, Ehtuish Faraj



Developmental study on reduction and kinks of the tail in a new mutant knotty-tail mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knotty-tail (knt\\/knt) mouse has a short and knotty tail. The tail deformity is caused by a decrease in the number of caudal vertebrae and a deformity of them in the distal part of the tail. The objective of the study was to determine how reduction and kinks of the tail region were formed during secondary body formation. By day

T. Matsuura; Isao Narama; Kiyokazu Ozaki; Masahiko Nishimura; Tomohiro Imagawa; Hiroshi Kitagawa; Masato Uehara



Peritoneal biopsy for diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Eighty-eight patients with abdominal tuberculosis were studied for the diagnostic value of peritoneal biopsy. Peritoneum for biopsy was obtained during laparotomy in 41 cases and by making a small incision in the right iliac fossa, under local anaesthesia, in 47 cases. In 80% histopathological examination revealed caseation or giant cells and epithelioid cell infiltration. In 20% non-specific inflammatory changes were present. Thus, histopathological examination of the peritoneum was helpful in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis in all the 88 patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3

Shukla, H. S.; Naitrani, Y. P.; Bhatia, S.; Das, Pritam; Gupta, S. C.



Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings.  


In an attempt to link the microbial community composition and function in mine tailings to the generation of acid mine drainage, we simultaneously explored the geochemistry and microbiology of six tailings collected from a lead/zinc mine, i.e. primary tailings (T1), slightly acidic tailings (T2), extremely acidic tailings (T3, T4 and T5) and orange-coloured oxidized tailings (T6). Geochemical results showed that the six tailings (from T1 to T6) likely represented sequential stages of the acidification process of the mine tailings. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed a contrasting microbial composition between the six tailings: Proteobacteria-related sequences dominated T1-T3 with relative abundance ranging from 56 to 93%, whereas Ferroplasma-related sequences dominated T4-T6 with relative abundance ranging from 28 to 58%. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities of T2 and T6 indicated that the genes encoding key enzymes for microbial carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation in T2 were largely from Thiobacillus and Acidithiobacillus, Methylococcus capsulatus, and Thiobacillus denitrificans respectively; while those in T6 were mostly identified in Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, and Acidithiobacillus respectively. The microbial communities in T2 and T6 harboured more genes suggesting diverse metabolic capacities for sulfur oxidation/heavy metal detoxification and tolerating low pH respectively. PMID:23574280

Chen, Lin-Xing; Li, Jin-Tian; Chen, Ya-Ting; Huang, Li-Nan; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng



Skin microbial flora and effectiveness of aseptic technique for deep muscle biopsies in Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii ) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.  


Deep muscle biopsies were collected from the pectoralis and longissimus dorsi of wild Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, during October-December 2007. Sterile swabs were collected from the surface of each skin site before biopsy and from the deep-needle path after biopsy. No growth occurred in two of six pectoralis and three of six longissimus skin sites, or in four of 10 pectoralis deep biopsy and eight of 12 longissimus deep-biopsy sites. Positive skin culture was not predictive of deep-biopsy contamination, nor did contamination at one body location correlate with contamination at the second site. Psychrobacter species were most common in one or more samples from each of the four sample types. Only one of the eight documented bacteria exhibited resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:20688668

Mellish, J; Tuomi, P; Hindle, A; Jang, S; Horning, M



Transjugular Liver Biopsy: A Review of 77 Biopsies Using a Spring-Propelled Cutting Needle (Biopsy Gun)  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-seven transjugular liver biopsies were performed with a coaxial, spring-loaded, 18-gauge cutting needle, the Biopty gun (Bard Biopsy System, Covington, GA, USA) on consecutive patients between July 1993 and February 1995. Fifty men and 27 women were included in the study; the mean age was 45 years (range 15-69 years). The average number of punctures per patient was 5.2, with a range of 2-9, yielding an average of 4.8 samples per patient (range 1-7). The length of the samples varied from 10 to 22 mm with a constant diameter of 1 mm. The mean time required to complete the procedure was 48 min (43-52 min). Histological diagnoses were obtained in 74 of 77 patients (96%), with non-diagnostic specimens attributed to excessive fragmentation (3 cases). Complications occurred in 10 patients (puncture site hematoma, carotid artery puncture, abdominal pain, vasovagal reaction, hepatic capsule perforation, and hemobilia). The latter two complications were self-limited. In our experience this transjugular hepatic biopsy method is promising for performing biopsies in patients with chronic liver disease, due to its high success rate and low morbidity rate.

Gorriz, Elias; Reyes, Ricardo [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pino, Angel Guimera 91, 35004 Las Palmaz, Gran Canaria (Spain); Lobrano, Mary Beth [Department of Radiology, Rm. 212, LSU Medical Center, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Pulido-Duque, Juan M.; San Roman, Jose L. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pino, Angel Guimera 91, 35004 Las Palmaz, Gran Canaria (Spain); Lonjedo, Elena; Ferral, Hector [Department of Radiology, Rm. 212, LSU Medical Center, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Maynar, Manuel [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Hospital Ntra. Sra. del Pino, Angel Guimera 91, 35004 Las Palmaz, Gran Canaria (Spain)



Responsible Collecting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, examines how to responsibly collect and keep specimens. The article discusses the reasons why collecting specimens is important and the behaviors and attitudes that define responsible collecting for both scientists and students.


Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail:; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)



Diagnostic value of imprint cytology during image-guided core biopsy in improving breast health care.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imprint cytology (IC) of breast core biopsy under ultrasound guidance and to assess the value of a rapid on-site preliminary diagnosis of breast lesions. A total of 437 breast core needle biopsies under ultrasound guidance with touch imprint cytology, histology, and final diagnosis were reviewed. These cases were collected from archived files at our institution. Of 437 core biopsies, IC classified 241 (55%) as benign; 22 (5%) as probably benign; 28 (6%) as probably malignant; 107 (25%) as malignant; and 39 (9%) as inadequate for IC diagnosis. Histological classifications for the 437 cases were: 285 (65%) benign; 132 (30%) malignant; 16 (4%) atypical hyperplasia; and 4 (1%) inadequate specimen. The overall sensitivity and specificity indices of IC were 95% and 96%, respectively, for benign and probably benign lesions vs malignant and probably malignant breast lesions. The overall positive and negative predictive values were 91% and 97%, respectively. The overall accuracy was 95% (379 of 398 cases, excluding specimens inadequate for IC diagnosis). IC of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy provides a rapid and reliable preliminary diagnosis for breast lesions; it also serves as a means to verify the adequacy of biopsy specimens and to optimize the biopsy procedure. Use of IC may reduce anxiety in patients with benign lesions and expedite the diagnosis and assessment of treatment options in patients with breast cancer. PMID:21325248

Masood, Shahla; Feng, Dian; Tutuncuoglu, Osman; Fischer, Gabor; Bakhshandeh, Maryam; Bertholf, Roger L; Wolfson, David



In vivo tissue sampling of embryonic resorption sites using ultrasound guided biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the polytocous European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) more than 23% of all successful implantations undergo embryonic resorption. The objective of the study was to establish a minimally invasive ultrasound guided biopsy technique to collect embryonic resorption tissue in vivo. The sampled material was genetically analysed to determine paternity and the sex of the embryo. Female hares were either mated

K. Schroeder; B. Drews; K. Roellig; B. R. Menzies; F. Goeritz; T. B. Hildebrandt



Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 has seen steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection\\u000a of publications that advance the understanding of the pathobiology of the bone marrow and the interpretation of the BMB.

Jon van der Walt



Biopsy Methods in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various biopsy methods were used in order to establish the pathological nature of pulmonary lesions in 433 patients. Pulmonary cancer was recognized in 218 (49.2%) of these patients of which 178 (81.2%) had pulmonary cancer(metastasis). Histological struc...

I. A. Zharakhovich



Peroperative transduodenal biopsy of the pancreas.  

PubMed Central

Peroperative transduodenal biopsy of the pancreas was performed in 65 patients with the disposable Trucut needle. The technique described is simple, effective, and may reveal unsuspected malignancy. A histological diagnosis of malignancy is reliable but false negative diagnosis may arise because of failure to obtain representative samples. Images Figure

Tweedle, D E



[Liver biopsy in surgery of the gallbladder].  


Biopsy of the liver with the menghini needle was done as a routine diagnostic procedure during surgery in 581 cases. During earlier decades morphological changes of the liver could be demonstrated by that procedure in 80-100% of the patients. In contrast such changes could be found only in 55% of our cases; in 5,5% these changes were severe. From these numbers it should be concluded that liver biopsy during gall bladder surgery is not necessary as a routine procedure. If patients are selected for biopsy on the basis of history, ultrasonography, laboratory data and intraoperative microscopical liver findings this procedure is necessary only in 14% of the cases, complication rate being 0,09%. In this particularly selected group changes of the liver can be found in 90,4%, severe changes in 33% of the cases. Pathological changes of the liver are likely to occur in 65-91% of patients with complicated gall stone disease and/or accompanying diseases like diabetes, obesitas, alcoholism, or a history of hepatitis. In this particular group biopsy and histological examination during surgery seem to be indicated as it was the case before. PMID:6738291

Eggert, A; Becker, J; Kopf, R; Hartmann, V



Clinical aspects of sentinel node biopsy  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy requires validation by a backup axillary dissection in a defined series of cases before becoming standard practice, to establish individual and institutional success rates and the frequency of false negative results. At least 90% success in finding the SLN with no more than 5-10% false negative results is a reasonable goal for surgeons and institutions learning the technique. A combination of isotope and dye to map the SLN is probably superior to either method used alone, yet a wide variety of technical variations in the procedure have produced a striking similarity of results. Most breast cancer patients are suitable for SLN biopsy, and the large majority reported to date has had clinical stage T1-2N0 invasive breast cancers. SLN biopsy will play a growing role in patients having prophylactic mastectomy, and in those with 'high-risk' duct carcinoma in situ, microinvasive cancers, T3 disease, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SLN biopsy for the first time makes enhanced pathologic analysis of lymph nodes logistically feasible, at once allowing greater staging accuracy and less morbidity than standard methods. Retrospective data suggest that micrometastases identified in this way are prognostically significant, and prospective clinical trials now accruing promise a definitive answer to this issue.

Cody, Hiram S



Intraluminal biopsy of the small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An instrument for obtaining intraluminal biopsies of the intestinal mucosa has been described. It consists of a capsule containing a rotating knife which is spring-activated and triggered by suction. The suction first draws a bit of mucosa into the capsule before the knife is sprung. The capsule is held captive by a polyethylene tube 2 mm. in diameter, which

William H. Crosby; Heinz W. Kugler



Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented.

Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.



[A tongue biopsy led to the diagnosis].  


A 76-year-old patient in otherwise good health presented with a 2-year history of bilateral painless submandibular swelling and macroglossia. A standard ENT examination revealed no additional symptoms. Tongue biopsy led to the diagnosis of amyloidosis, serum immunofixation identified AL amyloidosis and a kappa light chain gammopathy resulting from multiple myeloma as the underlying cause. PMID:22358776

Brandstetter, M; Matsuba, Y; Knopf, A



Bone Marrow Biopsies with a Silverman Needle  

PubMed Central

Advantages and disadvantages of bone marrow biopsies taken from the posterior iliac crest using the Silverman needle were evaluated. Sixty-three biopsies were carried out in patients on whom previous aspirations of the bone marrow space were unsuccessful. Open surgical biopsy was thus avoided in all but one case. Only local anesthesia was required. In 12 cases the first attempt to obtain material with the Silverman needle was unsuccessful. Limitations of the method are largely due to crushing of the specimen so obtained, with polarization of nuclei simulating the appearance of fibroblasts seen in cases of myelosclerosis. At times marrow was completely expressed from the spongy bone, leaving a useless specimen of spicules. The quality of histological material is usually inferior to that yielded by successful aspiration. Despite limitations, the Silverman needle method is considered to be preferable to open biopsy in cases in which attempts at aspiration have failed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

Hirte, W. E.; Cunningham, T. A.



Core biopsies of the breast: diagnostic pitfalls.  


The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In this review article, the authors compare and contrast the incidence of breast cancer, and the inherent differences in the United States (US) and India in screening techniques used for diagnosing breast cancer. In spite of these differences, core biopsies of the breast are common for diagnosis of breast cancer in both countries. The authors describe "Best Practices" in the reporting and processing of core biopsies and in the analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2/neu). The pitfalls in the diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast on core biopsy are discussed, as also the significance of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast (PASH) is discussed in core biopsy. In this review, the management and diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and radiation atypia are elaborated and the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in papillary lesions, phyllodes tumor, and complex sclerosing lesions (radial scars) is illustrated. Rarer lesions such as mucinous and histiocytoid carcinoma are also discussed. PMID:22234089

Joshi, Megha; Reddy, Sriharshan J; Nanavidekar, Manjiri; Russo, John P; Russo, Armand V; Pathak, Ram


Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.  


Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force. PMID:11783735

Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A



Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization for Breast Biopsy Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to clarify contradictions in the literature concerning the dependence of ultrasound attenuation on the pathological state of breast tissue; sound speed is also determined as an important, non-controversial characteristic of pathological state. These data are required for an adequate assessment of the potential of ultrasound transmission and CT imaging in breast cancer detection. Freshly excised biopsy specimens

P. D. Edmonds; C. L. Mortensen



Comparison of echocardiography-guided and fluoroscopy-guided endomyocardial biopsy techniques.  


The accuracy of bioptome placement for endomyocardial biopsy was evaluated using standard fluoroscopic guidance and compared simultaneously with two-dimensional echocardiography in six healthy subadult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Despite perceived adequate positioning of the bioptome toward the septum when judged using fluoroscopy, only one out of the six placements were actually positioned in the right ventricular apex toward the septum when evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography. The bioptome was readily relocated to the right ventricular apex/septal location by echocardiography. The forceps were easily visualized at all times and the open cups were readily directed into the desired location for biopsy. Based on a subjective score for tissue quantity from 1 to 4 (poor to excellent), biopsies collected by echocardiographic-guided technique had a mean score of 3.4, while biopsies collected by fluoroscopic-guided technique had a mean score of 1.8. In summary, this study suggests that endomyocardial biopsy locations can be accurately positioned using two-dimensional echocardiography with the advantages of less radiation, lower procedural costs, and direct visualization of the sampling site. Clear definition of endocardial surface as afforded by echocardiography may enhance tissue sample quality and lower potential complications from this procedure. PMID:15869156

Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T


Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering



75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...



Transvenous Transjugular Renal Core Biopsy with a Redesigned Biopsy Set Including a Blunt-Tipped Needle  

SciTech Connect

A novel 19-gauge, blunt-tipped, side cutting single throw, 70-cm long transjugular needle, specifically designed for transvenous kidney biopsy, was used in seven patients with high risk for bleeding. A mean of 4 device-passes (3-6) per patient resulted in a satisfactory specimen for pathological diagnosis. Immediate post-biopsy non enhanced CT was performed to evaluate for bleeding at the biopsy site. All patients were observed for 2 hr after the procedure. No clinically significant immediate or late complication was noted.

Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Bahramipour, Philip; Mele, Christopher; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Barone, Alison; Abujudeh, Hani [Section of Vascular and Interventional, Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, University Hospital, C320, 150Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07103-2406 (United States)



Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.  


In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services. PMID:21629992

Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina



An ecological survey of the heavy metal contamination of the edible clam Paphia sp. on the iron-ore tailings of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron-ore tailings have been deposited along the coast of Tolo Harbour from Ma On Shan Iron-ore Mine since its operation in 1906. In order to search for any harmful effects caused by the tailings, the edible clam, Paphia sp. together with sediments and seawater samples were collected from different sites of the iron-ore tailings of Ma On Shan Iron Mine,

Ming-Hung Wong; Mong-Wan Li



The influence of water-soluble As(III) and As(V) on dehydrogenase activity in soils affected by mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soils contaminated by arsenic-bearing tailings was correlated with total arsenic and total water-soluble arsenic (As(III)+As(V)) to evaluate the impact of tailings dispersion on the oxidative capacity of soil microorganisms. Georeferenced surface soil samples (0–10 cm depth) were collected at different distances from a tailings dam. In the samples farthest from the dam, all water-soluble arsenic (avg.

Pilar Fernández; Irene Sommer; Silke Cram; Irma Rosas; Margarita Gutiérrez



Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

School Libraries in Canada, 2002



Collection Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OCLC ICAS (Interactive Collection Analysis System) offers a means to effectively document the state of a foreign language collection as well as a means to systematically develop a collection for the future. Data were collected from the ICAS compact disc generated by OCLC\\/WLN from WorldCat holdings and information from the library's integrated library system (ILS). Data were used to

Pauline C. Williams; Brent N. Halvonik



My approach to reporting a gastric biopsy  

PubMed Central

The protracted inflammation of the gastric mucosa induces profound changes in the microenvironment of the gastric cells. These changes modify the molecular signals that orchestrate morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the stem cells of the crypts. The expression of this adjustment to the new microenvironment is evidenced by the appearance of differentiated metaplastic cells (intestinal, bronchial—ciliated, pancreatic or (pseudo) pyloric, all deriving from the same embryological origin). The inability of stem cells to readapt to the new microenvironment may lead to genomic aberrations such as the retention of cellular products (glassy cells) or to neoplastic transformation. In this report, parameters such as gastric mucosal inflammation, Helicobacter pylori, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and/or pseudopyloric metaplasia found in gastric biopsy specimens were individually classified according to their extension in sections as grade 1 (focal distribution in sections from individual biopsy specimens) and grade 2 (present in the entire width—distance across—in sections from individual biopsy specimen). The rationale is that a biopsy grade 2 was harvested from a larger mucosal area having that particular change. Each individual parameter gives a score, and the sum of all individual scores gives the total score. The proposed system might allow monitoring the results of treatment in follow?up biopsies. Divergent clinical results in the frequency/incidence of gastritis (including body–autoimmune gastritis), of H pylori strains, of various metaplasias and neoplasias, in disparate geographical regions substantiate the conviction that these parameters are much influenced by the environment. This knowledge is crucial, considering that environmental diseases are theoretically preventable.

Rubio, Carlos A



Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The sources of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief flybys certainly include Mercury’s proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet’s lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute. In particular, Mercury’s very brief Dungey cycle, ~ 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation, allows for very rapid transitions to new equilibrium states. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury’s magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury’s tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, J. A.



Database-as-a-Service for Long-Tail Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Database technology remains underused in science, especially in the long tail — the small labs and individual researchers\\u000a that collectively produce the majority of scientific output. These researchers increasingly require iterative, ad hoc analysis\\u000a over ad hoc databases but cannot individually invest in the computational and intellectual infrastructure required for state-of-the-art\\u000a solutions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We describe a new “delivery vector” for database

Bill Howe; Garret Cole; Emad Souroush; Paraschos Koutris; Alicia Key; Nodira Khoussainova; Leilani Battle


Evaluation of major constraints to revegetation of lead/zinc mine tailings using bioassay techniques.  


The residues from the extraction of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) ores of most Pb/Zn mines are permanently stored in tailings ponds, which require revegetation to reduce their environmental impact. This can only be done if the main constraints on plant establishment are evaluated. This can readily be done by field and greenhouse studies. To test this, the properties of different tailings from Lechang Pb/Zn mine located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China have been studied. Physical and chemical properties including concentrations of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) in the tailings and soils collected from different sites have been measured. The results showed that tailings contain low nitrogen (0.016-0.075%), low-organic matter (0.58-1.78%), high salt (3.55-13.85 dS/m), and high total and diethylene-tetramine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations (total: 1,019-1,642 microg g(-1) Pb, 3,078-6,773 microg g(-1) Zn, 8-23 microg g(-1) Cd, and 85-192 microg g(-1) Cu; DTPA-extractable: 59-178 microig g(-1) Pb, 21-200 microg g(-1) Zn, 0.30-1.5 mcirog g(-1) Cd, and 4.3-12 microg g(-1) Cu). Aqueous extracts of tailings/soils (10%, 20% and 30%, w/v) from different sites were prepared for testing their effects on seed germination and root elongation of a vegetable crop Brassica chinensis and a grass species Cynodon dactylon. It was found that root elongation provided a better evaluation of toxicity than seed germination. The ranking of toxicity using root elongation was: high-sulfur tailings > tailing dam > sparsely vegetated tailings > densely vegetated tailings > mountain soil for both plants. This order was consistent with DTPA-extractable Pb contents in the tailings and soils. B. chinensis seedlings were then grown in the mixtures of different proportions of tailings and farm soil for 4 weeks, and the results (dry weights of seedlings) were in line with the root elongation test. All these demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity, especially available Pb, low content of nutrient, and poor physical structure were major constraints on plant establishment and colonization on the Pb/Zn mine tailings. PMID:12137044

Ye, Z H; Shu, W S; Zhang, Z Q; Lan, C Y; Wong, M H



How do birds' tails work? Delta-wing theory fails to predict tail shape during flight.  

PubMed Central

Birds appear to use their tails during flight, but until recently the aerodynamic role that tails fulfil was largely unknown. In recent years delta-wing theory, devised to predict the aerodynamics of high-performance aircraft, has been applied to the tails of birds and has been successful in providing a model for the aerodynamics of a bird's tail. This theory now provides the conventional explanation for how birds' tails work. A delta-wing theory (slender-wing theory) has been used, as part of a variable-geometry model to predict how tail and wing shape should vary during flight at different airspeeds. We tested these predictions using barn swallows flying in a wind tunnel. We show that the predictions are not quantitatively well supported. This suggests that a new theory or a modified version of delta-wing theory is needed to adequately explain the way in which morphology varies during flight.

Evans, Matthew R; Rosen, Mikael; Park, Kirsty J; Hedenstrom, Anders



The Role of Hysteroscopic Biopsy in Obtaining Specimens for Cytogenetic Evaluation in Missed Abortion prior to Suction Dilatation and Curettage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To estimate whether hysteroscopic-guided biopsy of gestational sac(s) in first trimester missed abortion increases the sensitivity of detecting aneuploidy compared to washing and careful specimen collection after suction dilatation and curettage (D&C). Materials and Methods:Thirty-five patients with first trimester missed abortion of which 25 underwent 29 suction D&Cs and 10 underwent hysteroscopic-guided biopsy of 12 gestational sacs prior to suction

Awoniyi O. Awonuga; Jodi Jelsema; Mazen E. Abdallah; Jay Berman; Michael P. Diamond; Elizabeth E. Puscheck



Diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis and amyloidosis mediated cardiomyopathy by VATS pleural biopsy for chronic pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis is a family of diseases characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid protein, causing altered physiology based on its abnormal deposition in an organ. The etiology of persistent pleural effusions in patients with systemic amyloidosis is unknown. Endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard of diagnosis for patients with cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis. We present the case of a patient with systemic amyloidosis whose diagnosis was made by pleural pathology collected via video-assisted thoracic surgery after a false negative endomyocardial biopsy.

Harvey-Taylor, Jessica; Zhang, Yanhong; Kuderer, Valerie



Active Tails Enhance Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko s arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. ...

A. Jusufi D. I. Goldman R. J. Full S. Revzen



Echogenic breast masses at US: to biopsy or not to biopsy?  


At ultrasonography (US), purely or predominantly echogenic breast masses are rare. These lesions were once assumed to be benign, but recent data suggest that approximately 0.5% of malignant breast lesions appear echogenic. However, correlation with the mammographic appearance, lesion location, and clinical history allows the need for biopsy to be determined. An echogenic mass that is radiolucent at mammography is benign. An echogenic mass that is not radiolucent at mammography may represent a hematoma, complex seroma, silicone granuloma, abscess, galactocele, or fat necrosis when the appropriate clinical history is present. In these cases, biopsy can usually be avoided. If there is a clinical history of cancer or radiation therapy, biopsy is often indicated to assess for metastasis or angiosarcoma. An echogenic mass in an ectatic duct warrants biopsy to exclude carcinoma. An echogenic skin lesion is most likely benign and can occasionally have peripheral vascularity due to surrounding inflammation. However, a skin lesion with internal vascularity is concerning for metastasis or lymphoma. If there is no suspicious clinical history, suspicious sonographic features or mammographic findings would lead to a recommendation for biopsy. Lesions with nonspecific imaging or clinical features (eg, angiolipoma or pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia) may require biopsy to exclude malignancy. PMID:23479705

Gao, Yiming; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Eisenberg, Ronald L



Microsoft Academic Search

We observed Red-tailed Hawks (Buteojamaicensis) and Peregrine Falcons (Falcoperegrinus) hunt- ing Mexican free-tailed bats (7kdarida brasiliensis) during their evening emergence and dawn return at Frio Cave, Uvalde County, Texas in the summer of 1997. Predation by Red-tailed Hawks occurred primarily in the evening (89.5%), and predation by Peregrine Falcons was mostly at dawn (90.5%). In the evening, hawks appeared when





Microsoft Academic Search

A 1\\/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical

Robert W. Moses


The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo



Probing the long tail of the magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISEE-3 spacecraft has discovered a recognizable tail of the earth's magnetosphere which extends a million km beyond the moon's orbit. In the plasma sheet of the distant tail, plasma was found to be moving tailward as fast as 1000 km\\/sec, which is much faster than the speeds of a few tens of km\\/sec detected near the earth. Attention is

R. A. Kerr



The ‘human tail’ causing tethered cervical cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Human tails continue to elicit curiosity till the present times. A unique case of human cervical dysraphism is described.Objectives:In addition to the cosmetic stigma, these cutaneous markers provide a lead to reach the underlying spinal dysraphic states.Setting:Plains of North India.Methods:A case of human tail at the neck region is presented, whose cutaneous deformity lead the clinicians to his underlying

S Mohindra



Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available



Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country.

Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A.



Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR.  


Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country. PMID:23691338

Essawi, Tamer; Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A



Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  


Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M



Field investigation of evaporation from freshwater tailings  

SciTech Connect

Safe and economical storage of tailings is now a major consideration in the operation of many mining operations. Tailings in slurried form, particularly if they have a significant clay content, can take a very long time to consolidate under the action of self-weight consolidation alone. However, if the operation is located in an area of high potential evaporation, this can be used to accelerate the rate of tailings densification. This paper presents a study of the evaporation behavior of a clayey tailings slurry deposited into an evaporation pond in the southwest of Western Australia. Over a six-month period, the rate of evaporation from the tailings surface was monitored using the Bowen Ratio method and the microlysimeter method. This was compared with the evaporation from a Class A pan located nearby. The tailings underwent very significant cracking as drying proceeded, and it was found that these cracks had a significant influence on the overall rate of evaporation once the top surface of the deposit started to desaturate. A large strain consolidation model was used to model the behavior, and the algorithm used in this model to include the effects of evaporation is shown to provide a reasonable prediction of the observed evaporation behavior.

Fujiyasu, Yoshimasa; Fahey, M.; Newson, T.



MRI-ultrasound fusion for guidance of targeted prostate biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Prostate cancer (CaP) may be detected on MRI. Fusion of MRI with ultrasound allows urologists to progress from blind, systematic biopsies to biopsies, which are mapped, targeted and tracked. We herein review the current status of prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion. Recent findings Three methods of fusing MRI for targeted biopsy have been recently described: MRI–ultrasound fusion, MRI–MRI fusion (‘in-bore’ biopsy) and cognitive fusion. Supportive data are emerging for the fusion devices, two of which received US Food and Drug Administration approval in the past 5 years: Artemis (Eigen, USA) and Urostation (Koelis, France). Working with the Artemis device in more than 600 individuals, we found that targeted biopsies are two to three times more sensitive for detection of CaP than nontargeted systematic biopsies; nearly 40% of men with Gleason score of at least 7 CaP are diagnosed only by targeted biopsy; nearly 100% of men with highly suspicious MRI lesions are diagnosed with CaP; ability to return to a prior biopsy site is highly accurate (within 1.2 ± 1.1 mm); and targeted and systematic biopsies are twice as accurate as systematic biopsies alone in predicting whole-organ disease. Summary In the future, MRI–ultrasound fusion for lesion targeting is likely to result in fewer and more accurate prostate biopsies than the present use of systematic biopsies with ultrasound guidance alone.

Marks, Leonard; Young, Shelena; Natarajan, Shyam



Axillary Web Syndrome after Sentinel Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a self-limiting cause of morbidity in the early postoperative period after axillary surgery, but it is encountered also after sentinel lymph node biopsy. The syndrome is characterized by cords of subcutaneous tissue extending from the axilla into the medial arm. Case Report Here, we report a patient presenting with AWS several weeks after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion AWS has been reported to be resolved spontaneously in all patients 8–16 weeks after axillary surgery, and shoulder movements improve in this period. There is no definitive treatment modality for AWS. Patients should be reassured and informed that this condition will improve even without treatment.

Aydogan, Fatih; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Baghaki, Semih; Karabulut, Kagan; Tahan, Gulgun; Uras, Cihan



Peripartum heart disease: an endomyocardial biopsy study.  

PubMed Central

Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 11 African women in Nairobi who presented with the clinical features of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The samples were studied by light and electron microscopy. In five patients there was evidence of a "healing myocarditis", that is the presence of a mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the myocardium with foci of necrosis and variable amounts of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Of the nine patients who were followed up, three out of four with myocarditis had persistent heart failure and four out of five without myocarditis improved. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte cell subsets were measured in nine patients by means of monoclonal antibodies. A high helper:suppressor T cell ratio was found in three patients. Almost half of this group of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy had myocarditis in their biopsy specimens. The myocarditis may have been due to an inappropriate immunological reaction in some patients. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3

Sanderson, J E; Olsen, E G; Gatei, D



Nerve biopsy in patients with AIDS.  


Patients with AIDS can present clinical involvement of the peripheral nervous system due to different causes. In the present work, it was studied the histopathological changes in sural nerve biopsy of fifteen patients with AIDS with this clinical involvement. It was observed the presence of a polyarteritis nodosa-like vasculitis of small arteries with fibrinoid necrosis in the sural nerve of 3 patients, one of them associated to polyradiculitis due to cytomegalovirus infection (CMV). Six patients presented mild axonal loss by light microscopy. Three other patients had a more important axonal neuropathy with myelin ovoids by teasing. By the electron microscopy in these patients were observed some fibers with axonal damage. The other three patients had normal sural nerves. We concluded that sural nerve biopsy may be important in peripheral neuropathies or myelo-radiculo-polyneuropathies in AIDS especially to search for nerve vasculitis, because it can change the therapeutic approach. PMID:9628977

Calore, E E; Shulte, G; Penalva De Oliveira, A C; Cavaliere, M J; Perez Calore, N M; Weg, R



Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy  

PubMed Central

Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 ?m FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics.

Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.



Challenges in abdominal/pelvic biopsy techniques.  


There are various methods and techniques that can be utilize for abdominal biopsy. Some of these techniques have been utilized for over four decades. However, there are different variations to these techniques that have been recently developed to increase tissue retrieval and decrease complications. This manuscript will review a number of different modifications of prior CT or ultrasound techniques utilized with either CT or ultrasound that are helpful to be more effective in tissue retrieval. Newer guidance systems including the use of contrast-enhanced sonography and multi-modality image fusion biopsy guidance are reviewed. These different techniques can increase tissues retrieval, increase accuracy of needle placement, decrease the time for the procedure, and minimize complications. PMID:23748353

McGahan, John P



Collecting Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, takes a look at collecting plant specimens. The article discusses what tools are needed to collect specimens, how to press and dry specimens and has tips for numbering and labeling specimens.


Collecting apparatus  


An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)



Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an unusual disorder that is characterized by diffuse or scattered eosinophilic infiltration\\u000a of the digestive tract. The diagnosis is based on histology obtained by capsule, endoscopic, laparoscopic, or laparotomy biopsy.\\u000a The eosinophilic infiltration produces thickening of the small bowel wall that can be observed by using sonography. The appearance\\u000a produces the pseudokidney sign that can

S. F. Marco-Doménech; S. Gil-Sánchez; J. Jornet-Fayos; S. Ambit-Capdevila; M. Gonzalez-Añón



Axillary recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) without further axillary dissection in patients with sentinel node-negative breast carcinoma appears to be a safe procedure to ensure locoregional control. During a median follow-up of 35 months the false-negative rate was 1% in our study population of 185 patients.Background. The objective of this prospective study is to provide data on follow-up of patients with

B van der Vegt; M. H. E Doting; P. L Jager; J Wesseling; J de Vries



Breast biopsy and guidance for occult lesions.  


Biopsy and histological examination is the only way of determining with absolute accuracy whether a lesion is benign or malignant, as well as its exact nature and whether it shows any evidence of precancerous changes. Occult malignant lesions, not clinically detectable, may be found by the study of surrounding tissue in the course of the excision of a benign lesion. However, they are most often found by breast x-rays (mammography or xerography) which are done for: the survey of high-risk asymptomatic women; contralateral breast studies; symptomatic breasts without palpable findings; nipple discharge; large pendulous breasts; and multinodular breasts. Biopsies for occult lesions, based on radiographic findings, are recommended for: suspicious calcifications; stellate-shaped masses; breast masses with ill-defined borders or nodular contours; dominant masses; and areas of increased density or distorted breast architecture. In general, biopsy for these lesions is best done under general anesthesia, as an in-patient and as a two-step type of procedure, i.e., the biopsy should be studied by permanent histologic sections before making a final diagnosis. Preoperative localization can be done by measurements, markers, radio-opaque dye injections or by needle localization which we feel is the preferred technique because it is simple and accurate and allows for removal of only a small amount of tissue with better cosmetic results. The advantages and disadvantages of various types of needle localization are discussed and figures are given for 387 needle localizations in which 148 cancers were found (38.2%). Of these cancers, 54.1% were invasive and 45.9% were noninvasive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4055273

Leis, H P; Cammarata, A; LaRaja, R D; Higgins, H


The Breast Biopsy Paradigm Shifts Once Again  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we first began our surgical training over 30 years ago, there were few brave souls challenging the current dogma of the day and of the preceding 50 years: the one-stage procedure for breast cancer. You remember the one-stage procedure. A woman with a palpable mass (there were essentially no mammographic cancers or wire-directed biopsies at that time) was admitted

Melvin J. Silverstein; Howard Silberman



Cancer detection and biopsy classification using concurrent histopathological and metabolomic analysis of core biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolomics, the non-targeted interrogation of small molecules in a biological sample, is an ideal technology for identifying diagnostic biomarkers. Current tissue extraction protocols involve sample destruction, precluding additional uses of the tissue. This is particularly problematic for high value samples with limited availability, such as clinical tumor biopsies that require structural preservation to histologically diagnose and gauge cancer aggressiveness. To overcome this limitation and increase the amount of information obtained from patient biopsies, we developed and characterized a workflow to perform metabolomic analysis and histological evaluation on the same biopsy sample. Methods Biopsies of ten human tissues (muscle, adrenal gland, colon, lung, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, stomach, prostate, kidney) were placed directly in a methanol solution to recover metabolites, precipitate proteins, and fix tissue. Following incubation, biopsies were removed from the solution and processed for histology. Kidney and prostate cancer tumor and benign biopsies were stained with hemotoxylin and eosin and prostate biopsies were subjected to PIN-4 immunohistochemistry. The methanolic extracts were analyzed for metabolites on GC/MS and LC/MS platforms. Raw mass spectrometry data files were automatically extracted using an informatics system that includes peak identification and metabolite identification software. Results Metabolites across all major biochemical classes (amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides, cofactors, xenobiotics) were measured. The number (ranging from 260 in prostate to 340 in colon) and identity of metabolites were comparable to results obtained with the current method requiring 30 mg ground tissue. Comparing relative levels of metabolites, cancer tumor from benign kidney and prostate biopsies could be distinguished. Successful histopathological analysis of biopsies by chemical staining (hematoxylin, eosin) and antibody binding (PIN-4, in prostate) showed cellular architecture and immunoreactivity were retained. Conclusions Concurrent metabolite extraction and histological analysis of intact biopsies is amenable to the clinical workflow. Methanol fixation effectively preserves a wide range of tissues and is compatible with chemical staining and immunohistochemistry. The method offers an opportunity to augment histopathological diagnosis and tumor classification with quantitative measures of biochemicals in the same tissue sample. Since certain biochemicals have been shown to correlate with disease aggressiveness, this method should prove valuable as an adjunct to differentiate cancer aggressiveness.




Microsoft Academic Search

This poster to Mine Water 2009, presents results from studies of metals in the surface layers of a mine tailing sediment from a water covered pyrite mine tailing dam in Norway. We used the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) probe in parallell with Diffusive Equilbrium in Thin Films (DET) probe and a modified peeper to collect metals in porewater.



Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert


Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert


[Arteriolar hyalinosis in testicular biopsies (author's transl)].  


Arteriolar hyalinosis is a common post mortem finding in the testes of even young men. Identical arteriolar hyalinoses can be demonstrated in testicular biopsies of patients with infertility or in patients operated on for cryptorchidism. In a series of such biopsies from 2400 patients, the frequency of arteriolar hyalinosis was examined. In 7 cases with positive findings, histochemical studies were carried out and in an additional 14 biopsies electron microscopy was performed. Arteriolar hyalinosis was found in 3.75% of the 2,400 patients with disturbances of fertility or cryptorchidism. The mean age of these patients was 34 years. In 58% of the cases with arteriolar hyalinosis the basic testicular lesion was tubular atrophy, in 22% cryptorchidism. The arteriolar lesions were due to deposits of lipoids and mucopolysaccharides. Electron microscopy revealed a granular material with vacuoles and rarely myelin bodies below the endothelial layer and between myocytes and fibrocytes of the arteriolar wall. In later stages elastin-like material could be demonstrated in the vicinity of the endothelial cells and collagen fibers at the periphery of these deposits. The etiology of testicular arteriolar hyalinosis and its pathogenetic significance are not yet clear. PMID:87061

Frei, D; Hedinger, C




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...


Detection and tracking of low contrast human sperm tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking sperm tail movement provides important information for clinical sperm research. It is also a crucial step for sperm immobilization in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, the low visibility of the sperm tail under optical microscopy, coupled with the sperm fast motility, render sperm tail identification and tracking challenging tasks to execute. This paper presents two approaches for sperm tail

Clement Leung; Zhe Lu; Navid Esfandiari; Robert F. Casper; Yu Sun



Ear punch biopsy method for detection and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents.  

PubMed Central

An ear punch biopsy method for the detection and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents was developed. The ear punch biopsy proved to be extremely sensitive, detecting spirochetes in 100% (11 of 11) of laboratory hamsters infected by tick bite and 95.8% (23 of 24) of hamsters infected by intraperitoneal inoculation. When cultured at 4 to 6 weeks postinfection, 92 to 100% of the ear punches taken from individual hamsters yielded viable spirochetes. B. burgdorferi was detected in sequential cultures from animals as early as 4 days postinfection and as late as 20 weeks postinfection. A total of 86% (6 of 7) of field-collected white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) which were positive for B. burgdorferi as determined by xenodiagnosis were also positive by the ear punch method. The ear punch biopsy method allows individual rodents to be sampled for B. burgdorferi serially over a long period and thus should prove useful for both field and laboratory experiments.

Sinsky, R J; Piesman, J



Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture  

SciTech Connect

Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti



Skin Biopsy: A New Tool to Diagnose Sarcoglycanopathy.  


Muscular dystrophies are progressive, genetic disorders of muscle degeneration. The current gold standard for diagnosis is muscle biopsy or genetic studies. Muscle biopsy is an invasive procedure and genetic testing facilities are available only in a few centers. Thus, a diagnostic test that is easily available, simpler, and less invasive is desirable. Over the past 2 decades, skin biopsy has been evolving as a suitable option. Two cases of sarcoglycanopathy are described here, which have been correctly diagnosed by skin biopsy. Muscle biopsy has been used as the gold-standard diagnostic method. Skin biopsy can substitute for muscle biopsy as the preliminary diagnostic tool directing appropriate molecular testing. However, these results require validation in studies with an adequate sample size. This holds promise for the future when repeated biopsies will be required for evaluating protein rescue in trials of novel treatment options in these disorders. PMID:23680947

Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Sharma, M C; Gulati, Sheffali; Kabra, Madhulika; Pandey, R M; Sarkar, Chitra



Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images

Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H



The diagnostic significance of intestinal metaplasia in endoscopic gastric biopsies.  


The incidences of intestinal metaplasia in two groups of benign endoscopic biopsies taken from stomachs with malignant and benign lesions respectively were compared. 315 single biopsies were taken from stomachs with proven carcinoma, but outside the carcinomatous area. They were compared to 786 single biopsies taken from stomachs with proven benign lesions. Each single biopsy was placed in one of three groups: intestinal metaplasia absent, or making up less or more than 50 per cent of the epithelium in the biopsy. The results showed that single biopsies with intestinal metaplasia regardless of the extension of the metaplasia in the biopsy were found more often in stomachs with carcinoma than in stomachs with benign lesions but without any significant difference. If more than half of the benign biopsies taken during an examination demonstrated extensive grades of intestinal metaplasia a sligtly significant difference in favour of carcinomas was found. PMID:848291

Johansen, A; Sikjär, B



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.  


There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O



mRNA and micro-RNA expression analysis in laser-capture microdissected prostate biopsies: valuable tool for risk assessment and prevention trials.  


Diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) typically relies on needle biopsies, which are routinely archived in paraffin after formalin fixation and may contain valuable risk or prognostic information. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of mRNA and miRNA expression analysis in laser-capture microdissected (LCM) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archived prostate biopsies compared to the gold standard of frozen tissue. We analyzed the expression of compartment-specific and PCa-related genes in epithelial and stromal tissues collected from paired sets of archived prostate biopsies and frozen radical prostatectomy specimens from three patients. Our results showed appropriate compartment-specific and PCa-related expression with good within patient agreement between the FFPE biopsies and the frozen tissue. The potential for both mRNA and micro-RNA expression profiling in the biopsies was also demonstrated using PCR arrays which showed high correlation between the biopsy and frozen tissue, notwithstanding sensitivity limitations for mRNA detection in the FFPE specimen. This is the first study to compare RNA expression from biopsy and frozen tissues from the same patient and to examine miRNA expression in LCM-collected tissue from prostate biopsies. With careful technique and use of appropriate controls, RNA profiling from archived biopsy material is quite feasible showing high correlation to frozen tissue. PMID:19874819

Nonn, Larisa; Vaishnav, Avani; Gallagher, Lindsay; Gann, Peter H



Comparison of fully automated and semi-automated biopsy needles for lung biopsy under CT fluoroscopic guidance  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare two different automated biopsy needles, a fully automated biopsy needle (Monopty; Bard, Covington, GA) and a semi-automated biopsy needle (Temno; Bauer Medical, Clearwater, FL), for lung biopsy. Methods 50 consecutive percutaneous lung biopsies using the Monopty needle between June 2006 and January 2007 and 66 consecutive lung biopsies for 1 nodule in each session using the Temno needle between February 2007 and August 2008 were performed under CT fluoroscopic guidance followed by histopathological evaluation. Results In 42/50 lung biopsies performed with the Monopty needle and 54/66 lung biopsies performed with the Temno needle, the final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathological findings or clinical follow-up. Sufficient samples for histopathological evaluation were obtained in all 50 (100%) biopsies using the Monopty needle and in 55 (83.3%) of the 66 biopsies using the Temno needle (p<0.01). Accurate diagnosis was achieved in 41 (97.6%) of 42 biopsies using the Monopty needle and in 45 (83.3%) of 54 biopsies using the Temno needle (p=0.04). Biopsy-induced complications were pneumothorax, haemoptysis and haemothorax in 44.0%, 10.0% and 6.0% of biopsies, respectively, using the Monopty needle and in 48.3%, 8.3% and 3.3%, respectively, using the Temno needle. Conclusion There is a possibility that a fully automated biopsy needle such as the Monopty is more useful for CT scan-guided lung biopsy than semi-automated biopsy needles.

Yoshimatsu, R; Yamagami, T; Tanaka, O; Miura, H; Tanaka, T; Suzuki, T; Nishimura, T




Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean


Resistance of Indonesian thin tail sheep against Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resistance of Indonesian thin tail (ITT) sheep against Fasciola gigantica has been confirmed. Naive ITT sheep had only 17% of the number of mature parasites collected from control St. Croix sheep. In contrast, the level of resistance of ITT sheep against F. hepatica was the same as that of the low resistance Merino breed after both primary and secondary

J. A. Roberts; E. Estuningsih; S. Widjayanti; E. Wiedosari; S. Partoutomo; T. W. Spithill



Diagnosis of amyloidosis and differentiation from chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and pig-tailed (M. nemestrina) macaques.  


Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529

Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J



[Measurement of the status of trace elements in cattle using liver biopsy samples].  


Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper; zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however; these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper; in blood or urine. Therefore measurement of trace elements in liver tissue is considered the gold standard. For the assessment of selenium the method of choice remains determination of glutathion peroxidase in erythrocytes and for the assessment of magnesium determination of magnesium in urine. We determined the accuracy and repeatability of measuring trace elements in liver biopsies and whole liver homogenates. The levels of trace elements measured were similar in both preparations (92% agreement). Liver biopsy in live animals is a relatively simple procedure but not common in The Netherlands. Reference levels of trace elements, classified as too low, low, adequate, high, and too high, were established on the basis of our research and information in the literature. In a second study we investigated the practical aspects of obtaining liver tissue samples and their use. Samples were collected from cattle on a commercial dairy farm. Liver biopsy provided additional information to that obtained from serum and urine samples. We prepared a biopsy protocol and a test package, which we tested on 14 farms where an imbalance of trace minerals was suspected. Biopsy samples taken from 4 to 6 animals revealed extreme levels of trace elements. PMID:17323902

Ouweltjes, W; de Zeeuw, A C; Moen, A; Counotte, G H M



Diagnostic Yield of Brain Biopsies in Children Presenting to Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of brain biopsy is well established in patients with neoplastic lesions, with a diagnostic yield approaching 95%. The diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in adults with neurological decline varies from 20% to 43%. Only a few studies have examined the diagnostic yield of brain biopsy in children with idiopathic neurological decline. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all

Sunita Venkateswaran; Cynthia Hawkins; Evangeline Wassmer



Ability of Sextant Biopsies to Predict Radical Prostatectomy Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. There are few studies evaluating multiple variables on sextant biopsies with the intent to predict stage in radical prostatectomy specimens.Methods. We studied 113 sextant biopsies with corresponding totally submitted radical prostatectomy specimens. Variables evaluated on sextant biopsies included total length and percent of cancer; maximum length and percent of cancer on one core; location (apex, mid, base); bilaterality; Gleason

Marcia L Wills; Jurgita Sauvageot; Alan W Partin; Robin Gurganus; Jonathan I Epstein



CT-Guided Stereotactic Biopsy of Nonenhancing Brain Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of computer tomography stereotactic biopsy lesions enhance after administration of intravenous contrast, whereas patients with nonenhancing lesions are often followed conservatively or undergo craniotomies. There are few studies showing the effectiveness of stereotactic biopsies of nonenhancing cerebral lesions. Stereotactic biopsies were performed on 19 patients with lesions that did not en-hance on CT after intravenous contrast. Pathological diagnoses

Miquelangelo J. Perez-Cruet; Lester Adelman; Mary Anderson; Patrick A. Roth; Ann M. Ritter; Stephen C. Saris



[Orbital tumors: the ophthalmologist's point of view (biopsies - approaches - exenteration)].  


This publication details the indications and contraindications of orbital tumor biopsies and surgical removal. Until now biopsies of pleomorphic adenomas were contraindicated. This management is now being reconsidered. Contrary to past convention, for suspected malignant tumors, a biopsy is essential. Great caution is required in surgery of inflammatory pseudotumors. Surgery is not recommended in lymphomas. PMID:20303558

George, J-L



Biopsy preparation for flow analysis using microfabricated disaggregation blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epithelial tissue biopsy processor that produces stained cell nuclei as its output using microfabricated disaggregation structures is presented. Stained cell nuclei produced by the processor can be used for a variety of diagnostic tests to assess the presence of cancer or the risk of developing cancer in the future. To better understand the biopsy disaggregation process, biopsies prepared by

Andrew K. Miller; Matthew L. Stanton; Carissa A. Sanchez; Xiaohong Li; Sarah C. McQuaide



Fine needle aspiration biopsy of intraoral and oropharyngeal mass lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has been rarely used in oral and oropharyngeal lesions. The goal of this study was to assess the value and accuracy of FNA biopsy in the diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal lesions particularly in regards to discriminating benign from malignant tumors. METHODS: Sixteen cases of FNA biopsies obtained of various intraoral and oropharyngeal masses

Husain A Saleh; Lewis Clayman; Haitham Masri



Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.METHODSThree patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated

Giuseppe Lauria; Justin C McArthur; Peter E Hauer; John W Griffin; David R Cornblath



Design of a novel elliptical skin biopsy punch device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current skin biopsy techniques utilizing a punch biopsy device can leave raised scars that are cosmetically unappealing. With 3.8 million procedures per year, the potential marketability of a superior device is substantial. The goal of this study is to design a novel elliptical punch biopsy device that maintains the simplicity of existing products while minimizing scarring. Mechanical testing was performed

David Weiner; Matthew Wainwright; Edward Tacvorian; Derek Hall; Glenn Gaudette; Raymond Dunn



Tail buffet alleviation of high performance twin tail aircraft using offset piezoceramic stack actuators and acceleration feedback control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In High Performance Twin-Tail Aircraft (HPTTA), tail buffet occurs during high angles of attack maneuvers. At high angles of attack, flow separates and vortices are convected by the geometry of the wing-fuselage interface toward the vertical tails. This phenomenon, along with the aeroelastic coupling of the tail structural assembly, results in vibrations that can shorten the fatigue life of the

Maxime P. Bayon de Noyer



A review of morphological characteristics relating to the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to survey the literature pertinent to some morphological traits which are related with the production\\u000a and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds. The fat-tailed breeds were identified according to Food and Agriculture Organization\\u000a databases. Articles referring to all these sheep breeds were evaluated. The morphology of udders and their measurable variables\\u000a were collected and described.

Aris F. Pourlis



Interference with the cytoplasmic tail of gp210 disrupts \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

e tested the hypothesis that gp210, an integral membrane protein of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), mediates nuclear pore formation. Gp210 has a large lumenal domain and small COOH-terminal tail exposed to the cytoplasm. We studied the exposed tail. We added recombinant tail polypeptides to Xenopus nuclear assembly extracts, or inhibited endogenous gp210 tails using anti-tail antibodies. Both strategies had no

Sheona P. Drummond; Katherine L. Wilson



Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others



Why do Birds have Tails? The Tail as a Drag Reducing Flap, and Trim Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds have tails, bats do not. Does this fundamental difference in flight morphology reveal a difference in flight capability, and if so are birds or bats better fliers? I use Munk's stagger theorem, and Prandtl's relation for the induced drag of a biplane to show that for a given lift, and given wingspan, the induced drag of the wing-tail combination

Adrian L. R. Thomas



Does Washing the Biopsy Needle with PovidoneIodine Have an Effect on Infection Rates after Transrectal Prostate Needle Biopsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the effect of washing the biopsy needle with povidone-iodine solution on infection rates after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: 180 patients with transrectal prostate biopsy were included. Infection was excluded with midstream urine culture before biopsy, and patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 84), the needle was washed with povidone-iodine

Gokhan Koc; Sitki Un; Devrim Nihat Filiz; Kaan Akbay; Yuksel Yilmaz



Nonlethal acquisition of large liver samples from free-ranging river sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) using single-entry endoscopic biopsy forceps.  


Harvesting of liver samples for toxicologic and other laboratory analyses is frequently undertaken in free-ranging fish to evaluate accumulations of various pollutants and chemicals. However, commonly used, lethal techniques for collecting liver tissues are unacceptable when dealing with protected species. We report the use of a nonlethal, single-entry, endoscopic technique using saline infusion to examine and collect large liver samples using optical biopsy forceps from 16 free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus spp.) during 25 and 27 January 2010. Under tricaine methanesulfonate anesthesia and following the introduction of the optical biopsy forceps (with a 5-mm telescope) through a 1-2-cm ventral midline skin incision, liver examination and collection of biopsies averaging 0.9 g, ranging up to 1.4 g, and representing up to 12% of total liver tissue were successful. All fish made uneventful recoveries and necropsy examinations the following day failed to indicate any significant hemorrhage or iatrogenic trauma. We recommend the use of large optical biopsy forceps as a practical, nonlethal alternative for collection of large liver biopsies from sturgeon and other fish. PMID:23568907

Divers, Stephen J; Boone, Shaun S; Berliner, Aimee; Kurimo, Elizabeth A; Boysen, Krista A; Johnson, David R; Killgore, K Jack; George, Steven G; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey



Ectoparasites of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from South Dakota.  


During the summers of 1982 and 1983, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were examined for parasites. Those collected and their respective prevalence included Linognathoides cynomyis (46.3%), Opisocrostis hirsutus (53.7%), Opisocrostis tuberculatus cynomuris (2.4%), Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (12.2%), Ixodes sculptus (2.4%) and Dermacentor andersoni (4.9%). The collection data indicated that L. cynomyis, O. hirsutus and A. fahrenholzi were at low population densities during this period. PMID:3586214

Kietzmann, G E



Accuracy analysis in MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy.  


PURPOSE: To assess retrospectively the clinical accuracy of an magnetic resonance imaging-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been used in the US National Cancer Institute for over 6 years. METHODS: Series of 2D transverse volumetric MR image slices of the prostate both pre (high-resolution T2-weighted)- and post (low-resolution)- needle insertions were used to evaluate biopsy accuracy. A three-stage registration algorithm consisting of an initial two-step rigid registration followed by a B-spline deformable alignment was developed to capture prostate motion during biopsy. The target displacement (distance between planned and actual biopsy target), needle placement error (distance from planned biopsy target to needle trajectory), and biopsy error (distance from actual biopsy target to needle trajectory) were calculated as accuracy assessment. RESULTS: A total of 90 biopsies from 24 patients were studied. The registrations were validated by checking prostate contour alignment using image overlay, and the results were accurate to within 2 mm. The mean target displacement, needle placement error, and clinical biopsy error were 5.2, 2.5, and 4.3 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The biopsy error reported suggests that quantitative imaging techniques for prostate registration and motion compensation may improve prostate biopsy targeting accuracy. PMID:23532560

Xu, Helen; Lasso, Andras; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Singh, Anurag K; Pinto, Peter A; Coleman, Jonathan; Grubb, Robert L; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Menard, Cynthia; Whitcomb, Louis L; Fichtinger, Gabor



Imaging-guided Parenchymal Liver Biopsy: How We Do It  

PubMed Central

Liver biopsies are performed for both focal and nonfocal lesions (parenchymal). In our center, majority of liver biopsies are performed for parenchymal liver disease. Parenchymal liver biopsy plays a key role in the diagnosis of various diffuse liver dysfunctions. Results of the biopsy help grade the disease, facilitating prognostication, which helps in planning specific treatment strategies. Imaging guidance is gaining wide acceptance as the standard procedure. Ultrasound (US) guidance is currently considered the most cost-effective and safe way to perform parenchymal liver biopsies. Radiologists worldwide and particularly in the United States are increasingly performing this procedure. Radiologists performing biopsies generally use the cutting needle. Different needle sizes, techniques and preference for biopsy of the right or left lobe have been described. We attribute these preferences to prior training and individual radiologist's comfort level. We describe the algorithm followed at our institution for performing percutaneous US-guided parenchymal liver biopsy. While clinical societies have recommended a minimum of 40 liver biopsies as a requirement for proficiency of clinicians, specific to radiology trainees/fellows interested in pursuing a career in intervention, we feel a total of 20 liver biopsies (includes assisted and independently performed biopsies under supervision) should be adequate training.

Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R; David, Sheehan; Bermudez-Allende, Myriam; Sarwat, Hussain



Characterization of syncrude sludge pond tailings  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process used by Suncor and Syncrude to extract bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands produces large volumes of tailings slurry. The fine grained sludge component of this waste is the most troublesome because of its stability and poor compaction potential. The sludge apparently owes its stability substantially to a complex interaction between organic coated amorphous particles, clays and bitumens. In this study the authors have investigated the nature of both the minerals and the associated organic matter present in a thickened, aqueous tailings sludge sample, from the syncrude Canada Limited plant. The findings of this study could be helpful in providing some insight into the nature of tailings pond sludge, a problem which poses the most imminent environmental constraint to future use of the hot water process.

Majid, A.; Boyko, V.J.; Sparks, B.D.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Kodama, H. (Chemistry and Biology Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))



Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.



Europa's FUV auroral tail on Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet images of Jupiter's northern aurora obtained in 2005 confirm the existence of an electromagnetic interaction between Europa and the Jovian ionosphere. The auroral signature shows a two-component structure: a quasi-circular Europa spot, followed by a previously undetected faint tail emission trailing in the direction of corotation flow. The characteristic brightness for the auroral spot is ~14 +/- 1 kR above background, and approximately 7 +/- 1 kR for the tail. The spot's size is ~1100 km, magnetically mapping to an interaction region <=15 Europa diameters. The auroral tail extends over ~5000 km, which maps along a region of at least 70 Europa diameters. The ultraviolet power emitted by both components varies from a fraction to several GW. The present study suggests auroral interaction at Europa similar to that at Io, but scaled-down by an order of magnitude, including a sub-corotating plasma plume in the geometrical wake of Europa.

Grodent, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Gustin, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Clarke, J. T.



Jay's Collectibles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.



Collecting Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

Barker, Rachel M.


Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela



Wake Filling by Active Tail Articulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a viscous fluid, the no slip boundary condition results in a surface drag force on a moving streamlined body, such as a hydrofoil, which causes a downstream wake velocity defect. In this paper, experimental results are presented which show that articulation of a trailing edge tail flap on a hydrofoil is sufficient to diminish the mean wake velocity defect. A 3 inch chord length NACA 0020 hydrofoil with a 1 inch long flapping trailing edge section was mounted in the research water tunnel at NUWC, Newport. Tests were conducted at speeds of 1, 2, and 4 m/s and the tail was flapped sinusoidally with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20 degrees at varying frequencies. Time averaged velocity data was taken 1 chord length downstream by laser doppler velocimetry, LDV. Measurements with zero tail deflection show a velocity defect behind the hydrofoil of magnitude u/U = 0.88 and coefficient of drag, Cd, of approximately 0.02. Active articulation measurements show two regimes of wake filling. At very low Strouhal numbers it was found that tail articulation increases drag and is not useful for wake filling. In this range Cd is a function of flap deflection amplitude, St, and Re. However, above a certain threshold value, approximately St = 0.01, tail articulation begins to lessen the mean drag until Cd goes to zero around St = 0.06. At even higher St, tail articulation begins to produce thrust, resulting in a negative value of Cd. In the useful wake filling region, St 0.01, Cd seems to collapse to be a function of St only.

Macumber, Daniel; Beal, David; Annaswamy, Anuradha; Henoch, Charles; Huyer, Stephen



Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab



Containment systems for uranium-mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

Cover and liner systems for uranium mill tailings in the United States must satisfy stringent requirements regarding long-term stability, radon control, and radionuclide and hazardous chemical migration. The cover and liner technology discussed in this paper involves: (1) single and multilayer earthen cover systems; (2) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems; and (3) asphalt, clay, and synthetic liner systems. These systems have been field tested at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings pile, where they have been shown to effectively reduce radon releases and radionuclide and chemical migration.

Hartley, J.N.; Buelt, J.L.



Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael



Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats.  


Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

Buckingham, Kati J; McMillin, Margaret J; Brassil, Margaret M; Shively, Kathryn M; Magnaye, Kevin M; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S; Lyons, Leslie A; Bamshad, Michael J



CT-Guided Needle Biopsy of Deep Pelvic Lesions by Extraperitoneal Approach Through Iliopsoas Muscle  

SciTech Connect

We report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided coaxial needle biopsy of deep pelvic lesions by an extraperitoneal approach through the iliopsoas muscle, using a curved needle for difficult-to-reach lesions. We reviewed the records of all patients with pelvic masses who underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy via iliopsoas muscle between January 1999 and December 2001. Direct anterior or posterior approach to the lesion was obstructed by bowel, bladder, vessels, or bones in all patients. An 18-gauge guide needle was advanced through the iliopsoas muscle and a 22-gauge Chiba needle was used to perform the biopsy. A custom-tailored curved 22-g needle was used in 17 procedures when the location of the iliac vessels and the slope of the iliac wing obstructed a straight path to the lesion. Fifty-three patients underwent 57 CT-guided needle biopsies during the study period. The lesions comprised obturator (n = 25), internal iliac (n = 11), anterior external iliac (n = 4), and common iliac nodes (n = 4); soft tissue masses along pelvic side-wall (n = 6); adnexal lesions (n = 5); a loculated fluid collection, and a perirectal node. All lesions were safely accessed, and major vessels and viscera were avoided in all cases. Of the 57 biopsies, 53 (93%) yielded diagnostic specimens. No major complications were encountered. CT-guided coaxial needle biopsy by an anterolateral approach through the iliopsoas muscle, with the use of a curved needle in selected cases is safe and effective for obtaining samples from deep pelvic lesions.

Gupta, Sanjay; Madoff, David C.; Ahrar, Kamran; Morello, Frank A.; Wallace, Michael J.; Murthy, Ravi; Hicks, Marshall E. [University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas, 77030-4009, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Unit 325 (United States)



Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.



Geochemical and microbial effects on the mobilization of arsenic in mine tailing soils.  


Arsenic (As) contamination has become a serious environmental problem in many countries. We have performed batch-type leaching experiments on mine tailing soils collected from three abandoned mine areas in South Korea with the objective of evaluating the effect of indigenous bacterial activity on As mobilization. The analysis of physicochemical properties and mineralogical compositions of the samples indicated that the secondary minerals or phases formed as a result of the oxidation or alteration of primary minerals were associated with the labile and bioleachable fractions of As. Compared to simulated abiotic processes using sterilization, the indigenous bacteria activated using a carbon source were able to enhance the dissolution of As under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The bacterial dissolution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) was found to occur simultaneously with the dissolution of As, suggesting that the main bacterial mechanism was via the dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III), Mn(IV), and As(V). An anaerobic environment was more favorable for the prominent dissolution of As in the tailing soils. These results indicate that the mobilization of As can be enhanced in the oxygen-depleted part of the tailing dump, particularly with the infiltration of organic substrates. The difference in the degree of As lixiviation between the three tailing soils was found to be related to the bioavailability of As as well as the original biomass in the tailing soils. PMID:19412738

Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Soon-Oh



Comparative biochemical analysis of sea urchin peristome and rat tail tendon collagen.  


We report here a biochemical comparison between type 1 rat tail tendon collagen and collagen isolated from sea urchin peristome tissue. The sea urchin collagen consisted of two species of apparent mol masses, 140 and 116 kDa. Amino acid compositional analysis of the 140 and 116 kDa species revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as a glycine content of 28.1 mol.%. In solubility experiments the rat tail tendon collagen was found to precipitate at sodium chloride concentrations between 1 and 2 M while peristome collagen remained soluble at salt concentrations as high as 4 M. Incubation of the peristome and rat tail tendon collagen preparations with a sea urchin collagenase/gelatinase resulted in cleavage of the former but not the latter collagen. Upon heat denaturation at 60 degrees C, however, the rat tail tendon collagen served as a substrate for the gelatinase. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of rat tail and peristome collagens generated largely unique peptide maps. Collectively, these results suggest that structural differences exist between echinoderm and vertebrate type 1 collagens. PMID:9226889

Robinson, J J



Collected Reprints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a collection of reprints from ESSA Institute of Oceanography, Atlantic and Pacific Oceanographic laboratories, that includes meteorological oceanography, geological oceanography, physical oceanography as well as general reports in ocea...



Documenting the location of prostate biopsies with image fusion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To develop a system that documents the location of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies by fusing them to MRI scans obtained prior to biopsy, as the actual location of prostate biopsies is rarely known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty patients (median age 61) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 3T endorectal coil MRI prior to biopsy. 3D TRUS images were obtained just prior to standard TRUS-guided 12-core sextant biopsies wherein an electromagnetic positioning device was attached to the needle guide and TRUS probe in order to track the position of each needle pass. The 3D-TRUS image documenting the location of each biopsy was fused electronically to the T2-weighted MRI. Each biopsy needle track was marked on the TRUS images and these were then transposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified pathologically as positive or negative for cancer and the Gleason score was determined. RESULTS The location of all (n = 605) needle biopsy tracks was successfully documented on the T2-weighted (T2W) MRI. Among 50 patients, 20 had 56 positive cores. At the sites of biopsy, T2W signal was considered ‘positive’ for cancer (i.e. low in signal intensity) in 34 of 56 sites. CONCLUSION It is feasible to document the location of TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on pre-procedure MRI by fusing the pre-procedure TRUS to an endorectal coil MRI using electromagnetic needle tracking. This procedure may be useful in documenting the location of prior biopsies, improving quality control and thereby avoiding under-sampling of the prostate as well as directing subsequent biopsies to regions of the prostate not previously sampled.

Turkbey, Baris; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Locklin, Julia; Pang, Yuxi; Bernardo, Marcelino; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.



Research Model Wing/Tail Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and construction of a transonic wind-tunnel model has been completed. The 1/7.5-scale model can be equipped with an all-flying low-, mid-, or T-tail. A baseline, linear element wing and an alternate wing of identical planform, but with chordwis...

R. A. Cox



Canadian Experience with Uranium Tailings Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid...

K. B. Culver



White-tailed spider bites - arachnophobic fallout?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate if public concern regarding the toxic effects of the bites from white-tailed spiders, Lampona cylindrata and L. murina, is reflected in the case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of spider bite. Methods The case histories of patients admitted to Christchurch Hospital with a diagnosis of 'contact with venomous spiders' were examined for

Jonathan Banks; Phil Sirvid; Cor Vink


Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.  


The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T



Design of Tailings Dams and Impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of practice for tailings dam and impoundment design is summarized. The design process, which embraces construction, operational and closure issues together with requisite technical aspects, has evolved over the past several decades though the engineering principles have remained the same. The design process has evolved to meet the demands of a regulatory environment that has become increasingly stringent

Michael P. Davies; Peter C. Lighthall; Steve Rice; Todd E. Martin


Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...


Optimal Reinsurance Arrangements Under Tail Risk Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Regulatory authorities demand insurance companies control their risk exposure by imposing stringent risk management policies. This article investigates the optimal risk management strategy of an insurance company subject to regulatory constraints. We provide optimal reinsurance contracts under different tail risk measures and analyze the impact of regulators' requirements on risk sharing in the reinsurance market. Our results underpin adverse

Carole Bernard; Weidong Tian



Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.



Wake Filling by Active Tail Articulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a viscous fluid, the no slip boundary condition results in a surface drag force on a moving streamlined body, such as a hydrofoil, which causes a downstream wake velocity defect. In this paper, experimental results are presented which show that articulation of a trailing edge tail flap on a hydrofoil is sufficient to diminish the mean wake velocity defect.

Daniel Macumber; David Beal; Anuradha Annaswamy; Charles Henoch; Stephen Huyer



Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni



Long Tail Recommender Utilizing Information Diffusion Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our approach aims to provide a mechanism for recommending long tail items to knowledge workers. The approach employs collaborative filtering using browsing features of identified key population of the diffusion of information. We conducted analytic experiment for a novel recommendation algorithm based on the browsing features of identified selected users and discovered that the first 10 users accessing a particular

Masayuki Ishikawa; Peter Géczy; Noriaki Izumi; Takahira Yamaguchi



A Novel Asymmetric Distribution with Power Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose a four-parameter asymmetric doubly Pareto-uniform (DPU) distribution with support (??, ?) whose density and cumulative distribution functions are constructed by seamlessly concatenating the left and right Pareto tails with a uniform central part. Properties of the distribution are described and a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure for its parameters is obtained. Two illustrative examples of

Amita Singh; J. René van Dorp; Thomas A. Mazzuchi




Microsoft Academic Search

The tail tendons from wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to- rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on



Neuroectodermal Appendages: The Human Tail Explained  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail has been intermittently described in the literature since the early 1900s. These have typically been isolated cases presented primarily with intrigue and medical curiosity. Presented here is a series of 6 neuroectodermal appendages with a proposal for their etiological development. The material presented will support a theory of the superficial extension of a dermal sinus tract in

Sarah J. Gaskill; Arthur E. Marlin



Structure and Development of Cometary Tail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical conditions in comets which lead to the formulation of type I-tails are discussed. The report comprises the following five seperate papers: (1) The ionization in comets; (2) brightness and structure of the Na-emission in comets; (3) the heads ...

K. Wurm



Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation  

SciTech Connect

Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references. (ACR)

Marks, S.



Investigation of environmental impacts of tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining has been one of the key sectors for industrialisation of the world for centuries. As the mining activities enlarge, the amount of waste materials readily increases. Storage of waste materials or tailings disposal has become a serious matter for the mining industry due to its enlargement especially for the last 30 years. During the beneficiation of valuable metals and

Safak Ozkan; Bedri Ipekoglu



Band tails and bandwidth in simple metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-electron interactions are included in a calculation of the density of states for the homogeneous electron gas. The shift of the chemical potential is investigated from band tails and quasiparticle renormalization. These effects largely cancel, and the shift of the chemical potential is small.

H. O. Frota; G. D. Mahan



Tail Pressure Release Through Auroral Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthward convecting plasma has to circumvent the Earth on its way from the tail reconnection region to the dayside magnetosphere. This leads to radially sheared flows between the corotating plasmasphere and the low-latitude boundary layer. Consequently, embedded magnetic field lines also become sheared and set up field-aligned currents which must close in the highly conducting auroral ionosphere. As- sociated electric

E. M. Blixt; J. Vogt



Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs.

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert



Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and Methods. Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. Findings. Squamous metaplastic changes on conjunctival epithelium and intense highly reflective extracellular punctiform deposits in conjunctival substantia propria were detected. Corneal epithelium was normal. Highly reflective punctiform deposits starting from anterior to mid-stroma and increasing through Descemet's membrane were evident. Corneal endothelium could not be evaluated due to intense stromal deposits. Conclusion. Confocal microscopy not only supports diagnosis in ocular argyrosis, but also demonstrates the intensity of the deposition in these patients.

Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Akalin, Taner; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse



Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  


A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)



Dermal vacuoles in two biopsies of psoriasis.  


Two patients presented with cutaneous lesions clinically typical of psoriasis. The first case was a 38-year-old man and the second was a 51-year-old woman. To confirm the diagnosis, 4-mm punch biopsy samples were obtained from both patients from the lesions on the knees. Histology in both cases was in favour of psoriasis and also revealed empty vacuoles in the papillary dermis, concentrated at sites of intense lymphocyte infiltration. The empty vacuoles resembled true fat cells or fat globules. They did not reveal positive immunostaining with CD34 antigen, suggesting that they were not lined by endothelial cells. Final histological diagnosis was psoriasis associated with dermal vacuolization. PMID:18855793

Ayva, Sebnem; Erkek, Emel; Atasoy, Pinar



Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamin...



Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis.  


A minimally invasive biopsy technique was evaluated for udder tissue collection in dairy cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Meanwhile, the effect of taking repeated liver and udder biopsies on the systemic and local acute phase response (APR) of the dairy cows was investigated during the disease. The cows were divided into a biopsy group (B) (n = 16) and a no-biopsy group (NB) (n = 16) and were sampled in the acute disease stage and in the recovery stage. The cows' pre-disease period served as a control period for establishing baseline values for the investigated parameters. A total of 32 Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with 20 to 40 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli in one front quarter at 0 hour. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 h, and udder biopsies were collected at 24 and 192 h post E. coli inoculation (PI) using a minimally invasive biopsy technique. Effects of combined biopsying were investigated by recording production traits, clinical response, and measuring inflammatory milk and blood parameters: E. coli, somatic cell count, milk amyloid A (MAA) levels, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte numbers and serum amyloid A levels at several time points. E. coli inoculation changed all production parameters and the clinical and inflammatory response in all cows except one that was not infected. Combined biopsying had no constant or transient effect on the daily feed intake, the clinical responsiveness or the blood parameters, but affected the daily milk yield and some milk parameters transiently, that is, the presence of blood in milk, increased E. coli counts and MAA levels during the acute disease stage. Combined biopsying had no effect on the parameters in the recovery stage apart from the presence of blood in the milk. In conclusion, although, a minimally invasive biopsy technique was used, tissue damages could not be avoided when biopsying and they transiently affected the inflammatory parameters in the mammary gland. Nevertheless, we believe combined biopsying of liver and udder is as an acceptable approach to study the systemic and local APR in dairy cows during E. coli mastitis, if the timing of biopsying and other types of sampling is planned accordingly. PMID:23867091

Khatun, M; Sørensen, P; Ingvartsen, K L; Bjerring, M; Røntved, C M



Outcomes and Trends of Prostate Biopsy for Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men from 2003 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is growing in popularity in China, but its impact on biopsy characteristics and outcomes are poorly understood. Objective Our objective was to characterize prostate biopsy outcomes and trends in Chinese men over a 10-year period, since the increasing use of PSA tests. Methods All men (n?=?1,650) who underwent prostate biopsy for PCa at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China from 2003–2011 were evaluated. Demographic and clinical information was collected for each patient, including age, digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (prostate volume and nodule), total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels and free PSA ratio (fPSA/tPSA) prior to biopsy. Prostate biopsy was performed using six cores before October 2007 or ten cores thereafter. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate our data. Results The overall positive rate of prostate biopsy for PCa was 47% and the rate decreased significantly over the years from 74% in 2003 to 33% in 2011 (P-trend?=?0.004) . Age at diagnosis was slightly increased (P-trend?=?0.04) while fPSA/tPSA was significantly decreased (P-trend?=?1.11×10-5). A statistically significant trend was not observed for tPSA levels, prostate volume, or proportion of positive nodule. The model including multiple demographic and clinical variables (i.e., age, DRE, tPSA, fPSA/tPSA and transrectal ultrasound results) (AUC?=?0.93) statistically outperformed models that included only PSA (AUC?=?0.85) or fPSA/tPSA (AUC?=?0.66) to predict PCa risks (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in a subgroup of men whose tPSA levels were lower than 20 ng/mL (AUC?=?0.87, vs. AUC of tPSA ?=?0.62, P<0.05). Conclusions Detection rates of PCa and high-grade PCa among men that underwent prostate biopsy at the institution has decreased significantly in the past 10 years, likely due to increasing use of PSA tests. Predictive performance of demographic and clinical variables of PCa was excellent. These variables should be used in clinics to determine the need for prostate biopsy.

Kim, Seong-Tae; Wu, Yishuo; Tong, Shijun; Zhang, Limin; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Yinghao; Ding, Qiang



Corneal biopsy in keratitis performed with the microtrephine  

Microsoft Academic Search

· Background: The aetiology of most cases of keratitis remains unclear because the causative agents respond to broad-spectrum\\u000a antibiotics. Problems occur when they become resistant to local therapies. Further diagnostic measures such as corneal scrapings\\u000a or biopsies are then necessary. In order to ensure early and gentle biopsy followed by effective diagnosis within 24 h, corneal\\u000a biopsy specimens were obtained

Sirpa Kompa; Stéphanie Langefeld; Bernd Kirchhof; Norbert Schrage



Approximating M\\/G\\/1 Waiting Time Tail Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approximation formula for the waiting time tail probability of the M\\/G\\/1 queue with FIFO discipline and unlimited waiting space. The aim is to address the difficulty of obtaining good estimates when the tail probability has non-exponential asymptotics. We show that the waiting time tail probability can be expressed in terms of the waiting time tail probability

T. Sakurai



Three Cases with Different Types of Short-Tailed Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-tailed spermatozoa were found in 3 men attending our subfertility clinic. Light microscopy revealed basically normal sperm heads, but a short tail was found in 90% or more of the spermatozoa. Scanning and transmission electron-microscopic examinations of the ejaculate revealed several types of short-tailed spermatozoa. In one case, the majority of the spermatozoa had a short, thick tail. In another

K. Ohmori; T. Matsuda; Y. Horii; O. Yoshida



True vestigeal tail with lumbosacral meningomyelocoel: a rare case report.  


A human tail is a rare congenital anomaly with a prominent lesion from the lumbosacro-coccygeal region. It is usually classified either as a true tail or as a pseudo-tail. All the lumbosacro-coccygeal protrusions without the evidence of mesenchymal tissue are classified as pseudo-tail. The association of this rare vestigial entity along with meningomyelocele is rarer still. PMID:20868247

Akhil, Prakash; Ashutosh, Niranjan; Fais, Fiages; Shashank, Mishra; Sanjay, Pandey; Singhal, B M; Attri, P C; Arvind, Gupta



Carnival Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Come to the carnival" is a common refrain in New Orleans during the month of February, and this intoxicating collection from Tulane University pays homage to this wonderful cultural tradition. The collection includes over 1,500 float designs from the "Golden Age" of carnival by notable designers such as Jennie Wilde, B.A. Wikstrom, and Charles Briton. Support for the project comes from the late Charles L. "Pie" Dufour who left funds to continue the preservation of these rare and unique ephemeral materials. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they may wish to start with fanciful designs like the 1870 "Twelfth Night Revelers" float or the 1891 "Atlanteans" design. Also, visitors can select the work of a particular float designer or krewe of note. Also, visitors can search the entire collection by keyword.



Oz Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of Oz is a big place, and this particular digital collection from the University of Minnesota pays homage to some of its many characters, stories, and more. The materials here were collected by Laura Jane Musser, and they include annual meeting program notes from the International Wizard of Oz club, sheet music from Oz-related productions, catalogs, and coloring books. The digitized materials also include a number of famous books from the Oz series, such as "The Marvelous Land of Oz" and "The Land of Oz". Visitors can use a finding aid to make their way through the materials, and if they are interested in doing research with these materials they can learn more about making a visit to the collections.


Diagnostic contribution of left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in patients with clinical phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype is shared by heterogeneous entities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy and normal/elevated QRS voltages or left bundle-branch block underwent left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy because of associated left ventricular dysfunction (37%), presence of sporadic form of left ventricular hypertrophy (32%), or patient desire for a definite diagnosis (31%). Biopsy samples were processed for histology and electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected for histologically oriented gene analysis of major sarcomeric (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TPM1) and lysosomal (LAMP2, PRKAG2, ?-galactosidase A) proteins. Histology showed changes consistent/compatible with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 124 patients: myocardial storage disease in 18 due to Fabry disease in 12 and glycogen-storage disease in 6 and myocardial infiltrative disease in 9 because of amyloidosis in 7 and sarcoidosis in 2. Gene analysis was positive in 67% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MYH7 mutation in 36, MYBP in 29, TNNT2 in 14, and TPM1 in 5) and in 83% of patients with lysosomal storage disease (?-galactosidase A mutation in 12, PRKAG2 in 2, and LAMP2 in 1). In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype, left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy is safe and may recognize infiltrative/storage diseases in up to 18% of evolving and sporadic cases. PMID:22939960

Frustaci, Andrea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Chimenti, Cristina



Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

da Silva Martinho, Herculano



Cryobiopsy: Should This Be Used in Place of Endobronchial Forceps Biopsies?  

PubMed Central

Forceps biopsies of airway lesions have variable yields. The yield increases when combining techniques in order to collect more material. With the use of cryotherapy probes (cryobiopsy) larger specimens can be obtained, resulting in an increase in the diagnostic yield. However, the utility and safety of cryobiopsy with all types of lesions, including flat mucosal lesions, is not established. Aims. Demonstrate the utility/safety of cryobiopsy versus forceps biopsy to sample exophytic and flat airway lesions. Settings and Design. Teaching hospital-based retrospective analysis. Methods. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing cryobiopsies (singly or combined with forceps biopsies) from August 2008 through August 2010. Statistical Analysis. Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results. The comparative analysis of 22 patients with cryobiopsy and forceps biopsy of the same lesion showed the mean volumes of material obtained with cryobiopsy were significantly larger (0.696?cm3 versus 0.0373?cm3, P = 0.0014). Of 31 cryobiopsies performed, one had minor bleeding. Cryopbiopsy allowed sampling of exophytic and flat lesions that were located centrally or distally. Cryobiopsies were shown to be safe, free of artifact, and provided a diagnostic yield of 96.77%. Conclusions. Cryobiopsy allows safe sampling of exophytic and flat airway lesions, with larger specimens, excellent tissue preservation and high diagnostic accuracy.

Rubio, Edmundo R.; le, Susanti R.; Whatley, Ralph E.; Boyd, Michael B.



Safety of liver biopsy in acute sickle hepatic crisis.  


Hepatic dysfunction is a commonly recognized complication of sickle cell crisis. The cause of hepatic compromise is usually made evident from physical examination, clinical history, laboratory testing, and noninvasive imaging. There are occasions when liver biopsy is required to define the etiology of the hepatic dysfunction. Liver biopsy during acute sickle hepatic crisis can result in hemorrhage and death. Careful consideration of alternatives must be explored prior to performing liver biopsy on a patient with acute sickle hepatic crisis. If biopsy cannot be delayed, close hemodynamic monitoring of the patient postbiopsy is essential. PMID:15171263

Kakarala, Sri; Lindberg, Michael



Duodenal biopsy for diagnosis of renal involvement in amyloidosis.  


Amyloidosis results from extracellular deposition of a fibrillary protein in various organs, and renal biopsy is the best, but a complicated tool for diagnosis. Therefore, alternative biopsy sites have been proposed with varying degrees of sensitivity. We aimed to find the most appropriate biopsy site in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in whom renal biopsy is contraindicated or unavailable. 42 patients (29 male; mean age 46 ± 16 y) with CKD in whom amyloidosis was suspected as the underlying etiology on clinical grounds, but renal biopsy was not available (Group I), and 36 patients (25 male; mean age 40 ± 16 y) with CKD in whom renal biopsy revealed AA-amyloidosis (Group II) were investigated. Upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) endoscopies were performed and multiple biopsies from gingiva, esophagus, antrum, duodenum and rectum were obtained. In Group I, no amyloidosis was detected in gingival and GIT biopsies among 13 patients. In the remaining 29 patients AA-amyloidosis was detected in various sites with the following frequencies: duodenum 100%, rectum 83%, antrum 79%, esophagus 44% and gingiva 29%. In Group II, frequency of amyloid deposition was 97% in duodenum, 76% each in antrum and rectum, 59% in esophagus and 32% in gingival mucosa. In conclusion, duodenal biopsy is sensitive for diagnosing amyloidosis in CKD patients, and highly correlates with renal amyloidosis. PMID:22257541

Yilmaz, Murvet; Unsal, Abdulkadir; Sokmen, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Alkim, Canan; Kabukcuoglu, Fevziye; Ozagari, Aysim



Transvenous Renal Transplant Biopsy via a Transfemoral Approach.  


Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of kidney transplants might be prevented by an elevated risk of bleeding or limited access to the allograft. In the following, we describe our initial experience with 71 transvenous renal transplant biopsies in 53 consecutive patients with unexplained reduced graft function who were considered unsuitable candidates for PRB (4.2% of all renal transplant biopsies at our institution). Biopsies were performed via the ipsilateral femoral vein with a renal biopsy set designed for transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) of native kidneys. Positioning of the biopsy system within the transplant vein was achievable in 58 of 71 (81.7%) procedures. The specimen contained a median of 10 glomeruli (range 0-38). Tissue was considered as adequate for diagnosis in 56 of 57 (98.2%) biopsies. With respect to BANFF 50.9% of the specimen were adequate (>10 glomeruli), 47.4% marginally adequate (1-9 glomeruli) and 1.8% inadequate (no glomeruli). After implementation of real-time assessment all specimen contained glomeruli. One of the fifty-eight (1.8%) procedure-related major complications occurred (hydronephrosis requiring nephrostomy due to gross hematuria). Transfemoral renal transplant biopsy (TFRTB) is feasible and appears to be safe compared to PRB. It offers a useful new alternative for histological evaluation of graft dysfunction in selected patients with contraindications to PRB. PMID:23489636

Schmid, A; Jacobi, J; Kuefner, M A; Lell, M; Wuest, W; Mayer-Kadner, I; Benz, K; Schmid, M; Amann, K; Uder, M



Non-Invasive Cytology Brush PCR Diagnostic Testing in Mucosal Leishmaniasis: Superior Performance to Conventional Biopsy with Histopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional methods of diagnosing mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), such as biopsy with histopathology, are insensitive and require collection of an invasive diagnostic specimen. Methods We compared standard invasive procedures including biopsy histopathology, biopsy PCR, and leishmanin skin test (LST) to a novel, non-invasive, cytology-brush based PCR for the diagnosis of ML in Lima, Peru. Consensus reference standard was 2/4 tests positive, and outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity. Leishmania species identification was performed by PCR-based assays of positive specimens. Results Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, 23 of whom fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of ML. Sensitivity and specificity of biopsy with histopathology were 21.7% [95% CI 4.9–38.5%] and 100%; 69.6% [95% CI 50.8–88.4%] and 100% for LST; 95.7% [95% CI 87.4–100%] and 100% for biopsy PCR; and 95.7% [95% CI 87.4–100%] and 90% [95% CI 71.4–100%] for cytology brush PCR using both Cervisoft® and Histobrush® cervical cytology brushes. Represented species identified by PCR-RFLP included: L. (V). braziliensis (n?=?4), and L. (V). peruviana (n?=?3). Conclusions Use of commercial grade cytology brush PCR for diagnosis of ML is sensitive, rapid, well tolerated, and carries none of the risks of invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy. Further optimization is required for adequate species identification. Further evaluation of this method in field and other settings is warranted.

Veland, Nicolas; Pilar Ramos, Ana; Calderon, Flor; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro



Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ˜1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ˜10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 ?m size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (?-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni ?-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ˜1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ˜3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom



Tail reconnection, from Earth to Jupiter to Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconnection is an important magnetospheric process that energizes and transports plasmas. Studies of the terrestrial magnetosphere have shown that tail reconnection plays a critical role in initiating substorms. Discovery of jovian tail reconnection and the associated growth phase indicate the substorm nature of jovian tail dynamic events. The growth phase of jovian substorms is caused by the internal processes, i.e.,

Y. S. Ge; C. T. Russell; J. S. Leisner; H. Y. Wei; M. K. Dougherty; H. J. McAndrews; C. M. Jackman; M. F. Thomsen




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory:

J. N. Hartley; P. L. Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings

J. N. Hartley; P. L Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman; J. L. Buelt; D. A. Nelson; M. R. Elmore



Application of asphalt emulsion seals to uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to less than background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado

J. N. Hartley; P. L. Koehmstedt; D. J. Esterl; H. D. Freeman; R. L. Clark



Relationships of tailed phages: a survey of protein sequence identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a multiple alignment program, we surveyed about 150 proteins from 35 tailed phages and calculated identity percentages. Sequence similarities are generally weak, indicating an extensive diversification of tailed phages. Related proteins occur in phages of different morphology and host range. DNA and RNA polymerases, integrases, muramidases, and several other tailed phage proteins appear to be acquired from bacteria.

H.-W. Ackermann; A. Elzanowski; G. Fobo; G. Stewart



Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases  

PubMed Central

Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram M.; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandal, Kartik C.; Haldar, Pankaj; Benare, Abhijit




Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent occurrence in areas with a long history of mining is the reactivation of mine residue deposits. This paper presents an impact prediction study conducted for the reactivation of a gold tailings dam. Two phases of new tailings deposition are proposed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential impact on downstream groundwater quality. The tailings dam



Grafted polymer tail\\/loop mixtures differing in chain length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examining the structure of monolayers formed by polymer chains grafted to a surface typically focus on chains attached at one end (tails). Bond fluctuation simulations are performed here to probe monolayers composed of equimolar mixtures of tails and double-grafted loops in which the looped chain length (Nloop) is varied at constant surface density and tail length (Ntail). Loops force

Daniel C. Driscoll; Harpreet S. Gulati; Richard J. Spontak; Carol K. Hall



Tail-induced attraction between nucleosome core particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a possible electrostatic mechanism underlying the compaction of DNA inside the nuclei of eucaryotes: the tail-bridging effect between nucleosomes, the fundamental DNA packaging units of the chromatin complex. As a simple model of the nucleosome we introduce the eight-tail colloid, a charged sphere with eight oppositely charged, flexible, grafted chains that represent the terminal histone tails. We show

F. Mühlbacher; H. Schiessel; C. Holm



Technical Note: Facilitating Laparoscopic Liver Biopsy by the Use of a Single-Handed Disposable Core Biopsy Needle  

PubMed Central

Despite the use of advanced radiological investigations, some liver lesions cannot be definitely diagnosed without a biopsy and histological examination. Laparoscopic Tru-Cut biopsy of the liver lesion is the preferred approach to achieve a good sample for histology. The mechanism of a Tru-Cut biopsy needle needs the use of both hands to load and fire the needle. This restricts the ability of the surgeon to direct the needle into the lesion utilising the laparoscopic ultrasound probe. We report a technique of laparoscopic liver biopsy using a disposable core biopsy instrument (BARD (R) disposable core biopsy needle) that can be used single-handedly. The needle can be positioned with laparoscopic graspers in order to reach posterior and superior lesions. This technique can easily be used in conjunction with laparoscopic ultrasound.

Trochsler, M. I.; Ralph, Q.; Bridgewater, F.; Kanhere, H.; Maddern, Guy J.



Collecting Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

Coffey, Natalie



Diabetes Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a collection of fact sheets and reports dealing with information on diabetes. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into ener...



Renal Biopsy Findings in Acute Renal Failure in the Cohort of Patients in the Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Renal biopsy in acute renal failure of unknown origin provides irreplaceable information for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This study analyzed the frequency and clinicopathologic correlations of renal native biopsied acute renal failure in Spain during the period 1994 through 2006. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Acute renal failure was defined as a rapid deterioration of glomerular filtration rate, with or without oligoanuria or rapidly progressive renal insufficiency, including acute-on-chronic renal failure. Patients who were younger than 15 yr were considered children, those between 15 and 65 yr adults, and those >65 elderly. Results: Between 1994 and 2006, data on 14,190 native renal biopsies were collected from 112 renal units in Spain. Of these, 16.1% (2281 biopsies) were diagnosed with acute renal failure. The prevalence of the main clinical syndromes was different in the three age groups: Biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure in children was 5.7%, in adults was 12.5%, and in elderly increased significantly to 32.9%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure according to cause was as follows: Vasculitis, 23.3%; acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 11.3%; and crescentic glomerulonephritis types 1 and 2, 10.1%. The prevalence of the different causes differed significantly according to age group. Conclusions: The Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis provides useful information about renal histopathology in biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure. The prevalence of vasculitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis is high, especially in elderly patients. These data obtained from a national large registry highlight the value of renal biopsy in undetermined acute renal failure.

Lopez-Gomez, Juan M.; Rivera, Francisco



Should needle localization breast biopsy give way to the new technology; the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation.  


Between July 1995 and June 1997, 114 consecutive women underwent 118 breast biopsies for nonpalpable lesions. A limited procedure room and local anesthesia were used in 96.5 per cent of patients. Intravenous access was not established in 95 per cent of patients. Oral diazepam was given to 51 per cent of patients. Needle localization technique was used with a success rate of 97.5 per cent and average operative time of 18 minutes. Breast carcinoma was found in 29 (24.6 per cent) biopsies. A review of 99 of the 118 mammograms showed only 45 per cent of the lesions being amenable to the new technology, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation. Advantages of the needle localization include short operative time; supine position for the patient; easy access to control bleeding; ability to choose a cosmetic site for the skin incision; minimal tissue removal before reaching the lesion; ability to maintain a sterile field; and applicability to almost any mammographic lesion identified, whether single or multiple. Disadvantages include the need for a separate procedure to place the wire and potential of missing the lesion in 2.5 per cent, requiring additional surgery. PMID:10917475

Hawasli, A; Zonca, S; Watt, C; Rebecca, A



Quantification, morphology, and viability of equine preantral follicles obtained via the Biopsy Pick-Up method.  


A Biopsy Pick-Up (BPU) method was tested to determine the feasibility of retrieving preantral follicles from mare ovaries in vivo. A total of 33 ovarian biopsy procedures were performed on 18 mares during the breeding season. Mares were 5 to 21 years old and biopsies were performed during the estrous and/or diestrous phase, as confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography. Follicles were mechanically isolated using a tissue chopper, counted, and classified as normal or abnormal and primordial or primary. Viability of isolated follicles was determined by Trypan Blue dye. A total of 256 biopsy attempts were made resulting in 185 successful tissue sample collections (72% success rate). The mean weight of ovarian tissue collected per procedure was 25.0 ± 1.6 mg. Overall, 620 preantral follicles were collected and isolated (95% primordial and 5% primary). The mean (±SEM) number of follicles isolated per biopsy procedure was 18.8 ± 1.9. Primordial and primary follicles had an average diameter of 31.3 ± 6.2 and 41.1 ± 6.6 ?m, respectively. Viability rate was higher (P < 0.001) for primordial follicles (91%) compared with primary follicles (50%). Primordial follicles tended (P < 0.06) to have a higher rate of morphological normality (96%) compared with primary follicles (80%). The total number of follicles isolated, amount of tissue harvested, and number of follicles per mg of tissue did not differ (P > 0.05) according to phase of the estrous cycle. Younger mares (5 to 7 years old) had more (P < 0.05) follicles isolated per procedure than older mares (14 to 21 years old). The length of the interovulatory interval was not affected (P > 0.05) by any biopsy procedure, and there were no adverse effects on cyclicity or general reproductive health. In conclusion, the BPU method provided large numbers of normal and viable preantral follicles for the study of early follicular development in mares. The BPU method might be used in the future to obtain preantral follicles for in vitro culture to enable the use of numerous oocytes present within the equine ovary. This could allow for the preservation of genetic material or large-scale embryo production. PMID:23260865

Haag, K T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Fonseca, G R; Wischral, A; Gastal, M O; King, S S; Jones, K L; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L



Structures and Interaction Analyses of Integrin ?M?2 Cytoplasmic Tails*  

PubMed Central

Integrins are heterodimeric (? and ? subunits) signal transducer proteins involved in cell adhesions and migrations. The cytosolic tails of integrins are essential for transmitting bidirectional signaling and also implicated in maintaining the resting states of the receptors. In addition, cytosolic tails of integrins often undergo post-translation modifications like phosphorylation. However, the consequences of phosphorylation on the structures and interactions are not clear. The leukocyte-specific integrin ?M?2 is essential for myeloid cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and degranulation. In this work, we determined solution structures of the myristoylated cytosolic tail of ?M and a Ser phosphorylated variant in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the interactions between non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail were investigated by NMR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The three-dimensional structures of the 24-residue cytosolic tail of ?M or phosphorylated ?M are characterized by an N-terminal amphipathic helix and a loop at the C terminus. The residues at the loop are involved in packing interactions with the hydrophobic face of the helix. 15N-1H heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified residues of ?M and ?2 tails that may be involved in the formation of a tail-tail heterocomplex. We further examined interactions between myristoylated ?2 tail in dodecylphosphocholine micelles with dansylated ?M tail peptides by FRET. These studies revealed enhanced interactions between ?M or phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail with Kd values ?5.2 ± 0.6 and ?4.4 ± 0.7 ?m, respectively. Docked structures of tail-tail complexes delineated that the ?M/?2 interface at the cytosolic region could be sustained by a network of polar interactions, ionic interactions, and/or hydrogen bonds.

Chua, Geok-Lin; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Amalraj, Monalisa; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit



Functional Studies of the Yeast Med5, Med15 and Med16 Mediator Tail Subunits  

PubMed Central

The yeast Mediator complex can be divided into three modules, designated Head, Middle and Tail. Tail comprises the Med2, Med3, Med5, Med15 and Med16 protein subunits, which are all encoded by genes that are individually non-essential for viability. In cells lacking Med16, Tail is displaced from Head and Middle. However, inactivation of MED5/MED15 and MED15/MED16 are synthetically lethal, indicating that Tail performs essential functions as a separate complex even when it is not bound to Middle and Head. We have used the N-Degron method to create temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants in the Mediator tail subunits Med5, Med15 and Med16 to study the immediate effects on global gene expression when each subunit is individually inactivated, and when Med5/15 or Med15/16 are inactivated together. We identify 25 genes in each double mutant that show a significant change in expression when compared to the corresponding single mutants and to the wild type strain. Importantly, 13 of the 25 identified genes are common for both double mutants. We also find that all strains in which MED15 is inactivated show down-regulation of genes that have been identified as targets for the Ace2 transcriptional activator protein, which is important for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Supporting this observation, we demonstrate that loss of Med15 leads to a G1 arrest phenotype. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the function of the Mediator Tail module.

Larsson, Miriam; Uvell, Hanna; Sandstrom, Jenny; Ryden, Patrik; Selth, Luke A.; Bjorklund, Stefan



Uneven distribution of ceramides, sphingomyelins and glycerophospholipids between heads and tails of rat spermatozoa.  


Previous work showed that rat germ cells and spermatozoa contain ceramides and sphingomyelins with high proportions of nonhydroxy and 2-hydroxy (2-OH) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with very long chains (VLCPUFA). The aim of this study was to assess how these lipids are distributed between the heads and tails of mature spermatozoa in comparison with other membrane lipid classes. In addition to quantitative differences due to the fact that these gametes have a long, voluminous tail and a minute head, several compositional dissimilarities emerged between these two regions. The total cholesterol/total phospholipid ratio, the choline/ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (ChoGpl/EtnGpl) ratio, and the proportion of plasmalogens within these two classes, were much larger in the head than in the tail. Whereas EtnGpl was rich in 22:5n-6 in both regions, ChoGpl had plenty of 22:4n-9, especially in the heads. An important proportion of the head EtnGpl- 22:5n-6 and ChoGpl 22:4n-9 was in plasmenyl- (rather than in phosphatidyl-) subclasses. The heads concentrated all of the sphingomyelin species with nonhydroxy- and 2-OH VLCPUFA, and the tails most of the saturated fatty acids that are present in total sperm sphingomyelin. Unexpectedly, virtually all of the abundant spermatozoal ceramides, predominantly made up by species with 2-OH VLCPUFA, was located in the tail. The fact that intact rat spermatozoa constitutively have much more VLCPUFA-containing ceramide than sphingomyelin is explained by the present findings, since the former are mostly lipids of the large tail while the latter mostly collect in the small head. PMID:21822661

Oresti, Gerardo M; Luquez, Jessica M; Furland, Natalia E; Aveldaño, Marta I




Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents from65 hunter-harvested deer werecollected and analyzed during 1985-86 to estimate the principal autumn foods consumed by white-tailed deer inhabitingthe Ozark Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf Coastal Plain regions of Arkansas. Deer in the Ozarks and Coastal Plain fed heavily on woody browse species, which comprised 99% of rumina identified from these 2 regions. Acorns were the primary



Tail-Anchored Proteins in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a class of polypeptides integrated into the membrane by a C-terminally located hydrophobic\\u000a sequence which are present in all three domains of life. Proteins of this class lack an N-terminal signal peptide and reach\\u000a their destination within the cell by posttranslational mechanisms. TA proteins perform a variety of essential functions on\\u000a the cytosolic face of cellular

Emanuela Pedrazzini



Universality of Tail Exponents of Price Changes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the tail exponents of the distribution of logarithmic price changes in financial markets, and investigate the conjecture that they are universal with an exponent near three. Using data from the London Stock Exchange, we construct the empirical distributions of price returns on several different time scales and study their variation as a function of parameters such as trading volume and tick size (the minimal unit of price variation).

Huang, Luwen; Farmer, Doyne



Fatigue rupture of wallaby tail tendons.  


Wallaby tail tendons fail after repeated application of stresses much lower than would be needed to break them in a single pull. We show that this a fatigue phenomenon, distinct from the creep rupture that occurs after prolonged application of a constant stress. The two phenomena are disctinguished by experiments in which tensile stress is cycled at different frequencies, ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. PMID:9244805

Wang, X T; Ker, R F; Alexander, R M



Mechanism of length determination in bacteriophage lambda tails.  


The mechanism of length determination in bacteriophage lambda tails is discussed as a model for regulation in protein assembly systems. The lambda tail is a long flexible tube ending in a conical part and a single tail fiber. Its length is exactly determined in the sense that the number of major tail protein (gpV) molecules, which comprise more than 80% of the mass of the tail, is exactly the same in all tails. Assembly of gpV is regulated by the initiator complex, which contains the tail fiber and the conical part, and by the terminator protein gpU. There are two key points in the assembly of gpV with respect to length determination. (1) Assembly of gpV on the initiator pauses at the correct tail length. Binding of gpU to the tail only fixes the pause firmly. (2) When the tail length is too short, binding of gpU to tails is inhibited. Deletions and a duplication (both in frame) in gene H, which codes for one of the proteins in the initiator, result in production of phage particles with altered tail length. Moreover, the tail length is roughly proportional to the length of the mutated versions of gene H. This shows that the tail length is measured by the length of gene H protein (gpH), which seems to be approximately as long as the tail tube, if extended like a thread, according to secondary structure prediction (alpha-helices connected by other structures). Various pieces of evidence show that about six molecules of gpH are attached to the remaining portion of the initiator by the C-terminal part and folded into a somewhat compact form, while they are elongated as they are enclosed in the tail tube during assembly of gpV. Unlike interaction between the length-measuring genome RNA and the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus, the major tail protein gpV does not bind specifically to the ruler protein gpH. Rather, gpH determines the tail length by inhibiting the binding of gpU to short tails and by signalling the pause when the correct tail length is attained. PMID:2150582

Katsura, I



Repeat Prostate Biopsy Strategies after Initial Negative Biopsy: Meta-Regression Comparing Cancer Detection of Transperineal, Transrectal Saturation and MRI Guided Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is no consensus on how to investigate men with negative transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-B) but ongoing suspicion of cancer. Three strategies used are transperineal (TP-B), transrectal saturation (TS-B) and MRI-guided biopsy (MRI-B). We compared cancer yields of these strategies. Methods Papers were identified by search of Pubmed, Embase and Ovid Medline. Included studies investigated biopsy diagnostic yield in men with at least one negative TRUS-B and ongoing suspicion of prostate cancer. Data including age, PSA, number of previous biopsy episodes, number of cores at re-biopsy, cancer yield, and Gleason score of detected cancers were extracted. Meta-regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Results Forty-six studies were included; 12 of TS-B, 14 of TP-B, and 20 of MRI-B, representing 4,657 patients. Mean patient age, PSA and number of previous biopsy episodes were similar between the strategies. The mean number of biopsy cores obtained by TP-B and TS-B were greater than MRI-B. Cancer detection rates were 30·0%, 36·8%, and 37·6% for TS-B, TP-B, and MRI-B respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed that MRI-B had significantly higher cancer detection than TS-B. There were no significant differences however between MRI-B and TP-B, or TP-B and TS-B. In a sensitivity analysis incorporating number of previous biopsy episodes (36 studies) the difference between MRI-B and TP-B was not maintained resulting in no significant difference in cancer detection between the groups. There were no significant differences in median Gleason scores detected comparing the three strategies. Conclusions In the re-biopsy setting, it is unclear which strategy offers the highest cancer detection rate. MRI-B may potentially detect more prostate cancers than other modalities and can achieve this with fewer biopsy cores. However, well–designed prospective studies with standardised outcome measures are needed to accurately compare modalities and define an optimum re-biopsy approach.

Nelson, Adam W.; Harvey, Rebecca C.; Parker, Richard A.; Kastner, Christof; Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.



Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.



US-guided breast biopsy with an automated cutting needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report their experience on the use of a biopsy gun for histological sampling in the field of breast lesions. The use of cytological sampling by (FNAB) fine needle aspiration biopsy has been preferred so far, because it has been thoutht to be simpler, less risky and reliable. Nevertheless, the cytological sampling shows a number of drawbacks such as

Massimo Bazzocchi I; Chiara Zuiani; Matteo Bendini I; Giorgina Dalpiaz; Gabriele Anania; Carla Di-Loreto



Histologic diagnostic rate of cardiac sarcoidosis: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background An early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is important, particularly when considering the need for administering corticosteroid therapy. However, no reports are available on the success rate of diagnosis on the basis of biopsy findings in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. This study investigated the diagnostic success rate of histologic evaluation of endomyocardial biopsy specimens in patients with this disease. Methods

Akihisa Uemura; Shin-ichiro Morimoto; Shinya Hiramitsu; Yasuchika Kato; Teruo Ito; Hitoshi Hishida



Transbronchial Cryobiopsy: A New Tool for Lung Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specimens from transbronchial lung biopsies lack sufficient quality due to crush artifact and are generally too small for diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases. Flexible cryoprobes have been shown to be useful in therapeutic bronchoscopy. We introduce a novel technique for obtaining lung biopsies bronchoscopically, using a flexible cryoprobe. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show the feasibility

Alexander Babiak; Jürgen Hetzel; Ganesh Krishna; Peter Fritz; Peter Moeller; Tahsin Balli; Martin Hetzel



Transvaginal ultrasound, uterine biopsy and hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the importance of endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: Eighty patients with postmenopausal bleeding were submitted to transvaginal ultrasound followed by endometrial biopsy. Hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage were carried out to confirm normality of the uterine cavity. Results: The endometrial echo could be visualized in all patients with postmenopausal bleeding. The

M. G. Giusa-Chiferi; W. J. Gonçalves; E. G. Baracat; L. Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Neto; C. C. R. Bortoletto; G. Rodrigues de Lima



Renal biopsy in children: comparison of two techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and thirty-five children who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy under real-time ultrasound guidance at The Hospital for Sick Children, between 1 January 1991 and 31 March 1993, were studied to compare the incidence of complications after biopsies with the Trucut needle (TN) and the Bard Biopty gun (BG). Of the 190 cases for which full clinical details were available

Nicholas J. A. Webb; John K. Pereira; Peter G. Chait; Denis F. Gearyl



Operative pancreatic biopsy: a survey of current practice.  

PubMed Central

The attitudes of surgeons working in Great Britain and Ireland towards pancreatic biopsy and the use of other preoperative investigations in cases of pancreatic disease are examined on the basis of replies to a postal questionnaire. The value, accuracy, and complications of pancreatic biopsy are discussed with reference to the surgical literature.

Reuben, A.



Extended sector biopsy for detection of carcinoma of the prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether an extended sector biopsy of the prostate will increase the detection of prostate cancer, without causing an increase in morbidity. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 men with a mean age of 62.3 years (46–98 years) who either had an elevated PSA or an abnormal digital rectal exam underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy.

Paul M. Arnold M. D; Theodore H Niemann; Robert R Bahnson




Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men, with an estimated incidence of 180,000 cases expected to occur in the United States yearly. The majority of the cases are diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. However, biopsy results are negative in the majority of men because of abnormal exam results. We here describe the yield of




Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Node Biopsy of Operable Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of sentinel node biopsy for invasive breast cancer and the predictability of axillary node status. Between January 1996 and June 1997 a total of 73 patients underwent patent blue dye lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy followed by standard (level I and II) axillary node dissection (one

Jean-François Rodier; Thierry Routiot; Hervé Mignotte; Jean-Claude Janser; Alain Bremond; Eric David; Catherine Barlier; Jean-Pierre Ghnassia; Isabelle Treilleux; Catherine Chassagne; Michel Velten



Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  


A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



A model actin comet tail disassembling by severing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical simulation to model an actin comet tail as it grows from the surface of a small object (a bead) and disassembles by severing. We explore the dependence of macroscopic properties such as the local tail radius and tail length on several controllable properties, namely the bead diameter, the bead velocity, the severing rate per unit length, and the actin gel mesh size. The model predicts an F-actin density with an initial exponential decay followed by an abrupt decay at the edge of the tail, and predicts that the comet tail diameter is constant along the length of the tail. The simulation results are used to fit a formula relating the comet tail length to the control parameters, and it is proposed that this formula offers a means to extract quantitative information on the actin gel mesh size and severing kinetics from simple macroscopic measurements.

Michalski, P. J.; Carlsson, A. E.



Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.



New Techniques in Image-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

Image-guided percutaneous biopsy is a well-established and safe technique for obtaining tissue specimens from various regions of the body and plays a crucial role in patient management. Improvements in needle designs, development of new biopsy techniques, and continual advances in image-guidance technology have improved the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Lesions previously considered relatively inaccessible can now be safely biopsied. This review looks at the recent technologic developments in image guidance for percutaneous biopsy procedures. Improvements in needle design and other innovations intended to enhance the diagnostic yield of biopsy specimens are briefly discussed. Also described are some new techniques and unconventional approaches that help provide safe access to difficult-to-reach lesions.

Gupta, Sanjay [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States)], E-mail:



Seasonal thyroidal activity and reproductive characteristics of Iranian fat-tailed rams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study seasonal variations of thyroidal activity, serum testosterone concentration and seminal characteristics of two breeds of Iranian fat-tailed sheep. Eight 3 to 4-year-old rams of Ghezel and Mehraban breeds (4 rams\\/breed) were randomly selected from a flock of fertile rams. Semen was collected by using an artificial vagina, and blood samples were obtained via jugular

M. J. Zamiri; H. R. Khodaei




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The diet and food preferences of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on north-eastern Stewart Island are described from the analysis of 160 samples of rumen contents collected between 1979 and 1985, and vegetation surveys in 1975 and 1976. Deer browsed all the hardwood trees, but few shrubs, ferns, or podocarps. Woody plants comprised 85.1 % (dry weight) of annual diet.



Determination of serum haptoglobin reference value in clinically healthy Iranian fat-tailed sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 101 clinically healthy Iranian fat-tailed sheep according to their age (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and >5 years) and sex. Serum haptoglobin (Hp) was measured based upon the preservation of the peroxidase activity of haemoglobin, which is directly proportional to the amount of Hp. The reference value for serum Hp of apparently

S. Nazifi


Note on age and body weight at puberty in Mehraban Iranian fat-tailed ewe lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Data on 436 Mehraban fat-tailed ewe lambs collected during 1985 to 1988 were analysed. A 4-year study of factors affecting\\u000a age and body weight at puberty in Mehraban ewe lambs showed that the year of birth did not affect age at puberty but body\\u000a weight at puberty. Sires significantly influenced age and body weight at puberty with body weight being

S. Saeid Bathaei; Pascal L. Leroy



Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied long- tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)feeding behavior and ecology as part of a larger behavioral ecological study at the Natai Lengkuas Station, Tanjung Puting\\u000a National Park, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. I collected data on feeding behavior via scan sampling of all visible individuals\\u000a in the focal group (approximately 800 observation hours). I established vegetational plots and monitored them monthly to

Carey P. Yeager



Contamination of the human food chain by uranium mill tailings piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is in progress to estimate the contamination of the human food chain by uranium, ²³°Th, ²²⁶Ra ²¹°Pb, and ²¹°Po originating from tailing piles associated with uranium ore processing mills. Rabbits, cattle, vegetables, and grass were collected on or near two uranium mill sites. For controls, similar samples were obtained from areas 20 km or more from the mining

R. B. Holtzman; P. W. Urnezis; A. Padova; C. M. Bobula



The value of needle renal allograft biopsy. I. A retrospective study of biopsies performed during putative rejection episodes.  

PubMed Central

Following renal transplantation, immunosuppression is usually increased to treat presumed rejection episodes. However, a) many conditions mimic rejection in the post-transplant period, and b) many rejection episodes are irreversible. As increased immunosuppressive therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection, it would be ideal to limit antirejection therapy to only the rejection episodes that are reversible. The role of percutaneous allograft biopsy was studied as an aid to decide which patients to treat for rejection, to limit unnecessary immunosuppression and to predict allograft survival. One hundred thirty-five patients with suspected rejection underwent 206 allograft biopsies without complication. Two hundred four biopsies were available for study. Biopsies were coded on a 1-4 scale (minimal, mild, moderate, severe) for acute and chronic tubulointerstitial infiltrate and vascular rejection, as well as no rejection (e.g., recurrence of original disease). Treatment decisions were made on the basis of the biopsy combined with clinical data. All patients have been followed two years and outcome correlated with biopsy findings (death, nephrectomy, and return to dialysis defined as kidney loss). The results were the following: 1) biopsies represented changes within the kidney. Of 16 kidneys removed within one month of biopsy, no nephrectomy specimen showed less rejection than that seen on biopsy. 2) Eighty-one biopsies (39.7%) led to tapering or not increasing immunosuppression (either no rejection, minimal rejection, or irreversible changes). 3) Kidneys having either severe acute or chronic vascular rejection (less than 30% function at three months) had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival three to 24 months postbiopsy than those with minimal or mild vascular rejection or tubulointerstitial infiltrate (83% function at three months). 4) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection and those with severe acute tubulointerstitial infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S



Pamphlet Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a welcome move to researchers and historians, the British Library of Political and Economic Science (BLPES) has created an online guide to its large pamphlet collection, containing some 90,000 pamphlets, many from the 19th and early 20th centuries. While covering a number of important public and political issues in British history, the collection also contains a fair amount of European and International materials, including a large number of German-language pamphlets, as well as materials on Latin American trade unions, the League of Nations, pacifism, the two World Wars, and conflict in the Middle East. Users can browse the guide by fifteen topics (e.g., Issues in British history, political parties, social policy, poor laws, transport, etc.) or search the online catalog by subject keyword, author, title, or issuing body. The guide lists pamphlet author, title, and classmark, while the online catalog also includes publisher, pages, location, and other notes. As an added bonus, the majority of pamphlets listed in the social policy and transport guides have been digitized and are available in .pdf format.


Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ?24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy.

Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nahrig, Jorg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Grone, Jorn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jorg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grutzmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.



Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

Not Available



Bioleaching of ultramafic tailings by acidithiobacillus spp. for CO2 sequestration.  


Bioleaching experiments using various acid-generating substances, i.e., metal sulfides and elemental sulfur, were conducted to demonstrate the accelerated dissolution of chrysotile tailings collected from an asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. Columns, possessing an acid-generating substance colonized with Acidithiobacillus sp., produced leachates with magnesium concentrations that were an order of magnitude greater than mine site waters or control column leachates. In addition, chrysotile tailings were efficient at neutralizing acidity, which resulted in the immobilization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) associated with the metal sulfide mine tailings that were used to generate acid. This suggests that tailings from acid mine drainage environments may be utilized to enhance chrysotile dissolution without polluting "downstream" ecosystems. These results demonstrate that the addition of an acid-generating substance in conjunction with a microbial catalyst can significantly enhance the release of magnesium ions, which are then available for the precipitation of carbonate minerals. This process, as part of a carbon dioxide sequestration program, has implications for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in the mining industry. PMID:19950896

Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon



Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

Boal, C. W.; Snyder, H. A.; Bibles, B. D.; Estabrook, T. S.




Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed variation in length, width, density, and surface enlargement factor of papillae; rumen and intestinal digesta weight; intestinal length; and intestinal tissue weight of reproductive and nonreproductive female white- tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) using similar burned and unburned habitat. Deer were collected from study areas in Custer and Pennington counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent

Teresa J. Zimmerman; Jonathan A. Jenks; David M. Leslie




Microsoft Academic Search

Fetuses were collected from four Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis niexicana) and a fetal bat cell (FBC) line was established and tested for its ability to support the replication of the ERA vaccine strain of rabies virus. Cytopathic effects were detected in ERA virus-inoculated as well as uninoculated FBC's. Immunoflorescent antibody testing of uninoculated FBC's provided no evidence for the

Richard S. Steece; Charles H. Calisher


Flexible Histone Tails in a New Mesoscopic Oligonucleosome Model  

PubMed Central

We describe a new mesoscopic model of oligonucleosomes that incorporates flexible histone tails. The nucleosome cores are modeled using the discrete surface-charge optimization model, which treats the nucleosome as an electrostatic surface represented by hundreds of point charges; the linker DNAs are treated using a discrete elastic chain model; and the histone tails are modeled using a bead/chain hydrodynamic approach as chains of connected beads where each bead represents five protein residues. Appropriate charges and force fields are assigned to each histone chain so as to reproduce the electrostatic potential, structure, and dynamics of the corresponding atomistic histone tails at different salt conditions. The dynamics of resulting oligonucleosomes at different sizes and varying salt concentrations are simulated by Brownian dynamics with complete hydrodynamic interactions. The analyses demonstrate that the new mesoscopic model reproduces experimental results better than its predecessors, which modeled histone tails as rigid entities. In particular, our model with flexible histone tails: correctly accounts for salt-dependent conformational changes in the histone tails; yields the experimentally obtained values of histone-tail mediated core/core attraction energies; and considers the partial shielding of electrostatic repulsion between DNA linkers as a result of the spatial distribution of histone tails. These effects are crucial for regulating chromatin structure but are absent or improperly treated in models with rigid histone tails. The development of this model of oligonucleosomes thus opens new avenues for studying the role of histone tails and their variants in mediating gene expression through modulation of chromatin structure.

Arya, Gaurav; Zhang, Qing; Schlick, Tamar



Polyglucosan bodies in sural nerve biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of polyglucosan bodies in sural nerves collected over a 16-year period was studied in relation to age, sex, presence of polyneuropathy, and concomitant presence of central nervous system disorder. Polyglucosan bodies have been seen in only one patient without a polyneuropathy. This patient was suffering from Lafora's disease. In all other sural nerves positive for polyglucosan bodies a

H. L. S. M. Busard; A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; M. A. Hof; W. O. Renier; F. J. M. Gabreëls



Importance of posterolateral needle biopsies in the detection of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether needle biopsy of the posterolateral aspects of the prostate aids in prostate cancer detection. In the routine sextant biopsy strategy, the posterolateral aspects of the prostate are not sampled.Methods. Using an 18-gauge biopsy gun, we performed sextant biopsies and an additional nine needle biopsies in the pathology laboratory on 150 radical prostatectomy specimens performed for Stage

Jonathan I Epstein; Patrick C Walsh; H. Ballentine Carter



Current Concepts in the Biopsy of Musculoskeletal Tumors  

PubMed Central

In the management of bone and soft tissue tumors, accurate diagnosis, using a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histological data, is critical to optimize outcome. On occasion, diagnosis can be made by careful history, physical examination, and images alone. However, the ultimate diagnosis usually depends on histologic analysis by an experienced pathologist. Biopsy is a very important and complex surgery in the staging process. It must be done carefully, so as not to adversely affect the outcome. Technical considerations include proper location and orientation of the biopsy incision and meticulous hemostasis. It is necessary to obtain tissue for a histological diagnosis without spreading the tumor and so compromise the treatment. Furthermore, the surgeon does not open compartmental barriers, anatomic planes, joint space, and tissue area around neurovascular bundles. Nevertheless, avoid producing a hematoma. Biopsy should be carefully planned according to the site and definitive surgery and should be performed by an orthopedic surgeon with an experience in musculoskeletal oncology who will perform the definitive surgery. Improperly done, it can complicate patient care and sometimes even eliminate treatment options. Different biopsy techniques are suitable: fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, and incisional biopsy. The choice of biopsy depends on the size, the location of the lesion, and the experience of the pathologist.

Traina, Francesco; Calamelli, Carlotta; Faldini, Cesare



Seeding of tumour cells following breast biopsy: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Needle biopsy of the breast is widely practised. Image guidance ensures a high degree of accuracy. However, sporadic cases of disease recurrence suggest that in some cases the procedure itself may contribute to this complication. This article reviews evidence relating to needle biopsy of the breast and the potential for tumour cell migration into adjacent tissues following the procedure. A literature search was undertaken using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results are grouped under three categories: histological evidence of spread, clinical evidence of recurrent disease and the likelihood of seeding dependent upon tumour type. There is histological evidence of seeding of tumour cells from the primary neoplastic site into adjacent breast tissue following biopsy. However, as the interval between biopsy and surgery lengthens then the incidence of seeding declines, which suggests that displaced tumour cells are not viable. Clinical recurrence at the site of a needle biopsy is uncommon and the relationship between biopsy and later recurrence is difficult to confirm. There is some evidence to suggest that cell seeding may be reduced when vacuum biopsy devices are deployed.

Loughran, C F; Keeling, C R



Current concepts in the biopsy of musculoskeletal tumors.  


In the management of bone and soft tissue tumors, accurate diagnosis, using a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histological data, is critical to optimize outcome. On occasion, diagnosis can be made by careful history, physical examination, and images alone. However, the ultimate diagnosis usually depends on histologic analysis by an experienced pathologist. Biopsy is a very important and complex surgery in the staging process. It must be done carefully, so as not to adversely affect the outcome. Technical considerations include proper location and orientation of the biopsy incision and meticulous hemostasis. It is necessary to obtain tissue for a histological diagnosis without spreading the tumor and so compromise the treatment. Furthermore, the surgeon does not open compartmental barriers, anatomic planes, joint space, and tissue area around neurovascular bundles. Nevertheless, avoid producing a hematoma. Biopsy should be carefully planned according to the site and definitive surgery and should be performed by an orthopedic surgeon with an experience in musculoskeletal oncology who will perform the definitive surgery. Improperly done, it can complicate patient care and sometimes even eliminate treatment options. Different biopsy techniques are suitable: fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, and incisional biopsy. The choice of biopsy depends on the size, the location of the lesion, and the experience of the pathologist. PMID:23844403

Errani, Costantino; Traina, Francesco; Perna, Fabrizio; Calamelli, Carlotta; Faldini, Cesare



Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.?METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.?RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.?CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.??

Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.



Wave dynamics in the geomagnetic tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geomagnetic tail is the region of the earth's magnetosphere stretched by the solar wind away from the Sun. The stretched Geomagnetic tail acts as a huge magnetic energy reservoir powering a variety of processes, for instance the substorm and the aurora, which affect the entire magnetosphere. This thesis presents analyses of the wave dynamics of the geomagnetic tail at the spatial scale from the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to the ion gyroradius and the temporal scale from the ion gyro-period to many gyro-periods. The results provide new insights into the energy flow process in the magnetotail reconnection. In addition, the implication of these results sheds light on the energy transport from the geomagnetic tail to the aurora zone. The bidirectional out owing ion jet is a diagnostic signal of magnetic reconnection. We present a Cluster spacecraft study of the intense surface waves in the earthward and tailward reconnection outflow jets in the geomagnetic tail. The four Cluster spacecraft are used to determine quantitatively the scale size and phase velocity of waves with spacecraft frequencies from 3 x 10-2 Hz to 1 Hz and spatial scales ranging from much larger (x50) than to comparable to the H+ gyroradius scale. The wave phase velocity relative to the spacecraft frame is directed mainly in the equatorial plane and it tracks the variation in the direction of the jet's velocity projection perpendicular to the magnetic field lying in the xy-gse plane. The surface waves are phase standing in the flow normal to the plasma sheet boundary, but partially or entirely convected by the flow in the plane of the plasma sheet (xy-gse). The surface wave is consistent with a Kelvin Helmholtz instability driven by the gradient in the normal direction of the component of the reconnection ion jet velocity perpendicular to magnetic field. E/B ratios provide evidence that dispersive Alfven waves are excited at small scales. Analysis of electric and magnetic field data shows that the wave perturbations are associated with strong Alfvenic Poynting flux radiated away from the reconnection region toward Earth along the geomagnetic field. The mapped values (to 100 km altitude) of Poynting flux (100ergs/cm2s) and longitudinal scales (10-100 km) of the waves suggest that the observed waves and their motions are an important boundary condition in determining both the energetics of the aurora and their complex motions in the night sky. The Harris current sheet is a good approximation of the Geomagnetic Tail configuration. We present a theoretical analysis of the linear Alfven eigenmode dynamics of a Harris current sheet. The implication of this theory in the context of magnetic reconnection is not presented. Alfven eigenmodes are confined by the Harris current sheet in the same way that quantum mechanical waves are confined by the tanh2 potential. Although the Alfven eigenmodes are confined in the current layer, their dynamics is interrelated with the global-scale information of the current sheet. The linear dynamics of the Harris current sheet is described as a eigenmode-source coupling process, during which magnetic energy can be converted into plasma energy and the first-order magnetic configuration of the Harris sheet alters.

Dai, Lei


Hemingway Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ernest Hemingway was a red-blooded man of letters, and one of the 20th century's most celebrated and demonized writers. In 1968, Mary Hemingway arranged to have his papers donated to the Kennedy Library. Over the past several decades, materials related to Hemingway's long career have continued to become part of this very extensive collection. The Kennedy Library has created this specific page to provide both researchers and members of the general public with some basic information about their holdings, along with offering access to a selection of these papers. The photograph galleries are a real treat, as they cover everything from Hemingway's youth in Oak Park all the way up to his last days in Idaho.


Sigmoidoscopy and biopsy in surveillance for cancer in ulcerative colitis.  


Surveillance has become an established concept to find dysplasia as a premalignant lesion in ulcerative colitis. Since the advent of colonoscopy and the access of the entire colon to biopsy, utilization of the rigid sigmoidoscope and rectal biopsies has been markedly reduced. We have reviewed 940 rectal biopsies obtained from 360 patients with ulcerative colitis of various extent and duration to determine the yield of dysplasia and assess the value of this procedure. The rectal biopsies had been performed for a variety of reasons in the course of clinical management of ulcerative colitis in addition to surveillance. Dysplasia was found in 10.8% of the patients--higher than has been demonstrated by colonoscopy. In four of the 39 patients with dysplasia a carcinoma coexisted (2) or developed subsequently (2). In no instance did dysplasia serve to warrant the colectomy that disclosed the carcinoma, but earlier discovery of the dysplasia or more intense surveillance once it had been found might have led to earlier discovery of the carcinoma. The yield of dysplasia was greater in those with onset of ulcerative colitis in childhood. In more than half, including 71% of patients with onset in childhood, the dysplasia was found before they had the disease for 9 years. Surveillance, therefore, should begin earlier in young patients with ulcerative colitis. Sigmoidoscopic biopsies do not substitute for colonoscopic biopsies in a surveillance program. Nevertheless, the ease of obtaining rectal biopsies, the relatively large yield of dysplasia, and the need for frequent sigmoidoscopy in the clinical management of ulcerative colitis all warrant a high priority role for rectal biopsies to supplement that of colonoscopic biopsies. PMID:3734356

Fochios, S E; Sommers, S C; Korelitz, B I



Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

Gurel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail:; Karabay, Oguz [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Turkey); Gurel, Safiye [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Hildebolt, Charles [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)



Better Visualization of Transbronchial Biopsy Using CT Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF) provides the capability for continuous CT imaging and has been increasingly used in interventional procedures. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of CTF in the monitoring of transbronchial biopsy procedures.Methods: We evaluated nine patients in whom yield of 'conventional' transbronchial biopsies had failed. CTF was performed on a Somatom Plus 4 Power scanner (CARE Vision CT, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using 120 kV, 50 mA at a frame rate of eight images per second on a matrix of 256 x 256. Image reconstruction was based on a partial scan with an acquisition time of 0.5 sec. The maximal time without interruption was 79 sec; after stopping for a few seconds a new period of 79 sec was available. The number of biopsies, procedure times, applied dose, and histologic results were documented.Results: With CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy, the yield of the biopsies was improved. In seven patients biopsy yielded bronchial cancer; in one patient histopathologic examination showed tuberculosis. Only in one patient did CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy fail. The mean number of biopsies was four in each patient. Mean fluoroscopy time was 165 {+-} 92 sec (range 111-272 sec) and mean procedure time was 800 {+-} 302 sec (range 480-1081 sec). The applied dose ranged between 500 and 1224 mSv; the mean applied dose was 743 {+-} 414 mSv. There were no fatal complications.Conclusion: Computed tomography fluoroscopy appears to facilitate visualization of transbronchial biopsy procedures, with the drawback of increased radiation exposure. To compare the 'conventional' method versus CTF a randomized prospective study is necessary.

Kickuth, Ralph; Kirchner, Johannes; Laufer, Ulf [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Sanner, Bernd; Haske, Michael [Department of Medicine, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Liermann, Dieter [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany)



Development and validation of risk score for predicting positive repeat prostate biopsy in patients with a previous negative biopsy in a UK population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available to determine which patients should undergo repeat biopsy after initial benign extended core biopsy (ECB). Attempts have been made to reduce the frequency of negative repeat biopsies using PSA kinetics, density, free-to-total ratios and Kattan's nomogram, to identify men more likely to harbour cancer but no single tool accurately predicts biopsy outcome. The objective of

Mark A Rochester; Nora Pashayan; Fiona Matthews; Andrew Doble; John McLoughlin



Severe wear and tooth loss in wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta): A function of feeding ecology, dental structure, and individual life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-tailed lemurs at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, exhibit a high frequency of severe wear and antemortem tooth loss. As part of a long-term study, we collected dental data on 83 living adult ring-tailed lemurs during 2003 and 2004. Among these individuals, 192 teeth were scored as absent. The most frequently missing tooth position is M1 (24%). As M1

Frank P. Cuozzo; Michelle L. Sauther




Microsoft Academic Search

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes.

Ingrid M. Asmundsson; Jack A. Mortenson; Eric P. Hoberg



Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW


Screening of Plant Species for Phytoremediation of Uranium, Thorium, Barium, Nickel, Strontium and Lead Contaminated Soils from a Uranium Mill Tailings Repository in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species\\u000a collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for\\u000a a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 ?g), thorium (103 ?g)

Guang-yue Li; Nan Hu; De-xin Ding; Ji-fang Zheng; Yu-long Liu; Yong-dong Wang; Xiao-qin Nie




SciTech Connect

To study CP violation, the HEM-B experiment uses an internal wire target in the transverse halo of the stored HERA proton beam. Operational experience shows that the resulting interaction rates are extremely sensitive to tiny orbit jitter amplitudes. Various methods have been studied to stabilize these interaction rates by increasing diffusion in the transverse proton beam tails without affecting the luminosity at the electron-proton collider experiments ZEUS and H1. Tune modulation was found to be a promising method for this task. Experiments performed in recent years will be reported.




Diagnosing sarcoidosis by transconjunctival biopsy of the lacrimal gland.  


A transconjunctival approach produced adequate biopsy specimens of the lacrimal gland in 24 of 27 patients with possible sarcoidosis. In five of the 24 noncaseating granuloma confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Three of the five patients with enlarged lacrimal glands and four of the seven patients with increased lacrimal gland uptake of gallium had sarcoidosis confirmed by the biopsy. In carefully selected cases transconjunctival biopsy of the lacrimal gland should be considered an important part of the diagnostic evaluation of possible sarcoidosis. PMID:6720834

Weinreb, R N



Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid malignancies  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy were first reported in 1977 by Cabanas for penile cancer. Since that time, the technique has become rapidly assimilated into clinical practice. The sentinel node concept has been validated in cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. However, follow-up data of patients from randomised trials is needed to establish the clinical significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy before accepting the procedure as a standard of care. This technique has the potential to be utilised in all solid tumours like colon, gastric, oesophageal, lung, gynaecologic, and head and neck cancer. This paper reviews the current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid tumours.

Goyal, Amit; Mansel, Robert E



[Diagnosis of renal metanephric adenoma: relevance of immunohistochemistry and biopsy].  


Most renal tumors of the adult are carcinomas. Their treatment is surgical, consisting of limited excision or nephrectomy. In some instances, biopsy of the tumor can be performed in order to adapt treatment. We report the case of a 45 year-old woman presenting with renal tumor. A biopsy of the mass showed a metanephric adenoma. No surgical excision was performed because of the benignity of this tumor. Here we develop the interest of immunohistochemistry for differential diagnosis of metanephric adenoma and other "basophilic small cell tumors" of the kidney. We also put the stress on the growing role of biopsy of renal tumor allowing optimal treatment. PMID:18185471

Galmiche, Louise; Vasiliu, Viorel; Poirée, Sylvain; Hélénon, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Michel; Brousse, Nicole



The precision of three enamel biopsy methods for fluoride determination.  


3 different enamel biopsy methods were tested on 2 maxillary permanent incisors on each of 90 schoolchildren. In methods A and B the round biopsy field was bordered by copalite varnish, while method C utilized a scotch tape border. The biopsy itself resulted from etching the enamel surface with 2N perchloric acid for 7 sec for method A, and 14 sec for methods B and C. Flouride was measured with the fluoride activity electrode. The doubled etching time caused only a 30 to 40% increase of enamel removal. Method C showed the best reproducibility. PMID:1225873

Spörri, S; Belser, U; Mühlemann, H R



Stereotactic breast biopsy: experience in a community setting.  


This article reviews the first year experience with stereotactically guided percutaneous breast biopsy at Baptist Health Systems Women's Center. One hundred forty eight procedures were performed on one hundred forty one patients from July 1997 through July 1998. Our biopsy program is a cooperative effort involving surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, and ancillary health care personnel. In accordance with published literature, we have found the procedure to be efficacious, safe, cost effective and well accepted by patients and physicians. The advantages and limitations of minimally invasive breast biopsy are discussed as well as our concept of the role of this technique in management of patients with an abnormal mammogram. PMID:9919043

Gray, R E; Benson, G W; Lustig, D D



Ultrasound marking by gastroenterologists prior to percutaneous liver biopsy removes the need for a separate radiological evaluation.  


Background/Aim: Ultrasound marking by radiologists prior to percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) results in biopsy site adjustment, decreased pain related complications and improved tissue yield. Minimal data exists on the impact of ultrasound marking by gastroenterologists on these parameters. The study aim was to evaluate whether ultrasound marking by gastroenterologists results in improved PLB tissue yield, fewer needle passes and decreased biopsy failure rates compared to blind biopsy, eliminating the need for a separate radiological evaluation. Methodology: All PLB performed by gastroenterologists from June 1999 to February 2003 at the University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, were reviewed retrospectively. Data collected included ultrasound marked or blind PLB, demographics, indication, number of passes performed, and specimen length, if obtained. Results: Four hundred and eighty PLB were included: 328 performed with ultrasound marking and 152 blind. Ultrasound marking by gastroenterologists prior to PLB resulted in fewer passes and longer specimens as well as a decreased failure rate in ultrasound marked compared to blind PLB. Conclusions: Ultrasound marking by gastroenterologists prior to PLB provided significantly larger tissue samples, fewer needle passes and a decreased biopsy failure rate compared to blind PLB. This removes the need for a separate radiological evaluation on the procedure day. PMID:23282742

Diteodoro, Linda A; Pudhota, Sunitha G; Vega, Kenneth J; Jama, M Mazen; Munoz, Juan Carlos; Wludyka, Peter; Bullock, Dawn; Lambiase, Louis R



The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver’s (B) behavior towards the bout’s\\u000a initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control\\u000a samples of similar conditions but A had not previously

Michael D. Gumert; Moon-Ho R. Ho



Can residents perform transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with patient comfort comparable to biopsy performed by attending staff urologists?  


Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy is a critical diagnostic tool in urology. Residents require adequate training but resident education could have a deleterious effect on patient comfort and morbidity. We compared pain associated with prostate biopsy when performed by staff versus resident urologists in order to determine the impact of resident training. Male patients scheduled to undergo prostate biopsy were assigned to either a staff urologist or a resident as the primary surgeon. All residents were directly assisted by the staff surgeon. The patients were given a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-100 mm) and were asked to assess the pain associated with each component of prostate biopsy, including probe insertion, anesthetic injection and the biopsies themselves. The mean VAS scores for probe insertion, anesthetic injection and biopsies were 31.0, 30.4 and 30.1, respectively, for patients in the staff cohort and 37.1, 28.9 and 33.6, respectively, for those in the resident cohort. There was a statistically significant difference between staff and resident VAS scores, marked by a higher odds of greater pain with ultrasound probe placement (odds ratio (OR)=1.48, P=0.012) and the biopsies themselves (OR=1.52, P=0.01) in the resident cohort. TRUS biopsy can be performed by adequately trained and supervised resident urologists of all levels, but there is the potential for increased patient pain, particularly with ultrasonic probe insertion and obtaining core biopsies. However, the absolute magnitude of the differences in pain scores between residents and staff was small and may not be clinically meaningful. Such data indicate that urological resident training can be accomplished without compromising patient care and comfort. PMID:19770843

Nguyen, C T; Gao, T; Hernandez, A V; Jones, J S



Navigational Bronchoscopy with Biopsy versus CT-guided Biopsy for the Diagnosis of a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A Cost-Consequences Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) are frequent and can be malignant. Both CT-guided biopsy and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) with biopsy can be used to diagnose a SPN. A non-diagnostic CT-guided or ENB biopsy is often followed by VATS biopsy. The relative costs and consequences of these strategies are not known. Methods A decision tree was created with values from the literature to evaluate the clinical consequences and societal costs of a CT-guided biopsy strategy versus an ENB biopsy strategy for the diagnosis of a SPN. The serial use of ENB after non-diagnostic CT-guided biopsy and CT-guided biopsy after non-diagnostic ENB biopsy were tested as alternate strategies. Results In a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients, use of the ENB biopsy strategy on average results in 13.4 fewer pneumothoraces, 5.9 fewer chest tubes, 0.9 fewer significant hemorrhage episodes and 0.6 fewer respiratory failure episodes than a CT-guided biopsy strategy. ENB biopsy increases average costs by $3719 per case and increases video assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) rates by an absolute 20%. The sequential diagnostic strategy that combines CT-guided biopsy after non-diagnostic ENB biopsy and vice-versa decreases the rate of VATS procedures to 3%. A sequential approach starting with ENB decreases average per case cost relative to CT-guided biopsy followed by VATS, if needed, by $507; and a sequential approach starting with CT-guided biopsy decreases the cost relative to CT-guided biopsy followed by VATS, if needed, by $979. Conclusions An ENB with biopsy strategy is associated with decreased pneumothorax rate but increased costs and increased use of VATS. Combining CT-guided biopsy and ENB with biopsy serially can decrease costs and complications.

Dale, Christopher R.; Madtes, David K.; Fan, Vincent S.; Gorden, Jed A.; Veenstra, David L.



Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching experiment was conducted for the removal of heavy metals from mine tailings. A fungal strain was isolated from the gold mine tailings and it has been identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on its 18S rDNA analysis. Bioleaching using A. fumigatus was carried out in bioleaching step processes (one-step and two-step) at various tailings concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, and

Bahi Jalili Seh-Bardan; Radziah Othman; Samsuri Ab Wahid; Aminudin Husin; Fardin Sadegh-Zadeh



Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's1 hypothesis that male secondary sexual ornaments evolve through female preferences is theoretically plausible2-7, but there is little experimental field evidence that such preferences exist8-10. I have studied female choice in relation to male tail length in the long-tailed widowbird, Euplectes progne, and report here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males

Malte Andersson



Minimal tail-biting trellises: The Golay code and more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-biting trellis representations of block codes are investigated. We develop some elementary theory, and present several intriguing examples, which we hope will stimulate further developments in this field. In particular, we construct a 16-state 12-section structurally invariant tail-biting trellis for the (24, 12, 8) binary Golay code. This tail-biting trellis representation is minimal: it simultaneously minimizes all conceivable measures of

A. Robert Calderbank; G. David Forney Jr.; Alexander Vardy



Long Tail Tourism: New Geographies For Marketing Niche Tourism Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The Long Tail concept refers to the Internet?based economy that has enabled company success through a focus on highly specialized services and products that are not in high volume demand, but maybe in high?value demand. The concept of the post?tourist, for example, is a Long Tail phenomenon. Long Tail marketing approaches are proving success due to advances in communication

Alan A. Lew



Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of mine tailings, a global problem for which conventional remediation\\u000a technologies are costly. There are two approaches to phytoremediation of mine tailings, phytoextraction and phytostabilization.\\u000a Phytoextraction involves translocation of heavy metals from mine tailings to the plant shoot biomass followed by plant harvest,\\u000a while phytostabilization focuses on establishing a vegetative cap that

Monica O. Mendez; Raina M. Maier



Geotechnical Characteristics of Copper Mine Tailings: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management issue in mining industry has become increasingly important. In this regard, construction of tailings dams\\u000a plays a major role. Most of the tailings dams require some kinds of remedial actions during their operational lifetime, among\\u000a which heightening is the most common. In the first stage of the remedial provisions for Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex tailings\\u000a dam in Iran, it

Abolfazl Shamsai; Ali Pak; S. Mohyeddin Bateni; S. Amir Hossein Ayatollahi



Tail lobe ion spectrometer: Theory and observations  

SciTech Connect

In this study we present a comparison between the properties of the ionospheric ion streams in the Earth's magnetotail and the predictions of a two-dimensional kinetic model for the transport of ionospheric ions from the cleft topside ionosphere into the tail lobes. General agreement is apparent between average data and model with appropriate assumptions for the ionospheric source. The same general features in the topology and similar numerical values of the stream density and velocity appear in the data and in the model predictions. However, variations associated with varying magnetic activity levels do not appear to be well modelled yet. In particular the assumption that magnetospheric activity as represented by the AE index, and the model numerical values of the cross-tail electric field might be simply related to each other does not prove to be satisfactory. Model sophistication and data coverage and organization will have to be improved to study these effects in deeper detail. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Candidi, M.; Orsini, S.; Horowitz, J.L.



Creep rupture of wallaby tail tendons.  


The tail tendons from wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to-rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on a wallaby tail tendon, when its muscle contracts isometrically, is about 13.5 MPa. Creep lifetime depends sharply on temperature and on specimen length, in contrast to strength and stiffness as observed in dynamic tests. The creep curve (strain versus time) can be considered as a combination of primary creep (decelerating strain) and tertiary creep (accelerating strain). Primary creep is non-damaging, but tertiary creep is accompanied by accumulating damage, with loss of stiffness and strength. 'Damage' is quantitatively defined as the fractional loss of stiffness. A creep theory is developed in which the whole of tertiary creep and, in particular, the creep lifetime are predicted from measurements made at the onset of creep, when the tendon is undamaged. This theory is based on a 'damage hypothesis', which can be stated as: damaged material no longer contributes to stiffness and strength, whereas intact material makes its full contribution to both. PMID:9244804

Wang, X T; Ker, R F




SciTech Connect

Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)



Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis: An Autopsy and Liver Biopsy Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis was studied in 13 patients; 11 had died during disseminated cytomegalovirus infection and two had liver biopsies for suspected hepatitis. Histologically, inclusions were present in liver cells of all three lobular zones and less ...

A. J. Strano D. E. Henson P. M. Grimley



[Ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsy of the prostate].  


The author proposes his personal experience through this metodology matured as person in charge of "Modulo di ecografia uro-andrologica ed ecointerventistica", besides a case histories of about 1,000 biopsy exams practiced. PMID:11221050

Vassallo, F



Muscle biopsy in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a clinicopathological study.  

PubMed Central

The initial muscle biopsies of 30 patients with active polymyositis or dermatomyositis have been assessed histologically and morphometrically. Only 1 patient (3.3%) had a normal biopsy, while 3 had a normal electromyograph and 8 had a normal serum CPK level. No significant morphological differences were found between the various diagnostic subgroups. Sequential biopsies of 11 of these patients treated either with corticosteroids only or with intensive immunosuppression were studied. With response to treatment atrophy factors, variability coefficients, internal nuclei count, and the various histological changes improved in the whole group of patients. However, there was no consistent correlation between any of the morphological features or between these and clinical parameters in individual patients. The percentage of fibres with internal nuclei in the initial biopsy was lower (P < 0.001) in patients responding to up to 60 mg prednisolone per day than in those who eventually required cytotoxic drugs in addition.

Schwarz, H A; Slavin, G; Ward, P; Ansell, B M



Too Many Unnecessary Thyroid Biopsies Performed, Experts Say  


... having thyroid cancer," study lead author Dr. Rebecca Smith-Bindman, a professor in the department of radiology ... of unnecessary thyroid biopsies in the United States," Smith-Bindman said. She noted that the procedures are ...


A potential role for bat tail membranes in flight control.  


Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

Gardiner, James D; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R; Nudds, Robert L



Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique  

SciTech Connect

In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder



Evaluating target cold spots by the use of tail EUDs *†  

PubMed Central

Purpose To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of “cold spots” below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution. It has units of Gy. We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head&neck plans. Results Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful both for plan evaluation and optimization. In addition, it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin



Estimating Impact Forces of Tail Club Strikes by Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. Methodology/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100° laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. Conclusions/Significance Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

Arbour, Victoria Megan



A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control  

PubMed Central

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control.

Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.



Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.



Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail:; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)



Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

Mitchell, Michael J. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Montgomery, Mark [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Reiter, Charles G. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Culp, William C., E-mail: [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)



Significance of muscle biopsies in neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses.  

PubMed Central

Muscle specimens obtained at necropsy from four cases of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL), three of the juvenile and one of the late infantile type, and a muscle biopsy from a fifth patient with the juvenile type of NCL, all showed curvilinear bodies typical of NCL within the muscle fibres. The pigments were autofluorescent. It appears that skeletal muscle is a reliable tissue source for the diagnosis of these disorders by biopsy. Images

Goebel, H H; Zeman, W; Pilz, H



The role of peritoneal biopsy in the diagnosis of ascites.  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous biopsies of the peritoneum were obtained in 23 patients with ascites of unknown cause. The only case of tuberculous peritonitis was correctly diagnosed. Peritoneal biopsy provided a diagnosis of malignancy in 6 patients (one lymphoma, one mesothelioma, 4 cases of disseminated carcinoma) but failed to recognize a further 13 cases of disseminated carcinoma. Previous literature is reviewed and the diagnostic usefulness of this procedure is discussed.

Jenkins, P. F.; Ward, M. J.



Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis from the cervix. Diagnosis by transbronchial biopsy.  


A diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangitic spread of cervical cancer was established by transbronchial biopsy in a 58-year-old woman requiring mechanical ventilation. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis allowed supportive therapy in this terminal stage of cancer. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe this result from cervical carcinoma and to establish the diagnosis of lymphangitic carcinomatosis by transbronchial biopsy. PMID:443981

Maulitz, R M; Sahn, S A



Ventriculoscope Tract Recurrence after Endoscopic Biopsy of Pineal Germinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrence along an endoscope tract has been described after endoscopic biopsy and resection of malignant tumors arising in multiple organ systems. We describe a case of tract recurrence following the ventriculoscopic biopsy of a central nervous system tumor. A retrospective review of the patient’s clinical course, radiology and pathology was undertaken to formulate a case report. A 14-year-old boy was

Charles Haw; Paul Steinbok



Sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients.  


The concept of sentinel node biopsy has been validated for female breast cancer patients whereas, ALND remains the standard of care for male breast cancer patients with similar tumours. We evaluated the results of SLN biopsy in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae. This study included all male breast cancer patients who underwent SLN biopsy between February 1998 and October 2003. All patients had negative axillae on clinical examination. All patients underwent pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy. SLN biopsy was performed using a combination of Patent blue V and 99mTc-radiolabelled colloidal albumin injected peritumourally. Nine patients, 26-79 years of age, were included in the study. Pre-operative lymphoscinitgraphy identified SLNs in all patients. Intraoperatively, SLNs were successfully localised in all patients. The mean number of SLNs encountered was 2.4. Five patients had a positive SLN, four a negative SLN. Five patients (one with a negative SLN, four with a positive SLN) had been elected pre-operatively to undergo ALND regardless of findings on SLN biopsy. ALND confirmed the SLN to be negative in one patient (false-negative rate: 0%) and three of the four patients with positive SLN(s) had additional positive nodes in the axilla. SLN biopsy accurately predicted axillary lymph node status in these five patients. These findings compare favourably with findings reported in the literature regarding SLN biopsy in female breast cancer patients. SLN biopsy accurately staged the axilla in male breast cancer patients and should be considered for axillary staging in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae. PMID:15135473

Goyal, A; Horgan, K; Kissin, M; Yiangou, C; Sibbering, M; Lansdown, M; Newcombe, R G; Mansel, R E; Chetty, U; Ell, P; Fallowfield, L; Kissin, M



Serial culturing of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the present study we describe the establishment of serial cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies\\u000a obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The cell cultures were initiated from small amounts of material (2 mm forceps biopsies)\\u000a using either explants or epithelial cell suspensions in combination with a feeder-layer technique. The rate of cell proliferation\\u000a and the number of passages

Petra M. de Jong; Marianne A. J. A. van Sterkenburg; Johanna A. Kempenaar; Joop H. Dijkman; Maria Ponec



MR Imaging-Guided biopsy and localization of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a If suspicious lesions found with MR imaging cannot be visualized by either mammography or ultrasound, MR imaging – based guidance\\u000a systems are needed to guide needle biopsy or to allow localization of the lesion before surgery. The authors give an overview\\u000a of the advantages and disadvantages of biopsy devices presented by different working groups. Furthermore, MR-compatible needle\\u000a equipment for

U. Fischer; J. Rodenwaldt; C. Hundertmark; W. Döler; E. Grabbe



False-negative biopsy for testicular intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A routine biopsy of the contralateral testis obtained during orchiectomy for embryonal carcinoma in a 26-year-old patient was negative for testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; carcinoma in situ of the testis). However, a rebiopsy that was taken because of unexplained elevation of a-fetoprotein 15 months later proved to be positive for TIN. Six previously reported cases of false-negative testicular biopsies

K-P Dieckmann; F. Kaup; V. Loy



CT-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Intrathoracic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous CT-guided needle biopsy of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions is a minimally invasive approach for obtaining tissue for histopathological examination. Although it is a widely accepted procedure with relatively few complications, precise planning and detailed knowledge of various aspects of the biopsy procedure is mandatory to avert complications. In this pictorial review, we reviewed important anatomical approaches, technical aspects of the procedure, and its associated complications.

Lal, Hira; Nath, Alok; Borah, Samudra



A Composite Urine Biomarker of Interstitial Inflammation in Lupus Nephritis Kidney Biopsies  

PubMed Central

The therapy of lupus nephritis (LN) is mainly based on clinical data because serial biopsies are not routinely used to evaluate kidney involvement as the disease is treated and evolves. A non-invasive, real-time method to assess renal pathology could be used to titrate treatment and improve outcome. This work was undertaken to develop a urine biomarker of tubulointerstitial inflammation (TI) in LN, an injury that predisposes to renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease. Urine samples collected at or close to the time of biopsy for LN (n=64) were used to identify potential biomarkers of TI. TI was scored by a renal pathologist using a semi-quantitative scale. Urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (uMCP-1), urine hepcidin (uHepcidin), and urine liver-fatty acid binding protein (uLFABP) were measured by immunoassays. Linear discriminant analysis was used to weight variables and derive composite biomarkers that identified the level of TI. The discriminant function that described the most accurate biomarker included uMCP-1 and serum creatinine as the independent variables. This composite biomarker had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 81%, positive predictive value of 67%, negative predictive value of 100%, and misclassified only 14% of the biopsies. In conclusion, specific renal pathologic lesions can be modeled by composite biomarkers. These biomarkers can be used to non-invasively follow and adjust the treatment of LN based on renal injury.

Zhang, Xiaolan; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Nadasdy, Tibor; Song, Huijuan; McKinley, Alison; Prosek, Jason; Kamadana, Swapna; Rovin, Brad H.



Intrinsic gene expression subsets of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis are stable in serial skin biopsies  

PubMed Central

Skin biopsy gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray from 13 dSSc patients enrolled in an open label study of rituximab, 9 dSSc patients not treated with rituximab, and 9 healthy controls. These data recapitulate the patient ‘intrinsic’ gene expression subsets described previously including proliferation, inflammatory, and normal-like groups. Serial skin biopsies showed consistent and non-progressing gene expression over time, and importantly, the patients in the inflammatory subset do not move to the fibroproliferative subset, and vice versa. We were unable to detect significant differences in gene expression before and after rituximab treatment, consistent with an apparent lack of clinical response. Serial biopsies from each patient stayed within the same gene expression subset regardless of treatment regimen or the time point at which they were taken. Collectively, these data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of SSc and demonstrate that the intrinsic subsets are an inherent, reproducible and stable feature of the disease that is independent of disease duration. Moreover, these data have fundamental importance for the future development of personalized therapy for SSc; drugs targeting inflammation are likely to benefit those patients with an inflammatory signature, whereas drugs targeting fibrosis are likely to benefit those with a fibroproliferative signature.

Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Lemaire, Raphael; Francis, Ian; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Lafyatis, Robert; Whitfield, Michael L.



Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.



A real-time electrical impedance sensing biopsy needle.  


Diagnostic confirmation of cancer in solid organs is based on biopsy findings. In a standard 12-core prostate biopsy protocol, conventional biopsy needles sample only 0.95% (?0.228 cm³) of a typical 24-cm³ prostate gland. The primary objective of this study was to enhance the sensitivity of standard biopsy protocol by gauging electrical properties of tissue simultaneously with tissue extraction for histopathology analysis. A conventional biopsy (Bx) needle was instrumented with an electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensor to interrogate the tissue volume surrounding the needle tip. The EIS-Bx device was evaluated in a series of saline bath and ex vivo porcine experiments. It was found to sense a volume of 0.286 cm³ of tissue around the needle tip. EIS measurements were recorded from three ex vivo human prostates using the device, and the extracted biopsy cores were histologically assessed. Prostate conductivity ? ranged from 0.179 to 0.3310 S/m for benign tissues and 0.0746 to 0.0837 S/m for malignant tissues at frequencies ranging from 1 to 100 kHz. Relative permittivity ?(r) ranged from 2.10×10? to 2.9 × 10? for benign and 6.63×10? to 5.3 × 10³ for cancer tissues over the same frequency range. Both are found to be significantly higher in normal prostate tissues than in malignant tissue (p < 0.00001). PMID:22929364

Mishra, V; Bouayad, H; Schned, A; Hartov, A; Heaney, J; Halter, R J



Dystrophinopathy Diagnosis Made Easy: Skin Biopsy, an Emerging Novel Tool.  


Dystrophinopathies are diagnosed by genetic studies and muscle biopsy. Most centers have multiplex polymerase chain reaction facilities diagnosing 65% to 70% of dystrophinopathy cases. Muscle biopsy is a time-consuming, invasive procedure whereas skin biopsy is a simple procedure done under local anesthesia. The current study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in dystrophinopathy. Overall, 119 confirmed cases of muscular dystrophy (111 males and 8 females) were included in the final analysis, of which 100 (all males) were dystrophinopathy. Skin biopsy diagnosed dystrophinopathy in suspected muscular dystrophy patients with a sensitivity of 98% (92.3%-99.7%), specificity of 99% (93.7%-99.9%), positive predictive value of 94.7% (71.9%-99.7%), and negative predictive value of 90% (66.9%-98.2%). Skin biopsy can be used for screening dystrophinopathy in muscular dystrophy patients (high sensitivity and positive predictive value). It being a simple and minimally invasive procedure, histopathologic and molecular markers of disease progression and response to novel treatment options can be assessed serially. PMID:23562947

Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Sharma, M C; Gulati, Sheffali; Kabra, Madhulika; Pandey, R M; Sarkar, Chitra



The Narrow X-Ray Tail and Double H? Tails of ESO 137-002 in A3627  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ~2 L * late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (gsim40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (~3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ~1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ~1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (~0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always "over-pressured" relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ~21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (~12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ~23° and starting at a distance of ~7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ~2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed. Based on observations made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

Zhang, B.; Sun, M.; Ji, L.; Sarazin, C.; Lin, X. B.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Roediger, E.; Donahue, M.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Voit, G. M.; Kong, X.