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Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller


Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping  

PubMed Central

A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory



Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL  

E-print Network

1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUÉROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Development and practical applications of a method for repeated transvaginal, ultrasound-guided biopsy collection of the bovine ovary.  


In response to the increasing research into primordial and preantral follicular dynamics, a device for transvaginal, ultrasound-guided biopsy collection of the bovine ovary was developed and tested. The new device is based upon a commercially available Ovum Pick-up instrument and consists of a modified needle guidance system, which has been equipped with a trocar needle and caries a 60 cm long true-cut biopsy needle. Biopsies are captured in a 20mm long and 2mm wide specimen notch. In the present experiment, 10 cows were subjected to a twice weekly biopsy regime over a four-week period. A total of 208 attempts at biopsy collection were made, and 141 tissue samples collected (success rate of 68%). Through histological and immunological analyses, these tissue samples have been shown to contain primordial and preantral follicles. At the end of the trial period, several of the donor cows were slaughtered at timed intervals, and the ovaries were harvested for assessment of the damage inflicted by the repeated biopsy procedure. Post mortem ovaries were inspected macroscopically and examined by conventional histological staining. In ovaries retrieved 2 days after the last biopsy session, blood clots were macroscopically apparent throughout the ovaries. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of red blood cells in the ovarian stroma. Analysis from ovaries collected at subsequent slaughter points revealed reduced infiltration of blood, and clear indications of resumed antral follicle development were apparent towards the end of the first month after the trial period. We conclude that the biopsy sampling technique is a repeatable procedure which could serve as a renewable source of primordial and preantral follicles for culture, and as an in vitro model for the study of preantral follicular dynamics. PMID:16054498

Aerts, Jan M J; Oste, Marijke; Bols, Peter E J



Liver biopsy  


Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...


Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun



Kidney Biopsy  


... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Z List of Topics and Titles : Kidney Biopsy Kidney Biopsy On this page: What is a kidney ...


Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael



Liver Biopsy  


A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...


Skin lesion biopsy  


Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures are easily done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...


Lymph node biopsy  


Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient ...


Muscle biopsy  


... done to tell the difference between nerve and muscle disorders. A muscle that has recently been injured, such as by an EMG needle, or is affected by a pre-existing condition, such as nerve compression, is not a good choice for a biopsy.


Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  


Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J



Breast biopsy - ultrasound  


Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... needs to be biopsied. The doctor uses an ultrasound machine to guide the needle to the abnormal ...


Liver biopsy in cirrhotic patients.  


Liver biopsy remains an important tool for the evaluation of patients with hepatic disease. However, clinicians utilize a variety of biopsy techniques including automated cutting needle devices, manual cutting needles, and aspiration needles. Using a large study cohort of patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis we sought to evaluate practices and outcomes of the biopsy technique used by study investigators across the United States. All biopsy samples were from patients with suspected advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis because of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Individual study investigators were permitted to use any biopsy technique. Biopsy specimens were centrally evaluated for tissue adequacy and fragmentation, and were histologically scored using accepted criteria. We evaluated a total of 923 liver biopsy specimens from 502 patients performed at 62 clinical sites. The average duration of HCV infection was 27.9 +/- 0.46 yr. Automated cutting needles were significantly more likely to provide adequate specimens for evaluation than aspiration needles (P < 0.005). Automated cutting needles produced significantly longer biopsies than other techniques (P < 0.05), except for a limited number of cases in which a surgical wedge biopsy was obtained. Tissue fragmentation was observed in 39.2% of liver biopsies obtained using an aspiration technique, but in only 4.7% of samples collected using an automated cutting needle (P < 0.001). We conclude that automated cutting needles provide superior liver biopsy specimens compared with aspiration techniques in subjects with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. No specific safety issues attributable to a particular biopsy method were identified. PMID:17324127

Sherman, Kenneth E; Goodman, Zachary D; Sullivan, Sara T; Faris-Young, Sima



Skin Biopsy  


... Notice This Site and third parties who place advertisements on this Site may collect and use information ... Site and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. ...


Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.  


Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy



Oropharynx lesion biopsy  


Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy ... procedure. All or part of the problem area (lesion) is removed. It is sent to the laboratory to check for problems. If a growth in the mouth or throat needs to be removed, the biopsy ...


Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...


Cold knife cone biopsy  


A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The cervix is ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. A cold ...


Liver Biopsy in Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

147 liver biopsies were performed in 79 patients with severe psoriasis, 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and post mortem in 42 patients following sudden death from cardiac failure or traffic accident. 47 of the biopsies in psoriatics were performed prior to treatment with methotrexate. 40 biopsies were taken during treatment. A high incidence of pathological findings were found in both

H. Zachariae; H. Søgaard



Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota.  


During a special two-day hunt (11, 12 November 1989) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota (USA), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. Of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult males had the greatest frequency of infestation of either D. albipictus (100%) or I. dammini (88%) and had on average more ticks, compared to other deer. Based on an examination of midgut material from 435 I. dammini by polyclonal antibody analysis, spirochetes were observed in 22% of the ticks. Species-specific monoclonal antibody analysis of the spirochetes confirmed that the bacteria were B. burgdorferi. PMID:8445791

Gill, J S; Johnson, R C; Sinclair, M K; Weisbrod, A R



Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy  


Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Play Video Clip (00:06:12) Your Radiologist Explains Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? View larger with caption Lumps ...


Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.  


Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi



PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.



Assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens collected from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent molecular changes in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). So far, 15 main RET/PTC rearrangements have been described, among which RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most common in PTC - especially in radiation-induced tumours. RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the result of intrachromosomal paracentric inversions in chromosome 10, where RET and the activating genes (H4 and ELE1, respectively) are located. Recently, RET/PTC rearrangements have been shown not only in PTC but also in benign thyroid lesions, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The aim of study was an assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods Thyroid aspirates, eligible for the study, were obtained from 26 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each aspirate was smeared for conventional cytology, while its remaining part was immediately washed out of the needle. The cells, obtained from the needle, were used in further investigation. Total RNA from FNAB was extracted by use of an RNeasy Micro Kit, based on modified Chomczynski and Sacchi's method and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was done. Quantitative evaluation of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements by real-time PCR was performed by an ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. In the study, PTC tissues with known RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements served as a reference standard (calibrator), while ?-actin gene was used as endogenous control. Results Amplification reactions were done in triplicate for each examined sample. No RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were found in the examined samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, if any, are rather rare events and further investigations should be conducted in order to determine molecular changes, connecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis with PTC. PMID:21219595



Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

Abdrashitov, G.



Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

A fact sheet that describes the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure, its use in determining the extent, or stage, of cancer in the body, and the results of research on the use of SLNB in breast cancer and melanoma.


Biopsy (For Parents)  


... the test. If an infection is suspected, a culture is sent to a lab and results are ... during the procedure. Explain the biopsy in simple language, and make sure your child understands where on ...


Lung needle biopsy  


... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale Cysts of the lung Pulmonary hypertension ...


Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy in pancreatic tumor diagnosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the techniques, results, and complications related to computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions. METHODS: CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions performed at a cancer reference center between January 2012 and September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Biopsy material was collected with a 16-20 G Tru-Core needle (10-15 cm; Angiotech, Vancouver, CA) using a coaxial system and automatic biopsy gun. When direct access to the lesion was not possible, indirect (transgastric or transhepatic) access or hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection maneuvers were used. Characteristics of the patients, lesions, procedures, and histologic results were recorded using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 103 procedures included in the study were performed on patients with a mean age of 64.8 year (range: 39-94 year). The mean size of the pancreatic lesions was 45.5 mm (range: 15-195 mm). Most (75/103, 72.8%) procedures were performed via direct access, though hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection were used in 22.2% (23/103) of cases and indirect transhepatic or transgastric access was used in 4.8% (5/103) of cases. Histologic analysis was performed on all biopsies, and diagnoses were conclusive in 98.1% (101/103) of cases, confirming 3.9% (4/103) of tumors were benign and 94.2% (97/103) were malignant; results were atypical in 1.9% (2/103) of cases, requiring a repeat biopsy to diagnose a neuroendocrine tumor, and surgical resection to confirm a primary adenocarcinoma. Only mild/moderate complications were observed in 9/103 patients (8.7%), and they were more commonly associated with biopsies of lesions located in the head/uncinate process (n = 8), than of those located in the body/tail (n = 1) of the pancreas, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: CT-guided biopsy of a pancreatic lesion is a safe procedure with a high success rate, and is an excellent option for minimally invasive diagnosis. PMID:25834323

Tyng, Chiang J; Almeida, Maria Fernanda A; Barbosa, Paula NV; Bitencourt, Almir GV; Berg, José Augusto AG; Maciel, Macello S; Coimbra, Felipe JF; Schiavon, Luiz Henrique O; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Guimarães, Marcos D; Zurstrassen, Charles E; Chojniak, Rubens



Breast Biopsy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.



Analysis of intraocular biopsies.  


In this chapter, the importance of intraocular biopsies in the diagnosis/exclusion of ocular malignancies and prognostication is outlined. Despite improvements in ancillary studies in ophthalmology, intraocular biopsies are increasingly being performed in many ocular oncology centres. Experience is required in taking these biopsies, in their transport to the pathology laboratory, in their triaging and processing, and in their interpretation. To optimize the biopsy yield, well-tested and practical standard operational procedures for morphological, immunocytological and molecular genetic analyses are necessary. 'Tips and tricks' for the fixation and processing of intraocular tissue and fluid biopsies are provided. For example, a fixative such as Cytolyt or HOPE fixation is recommended for vitreous biopsies, allowing for all investigations to be performed, including DNA-based molecular genetic techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction used in clonality analysis in lymphoma diagnosis and in organism identification in endophthalmitis. Most solid tissue samples can be placed in buffered formalin, with the exception of those requiring RNA-based molecular techniques, here fresh tissue being preferable. The importance of incorporating data from all investigations and summarizing them as an integrated report is emphasized. The pitfalls of using any single test (e.g. a molecular genetic test) as a 'stand-alone' investigation are highlighted. Communication with relevant clinical information between surgeon and pathologist is essential at each stage: for sample delivery, for exclusion of differential diagnoses and for rapid result transmission. The current molecular genetic techniques for uveal melanoma prognostication are summarized, and how their data can be used for instigation of individualized management plans for patients discussed. PMID:22042016

Coupland, Sarah E



Color optical biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam



Transjugular liver biopsy.  


Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for evaluation of acute and chronic liver diseases, despite achievements regarding noninvasive diagnosis and staging in liver diseases. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) has proved a good option when ascites and/or significant coagulopathy precludes a percutaneous approach. Because diagnostic hemodynamic procedures can be performed during the same session, it is useful in many clinical settings, regardless of the absence of percuteaneous contraindications. TJLB is a safe technique able to provide good-quality specimens with a low rate of complications. This article presents an overview of TJLB that discusses the technique, applicability, indications, contraindications, complications, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25438282

Ble, Michel; Procopet, Bogdan; Miquel, Rosa; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos



Open pleural biopsy  


... biopsy . The test is most often done to rule out mesothelioma . It is also performed when there is fluid in the chest cavity, or when a direct view of the pleura and the lungs is needed. This procedure may also be done to examine a metastatic pleural tumor .


Transjugular Renal Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) is still a novel technique of renal tissue sampling exploiting the transjugular route. TJRB should be performed particularly in situations when the percutaneous route is precluded, i.e. especially in patients with clotting disorders. In the past, only a few papers reported the experience with larger numbers of patients. The goal of this paper is to

Ivan Rychlík; Jaromír Petrtýl; Alena Stejskalová



The veins located bilaterally on the lateral aspect (sides) of the animal's tail are useful for collecting small volumes of blood. Alternatively, the artery on the  

E-print Network

in the same manner. The principal function of these veins is for thermoregulation. They dilate when the rodent the tail in warm water (37oC), never exceeding 40 - 44oC range, or under a heat lamp (25-30 cm away from

Scott, Robert A.


Strategies for repeat prostate biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urologists are routinely faced with the dilemma of a persistently worrisome clinical picture for prostate cancer in patients\\u000a who have undergone prior negative ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies. Indications for repeat biopsy include sustained or\\u000a worsening of the findings that prompted the initial biopsy; various derivations of prostate-specific antigen; and the histology\\u000a from the initial biopsy (ie, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or

Martha K. Terris



Study Says Biopsies Are Safe  


... January 9, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Biopsy Cancer Pancreatic Cancer FRIDAY, Jan. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer biopsies ... study included more than 2,000 people with pancreatic cancer. Those who received a biopsy using a technique ...


Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required.

Ng, Chaan S. [Department of Radiology, King's Healthcare, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Salisbury, Jonathan R. [Department of Histopathology, King's Healthcare, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS London (United Kingdom); Darby, Alan J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Gishen, Philip [Department of Radiology, King's Healthcare, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)



Breast Lump Biopsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of a breast lump biopsy. It also reviews the anatomy of the breast, symptoms, diagnosis, and what the procedure involves. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute


Transbronchial lung biopsy and pneumothorax  

PubMed Central

Mini-interventional procedures are used in the everyday clinical practice by pulmonary physicians and radiologists. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy forceps are the tools mostly used. During these procedures pneumothorax can occur and immediate treatment is necessary. In our current work, we will focus on minimal invasive techniques for biopsy and pneumothorax treatment. PMID:25337401

Huang, Yong; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Browning, Robert F.; Parrish, Scott; Turner, J. Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Li, Zhigang



Clip migration in stereotactic biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Needle localization breast biopsy (NLBB) is the standard for removal of breast lesions after vacuum assisted core biopsy (VACB). Disadvantages include a miss rate of 0% to 22%, a positive margin rate of approximately 50%, and vasovagal reactions (approximately 20%). We hypothesized that clip migration after VACB is clinically significant and may contribute to the positive margin rates seen

Rena Kass; Grace Kumar; V. Suzanne Klimberg; Lawrence Kass; Ronda Henry-Tillman; Anita Johnson; Maureen Colvert; David Harshfield; Soheila Korourian; Rudolph Parrish; Anne Mancino



Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.



Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy  


... read about these and other considerations in greater detail in the appropriate factsheet (see below). For more information Learn more about what a biopsy is, including considerations for a young child, in the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease Factsheet .


[Renal biopsy in the elderly].  


Fifty years after the first percutaneous needle biopsies of the kidney, enough results have been obtained to evaluate indications in elderly patients, a population group we define as over 75 years of age. In approximately 50% of the patients in this group, the indication for renal biposy is a nephrotic syndrome. The lesions usually observed involve extramembranous glomerulonephritis or minimal change glomerulopathy. The biopsy may also reveal amylosis. Chronic renal failure is the predominant reason for nephrology consultation in the elderly. Although all of these patients do not undergo biopsy, in our experience, results show chronic glomerulopathies, mainly IgA, in about half of the case as well as chronic interstitial nephritis and nephroangiosclerosis. The aging process also leads to acute renal failure in many patients. Biopsy would not be indicated in case of shock, drug toxicity or obstruction but in approximately 10% of the cases histology can reveal a specific parenchymal lesion. The technique for renal biopsy is the same in elderly patients as in younger adults. Renal biopsy can be considered as a safe diagnostic tool of considerable importance when ordered by a nephrologist, performed by an experienced operator and read by a well-trained pathologist. In many cases it is essential to in order to provide patients over 75 with the same quality care as younger adults. PMID:8668688

Labeeuw, M; Caillette, A; Dijoud, F



Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully. PMID:24381838

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed



Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler



Evaluation of diagnostic coelioscopy including liver and kidney biopsy in freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta).  


The objective of this study was to establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for the examination of coelomic viscera and for the collection of liver and kidney biopsy specimens from turtles by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscopy system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice. Twenty-two adult freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) were anesthetized for both left and right coelioscopic examinations. Ease of entry and organ visualization were scored, and liver and kidney biopsy specimens were collected from each turtle by use of 1.7-mm endoscopic biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Five days after surgery, all turtles were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination. For all 22 turtles, left and right mean entry and visualization scores were satisfactory to excellent for all measured parameters except spleen because the spleen was impossible to locate from the left side. No iatrogenic trauma was evident, and biopsy specimens were consistent with tissues collected at necropsy. Liver biopsies suffered from greater crush artifact, compared with kidney biopsies. By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscopy system, coelioscopy, liver and kidney biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and with ease in turtles. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. Endoscopy is recommended for the examination and biopsy of coelomic viscera in chelonians. PMID:21370650

Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; Camus, Alvin



Germination, Growth and Rhizosphere Effect of Setaria viridis Grown in Iron Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of Setaria viridis (S. viridis) in iron mine tailings was investigated in greenhouse by pot experiment. S. viridis seeds collected from iron mine tailings was sown in pots containing iron mine tailings (0% vermicompost, as control) or mixture of various cow manure vermicompost with iron mine tailings, such as 10%, 20%, and 30%(volume ratio of vermicompost to mixture).

Yongli Xu; Junying Zhang; Fuping Li



Temporal artery biopsy size does not matter.  


This study aimed to clarify whether positive temporal artery biopsies had a greater sample length than negative biopsies in temporal arteritis. It has been suggested that biopsy length should be at least 1 cm to improve diagnostic accuracy. A retrospective review of 149 patients who had 151 temporal artery biopsies was conducted. Twenty biopsies were positive (13.3%), 124 negative (82.1%) and seven samples were insufficient (4.6%). There was no clinically significant difference in the mean biopsy size between positive (0.7 cm) and negative samples (0.65 cm) (t-test: p =?.43 NS). Ninety-four patients fulfilled all three ACR criteria prior to biopsy (62.3%) and four patients (2.6%) changed ACR score from 2 to 3 after biopsy. Treatment should not be delayed in anticipation of the biopsy or withheld in the case of a negative biopsy if the patient's symptoms improve. PMID:24347135

Kaptanis, Sarantos; Perera, Joanne K; Halkias, Constantine; Caton, Nadine; Alarcon, Lida; Vig, Stella



Drill needle biopsy for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1977 to 1983 we have used electric drill needle biopsy of suspicious masses in the breast in 437 patients. In 104 patients\\u000a with primary breast carcinoma 94 were diagnosed correctly by the initial biopsy, 9 were found on the second or third biopsy\\u000a and one on the subsequent excisional biopsy. The rate of accuracy of the initial biopsy was

Yasuhiro Yokoyama; Susumu Nakajima; Natsuki Samejima



Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  


KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If ...


Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  


A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)



Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy  


... underestimate the extent of disease present. If the diagnosis remains uncertain after a technically successful procedure, surgical biopsy will usually be necessary. top of page Additional Information and Resources RadiologyInfo : Breast Cancer Treatment ( ...


Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?  


Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing. PMID:24599706

Varettas, Kerry





... American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Community Search Search » Sign In Remember Me Forgot your password? Haven't registered yet? more Calendar 4/23/2015 » 4/26/2015 2015 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting 3/30/2016 » ...




... the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, ... accredited provider: To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search ...


Percutaneous renal biopsy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The results of 74 renal biopsies in children suffering from diverse medical conditions have been described. In the group of\\u000a 46 cases of glomerulonephritis, 6 were of the acute variety presenting as the nephrotic syndrome, 35 of the subacute and 5\\u000a of chronic glomerulonephritis. The presentation of 3 cases of chronic pyelonephritis as the nephrotic syndrome and of 1 as

Devinder Puri; Surinder Bansal



Clinical utility of peripheral nerve biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histopathologic evaluation of nerve biopsy specimens provides important diagnostic information in some patients with peripheral\\u000a neuropathy. The role of nerve biopsy is more restricted than that of muscle biopsy. Nerve biopsy is utilized mainly for diagnosis\\u000a of vasculitis and infiltrative neuropathies. It is also utilized in diagnosis of atypical inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies\\u000a in which the clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory features

David Lacomis



[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.



Hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers.  

PubMed Central

An investigation into the problem of the frequency and hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers was performed in two ways. The first study was into the frequency of lung biopsy among 2907 long term asbestos insulation workers in 1981-3 and the second was into the frequency of fatal complications of lung biopsy in 168 deaths from asbestosis among 2271 consecutive deaths of asbestos insulation workers 1967-76. Only 25 (0.9%) of the 2907 asbestos insulation workers reported having had either an open lung biopsy, a needle biopsy, or a transbronchial biopsy. Seven (24%) of these men suffered difficulties as a result of the biopsy. Lung biopsies had been performed on 14 of the 168 workers who died of asbestosis. Three (21%) of these 14 patients had died within 30 days of biopsy as a direct result of the procedure. In most cases there is no need for lung biopsy to establish a diagnosis of asbestosis; generally, it may be defined by history of exposure, clinical and radiological findings, and other well established non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Certainly, legal and compensation recommendation for biopsy should be considered with the possibility of death in mind. If biopsy is performed precautions should be taken, including adequate observation in hospital. PMID:3947578

Lerman, Y; Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J



Use and rationale of a multicompartment microcassette for site-specific biopsies of the prostate in a consecutive cohort of men.  


The collection of prostate biopsies into individual or site-specific specimen containers has not been performed routinely because of concerns of time, cost and lack of additional clinical value. This report evaluates the first ever use of a multicompartment microcassette for the collection and processing of site-specific prostate biopsies.Site-specific prostate biopsies were taken in sequential men suspected to have prostate cancer and collected in a multicompartment microcassette, which holds six biopsies and fits within a standard specimen container. Estimates were made of the cost and time savings compared with biopsies collected in individual specimen containers. In 88 men evaluated, use of the multicompartment microcassette saved time (72% reduction) and cost (83% reduction) with the added ability of easy identification of the site of each prostate biopsy. The multicompartment microcassette is a convenient, time- and cost-effective container for the collection of site-specific prostate biopsies. PMID:12664065

Laniado, M E; McMullen, I; Walker, M M; Patel, A



The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim


Diagnostic significance of biopsies in renal masses  

PubMed Central

Introduction We investigated the reliability and mapping of percutaneous needle core biopsies in the kidney in histopathological diagnosis of renal masses particularly for those with suspicious radiologic appearance in an attempt to prevent unnecessary nephrectomies. Material and methods Overall, 96 cases were included in our study that underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy due to renal mass between November 2007 – March 2010. Ex–vivo biopsies 1 cm apart were obtained from the peripheral region of the mass. Additionally, half of these peripheral biopsies were obtained from the central region of the mass. Diagnostic yield of the biopsy cores were correlated. Sensitivity and specificity of peripheral and central biopsies in differentiating benign and malignant tissues were calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant lesions were 93% and 87%, and 90% and 93% for peripheral and central biopsies, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 68%, and 98% and 64% for peripheral biopsies and central biopsies, respectively. Hazard ratio for cigarette smoking and presence of necrosis on CT scans were 4.76 (CI 1, 6–14.3; p = 0.04) and 3.32 (CI 1,2–9.2; p = 0.017) and 3.71 (CI 1.3–10.7; p = 0.013) and 3,51 (CI 1.3–9.6; p = 0.012) for peripheral and central biopsies, respectively. Conclusions Kidney biopsies can be performed in suspicious renal masses of central and peripheral biopsies with similar efficacy. PMID:25667752

Dogan, Bayram; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Ozcan, Muhammed Fuat; Asil, Erem; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, Mevlana Derya



Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient was temporarily dialyzed; the remaining patient required ureteric stenting. In conclusion, TJRB provides an adequate yield for diagnosis. Complication rates are relatively high, but patients are also at high risk from the conventional percutaneous approach. Patient selection and optimization are critical to avoid major complications.

See, Teik Choon, E-mail: teikchoon.see@addenbrookes.nhs.u [Addenbrookes Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Thompson, Barbara C. [Royal Free Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Howie, Alexander J. [University College London, Department of Pathology (United Kingdom); Karamshi, M.; Papadopoulou, Anthie M.; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan [Royal Free Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in planning transthoracic CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions. Methods Thirteen patients with lung lesions suspicious for malignancy underwent CT-guided biopsy. Chest DW-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation were performed to aid biopsy planning with fused images. MRI was indicated due to large heterogeneous masses, association with lung atelectasis/consolidation/necrosis, and/or divergent results of other biopsy type and histopathology versus clinical/radiological suspicion. Eight patients underwent PET/CT to identify appropriate areas for biopsy. Results Mean patient (n?=?9 males) age was 59 (range, 30 to 78) years. Based on DW-MRI results, biopsies targeted the most suspicious areas within lesions. All biopsied areas showed higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs (mean, 0.79 (range, 0.54 to 1.2)?×?10?3 mm2/s), suggesting high cellularity. In patients who underwent PET/CT, areas with higher 18-fluorodeoxyglucose concentrations (standard uptake value mean, 7.7 (range, 3.6 to 13.7)) corresponded to areas of higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs. All biopsies yielded adequate material for histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions Functional imaging is useful for lung biopsy planning. DW-MRI and PET/CT increase overall performance and enable the collection of adequate material for specific diagnosis. PMID:25012544




Microsoft Academic Search

th Febr 2007 ; accepted 13 th May 2007) Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and




Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve


Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis.

Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali



Handling and interpretation of lung transplant biopsies.  


The transbronchial biopsy is the gold standard for evaluation of rejection in the lung allograft. The biopsy is an invasive procedure that produces small quantities of tissue that is prone to crush artifact and is often suboptimal for evaluation. Furthermore, the biopsies should contain both alveolar tissue and airway wall to be considered adequate. Therefore, it is essential that the tissue is carefully handled at all stages of tissue processing and evaluation to ensure the best evaluation in a time sensitive and cost effective manner. Herein we describe an optimized protocol for handling and interpreting lung transplant biopsies. PMID:25015155

Swanson, Eric; Wallace, W Dean



Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M



Tail vaccination in cats: a pilot study.  


Feline injection site sarcomas affect 1-10 cats per every 10,000 vaccinated and are associated with high mortality. Radical resection may be curative, but is often associated with prolonged recovery, disfigurement and loss of function when tumors occur at currently recommended injection sites. The objective of this study was to assess alternatives to currently recommended vaccination sites in terms of preference by oncology practitioners, ease of injection and serological responses. Surgical, radiation and medical oncology practitioners were surveyed regarding their preference for vaccination sites based on the ease of tumor resection. A six-point Likert scale was used to measure each cat's behavioral reaction to vaccination when injected subcutaneously in the distal hind limb or the distal tail. Serum collected before and 1-2 months after vaccination was tested for antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and rabies virus (RV). The preferred sites for vaccination by 94 oncology practitioners were below the stifle (41%) and the tail (30%). There were no significant differences in the cats' behavioral reaction to vaccination below the stifle (n = 31) and in the distal tail (n = 29). Of the cats seronegative for FPV at the time of vaccination, 100% developed protective antibody titers (?40) against FPV 1-2 months following vaccination. For cats seronegative for RV, all but one cat (tail vaccine) developed acceptable antibody titers (?0.5 IU/ml) against RV. Tail vaccination was well tolerated and elicited similar serological responses to vaccination in the distal limbs. PMID:24108201

Hendricks, Cleon G; Levy, Julie K; Tucker, Sylvia J; Olmstead, Shaye M; Crawford, P Cynda; Dubovi, Edward J; Hanlon, Cathleen A



Happy Tailings to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.


Multiple biopsies are superior to a single biopsy in detecting cervical cancer precursors

Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach may help to detect disease early and avoid repeated biopsies for women with initial negative findings, according to a new study by Nicolas Wentzensen, M.D., Ph.D., in DCEG's Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, and colleagues.


Retrograde Synovial Biopsy of the Knee Joint Using a Novel Biopsy Forceps  

PubMed Central

Synovial biopsies of the knee joint are commonly performed arthroscopically with the patient under full or regional anesthesia. To overcome the effort, costs, and potential risks of surgery, we developed an office-based technique for retrograde synovial biopsy using a designated novel biopsy forceps. Using this technique, no arthroscopic or radiologic control is needed to perform rapid synovial biopsies of the knee joint. Concomitant aspiration of synovial fluid can be performed. A technical description of the procedure is given. PMID:25126494

Hügle, Thomas; Leumann, André; Pagenstert, Geert; Paul, Jochen; Hensel, Mathias; Barg, Alexej; Foster-Horvath, Csaba; Nowakowski, Andrej Maria; Valderrabano, Victor; Wiewiorski, Martin



Multiple biopsies are superior to a single biopsy in detecting cervical cancer precursors

Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach may help to detect disease early and avoid repeated biopsies for women with initial negative findings, according to a new study by researchers at the National Cancer Institute and their colleagues.


Culture of Helicobacter pylori from gastric biopsies transported in biopsy urease test tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric biopsy specimens of 57 consecutively observed dyspeptic patients were studied for the presence ofHelicobacter pylori by histological examination, biopsy urease test (BUT) and culture. For culture, biopsy samples were transported in both Stuart media and BUT tubes. All 15 isolates could be cultured from both Stuart and BUT tubes. Thus, if the main reason for culture ofHelicobacter pylori is

H. Rautelin; K. Seppälä; H. Nuutinen; P. Kärkkäinen; P. Sipponen; T. U. Kosunen



Page 1 of 20 Planning of Prostate Cancer Biopsies and Interpretation of Biopsy Results, Using Rules  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 20 Planning of Prostate Cancer Biopsies and Interpretation of Biopsy Results, Using Rules;Page 2 of 20 PURPOSE: To address challenges of avoiding over- and under-treatment of prostate cancer screening more acceptable and beneficial. KEY WORDS: Prostate, cancer, volume, biopsy, decision

Serfling, Robert


Desmopressin use prior to renal transplant biopsy—does it fit?  

PubMed Central

Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), a selective agonist of type 2 vasopressin receptors, is sometimes used prior to percutaneous renal biopsy to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. DDAVP increases free water reabsorption in renal collecting ducts, potentially leading to water intoxication or dilutional hyponatraemia. We present two cases, where DDAVP was used prior to percutaneous renal transplant biopsy and was associated with severe hyponatraemia and neurological sequelae. With DDAVP being advocated in many centres prior to percutaneous renal biopsy, these cases highlight the need for increased awareness regarding side effects. In this report, we provide suggestions on strategies to minimize hyponatraemia in this context.

Anandagoda, Nelomi; Jayawardene, Satish; Macdougall, Iain C.; Shah, Sapna



Handling and interpretation of heart transplant biopsies.  


The biopsy material that is available for evaluation of the transplant heart is retrieved from an invasive biopsy procedure that is often small or suboptimal for evaluation. It is essential that the tissue is handled optimally from the time it is removed from the body to the time it is placed on the microscope stage to facilitate the best opportunity for an adequate diagnosis and to prevent the necessity for repeat costly and invasive procedures. Furthermore, the diagnostic information may be time sensitive for the treating clinician and mishandling the tissue or requiring a repeat biopsy will delay the start of treatment if the biopsy discloses actionable information. Herein we describe an optimized protocol for handling and interpreting heart transplant biopsies. PMID:25015154

Swanson, Eric; Wallace, W Dean



Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Science)



Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)



Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT ­ Better Performing Active Queue Management for Multimedia Networking Mark performance drop for multimedia flows that are well behaved. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT

Claypool, Mark


Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance that use flow control. We extend Class- Based Threshold (CBT) [4], and propose a new active queue

Claypool, Mark


Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ......  

E-print Network

Drop Tail (FIFO) FREDCBQ ...... Class-Based Threshold (CBT) Dynamic-CBT ChIPS Resource Reservation RED Active Queue Mgmt Dynamic-CBT and ChIPS ­ Router Support for Improved Multimedia Performance for multimedia flows that use flow control. We extend Class-Based Threshold (CBT) [12], and propose a new active

Claypool, Mark


First report of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) death following penetration of a biopsy dart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remote collection of skin and blubber biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans is a powerful technique which has been inc reasingly used by scientists in recent years in a wide range of applications, particularly with respect to genetic and contaminant studie s. Biopsy sampling, if carried out responsibly, is known to cause low-level reactions, and is unlikely to produce long-term

Giovanni Bearzi



Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.  


The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim



Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy  

PubMed Central

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim



Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid  


Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid Play Video Clip (00:04:19) Your Radiologist ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...


Geochemistry of arsenic in uranium mine mill tailings, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rabbit Lake U mine in-pit tailings management facility (TMF) (425 m long×300 m wide×91 m deep) is located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to quantify the distribution of As phases in the tailings and evaluate the present-day geochemical controls on dissolved As. These objectives were met by analyzing pore fluid samples collected from the

R Donahue; M. J Hendry



Liver biopsy: experience at Enugu, eastern Nigeria.  


A retrospective analysis of liver biopsies done at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between January 1980 to December 1985 was done to determine the indications, level of preparation and investigation of the patients, biopsy techniques and failure rate, complications and histopathological results. The register of all biopsies sent to the Morbid Anatomy Department and the clinical records of the patients were used for the analysis. Of the 154 biopsies done, the Menghini technique was used in 128 cases (83.1%), the rest was by exploratory laparotomy. The commonest indication was unexplained hepatomegaly with or without splenomegaly 46 cases (29.8%). Adult cases accounted for 132 cases (85.7%) with male/female distribution of 3:1. Histologically proven cases of hepatocellular carcinoma accounted for 38 cases (14.2%). Pain requiring analgesics occurred in 8 cases (5.2%). The need for adequate clinical documentation of patients is emphasized. PMID:3508625

Osuafor, T O; Ikerionwu, S E; Ukabam, S O



Rectal biopsy in the investigation of constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo develop criteria to prevent unnecessary rectal biopsies in constipated children.METHODSA retrospective review of 186 rectal biopsies from 141 children, comparing the age at onset of symptoms with the diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease.RESULTSAll of the 17 children with Hirschsprung’s disease had the onset of symptoms before the age of 4 weeks. Twenty seven children had delayed passage of meconium (more

A Ghosh; D M Griffiths



Bone biopsy in patients with osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rarely used to diagnose and manage patients with osteoporosis, bone biopsies are performed to establish bone quality,\\u000a including degree of mineralization and microarchitecture; to assess bone turnover and bone loss mechanisms; and to analyze\\u000a treatment effects on bone structure and bone turnover. Bone biopsies are also the only method to diagnose mineralization defect\\u000a or frank osteomalacia. Due to the

Hartmut H. Malluche; Hanna Mawad; Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere



Cryopreservation of biopsied cleavage stage human embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop a method to optimize cryopreservation of biopsied multi-celled human embryos. Human day 3 embryos that were donated to research, along with those found to be chromosomally abnormal after blastomere biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hyridization (FISH), were cryopreserved using a slow-freezing protocol in either standard embryo cryopreservation solution [embryo transfer freezing medium (ETFM), a conventional sodium-based

James J Stachecki; Jacques Cohen; Santiago Munné



Trephine biopsy of the lung and pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last five years 140 biopsies of the lung or pleura have been performed with a high-speed air-drill. A specially designed trephine, 2·1 mm. in bore, proved effective in obtaining adequate specimens from patients with diffuse lung lesions. With this method 111 out of 119 (93%) consecutive lung biopsies were successful in producing specimens of lung tissue for histological

S. J. Steel; D. P. Winstanley



Performance of skin biopsies by general practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate and appraise skin biopsies performed by general practitioners and compare their performance with that of hospital doctors. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of histology records. SETTING--University hospital. SUBJECTS--Records of 292 skin biopsy specimens obtained by general practitioners and 324 specimens obtained by general and plastic surgeons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical and pathological diagnoses and completeness of excision. RESULTS--The number of specimens received

L J McWilliam; F Knox; N Wilkinson; P Oogarah



Skin Biopsy Techniques for the Internist  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review three commonly performed skin biopsy procedures: shave, punch, and excision. DATA SOURCES English-language articles identified through a MEDLINE search (1966 –1997) using the MeSH headings skin and biopsy, major dermatology and primary care textbooks, and cross-references. STUDY SELECTION Articles that reviewed the indications, contraindications, choice of procedure, surgical technique, specimen handling, and wound care. DATA EXTRACTION Information was manually extracted from all selected articles and texts; emphasis was placed on information relevant to internal medicine physicians who want to learn skin biopsy techniques. DATA SYNTHESIS Shave biopsies require the least experience and time but are limited to superficial, nonpigmented lesions. Punch biopsies are simple to perform, have few complications, and if small, can heal without suturing. Closing the wound with unbraided nylon on a C-17 needle will enhance the cosmetic result but requires more expertise and time. Elliptical excisions are ideal for removing large or deep lesions, provide abundant material for many studies, and can be curative for a number of conditions, but require the greatest amount of time, expertise, and office resources. Elliptical excisions can be closed with unbraided nylon using a CE-3 or FS-3 needle in thick skin or a P-3 needle on the face. All specimens should be submitted in a labeled container with a brief clinical description and working diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Skin biopsies are an essential technique in the management of skin diseases and can enhance the dermatologic care rendered by internists. PMID:9462495

Alguire, Patrick C; Mathes, Barbara M



Hepatic Mitochondrial Function Analysis Using Needle Liver Biopsy Samples  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and Aim Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF) analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg) obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. Methods An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. Results The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean). Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n?=?6 each) showed low coefficient of variation (<10%) in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC) capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR). Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. Conclusion Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function. PMID:24205366

Hosking, Alexander W. G.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.



Clinical Validation of an Epigenetic Assay to Predict Negative Histopathological Results in Repeat Prostate Biopsies  

PubMed Central

Purpose The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. Materials and Methods We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. Results The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85–91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60–4.51). Conclusions The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. PMID:24747657

Partin, Alan W.; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A.; Marks, Leonard S.; Gee, Jason R.; Troyer, Dean A.; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J. Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lance, Raymond S.; Bigley, Joseph W.; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I.



The Effectiveness of Mapping Biopsy in Patients with Extramammary Paget's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intraepithelial carcinoma usually occurring on the skin or mucosa of the perineum. Clinically, it resembles eczema or dermatitis, and misdiagnosis and treatment delays are common. The treatment of choice for EMPD is a wide excision with adequate margins. Wide excision with intraoperative frozen biopsy and Mohs micrographic surgery are common methods; however, these are associated with a high recurrence rate and long operation time, respectively. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2013, 21 patients diagnosed with EMPD underwent mapping biopsy. Biopsy specimens were collected from at least 10 areas, 2 cm from the tumor margin. When the specimens were positive for malignancy, additional mapping biopsy was performed around the biopsy site of the positive result, and continued until no cancer cells were found. Based on the results, excision margins and reconstruction plans were established preoperatively. Results The patients (18 male, 3 female) had a mean age of 66.5 years (range, 50-82 years). Almost all cases involved in the perineal area, except one case of axillary involvement. Permanent biopsy revealed one case (4.8%) of positive cancer cells on the resection margin, in which additional mapping biopsy and re-operation was performed. At the latest follow-up (mean, 27.4 months; range, 12-53 months), recurrence had not occurred. Conclusions Preoperative mapping biopsy enables accurate resection margins and a preoperative reconstructing plan. Additionally, it reduces the operation time and risk of recurrence. Accordingly, it represents an effective alternative to Mohs micrographic surgery and wide excision with intraoperative frozen biopsy. PMID:25396191

Kim, Byung Jun; Park, Shin Ki



Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

Mineck, R. E.



Heads and Tails  

E-print Network

novellas by Sebastian, Helen Raven, & M. Fae Glasgow) WARNING: THIS ANTHOLOGY CONTAINS SAME-SEX, ADULT-ORIENTED MATERIAL. IT WILL NOT BE SOLD TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails an anthology of X-Files slash fiction... exclusively. There are, however, two pieces bringing Krycek into the picture: ?Trinity? and ?Torrid.? As usual, M. Fae writes her own particular view of the Sk/M relation- ship and her stories range from romantic to hopeless; from no sex shown at all...

Glasgow, M.F.



Prostate Biopsy in Central Europe: Results of a Survey of Indication, Patient Preparation and Biopsy Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We surveyed urologists in Austria, Germany and Switzerland regarding their standard approach to prostate biopsy. Methods: Participants of Austrian and German urological meetings were asked to fill out a survey form; additionally, this was mailed to all Swiss urologists. Results: 304 surveys are available for analysis. 97% of participants perform a biopsy if digital rectal examination is abnormal. 63%

Klaus G. Fink; Hans-Peter Schmid; Ljiljana Paras; Nikolaus T. Schmeller



The ionospheres and plasma tails of comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the current state of knowledge about cometary plasma (type I) tails and ionospheres. Observational statistics for type I tails are examined along with spectroscopic observations of plasma tails, identified ion species in such tails, and the morphology of cometary plasma tails and ionospheres. Evidence for a strong interaction between comets and the solar wind is evaluated on

D. A. Mendis; W.-H. Ip



Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.  


Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M



[Complications of transrectal biopsy of the prostate].  


The aim of the study was to assess frequency of various complications of transrectal multifocal biopsy of the prostate (TMBP), to specify prophylactic measures against such complications. Primary TMBP under US guidance was made in 612 patients (mean age 65.8 years, mean level of PSA 12.6 ng/ml). TMBP complications include: hematuria (220 patients, 35.9%), hemospermia (166 patients, 27.1%), pain in the perineum and the rectum (189, 30.9%), acute prostatitis (21 patients, 3.4%), acute orchiepididymitis (7 patients, 1.1%), acute urine retention (9 patients, 1.5%), long-term rectal hemorrhage (13 patients, 2.1%), loss of consciousness during the biopsy (7 patients, 1.1%). The analysis of TMBP complications leads to the conclusion that adequate preparation of the patients and accurate conduction of the prostatic biopsy technique under US guidance make this invasive manipulation diagnostically effective and safe. PMID:15989026

Pushkar', D Iu; Govorov, A V



[Indications and prerequisites for bone biopsy].  


The iliac crest biopsy provides additional information for the therapeutic approach in selected questions if the indication is correct. Indications include osteoporosis with an atypical course with respect to age, fracture frequency or success of therapy. The aim of the iliac crest biopsy is to harvest an undestroyed and intact piece of bone, containing all compartments, including cancellous bone, cortical bone and bone marrow. Knowledge of clinical and paraclinical parameters is essential for diagnosis and assessment. A safe sampling technique under sterile conditions must be guaranteed. The biopsy itself takes place in the anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine, preferably by using a Burkhardt or a diamond burr. Hard cutting technique and knowledge or the histomorphometry are indispensable prerequisites. PMID:23076747

Roth, A; Abendroth, K; Lehmann, G



Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail:; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)



Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.



Papillomavirus genomes in experimentally induced fibromas in white-tailed deer.  


Cutaneous fibromas of white-tailed deer were transmitted successfully to 5 young deer. Serial biopsy specimens of the induced lesions were analyzed for white-tailed deer papillomavirus, using Southern blot hybridization. Viral genomes were found in all specimens taken 1 to 7 weeks after inoculation and, in some cases, from specimens of the inoculation site obtained later. Viral DNA was found before histologic evidence of fibroblast proliferation and persisted in low copy number, compared with viral DNA of naturally developing fibromas. PMID:2823650

O'Banion, M K; Sundberg, J P



Beyond the histone tail  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones have been implicated in cellular processes such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. These processes normally involve dynamic changes in chromatin structure and DNA accessibility. Most of the PTMs reported so far map on the histone tails and essentially affect chromatin structure indirectly by recruiting effector proteins. A recent study by Schneider and colleagues published in Cell1 has uncovered the function of H3K122 acetylation found within the histone globular domain and specifically positioned on the DNA-bound surface of the nucleosome. Their findings demonstrate a direct effect of histone PTMs on chromatin dynamics, and propose that modifications located in different parts of the nucleosome employ distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23941995

Molina-Serrano, Diego; Kirmizis, Antonis



Design of a small animal biopsy robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects

Ozkan Bebek; Myun Joong Hwang; Baowei Fei; M. Cenk Cavusoglu



Biopsy with thermally-responsive untethered microtools  

PubMed Central

Thermally activated, untethered ?-grippers can reach narrow conduits in the body and be used to excise tissue for diagnostic analyses. As depicted in the figure, we show the feasibility of an in vivo biopsy of the porcine bile duct using untethered ?-grippers. PMID:23047708

Gultepe, Evin; Randhawa, Jatinder S.; Kadam, Sachin; Yamanaka, Sumitaka; Selaru, Florin M.; Shin, Eun J.; Kalloo, Anthony N.



Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented. PMID:22231130

Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.



Motile Sperm in Human Testis Biopsy Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied 62 consecutive infertile men who underwent 100 intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material obtained simultaneously with permanently fixed specimens. Wet preps were performed by placing a small sam- pIe of fresh testicular tissue on a slide, adding a drop of Ringer's lactate, and compressing the specimen under a glass coverslip. Among these 100 wet



Lean worm-like specimen indicates mechanical trouble in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy—A rare incident and successful resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare mechanical problem in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, which was recognized by a lean, worm-like appearance of the collected tissue sample, and its successful resolution are reported. A stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy (Mammotome®) was performed for calcification in a 47-year-old female. The first specimen was collected, but the collected specimen was thinner than usual, and had a lean, worm-like appearance.

Kenichiro Tanaka; Koji Oda; Masahiro Fujii; Momoko Aoki; Hiroko Satake; Akiko Nishio; Nobuyuki Tsunoda; Masato Nagino



Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.

Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S



The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks



Investigation of heavy metals pollution in the Huashan's gold mine tailing area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the content of various heavy metals, soils of the farmland surrounding the Huashan's gold tailing mine are studied. Surrounding soil samples are collected in new and old tailing mines. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry is taken to measure the content of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Cu. In addition, the method of combining the Geo-accumulation index and

Xue Xicheng; Zhang Rui; Wang Pan; Bi Jisong



Aqueous geochemistry and analysis of pyrite surfaces in sulfide-rich mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous geochemical techniques and analysis of pyrite surfaces have been used to study element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase and to infer mechanisms that limit the concentrations of elements in porewater in a sulfide-rich mine tailings impoundment. Porewater samples and pyrite grains for surface analysis were collected from oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. Surface analyses were

T. A. Al; D. W. Blowes; C. J. Martin; L. J. Cabri; J. L. Jambor



Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.  


Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. PMID:25132483

Russo, Gabrielle A




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...


Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR.  


Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country. PMID:23691338

Essawi, Tamer; Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A



Floatation of Decalcified Bone Marrow Core Biopsy – A Clue to Marrow Hypocellularity  

PubMed Central

Background : Examination of bone marrow plays a pivotal role in the practice of haematology. It can be evaluated by three ways – bone marrow aspiration smears (BMA), bone marrow touch imprints (BMI) and bone marrow biopsy (BMB). BMB sections are considered to be the gold standard for assessing overall marrow cellularity. Aim and Objective: To evaluate the correlation, if any, between bone marrow cellularity and floatation pattern of the core biopsy specimen, after proper decalcification. Setting and Design: This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi over a period of 26 months. Materials and Methods: Specimens of BMA, BMI and BMB were collected from 182 cases. The core biopsy specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours, and were decalcified in 5% formic acid for 12 hours. The properly decalcified core biopsy samples were then put into adequate-sized container filled with 10% buffered formalin, and floatation pattern was documented. Statistical Analysis: All the observations were evaluated using simple and basic statistical tools, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value. Chi square test was applied for obtaining statistical correlation i.e. p-value. Results: Out of 182 core biopsy specimens, 32.4% (n=59) floated, while rests sank. Out of the 59 floating core biopsies, 57 were hypocellular. Seven core biopsies, among 123 specimens that sank, were hypocellular. The sensitivity and specificity of floatation pattern for hypocellular marrow were 89.2% and 99.1%, respectively. A strong correlation (p-value <0.001) between the floatation pattern and bone marrow cellularity was obtained. Conclusion: Assessment of floatation pattern of properly decalcified marrow core specimen is reliable for assessing marrow hypocellularity. PMID:25653955

Das, Subhajit; Singh, Gyan Prakash



Percutaneous Breast Biopsy: Effect on Short-term Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effects of percutaneous breast biopsy on short-term quality of life. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant prospective study. From December 1, 2007, through February 28, 2010, women undergoing percutaneous breast biopsy in an academic medical center were recruited to participate in a mixed-mode survey 2–4 days after biopsy. Patients described their biopsy experience by using the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI), a validated instrument for assessing short-term quality of life related to diagnostic testing. The scale ranged from 0 (worst possible experience) to 100 (no adverse effects). Seven attributes were assessed: pain or discomfort before and during testing, fear or anxiety before and during testing, embarrassment during testing, and physical and mental function after testing. Demographic and clinical information were also collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of TMI score. Results In 188 women (mean age, 51.4 years; range, 22–80 years), the mean TMI score (±standard deviation) was 82 ± 12. Univariate analysis revealed age and race as significant predictors of the TMI score (P < .05). In the multivariate model, only patient age remained a significant independent predictor (P = .001). TMI scores decreased by approximately three points for every decade decrease in patient age, which suggests that younger women were more adversely affected by the biopsy experience. Conclusion Younger patient age is a significant predictor of decreased short-term quality of life related to percutaneous breast biopsy procedures. Tailored prebiopsy counseling may better prepare women for percutaneous biopsy procedures and improve their experience. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24471385

Humphrey, Kathryn L.; Donelan, Karen; Kong, Chung Y.; Williams, Olubunmi; Itauma, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Gerade, Beverly J.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.; Swan, J. Shannon



Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon’s diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N.; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M.; Smith, Kevin M.; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S.; Asher, Gary N.; Keku, Temitope O.



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...



[Myocardial biopsy in suspected myocardial sarcoidosis].  


24 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis stage I or II, who above all on account of changes of the ECG roused the suspicion of the presence of a sarcoidosis of the myocardium, finally underwent an invasive examination with laevocardiography, coronarography and biopsy of the endomyocardium. While the unaimed taking of tissue from the left ventricle did not result light-microscopically in a reference to granulomas or other inflammatory changes, the biopsy in a female patient, on purpose taken from a hypokinetic area of the left ventricle, showed epitheloid-cellular granulomas with giant-cells. Evaluating these results and reports in literatur, we came to the conclusion that findings typical for sarcoidosis are promising success only when taken from cardiographically suspicious areas of the myocardium. PMID:4072308

Schaedel, H; Haenselt, V; Kirsten, D; Eger, H



Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy  

PubMed Central

Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 ?m FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics. PMID:23412009

Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.



Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.



Managing forests for white-tailed eagles  

E-print Network

Managing forests for white-tailed eagles White-tailed eagles (sea eagles) were re and carry out forestry operations and other activities in relation to the statutory protection of white-tailed eagles (sea eagles). It replaces general guidance relating to white-tailed eagles contained in Forestry


Biopsy Techniques for the Diagnosis of Mesothelioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The incidence of mesothelioma continues to increase in the Western world and is likely to do so until 2011–2015. It commonly\\u000a presents with breathlessness secondary to a pleural effusion, and whilst guidelines still advise thoracocentesis as the first\\u000a line investigation, the sensitivity of this is low and a tissue diagnosis is usually required. Abrams needle biopsy also has\\u000a a low

J. Walters; Nick A. Maskell


Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastrointestinal cancers.  


Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in gastrointestinal-(GI)-tract cancer is not yet of clinical relevance. Nevertheless, the results in the upper GI-tract promise to be helpful to individualize the indication for surgical therapy. SLNB in colon cancer still fails to show high validity to predict the nodal status, but may be helpful to clarify the prognostic role of micrometastases/isolated tumor cells. In anal cancer SLNB is able to guide the indication for groin irradiation. PMID:17726666

Bembenek, A; Gretschel, S; Schlag, P M



Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200



A New Apparatus for Standardized Rat Kidney Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney. PMID:25506931

Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P. M.



Biopsy Needle Detection in Transrectal Ultrasound Alper Ayvacia  

E-print Network

, and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men [1]. Currently, patients are being diagnosed using. bPhilips Research North America, 345 Scarborough Rd, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510, USA. Abstract Using of the image fusion system. In prostate biopsy, the biopsy needle is deployed by using a biopsy gun. The needle

Soatto, Stefano


Ability of Sextant Biopsies to Predict Radical Prostatectomy Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. There are few studies evaluating multiple variables on sextant biopsies with the intent to predict stage in radical prostatectomy specimens.Methods. We studied 113 sextant biopsies with corresponding totally submitted radical prostatectomy specimens. Variables evaluated on sextant biopsies included total length and percent of cancer; maximum length and percent of cancer on one core; location (apex, mid, base); bilaterality; Gleason

Marcia L Wills; Jurgita Sauvageot; Alan W Partin; Robin Gurganus; Jonathan I Epstein



Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred



Nonlethal acquisition of large liver samples from free-ranging river sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus) using single-entry endoscopic biopsy forceps.  


Harvesting of liver samples for toxicologic and other laboratory analyses is frequently undertaken in free-ranging fish to evaluate accumulations of various pollutants and chemicals. However, commonly used, lethal techniques for collecting liver tissues are unacceptable when dealing with protected species. We report the use of a nonlethal, single-entry, endoscopic technique using saline infusion to examine and collect large liver samples using optical biopsy forceps from 16 free-ranging sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus spp.) during 25 and 27 January 2010. Under tricaine methanesulfonate anesthesia and following the introduction of the optical biopsy forceps (with a 5-mm telescope) through a 1-2-cm ventral midline skin incision, liver examination and collection of biopsies averaging 0.9 g, ranging up to 1.4 g, and representing up to 12% of total liver tissue were successful. All fish made uneventful recoveries and necropsy examinations the following day failed to indicate any significant hemorrhage or iatrogenic trauma. We recommend the use of large optical biopsy forceps as a practical, nonlethal alternative for collection of large liver biopsies from sturgeon and other fish. PMID:23568907

Divers, Stephen J; Boone, Shaun S; Berliner, Aimee; Kurimo, Elizabeth A; Boysen, Krista A; Johnson, David R; Killgore, K Jack; George, Steven G; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey



Temporal gene expression in equine corpora lutea based on serial biopsies in vivo.  


A biopsy procedure was developed to enable repeated sampling of a single equine corpus luteum (CL) over the course of an estrous cycle. The tissue collected was utilized in characterizing mRNA abundance for genes involved in luteal formation, function, and regression in the cyclic mare. Serial biopsies of CL in cyclic mares (2.7 to 27.5 mg per biopsy) were collected using an ultrasound-guided transvaginal technique. Biopsies were collected from each mare on d 2 and 5 (d 0 = ovulation) of the estrous cycle, and every other day from d 12 through luteolysis. Samples were obtained from 4 mares with normal estrous cycles and 1 mare with a retained CL. The biopsy procedure did not adversely affect luteal size or function, as measured by luteal area and serum concentrations of progesterone. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to quantify steady state mRNA concentrations in each tissue sample obtained. Mean abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA was not different (P = 0.102 to 0.964) on any of the sampling dates, but a trend for mRNA encoding StAR to decrease between d 12 and 14 (P = 0.10) was observed. Values for mRNA encoding StAR were positively correlated to serum concentrations of progesterone on d 5 (R = 0.95; P = 0.05) and 14 (R > 0.99; P < 0.01). Steady-state abundance of mRNA for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, ? 5-? 4 isomerase (3?-HSD) declined between d 12 and 14 (P = 0.15). There were positive correlations between mRNA for 3?-HSD and concentrations of progesterone on d 5 (R = 0.94; P = 0.06) and 12 (R > 0.99; P = 0.05). No difference was detected in abundance of mRNA encoding cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2; P = 0.340 to 0.840) or caspase-3 (P = 0.517 to 0.882) between any of the sampling dates. A successful luteal biopsy procedure was developed that did not negatively affect luteal function, and abundance of mRNA encoding StAR, 3?-HSD, cox-2, and caspase-3 was characterized in luteal biopsy tissue collected on d 2, 5, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle in the mare. PMID:20852074

Slough, T L; Rispoli, L A; Carnevale, E M; Niswender, G D; Bruemmer, J E



Value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares  

PubMed Central

Objectives Renal flares are common in lupus nephritis (LN), and class switch is thought to be characteristic. There is no agreement on indications for performing a repeat renal biopsy. Our objective was to retrospectively review patients who had more than one renal biopsy performed on clinical indications, and analyse clinical, pathological and treatment changes after successive biopsies. Methods Forty-five patients with LN and one or more repeat renal biopsies were included, with a total of 116 biopsies. Results Of the 71 repeat biopsies, pathological transition occurred in 39 (54.9%). When having a previous biopsy with a proliferative lesion, class switch occurred in 55.6%, with 24.4% evolving into non-proliferative classes. When previous biopsy was class V, transition to other classes occurred in 58.3% and changes were all into proliferative classes. Conversion from one pure proliferative form to another (class III to class IV or vice versa) happened in 11.3% of the rebiopsies, with 62 rebiopsies (87.3%) leading to a change in the treatment regimen. Conclusions Histological transformations were common, and they occurred when the previous biopsy had non-proliferative lesions as well as when lesions were proliferative. Treatments were modified after repeat renal biopsy in the majority of patients. In this experience, kidney repeat biopsies were useful in guiding treatment of LN flares. PMID:25396056

Greloni, G; Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Lancioni, E; Quiroz, C; Zacariaz, J; De la Iglesia Niveyro, P; Christiansen, S; Pierangelo, M A; Varela, C F; Rosa-Diez, G J; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R



Biopsy proven and biopsy negative temporal arteritis: differences in clinical spectrum at the onset of the disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the clinical features of biopsy proven and negative biopsy temporal arteritis at the time of diagnosis and during a three year follow up.?METHODS—Newly diagnosed cases of giant cell arteritis were included in a prospective, multicentre study. Initial clinical and biological features, season of diagnosis, and cardiovascular events occurring during the follow up were recorded. Biopsy proven and negative biopsy cases were compared. ?RESULTS—Two hundred and seven biopsy proven, and 85 negative biopsy cases were included from 1991 to 1997. Fifty eight per cent of the biopsy proven cases, compared with 39.29% of the negative biopsy cases, were diagnosed during the autumn or winter (p = 0.003). Visual problems (31.5%, v 19.1%, p = 0.031), blindness (9.7% v 2.38%, p = 0.033), jaw claudication (40.8%, v 28.243%, p = 0.044), and temporal artery palpation abnormalities (61.3% v 29.5%, p = 7.10-7) were more frequent in the biopsy proven than in the negative biopsy group. Less specific symptoms, such as headache (82.5% v 92.9%, p = 0.021), or associated polymyalgia rheumatica (40.1% v 65.9%, p = 9 × 10-5) were more prevalent in the negative biopsy cases. Biological markers of inflammation were significantly more increased in the biopsy proven group. All cases of blindness occurring after treatment belonged to the biopsy proven group.?CONCLUSION—Biopsy proven cases seem to be more severe than biopsy negative cases at the time of diagnosis and during follow up. Seasonal difference at diagnosis may suggest a different aetiological pattern.?? PMID:10340957

Duhaut, P.; Pinede, L.; Bornet, H.; Demolombe-Rague, S.; Dumontet, C.; Ninet, J.; Loire, R.; Pasquier, J.



Tail and Non-Tail Memory with Applications to Extreme Value and Robust Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New notions of tail and non-tail dependence are used to characterize separately extremal and non-extremal information, including tail log-exceedances and events, and tail-trimmed levels. We prove Near Epoch Dependence (McLeish 1975, Gallant and White 1988) and L0-Approximability (Pötscher and Prucha 1991) are equivalent for tail events and tail-trimmed levels, ensuring a Gaussian central limit theory for important extreme value and

Jonathan B. Hilly


Design of a small animal biopsy robot.  


Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion. PMID:19163987

Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M



Design of a Small Animal Biopsy Robot  

PubMed Central

Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion. PMID:19163987

Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M. Cenk



Sentinel node biopsy and improved patient care.  


Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is based on the hypothesis that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) reflects the lymph-node status and a negative SLN might allow complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to be avoided. Past and current sentinel lymph node clinical trials for breast carcinoma have addressed the prognostic and therapeutic benefits of this technique and as such, SLNB has become a standard of care for select breast cancer patients. This article reviews the history of SLNB as well as current guidelines and recent controversies. PMID:25546431

Giuliano, Armando E; Gangi, Alexandra



Obliteration of symptomatic Schatzki rings with jumbo biopsy forceps (with video).  


A Schatzki ring is a submucosal, fibrotic thickening located at the gastroesophageal junction. Endoscopic treatment traditionally involves disruption of the ring. Many approaches have been described including bougies, balloons, biopsies, and diathermic monopolar incision. While all of these approaches are effective in the short-term, recurrence is common. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of complete excision of the ring using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. Our main outcome measurements were the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of complete obliteration of Schatzki rings using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. We designed an observational study using a standard protocol for patient management and data collection using a university hospital as our setting. We followed 10 patients with dysphagia due to a Schatzki's ring, six of whom had previously undergone bougienage or balloon dilation. Five patients were on maintenance therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and one with an H2 blocker. Complete endoscopic obliteration of the Schatzki rings with a cold jumbo biopsy forceps was achieved in all 10 patients requiring a mean of 9.8 biopsies (range 8-12). Omeprazole (20?mg twice daily) was prescribed after the procedure. All 10 patients demonstrated improvement in dysphagia after treatment, which persisted during a mean follow-up time of 379 days (range 63-496 days). There were no serious complications. The limitations of our study include lack of a control group, a small sample size, and being a single-institution study. We concluded that complete Schatzki ring obliteration with jumbo cold biopsy forceps is a safe, feasible, and effective endoscopic treatment. PMID:24552567

Gonzalez, A; Sullivan, M F; Bonder, A; Allison, H V; Bonis, P A; Guelrud, M



[Prostate biopsy: Diagnostic responsibility and recent changes].  


In this bibliographic review we reexamine the different features in relation to indication, performance and interpretation of prostatic biopsy (PB). The main objective is to place methodological features involving PB in the current scientific scenario, establishing the correlation between the most relevant and analyzing the historic evolution this procedure has followed, particularly over the last two decades. Prostate biopsy has evolved to be a regular element in urologists` daily practice and its learning process has been simplified to the point it can be approached with adequacy during the first years of residency in Urology. This privileged position PB enjoys in daily practice and the performance obtained from it would have not been a reality without optimization of transrectal ultrasound or local anesthesia techniques, yet reviled in some forums, the real responsible of such success. The consensus reached in the various scientific associations, the clinical guidelines of which are widely consulted worldwide, is the best to support the current state of the art, being the starting point for the addition of new improvements to PB. PMID:22052756

Martínez-Ballesteros, Claudio; Martínez-Salamanca, Juan Ignacio; Carballido Rodríguez, Joaquín Alberto



Color correction for automatic fibrosis quantification in liver biopsy specimens  

PubMed Central

Context: For a precise and objective quantification of liver fibrosis, quantitative evaluations through image analysis have been utilized. However, manual operations are required in most cases for extracting fiber areas because of color variation included in digital pathology images. Aims: The purpose of this research is to propose a color correction method for whole slide images (WSIs) of Elastica van Gieson (EVG) stained liver biopsy tissue specimens and to realize automated operation of image analysis for fibrosis quantification. Materials and Methods: Our experimental dataset consisted of 38 WSIs of liver biopsy specimens collected from 38 chronic viral hepatitis patients from multiple medical facilities, stained with EVG and scanned at ×20 using a Nano Zoomer 2.0 HT (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu, Japan). Color correction was performed by modifying the color distribution of a target WSI so as to fit to the reference, where the color distribution was modeled by a set of two triangle pyramids. Using color corrected WSIs; fibrosis quantification was performed based on tissue classification analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between liver stiffness measured by transient elastography and median area ratio of collagen fibers calculated based on tissue classification results. Results: Statistical analysis results showed a significant correlation r = 0.61-0.68 even when tissue classifiers were trained by using a subset of WSIs, while the correlation coefficients were reduced to r = 0.40-0.50 without color correction. Conclusions: Fibrosis quantification accompanied with the proposed color correction method could provide an objective evaluation tool for liver fibrosis, which complements semi-quantitative histologic evaluation systems. PMID:24524002

Murakami, Yuri; Abe, Tokiya; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Saito, Akira; Sakamoto, Michiie



Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...


Development of a Nuclear Morphometric Signature for Prostate Cancer Risk in Negative Biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to develop and validate a multi-feature nuclear score based on image analysis of direct DNA staining, and to test its association with field effects and subsequent detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in benign biopsies. Methods Tissue sections from 39 prostatectomies were Feulgen-stained and digitally scanned (400×), providing maps of DNA content per pixel. PCa and benign epithelial nuclei were randomly selected for measurement of 52 basic morphometric features. Logistic regression models discriminating benign from PCa nuclei, and benign from malignant nuclear populations, were built and cross-validated by AUC analysis. Nuclear populations were randomly collected <1 mm or >5 mm from cancer foci, and from cancer-free prostates, HGPIN, and PCa Gleason grade 3–5. Nuclei also were collected from negative biopsy subjects who had a subsequent diagnosis of PCa and age-matched cancer-free controls (20 pairs). Results A multi-feature nuclear score discriminated cancer from benign cell populations with AUCs of 0.91 and 0.79, respectively, in training and validation sets of patients. In prostatectomy samples, both nuclear- and population-level models revealed cancer-like features in benign nuclei adjacent to PCa, compared to nuclei that were more distant or from PCa-free glands. In negative biopsies, a validated model with 5 variance features yielded significantly higher scores in cases than controls (P?=?0.026). Conclusions A multifeature nuclear morphometric score, obtained by automated digital analysis, was validated for discrimination of benign from cancer nuclei. This score demonstrated field effects in benign epithelial nuclei at varying distance from PCa lesions, and was associated with subsequent PCa detection in negative biopsies. Impact This nuclear score shows promise as a risk predictor among men with negative biopsies and as an intermediate biomarker in Phase II chemoprevention trials. The results also suggest that subvisual disturbances in nuclear structure precede the development of pre-neoplastic lesions. PMID:23922715

Gann, Peter H.; Deaton, Ryan; Amatya, Anup; Mohnani, Mahesh; Rueter, Erika Enk; Yang, Yirong; Ananthanarayanan, Viju



Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ? 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ? 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, platelets ? 120×103/µl and BUN ? 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB. PMID:22291827

Torres Muñoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; González-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Dávila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo



Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis.  


A minimally invasive biopsy technique was evaluated for udder tissue collection in dairy cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Meanwhile, the effect of taking repeated liver and udder biopsies on the systemic and local acute phase response (APR) of the dairy cows was investigated during the disease. The cows were divided into a biopsy group (B) (n = 16) and a no-biopsy group (NB) (n = 16) and were sampled in the acute disease stage and in the recovery stage. The cows' pre-disease period served as a control period for establishing baseline values for the investigated parameters. A total of 32 Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with 20 to 40 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli in one front quarter at 0 hour. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 h, and udder biopsies were collected at 24 and 192 h post E. coli inoculation (PI) using a minimally invasive biopsy technique. Effects of combined biopsying were investigated by recording production traits, clinical response, and measuring inflammatory milk and blood parameters: E. coli, somatic cell count, milk amyloid A (MAA) levels, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte numbers and serum amyloid A levels at several time points. E. coli inoculation changed all production parameters and the clinical and inflammatory response in all cows except one that was not infected. Combined biopsying had no constant or transient effect on the daily feed intake, the clinical responsiveness or the blood parameters, but affected the daily milk yield and some milk parameters transiently, that is, the presence of blood in milk, increased E. coli counts and MAA levels during the acute disease stage. Combined biopsying had no effect on the parameters in the recovery stage apart from the presence of blood in the milk. In conclusion, although, a minimally invasive biopsy technique was used, tissue damages could not be avoided when biopsying and they transiently affected the inflammatory parameters in the mammary gland. Nevertheless, we believe combined biopsying of liver and udder is as an acceptable approach to study the systemic and local APR in dairy cows during E. coli mastitis, if the timing of biopsying and other types of sampling is planned accordingly. PMID:23867091

Khatun, M; Sørensen, P; Ingvartsen, K L; Bjerring, M; Røntved, C M



Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion  

E-print Network

Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)



Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.



Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja



Storm-water hydrograph separation of run off from a mine-tailings impoundment formed by thickened tailings discharge at Kidd Creek, Timmins, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu?Zn sulphide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a thickened slurry in a circular, conical-shaped pile with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry results in a relatively uniform grain-size distribution and hydraulic conductivity, and a thick tension-saturated zone above the water table. The tailings are drained by numerous small, ephemeral stream channels, which have developed in a radial pattern. During storms, water from these streams collects in catchment ponds where it is held before treatment. The contribution of tailings pore water to the run off is of interest because of the potential for discharge of pore water containing high concentrations of Fe(II)-acidity, metals and SO 4 to the stream. Hydraulic head measurements, measurements of water-table elevation and groundwater flow modelling were conducted to determine the mechanisms responsible for tailings pore water entering the surface streams. Chemical hydrograph separation of storm run off in one of these streams, during three rainfall events, using Na and Cl as conservative tracers, indicates that the integrated tailings pore water fraction makes up between less than 1 % and 20% of the total hydrograph. This range is less than the maximum fraction of tailings pore water of 22-65% reported for run off from a conventional tailings deposit. At this site, preferential flow through permeable fractures may be the dominant mechanism causing discharge of tailings pore water to storm run off. Estimates of the mass of Fe(II) that discharges to the surface run off from the pore water range up to 2800 mg s -1 during a moderate intensity, long duration rainfall event. The greatest potential for discharge of significant masses of solutes derived from the pore water exists during long duration rainfall events, when the water table rises to the surface over large areas of the tailings impoundment.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.



Outcome study of renal biopsy patients in Okinawa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome study of renal biopsy patients in Okinawa, Japan. Here we report a community-based epidemiologic study of patients who received renal biopsy in Okinawa, Japan between 1967 and 1994. The total number of cases was 2832 (1395 men and 1437 women), and the mean (SD) age at biopsy was 30.0 (10.0) years (range 1.0 to 88.0 years). The most common




Patient Outcomes in Canceled MRI-Guided Breast Biopsies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The reported frequency of aborted MRI-guided breast biopsies ranges from 8% to 17%, usually secondary to nonvisualization at attempted biopsy. Our study examines the frequency of MRI-guided breast biopsies aborted because of lesion nonvisualization and the subsequent risk of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We identified 350 patients and 445 lesions scheduled for MRI-guided biopsy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to ascertain patient demographics, lesion and imaging characteristics, and subsequent pathology results. Chi-square statistics were calculated for patient level analyses. RESULTS. MRI-guided biopsies were aborted in 13% (56/445) of lesions and 15% (53/350; 95% CI, 11.6–19.3%) of patients because of nonvisualization of the biopsy target at the time of attempted biopsy. Of these 53 patients, 50 patients had follow-up data available. Malignancy was subsequently diagnosed in five of those 50 patients (10%; 95% CI, 3.3–21.8%) patients, three with invasive ductal carcinomas and two with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean time to malignant diagnosis from the date of aborted biopsy was 2.6 months (range, 1.1–6.9 months). CONCLUSION. Informed consent for MRI-guided breast biopsies should include discussion of biopsy cancellation because of nonvisualization of the target lesion. The low yet significant risk of malignancy in patients subsequent to an aborted MRI-guided breast biopsy warrants short-term follow-up MRI after a canceled biopsy. PMID:24370148

Niell, Bethany L.; Lee, Janie M.; Johansen, Christopher; Halpern, Elkan F.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.



Non-Invasive Cytology Brush PCR Diagnostic Testing in Mucosal Leishmaniasis: Superior Performance to Conventional Biopsy with Histopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional methods of diagnosing mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), such as biopsy with histopathology, are insensitive and require collection of an invasive diagnostic specimen. Methods We compared standard invasive procedures including biopsy histopathology, biopsy PCR, and leishmanin skin test (LST) to a novel, non-invasive, cytology-brush based PCR for the diagnosis of ML in Lima, Peru. Consensus reference standard was 2/4 tests positive, and outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity. Leishmania species identification was performed by PCR-based assays of positive specimens. Results Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, 23 of whom fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of ML. Sensitivity and specificity of biopsy with histopathology were 21.7% [95% CI 4.9–38.5%] and 100%; 69.6% [95% CI 50.8–88.4%] and 100% for LST; 95.7% [95% CI 87.4–100%] and 100% for biopsy PCR; and 95.7% [95% CI 87.4–100%] and 90% [95% CI 71.4–100%] for cytology brush PCR using both Cervisoft® and Histobrush® cervical cytology brushes. Represented species identified by PCR-RFLP included: L. (V). braziliensis (n?=?4), and L. (V). peruviana (n?=?3). Conclusions Use of commercial grade cytology brush PCR for diagnosis of ML is sensitive, rapid, well tolerated, and carries none of the risks of invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy. Further optimization is required for adequate species identification. Further evaluation of this method in field and other settings is warranted. PMID:22046280

Veland, Nicolas; Pilar Ramos, Ana; Calderon, Flor; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro



Adequacy and Complication Rates with 14- vs. 16-gauge Automated Needles in Percutaneous Renal Biopsy of Native Kidneys.  


In performing percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of native kidneys, an increasing use of 16-gauge automated biopsy needles has been observed. We compare the adequacy and safety of PRBs in adults performed with a 14-gauge (n = 82) vs. 16-gauge (n = 55) automated needle using real-time ultrasound (US) from 1/2010 to 12/2013. Baseline clinical and laboratory data along with outcome data (renal US 1-hour postbiopsy, biopsy adequacy, and safety) were collected prospectively. There was no difference in age, gender, blood pressure, serum creatinine, or pre-PRB hemoglobin at baseline for PRBs performed with a 14- vs. 16-gauge needle. The number of glomeruli obtained per biopsy was similar (29 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 14, p = 0.6) and adequate tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 99% and 100% of biopsies. The clinical complication (8.5% vs. 9.1%, p = 1.0), transfusion (7.3% vs. 7.2%, p = 1.0), and embolization (3.7% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.6) rates were not significantly different for 14- vs. 16-gauge needles, but by routine renal US 1-hour post-PRB, a perinephric hematoma was demonstrated more often in biopsies done with the 14-gauge needle (39% vs. 22%, P 0.04). Thus, while the success of PRB of native kidneys is similar for both needle gauges, the potential for complication may be less using a 16-gauge automated needle. PMID:25441680

Chunduri, Svetha; Whittier, William L; Korbet, Stephen M



A low background Raman probe for optical biopsy of brain tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of intrinsic brain tumours is a delicate process, where a high degree of specificity is required to remove all of the tumour tissue without damaging healthy brain. The accuracy of this process can be greatly enhanced by intraoperative guidance. Optical biopsies using Raman spectroscopy are a minimally invasive and lower cost alternative to current guidance methods. A miniature Raman probe for performing optical biopsies of human brain tissue is presented. The probe allows sampling inside a conventional stereotactic brain biopsy system: a needle of length 200mm and inner diameter of 1.8mm. The probe achieves a very low fluorescent background whilst maintaining good collection of Raman signal by employing a miniature stand-off Raman design. To illustrate this, the probe is compared with a Raman probe that uses a pair of optical fibres for collection. The miniature stand-off Raman probe is shown to collect a comparable number of Raman scattered photons, but the fluorescence caused by silica fibres in a Raman needle probe is reduced by a factor of two for Raman shifts under 500 cm-1, and by 30% at 600-700 cm-1. In addition, this design contains only medically approved materials at the distal end. The probe's suitability for use on tissue is demonstrated by discriminating between different types of porcine brain tissue.

Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Hutchings, Joanne; Gray, William; Day, John C.



Targeted cryotherapy using disposable biopsy punches.  


Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin. PMID:25136216

Prasad, Avitus John Raakesh



Percutaneous needle biopsy of deep pelvic masses: a posterior approach.  


The classical approach for the fine-needle aspiration biopsy of deep pelvic masses has been through the lower anterior abdominal wall. With this approach, and using either CT or sonographic guidance, bowel or bladder may be unavoidably traversed to reach the mass. We have been using a posterior approach through the sciatic notch, which is a safe and simple procedure, with good results. The biopsy is done with the patient in a prone position, using a 22-gauge biopsy needle. With this technique we have successfully biopsied various neoplastic pelvic entities. PMID:3089612

Pardes, J G; Schneider, M; Koizumi, J; Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W



Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

da Silva Martinho, Herculano



The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis  

PubMed Central

The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification. PMID:20132593

Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.



Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy.  


Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD. PMID:19112214

Al Badr, Wisam; Martin, Kevin J



Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)



Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses  

PubMed Central

Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction–defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive–when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico



Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.  


Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico



Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.  


Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer. PMID:17092883

Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L



Experimental persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in white-tailed deer.  


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar to cattle, PI white-tailed deer may pose a threat to BVDV control programs. The objective of this study was to determine if experimental infection of pregnant white-tailed deer with BVDV would result in the birth of PI offspring. Nine female and one male white-tailed deer were captured and housed at a captive deer isolation facility. After natural mating had occurred, all does were inoculated intranasally at approximately 50 days of pregnancy with 10(6) CCID(50) each of a BVDV 1 (BJ) and BVDV 2 (PA131) strain. Although no clinical signs of BVDV infection were observed or abortions detected, only one pregnancy advanced to term. On day 167 post-inoculation, one doe delivered a live fawn and a mummified fetus. The fawn was translocated to an isolation facility to be hand-raised. The fawn was determined to be PI with BVDV 2 by serial virus isolation from serum and white blood cells, immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy, and RT-PCR. This is the first report of persistent infection of white-tailed deer with BVDV. Further research is needed to assess the impact of PI white-tailed deer on BVDV control programs in cattle. PMID:17353103

Passler, Thomas; Walz, Paul H; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Maxwell, Herris S; Brock, Kenny V



Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with needle guide by nephrologists decreases post-biopsy complications  

PubMed Central

Background Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) can result in serious complications. The study is aimed to compare the biopsy yield and complications rate of the real-time ultrasonagram (USG)-guided PRB and needle tracking with and without needle guide in two different study periods. Methods We compared the yield and complications of 2138 kidney biopsies performed in two different periods, 1510 biopsies during the first period from April 2004–December 2010 and 628 biopsies during second period from January 2011–March 2013. All biopsies in both periods were performed by nephrologists. Radiologists provided the real-time image without needle guide during the first period while nephrologists performed both imaging and biopsy with needle guide during the second period. Results Of all the 2138 patients, 226 (10.5%) patients developed 118 minor and 108 major complications. Only 13 (2.1%) major complications occurred in the second period and 95 (6.7%) in the first period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing a major complication without guide was 3.04 times greater than that of the biopsies performed with use of the guide. The mean number of glomeruli per biopsy obtained during the second period (17.98 ± 6.75) was significantly greater than that of the first period (14.14 ± 6.01) (P = 0.004). The number of passes to acquire adequate tissue (P = 0.001) and percentage of cortex on biopsy (P = 0.001) were also significantly better in the second period. The optimal observation period post biopsy is 24 h. Conclusions Real-time USG imaging supported by needle guide device is associated with better biopsy yield and fewer complications. PMID:25815170

Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Shashi; Manjunath, Revanasiddappa; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama; Sharma, Raj K; Gupta, Amit; Lal, Hira; Jain, Manoj; Agrawal, Vinita



Adsorption of trace elements on pyrite surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden) a few years after remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) has been used to determine the elemental composition of the surface and interior layers of pyrite grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The pyrite grains were collected from oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. The aim of

Barbara Müller; Mikael D Axelsson; Björn Öhlander



Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  


We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S



On tail behavior of nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic model with heavy-tailed innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the tail probability of the stationary distribution of nonparametric nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional\\u000a heteroscedastic (NARFCH) model with heavy-tailed innovations. Our result shows that the tail of the stationary marginal distribution\\u000a of an NARFCH series is heavily dependent on its conditional variance. When the innovations are heavy-tailed, the tail of the\\u000a stationary marginal distribution of the series will become

Jiazhu Pan; Guangxu Wu



Renal biopsy in the management of lupus nephritis during pregnancy.  


The differential diagnosis of proteinuria and hematuria in pregnancy is broad and includes active lupus nephritis. Identification of the correct diagnosis often has a profound therapeutic impact on not only the mother but also the fetus. To date, relatively few reports exist on the role of renal biopsy during pregnancy among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case series of 11 pregnant women with SLE who underwent a renal biopsy to evaluate a presumptive flare of lupus nephritis. The electronic medical record was retrospectively analyzed for pre-biopsy serum creatinine, proteinuria, hematuria, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA); histologic findings on renal biopsy; and the clinical course of each mother and fetus. From 2001 to 2012, 11 pregnant women with SLE flares during pregnancy underwent a renal biopsy at an academic tertiary medical center. At the time of biopsy, median gestational age was 16 weeks (range 9 to 27), median serum creatinine was 0.6 mg/dl (interquartile range 0.5 to 0.9), six (55%) had hematuria, and all had proteinuria >500 mg/24 hours. Proliferative lupus nephritis was found in 10 (91%) of 11 biopsies (five with ISN/RPS Class III; five with ISN/RPS Class IV). All but one individual underwent a change in management guided by information gleaned from renal biopsy. No apparent biopsy-related complications occurred to mother or fetus. Three women elected to terminate their pregnancy; although many factors were involved, the findings on renal biopsy informed the decision-making process. Among the remaining cases, there were three pre-term deliveries, one fetus with complete heart block, one in utero demise, and one maternal death. Renal biopsy is helpful at informing the management of patients with lupus nephritis during pregnancy. PMID:25249595

Chen, T K; Gelber, A C; Witter, F R; Petri, M; Fine, D M



Should needle localization breast biopsy give way to the new technology; the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation.  


Between July 1995 and June 1997, 114 consecutive women underwent 118 breast biopsies for nonpalpable lesions. A limited procedure room and local anesthesia were used in 96.5 per cent of patients. Intravenous access was not established in 95 per cent of patients. Oral diazepam was given to 51 per cent of patients. Needle localization technique was used with a success rate of 97.5 per cent and average operative time of 18 minutes. Breast carcinoma was found in 29 (24.6 per cent) biopsies. A review of 99 of the 118 mammograms showed only 45 per cent of the lesions being amenable to the new technology, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation. Advantages of the needle localization include short operative time; supine position for the patient; easy access to control bleeding; ability to choose a cosmetic site for the skin incision; minimal tissue removal before reaching the lesion; ability to maintain a sterile field; and applicability to almost any mammographic lesion identified, whether single or multiple. Disadvantages include the need for a separate procedure to place the wire and potential of missing the lesion in 2.5 per cent, requiring additional surgery. PMID:10917475

Hawasli, A; Zonca, S; Watt, C; Rebecca, A



Ubiquitination of ?-integrin cytoplasmic tails  

PubMed Central

Recent findings have shown that ubiquitination is involved in regulating several proteins required for cell adhesion and migration. We showed that ?5 integrin is ubiquitinated at its cytoplasmic lysines in response to fibronectin binding, and that this is required for its sorting to lysosomes together with fibronectin. Here we speculate whether other ? integrin tails may also be ubiquitinated, and discuss the significance of ubiquitin linkages in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. PMID:21331246

Lobert, Viola Hélène



Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with

Daud W. Rassam; David J. Williams



Organochlorine levels in subcutaneous blubber biopsies of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins ( Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were determined in subcutaneous blubber of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea. From 1990 to 1993, 68 fin whale and 89 dolphin blubber biopsies were analysed. The whales were sampled while passing through the Ligurian Sea, whereas the dolphins were collected in different areas of the Mediterranean:

Letizia Marsili; Silvano Focardi



What Makes a Tidal Tail?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.



Optimization of Prostate Biopsy: the Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy in Detection, Localization and Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose Optimization of prostate biopsy requires addressing the shortcomings of standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, including false-negative rates, incorrect risk stratification, detection of clinically insignificant disease and the need for repeat biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of biopsy, and thereby enhances clinical risk assessment and improves the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. In this review we 1) summarize the various sequences that comprise a prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging examination along with its performance characteristics in cancer detection, localization and reporting standards; 2) evaluate potential applications of magnetic resonance imaging targeting in prostate biopsy among men with no previous biopsy, a negative previous biopsy and those with low stage cancer; and 3) describe the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and comparative study outcomes. Materials and Methods A bibliographic search covering the period up to October 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE®/PubMed®. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the 3 objectives of this review was addressed. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Results Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging consists of anatomical T2-weighted imaging coupled with at least 2 functional imaging techniques. It has demonstrated improved prostate cancer detection sensitivity up to 80% in the peripheral zone and 81% in the transition zone. A prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score has been developed, and is depicted using the Likert or PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) scale for better standardization of magnetic resonance imaging interpretation and reporting. Among men with no previous biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging increases the frequency of significant cancer detection to 50% in low risk and 71% in high risk patients. In low risk men the negative predictive value of a combination of negative magnetic resonance imaging with prostate volume parameters is nearly 98%, suggesting a potential role in avoiding biopsy and reducing over detection/overtreatment. Among men with a previous negative biopsy 72% to 87% of cancers detected by magnetic resonance imaging guidance are clinically significant. Among men with a known low risk cancer, repeat biopsy using magnetic resonance targeting demonstrates a high likelihood of confirming low risk disease in low suspicion score lesions and of upgrading in high suspicion score lesions. Techniques of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy include visual estimation transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy; software co-registered magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy; and in-bore magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy. Although the improvement in accuracy and efficiency of visual estimation biopsy compared to systematic appears limited, co-registered magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound biopsy as well as in-bore magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy appear to increase cancer detection rates in conjunction with increasing suspicion score. Conclusions Use of magnetic resonance imaging for targeting prostate biopsies has the potential to reduce the sampling error associated with conventional biopsy by providing better disease localization and sampling. More accurate risk stratification through improved cancer sampling may impact therapeutic decision making. Optimal clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy remains under investigation. PMID:24769030

Bjurlin, Marc A.; Meng, Xiaosong; Le Nobin, Julien; Wysock, James S.; Lepor, Herbert; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Taneja, Samir S.



Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora



Detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy and resection specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To compare the sensitivity of detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy and resection specimens using tinctorial and silver impregnation stains, immunohistochemistry and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 33 gastric biopsy specimens (26 showing chronic gastritis and seven showing low grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma) together with blocks of uninvolved

M Ashton-Key; T C Diss; P G Isaacson



Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan  

E-print Network

Short note Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan Centre for Food and Animal Research) Summary ― Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be anal- yzed for copper or vitamin E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cardiac tumor biopsy under the guidance of intracardiac echocardiography.  


Transthoracic echocardiography or transesophageal echocardiography is sometimes useful in intracardiac tumor biopsy. Intracardiac echocardiography was used as an alternative to either of these for performing a biopsy of a right cardiac tumor in a 79-year-old woman. The procedure was well tolerated and no complications occurred. Histopathological findings and immunohistological staining were compatible with the diagnosis of neurogenic sarcoma. PMID:10952166

Oishi, Y; Okamoto, M; Sueda, T; Hashimoto, M; Karakawa, S; Akita, T; Ohkura, M



The usefulness of preoperative biopsy in unilateral nasal masses.  


Unilateral nasal masses are considered suspicious for proliferative diseases. Several tools are routinely used to investigate unilateral lesions such as imaging and nasal biopsy. This study investigated the usefulness of nasal biopsy in predicting the actual nature of unilateral lesions. Preoperative nasal biopsy pathological results were compared with the final pathology obtained during an operation. Forty-six patients with unilateral nasal masses were included in the study group. In 40 patients the final pathology was similar to the preoperative nasal biopsy. In three patients the biopsy specimen was a benign polyp and the final pathology was of an inverted papilloma in two patients and hemangiopericytoma in one patient. In two patients the biopsy specimen was suspicious for an inverted papilloma and the final pathology was a benign polyp. In one patient the biopsy specimen was chordoma and the final pathology was osteosarcoma. The total agreement was 86.9%. The kappa value was 81.2%. Preoperative nasal biopsy is important and useful in evaluating unilateral nasal masses. PMID:24684868

Segal, Nili; Gluck, Ofer; Bavnik, Yosef; Plakht, Ygal; Yakirevitch, Arkadi



Virtual Reality Simulation of Liver Biopsy with a Respiratory Component  

E-print Network

20 Virtual Reality Simulation of Liver Biopsy with a Respiratory Component Pierre-Frédéric Villard1. A frequently performed, IR technique is liver biopsy, where a needle is inserted into the liver to acquire a tissue sample for histological diagnosis of conditions such as cancer, inflammation, cirrhosis etc

Boyer, Edmond


Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach  

SciTech Connect

A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.



Technical Note: MRI-guided breast biopsy - our preliminary experience  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic potential of breast MRI can be fully utilized only when it is possible to biopsy lesions detected on MRI, especially when they are not visible on mammography or USG. We would like to describe our experience with MRI-guided wire localization and biopsy. PMID:21042450

Taneja, Sangeeta; Jena, Amarnath; Kumar, Kapil; Mehta, Anurag



The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.



Sampling variability of percutaneous liver biopsy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To study sampling variability of percutaneous liver biopsy in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS--One hundred and twelve biopsy specimens (that is, 56 pairs) from 44 patients with PSC, confirmed by cholangiography, were evaluated blindly. Six different features, qualitative grading of four other features and staging according to Ludwig were assessed. RESULTS--Quantitative sampling variability was confined mainly to just one grade or stage, although 11% (six of 56) of the biopsy specimen pairs differed by more than one stage (7% (one of 15) in pairs > 2 cm in length). Qualitative sampling variabilities were between 18 and 71%. Advanced disease (stages 3 or 4) was missed in 40% (two of five) of the biopsy specimens while cirrhosis was missed in 37%. CONCLUSION--Paired liver biopsy specimens should be taken in clinical studies of PSC using liver histology for evaluation or prognosis. PMID:8537493

Olsson, R; Hägerstrand, I; Broomé, U; Danielsson, A; Järnerot, G; Lööf, L; Prytz, H; Rydén, B O; Wallerstedt, S



Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.



Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications*  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paresthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. PMID:25741100

Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Matushita Junior, João Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens



Role of early repeated renal biopsies in lupus nephritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives A renal biopsy is generally recommended for diagnosis and is necessary for classification of lupus nephritis (LN), but second biopsies after immunosuppressive therapy are seldom a routine procedure. We investigated how repeat biopsies contribute to the evaluation of treatment response and long-term outcome in LN. Methods Sixty-seven patients with active LN were included. Renal biopsies were performed at diagnosis and after standard induction immunosuppressive therapy in all patients (median 8?months), regardless of clinical outcome. Biopsies were evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification. Clinical response was defined as complete (CR), partial (PR) or non-response (NR) according to recent definitions. Histological response (HR) was defined as Class I, II or III/IV-C on repeat biopsies. Long-term renal outcome was determined in 55 patients after a median of 10?years. Results CR was demonstrated in 25%, PR in 27% and NR in 48% of patients. HR was shown in 42% and histopathological non-response (HNR) in 58% of patients. Twenty-nine per cent of CR and 61% of patients with PR had active lesions on repeat biopsies, that is, were HNR. Poor long-term renal outcome was associated with high chronicity index at repeated biopsies, but not with clinical or histological response. Conclusions Despite apparent clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy, repeated biopsies revealed persisting active nephritis in almost half of the patients, thus providing additional information to clinical response criteria. Repeated renal biopsies may be a tool to improve the evaluation of treatment response in LN. PMID:25379188

Zickert, A; Sundelin, B; Svenungsson, E; Gunnarsson, I



Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  


A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)



Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker and Brain Biopsy Findings in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background The significance of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neuroinflammation in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. Objective To investigate the role of soluble APP (sAPP) and amyloid beta (A?) isoforms, proinflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of neuronal damage in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to brain biopsy A? and hyperphosphorylated tau (HP?) findings. Methods The study population comprised 102 patients with possible NPH with cortical brain biopsies, ventricular and lumbar CSF samples, and DNA available. The final clinical diagnoses were: 53 iNPH (91% shunt-responders), 26 AD (10 mixed iNPH+AD), and 23 others. Biopsy samples were immunostained against A? and HP?. CSF levels of AD-related biomarkers (A?42, p-tau, total tau), non-AD-related A? isoforms (A?38, A?40), sAPP isoforms (sAPP?, sAPP?), proinflammatory cytokines (several interleukins (IL), interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and biomarkers of neuronal damage (neurofilament light and myelin basic protein) were measured. All patients were genotyped for APOE. Results Lumbar CSF levels of sAPP? were lower (p<0.05) in patients with shunt-responsive iNPH compared to non-iNPH patients. sAPP? showed a similar trend (p?=?0.06). CSF sAPP isoform levels showed no association to A? or HP? in the brain biopsy. Quantified A? load in the brain biopsy showed a negative correlation with CSF levels of A?42 in ventricular (r?=??0.295, p?=?0.003) and lumbar (r?=??0.356, p?=?0.01) samples, while the levels of A?38 and A?40 showed no correlation. CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of neuronal damage did not associate to the brain biopsy findings, diagnosis, or shunt response. Higher lumbar/ventricular CSF IL-8 ratios (p<0.001) were seen in lumbar samples collected after ventriculostomy compared to the samples collected before the procedure. Conclusions The role of sAPP isoforms in iNPH seems to be independent from the amyloid cascade. No neuroinflammatory background was observed in iNPH or AD. PMID:24638077

Pyykkö, Okko T.; Lumela, Miikka; Rummukainen, Jaana; Nerg, Ossi; Seppälä, Toni T.; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Koivisto, Anne M.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Puli, Lakshman; Savolainen, Sakari; Soininen, Hilkka; Jääskeläinen, Juha E.; Hiltunen, Mikko; Zetterberg, Henrik; Leinonen, Ville



Endoscopic ultrasound-guided deep and large biopsy for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the diagnostic yield and safety of a deep and large biopsy technique under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies. METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2014, 36 patients in whom gastric infiltrating tumors had been diagnosed by EUS received negative results for malignancy after endoscopic biopsies. The deep and large biopsy technique combined bite-on-bite technique with or without endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to obtain submucosal tissue from lesions. EUS was used to select the appropriate biopsy sites. If the lesion protruded into the cavity, EMR was performed for removal of the overlying mucosa and then bite-on-bite technique was conducted in the resected area to obtain submucosal tissue. If the lesion appeared to be flat or was difficult to lift by injection, the bite-on-bite technique was directly used. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 36 patients were treated by EMR followed by bite-on-bite technique, while 8 patients only underwent bite-on-bite technique. Histological results showed 23 of the 36 lesions were poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 4 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas, and 7 undiagnosed. The deep and large biopsy technique provided a definitive and conclusive diagnosis in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients. The 12 gastric linitis plastica and 6 lymphoma patients received chemotherapy and avoided surgery. Minor oozing of blood in 2 mucosal resection wounds was managed by argon plasma coagulation and in 5 cases after deep biopsies by epinephrine (0.001%). Neither severe hemorrhage nor perforation occurred in any patient. CONCLUSION: The deep and large biopsy technique is superior to ordinary endoscopic biopsy for achieving an accurate diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors. This procedure guided by EUS is an effective and safe diagnostic method for gastric infiltrating tumors in which endoscopic biopsy results were negative for malignancy. PMID:25834327

Zhou, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hang-Hai; Usman, Ali; Ji, Feng; Jin, Xi; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Chen, Hong-Tan



Histopathology of serial graft biopsies from liver transplant recipients.  

PubMed Central

Serial graft biopsies (n = 78) from 12 liver transplant recipients (followed clinically up to 47 months) were studied with the use of histology, histochemistry, immunostaining, and electron microscopy. Planned-protocol needle biopsy specimens were taken from the graft before removal from the donor, 1 hour after transplantation, on the eighth day, and at yearly intervals. Nonprotocol biopsies were taken when deterioration of the clinical condition made a decision on changes in the regimen necessary. The protocol biopsies provided a baseline for graft condition and diagnostic histopathologic features. In these biopsies signs of hyperacute rejection, chronic rejection, or the recipient's previous liver disease were not observed. Mild acute rejection was regularly present on the eighth day, possibly due to a lag phase in the effect of immunosuppression. The syndromes in the nonprotocol biopsies included "pure" parenchymal cholestasis, reversible acute rejection resembling chronic active hepatitis, viral infection, and acute bacterial cholangitis. Each of these syndromes correlated with a separate histopathologic entity. Therefore, these entities proved to be of diagnostic value. It is concluded that a graft biopsy may substantially add to the pathogenetic interpretation, differential diagnosis, and management of major graft syndromes in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6362423

Eggink, H. F.; Hofstee, N.; Gips, C. H.; Krom, R. A.; Houthoff, H. J.



Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology.  


Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25661242

Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V



Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.?METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.?RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.?CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.?? PMID:9810952

Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.



Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard?  

PubMed Central

Renal biopsy (RB) is useful for diagnosis and therapy guidance of renal diseases but incurs a risk of bleeding complications of variable severity, from transitory haematuria or asymptomatic hematoma to life-threatening hemorrhage. Several risk factors for complications after RB have been identified, including high blood pressure, age, decreased renal function, obesity, anemia, low platelet count and hemostasis disorders. These should be carefully assessed and, whenever possible, corrected before the procedure. The incidence of serious complications has become low with the use of automated biopsy devices and ultrasound guidance, which is currently the “gold standard” procedure for percutaneous RB. An outpatient biopsy may be considered in a carefully selected population with no risk factor for bleeding. However, controversies persist on the duration of observation after biopsy, especially for native kidney biopsy. Transjugular RB and laparoscopic RB represent reliable alternatives to conventional percutaneous biopsy in patients at high risk of bleeding, although some factors limit their use. This aim of this review is to summarize the issues of complications after RB, assessment of hemorrhagic risk factors, optimal biopsy procedure and strategies aimed to minimize the risk of bleeding. PMID:25374824

Brachemi, Soumeya; Bollée, Guillaume



Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

Gurel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail:; Karabay, Oguz [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Turkey); Gurel, Safiye [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Hildebolt, Charles [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)



Better Visualization of Transbronchial Biopsy Using CT Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF) provides the capability for continuous CT imaging and has been increasingly used in interventional procedures. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of CTF in the monitoring of transbronchial biopsy procedures.Methods: We evaluated nine patients in whom yield of 'conventional' transbronchial biopsies had failed. CTF was performed on a Somatom Plus 4 Power scanner (CARE Vision CT, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using 120 kV, 50 mA at a frame rate of eight images per second on a matrix of 256 x 256. Image reconstruction was based on a partial scan with an acquisition time of 0.5 sec. The maximal time without interruption was 79 sec; after stopping for a few seconds a new period of 79 sec was available. The number of biopsies, procedure times, applied dose, and histologic results were documented.Results: With CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy, the yield of the biopsies was improved. In seven patients biopsy yielded bronchial cancer; in one patient histopathologic examination showed tuberculosis. Only in one patient did CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy fail. The mean number of biopsies was four in each patient. Mean fluoroscopy time was 165 {+-} 92 sec (range 111-272 sec) and mean procedure time was 800 {+-} 302 sec (range 480-1081 sec). The applied dose ranged between 500 and 1224 mSv; the mean applied dose was 743 {+-} 414 mSv. There were no fatal complications.Conclusion: Computed tomography fluoroscopy appears to facilitate visualization of transbronchial biopsy procedures, with the drawback of increased radiation exposure. To compare the 'conventional' method versus CTF a randomized prospective study is necessary.

Kickuth, Ralph; Kirchner, Johannes; Laufer, Ulf [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Sanner, Bernd; Haske, Michael [Department of Medicine, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Liermann, Dieter [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany)



Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of uranium mill tailings by high-temperature sintering (>1050°C) has been investigated as a means of controlling the release of ²²²Rn and leachable contaminants. Thermal stabilization in laboratory trials at 1200°C reduced the radon emanation of various tailings by factors ranging from 37 to 1400 depending on the mineralogy of the tailings. The leachability of most contaminants (e.g., Al,

David R. Dreesen; Edward J. Cokal; Lawrence E. Wangen; Joel M. Williams; Edward F. Thode



Percutaneous core needle biopsy versus open biopsy in diagnostics of bone and soft tissue sarcoma: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Biopsy is a crucial step within the diagnostic cascade in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue sarcoma. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard. However, recent literature suggests similar results for percutaneous biopsy techniques. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective analysis was to compare open and percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) regarding their accuracy in diagnosis of malignant musculoskeletal lesions. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, all patients with suspected malignant primary bone or soft tissue tumour undergoing a percutaneous CNB or open biopsy and a subsequent tumour resection at our department were identified and enrolled. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for both biopsy techniques and compared using Fisher’s exact test. Results A total of 77 patients were identified and enrolled in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy were 100% for CNB in bone tumours. Sensitivity (95.5%), NPV (91.7%) and diagnostic accuracy (93.3%) for open biopsy in bone tumours showed slightly inferior results without statistical significance (p?>?0.05). In soft tissue tumours favourable results were obtained in open biopsies compared to CNB with differences regarding sensitivity (100% vs. 81.8%, p?=?0.5), NPV (100% vs. 50%, p?=?0.09) and diagnostic accuracy (100% vs. 84.6%, p?=?0,19) without statistical significance. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 92.9% for CNB and 98.0% for open biopsy (p?=?0.55). A specific diagnosis could be obtained in 84.2% and 93.9%, respectively (p?=?0.34). Conclusion In our study we found moderately inferior results for the percutaneous biopsy technique compared to open biopsy in soft tissue tumours whereas almost equal results were obtained for both biopsy techniques for bone tumours. Thus, CNB is a safe, minimal invasive and cost-effective technique for diagnosing bony lesions. In soft tissue masses, the indication for percutaneous core needle biopsy needs to be made carefully by an experienced orthopaedic oncologist with respect to the suspected entity, size of necrosis and location of the lesion to avoid incorrect or deficient results. PMID:23114293



Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.



Fulminant sepsis after liver biopsy: A long forgotten complication?  


We report on a 74-year-old patient with recurrent cholangitis and a large juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. Despite drainage of the common bile duct by an endoscopically placed stent, the elevated liver enzymes normalized only partially. To rule out other possible causes of liver injury, a percutaneous liver biopsy was done. After the liver biopsy the patient developed fulminant septic shock and died within 24 h. We discuss the possible causes of the septic shock following percutaneous liver biopsy in our patient and give a concise overview of the literature. PMID:24303461

Claudi, Corinna; Henschel, Martin; Vogel, Jürgen; Schepke, Michael; Biecker, Erwin



Tumor implantation from needle biopsy of hepatic metastases.  


Two patients with resectable secondaries in the liver developed needle track recurrence following intraoperative "Trucut"-needle biopsy and percutaneous thin needle aspiration cytology, respectively. In both cases the nature of the hepatic lesion was already clear before biopsy, from characteristic ultrasound, CT-scan, and a progressive rise in CEA levels. Although the overall risk is presumably low, biopsy must not become a diagnostic imperative. It may compromise definitive surgery in individual patients, and should therefore be restricted to situations in which results have a therapeutic or scientific impact. PMID:2373466

Scheele, J; Altendorf-Hofmann, A



Margins in Skin Excision Biopsies: Principles and Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Skin biopsies are usually undertaken to confirm a clinical diagnosis, to remove a lesion, and to determine the adequacy of excised tissue margin. A surgical margin is technically defined as the “edge” of the tissue removed. The term is especially pertinent when the tissue excised is suspected of being involved by a malignant process. One of the most important predictive and prognostic factors of a malignant lesion is whether the margins of the resected specimen are involved by the tumor or not. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into grossing of a skin biopsy specimen with emphasis on techniques and reporting of excision biopsy margins. PMID:25484385

Ranjan, Richa; Singh, Lavleen; Arava, Sudheer K; Singh, Manoj Kumar



Prostate biopsy after abdominoperineal resection: a diagnostic challenge.  


Prostate biopsy in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) of the rectum is commonly considered a technical challenge even for experienced urologists, although tissue diagnosis is essential in prostate cancer management. Transperitoneal, transperineal and transgluteal approaches have been reported, under US, CT or MRI guidance. Transperineal biopsy seems to be the safest and most cost-effective technique. At our institution we developed a modified transperineal biopsy approach with combined transperineal and suprapubic US guidance. Here we report the cases of two patients who came to our institution for PSA raise years after APR procedure, describing in detail the modified transperineal technique and the results of tissue sampling. PMID:23813284

Morlacco, Alessandro; Bierti, Sergio; Abbinante, Maria; Frea, Bruno; Crivellaro, Simone



Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos  

PubMed Central

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.



Wean-Tail Log.xls

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER


Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  


Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J



Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms  

E-print Network

Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms Michael-guided needle biopsy to biopsies performed using a 3D Augmented Reality (AR) guidance system. Fifty core for augmented reality, p

State, Andrei


Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings through the Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774).  


Coal mining is an activity with a high potential for environmental pollution. Coal has been described as the most significant pollutant of all the fossil fuels, containing a heterogeneous mixture. Many elements present in coal byproducts as well as coal tailings are rich in potentially toxic and genotoxic metals, which ultimately lead to profound changes in cells, tissues, populations, and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings using the land snail Helix aspersa. Animals were divided in three groups, clustered in plexiglass cages: control (animals fed with organic lettuce), coal tailings (animals living in a layer of pyrite tailings and fed with organic lettuce), and mine lettuce (animals fed with lettuce grown in an area located in a deposit of coal tailings). The hemolymph was collected at different exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 1 month) for comet assay analyses. Results showed that the animals of the coal tailings and mine lettuce groups presented higher levels of DNA damage in relation to the control group at all exposure times, but with a peak of DNA damage in 48 h and 96 h. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa has proven to be a sensitive instrument for a better risk assessment of environmental pollution. PMID:20372882

Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; da Silva, Juliana; Zocche, Jairo José; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Boufleur, Liana Appel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes



How we process trephine biopsy specimens: epoxy resin embedded bone marrow biopsies  

PubMed Central

Improved cytomorphology of semithin resin sections over paraffin wax embedded sections may be important in diagnostic haematopathology. However, resin embedding can make immunohistochemical antigen detection or DNA isolation for clonal gene rearrangement assays difficult. This review describes the processing of bone marrow biopsies using buffered formaldehyde based fixation and epoxy resin embedding, with or without EDTA decalcification. Traditional semithin resin sections are completely rehydrated after etching in home made sodium methoxide solution. Resin elimination allows high resolution staining of tissue components with common histological stains. Efficient antigen retrieval and the Envision-HRP system permit the immunohistological detection of many antigens of diagnostic relevance, with retention of high quality cytomorphology. Furthermore, DNA can be extracted for clonality analysis. The technique can be completed within a similar time period to that of paraffin wax processing with only ?30% increase in cost. This technique has been used for diagnosis in over 4000 bone marrow biopsies over the past 14 years. By meeting traditional and contemporary demands on the haematopathologist, it offers a powerful alternative to paraffin wax processing for diagnosis and research. PMID:16126867

Krenacs, T; Bagdi, E; Stelkovics, E; Bereczki, L; Krenacs, L



Prospective, Randomized, Pathologist-Blinded Study of Disposable Alligator-Jaw Biopsy Forceps for Gastric Mucosal Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic biopsy forceps differ in the size and shape of the biopsy cup and the presence or absence of a needle. Methods We compared 4 different “large cup” forceps (3 with needles designed for 2.8 mm biopsy channels. A gastric antral and corpus biopsy were obtained with each. Parameters examined included: weight (mg), length (mm), orientation (poor, good), intactness (1, 2, or 3 pieces), depth (superficial, above muscularis mucosae, included muscularis mucosae), crush artifact (yes, no), and overall adequacy (inadequate, suboptimal, adequate). Results 24 patients were enrolled (191 biopsies). The median length was approximately 5 mm (range 1.1 to 8.2 mm). Histologically inadequate specimens were present in 4% with the forceps without needle compared to 16% of those with needles (P = 0.061) and there were significantly fewer specimens in 3 or more pieces than did the forceps with needles 2.1% vs. 12..6% (P<0.05). Conclusions Current alligator style forceps provide a high proportion of acceptable specimens with only minor differences between brands. Forceps from one source were least preferred by endoscopy assistants and had the highest rates of inadequate biopsies and biopsies with crush artifact. Forceps without needles provide histologically acceptable samples slightly more frequently than those with needles. PMID:18799373

Abudayyeh, Suhaib; Hoffman, Jill; El-Zimaity, Hala T.; Graham, David Y.



Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface  

PubMed Central

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.



Diagnosis of Amyloidosis and Differentiation from Chronic, Idiopathic Enterocolitis in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Pig-Tailed (M. nemestrina) Macaques  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529

Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J



A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement  

E-print Network

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E} Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs


Design of an endoscopic biopsy needle with flexural members  

E-print Network

As a minimally invasive means of extracting a tissue sample from a patient, current endoscopic biopsy needles generally do not preserve tissue histology and often require multiple attempts to obtain a tissue sample. This ...

Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-



Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSBx) is the standard procedure for diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa), but reveals a limited accuracy for the detection of cancer. Currently, multiparametric MR imaging (mp-MRI) is increasingly regarded as a promising method to detect PCa with an excellent positive predictive value. The use of mp-MRI during a MRI-guided biopsy (MRGB) procedure improves the quality of a targeted biopsy. The aim of this article is to provide an overview about the MRGB technique for PCa detection, to review the accuracy and clinical indications of MRGB and discuss its current issues and further directions. A MRGB seems accurate and efficient for the detection of clinically significant PCa in men with previous negative TRUSBx. Moreover, it may decrease the detection of clinically insignificant cancers with fewer biopsy cores. PMID:25598677



Study Questions Accuracy of Many Breast Cancer Biopsies  


... are not the same as invasive cancer." Robert Smith, senior director of cancer screening for the American ... one opinion about the interpretation of my biopsy?" Smith said. "That would not be unreasonable to ask ...


21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR




Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J Flaky Tail Mice Appear Early after Birth  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J) mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1? and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NF?B and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a) synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency. PMID:23844115

Kypriotou, Magdalini; Boéchat, Cloé; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel



Emergency right hepatectomy after laparoscopic tru-cut liver biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background Liver biopsy is a common procedure usually required for final pathologic diagnosis of different liver diseases. Morbidity following tru-cut biopsy is uncommon, with bleeding complications generally self-limited. Few cases of major hemorrhage after liver biopsies have been reported, but to our knowledge, no cases of emergency hepatectomy following a tru-cut liver biopsy have been reported previously. Presentation of case We report the case of a 38 years-old woman who presented with an intrahepatic arterial bleeding after a tru-cut liver biopsy under direct laparoscopic visualization, initially controlled by ligation of the right hepatic artery and temporary liver packing. On tenth postoperative day, she developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery, evolving with massive bleeding that was not amenable to control by endovascular therapy. Therefore, an emergency right hepatectomy had to be performed in order to stop the bleeding. The patient achieved hemodynamic stabilization, but developed a biliary fistula from the liver surface, refractory to non-operative treatment. In consequence, a Roux-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed at third month, with no further complications. Discussion Bleeding following tru-cut biopsy is a rare event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an emergency hepatectomy due to hemorrhage following liver biopsy. Risks and complications of liver biopsy are revised. Conclusion Care must be taken when performing this kind of procedures and a high level of suspicion regarding this complication should be taken in count when clinical/hemodynamic deterioration occurs after these procedures. PMID:25618399

Quezada, Nicolás; León, Felipe; Martínez, Jorge; Jarufe, Nicolás; Guerra, Juan Francisco



Psychological Impact of Benign Breast Biopsy: A Longitudinal, Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of benign breast biopsy (BBB) on distress and perceptions of risk for breast cancer (BC) was examined. Interviews were conducted with 100 women shortly after notification of biopsy results and 4 and 8 months post-BBB. Compared with matched healthy comparison (HC) women without BBB, the BBB group evidenced greater BC-specific distress at baseline. BC-specific distress declined after BBB,

Michael A. Andrykowski; Janet S. Carpenter; Jamie L. Studts; Matthew J. Cordova; Lauren L. C. Cunningham; Abbie Beacham; David Sloan; Daniel Kenady; Patrick McGrath



The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

Hwang, Sung II; Lee, Hak Jong



Sampling variability of percutaneous liver biopsy in primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To study sampling variability of percutaneous liver biopsy in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS--One hundred and twelve biopsy specimens (that is, 56 pairs) from 44 patients with PSC, confirmed by cholangiography, were evaluated blindly. Six different features, qualitative grading of four other features and staging according to Ludwig were assessed. RESULTS--Quantitative sampling variability was confined mainly to just one grade

R Olsson; I Hägerstrand; U Broomé; A Danielsson; G Järnerot; L Lööf; H Prytz; B O Rydén; S Wallerstedt



CT-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Intrathoracic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous CT-guided needle biopsy of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions is a minimally invasive approach for obtaining tissue for histopathological examination. Although it is a widely accepted procedure with relatively few complications, precise planning and detailed knowledge of various aspects of the biopsy procedure is mandatory to avert complications. In this pictorial review, we reviewed important anatomical approaches, technical aspects of the procedure, and its associated complications. PMID:22438689

Lal, Hira; Nath, Alok; Borah, Samudra



Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of soft tissue infections.  

PubMed Central

This study explores the efficacy of fine-needle tissue aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of soft tissue infections that cannot be sampled satisfactorily by regular microbiological techniques. Aspiration biopsy was performed on 50 patients with presumptive soft tissue infections. The conditions investigated were decubitus, diabetic, ischemic, venous, and traumatic ulcers (2, 6, 1, 2, and 7 patients, respectively), cellulitis (23 patients), chronic osteomyelitis (5 patients), and infected surgical wounds (4 patients). Where possible, comparison with superficial cultures was made. All of the cultures obtained from aspirate samples taken from ulcers, chronic osteomyelitis, and infected surgical wounds were positive. In cellulitis, cultures from aspirates were positive in 30 and 81% of the cases, respectively, depending on the presence or absence of concomitant antimicrobial therapy. These results suggest that fine-needle deep tissue aspiration biopsy is reliable and clinically applicable for deep tissue sample collection. The procedure is simple, brief, and does not cause significant discomfort to the patient. It also plays an important role in providing a guideline for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:4019745

Lee, P C; Turnidge, J; McDonald, P J



Observation of the cervix and artificial insemination in captive white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

et al. 1982) and allows for the use of male germ cells in an AI program. The collected semen can be analyzed for the following parameters: volume, motility (0 to 100%), concentration, and morphology according to Bierschwal et al. (1970). The sperm... from several white-tailed deer bucks on another research project. These bucks were manually restrained, and the semen collected by electroejaculation. The collected semen was analyzed for the following parameters: volume, per cent motility (0 to 100...

Magyar, Stephen John



Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses  

PubMed Central

Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

Ha, Seung Beom




Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic




Natural Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have documented active sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in chrysotile mine tailings at Clinton Creek, Yukon and Cassiar, British Columbia. Hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals develop in mine tailings as a natural consequence of the weathering process within the residues. Magnesium, leached from minerals, reacts with dissolved CO2 in rainwater, precipitating carbonates at the surface of tailings upon evaporation of pore fluids. Increased reaction rates are observed in the tailings environment due to fine grainsize resulting from mineral processing. Mine tailings may therefore represent the optimal environment in which to pursue mineral sequestration. X-ray powder-diffraction studies demonstrate that CO2 is crystallographically bound within the hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals nesquehonite, dypingite, hydromagnesite, and lansfordite. Quantitative phase analysis with X-ray powder-diffraction is used to determine the modal abundance of hydrated magnesium carbonates in mine tailings. An atmospheric source of CO2 is confirmed with stable and radiogenic carbon isotope techniques. Serpentine and olivine-rich tailings are produced by many types of mining, including nickel, diamond, platinum, and chrysotile. The global scale of these mining activities has a sequestration capacity on the order of 100 million tonnes of carbon per year. Widespread implementation of mineral sequestration in mine tailings has the potential to render large mining operations greenhouse gas-neutral and significantly reduce CO2 emissions on a global scale.

Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Raudsepp, M.; Anderson, R. G.



Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.  


Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry



CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail:; Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Lammer, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Biederer, Juergen [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)



14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...



14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...



14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...



Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime



Dust tail striae: Lessons from recent comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Striae are features rarely observed in cometary dust tails. These are near-linear structures that, unlike synchronic bands, are not aligned with the nucleus position, and have only been clearly observed in a few high-production-rate comets, including C/1957 P1 (Mrkos), C/1962 C1 (Seki-Lines), C/1975 V1 (West), and C/1996 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The formation of striae is difficult to explain, but several scenarios for their creation have been proposed [1]. These include that of Sekanina & Farrell [2], who proposed that striae are the result of a two-step fragmentation process, where parent particles are released from the nucleus which, after a delay, all fragment over a very short period of time. The fragmentation products then separate according to their ? parameter, i.e., the degree to which the particles are influenced by radiation pressure force compared to gravitational force, to form the linear structures we observe as striae. Although there are issues with identifying a process through which many particles will collectively delay their break-up and then fragment within a short period, this scenario does fit many observations well [3]. Other proposed scenarios are more complex, including the formation of striae through a continuous cascade of fragmentation to ever smaller particle sizes [4]. As these formation scenarios result in different distributions of dust-particle sizes within individual striae, the processes occurring may therefore be identifiable if these distributions can be inferred. If the fragmentation processes taking place can be identified, then, in turn, more could be learnt about the structure of the original dust grains that go on to form these sometimes beautiful tail structures. Here, we present the analysis of striae in several comets observed from space by the SOHO LASCO coronagraph [5] and SECCHI heliospheric imagers aboard the twin STEREO spacecraft [6]. The comets studied are C/2002 V1 (NEAT) in January 2002, C/2006 P1 (McNaught) during its perihelion passage in January-February 2007, and the complex striae of C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS) in March 2013. We simulate the formation of individual striae in these comets, and successfully reproduce many aspects of their morphology and dynamics. The results are compared to those of other striae models, and we attempt to gauge the influence on non-gravitational forces acting on these comets' dust populations. The inferences that can be drawn regarding the comets' dust populations are discussed.

Jones, G.; Battams, K.



Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.  


A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An



75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...



Influence of Cemented Layers on Contaminant Transport in Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of sulfide-mine tailings to atmospheric oxygen leads to the initiation of a series of reactions, including sulfide oxidation, acid neutralization and metal attenuation reactions. As oxygen ingresses into the tailings, the oxidation front moves downward and inward from the edges of the tailings surface. At or near the acid neutralization front, secondary phases can accumulate, leading to the formation of hardpan layers. Field studies were conducted at three mine sites to evaluate the role of cemented layers in influencing contaminant transport from oxidized tailings. Detailed field measurements were made, including collection of water and gas samples from the vadose and groundwater zones. Cores were collected for mineralogical and chemical analyses to evaluate the extent of sulfide mineral oxidation and accumulation of secondary phases. Calculations of mineral saturation indices were made using ion-pair and ion-interaction models that were modified to account for the very high solute concentrations observed in the tailings pore waters. At a site that has been oxidizing for 25 years, a massive Fe(III)-bearing hardpan, containing gypsum, goethite and jarosite, has formed over the last 15 years. At a site that has been oxidizing for 35 years, an Fe(III)-bearing hardpan is also present. At a site that has been oxidizing for 70 years, a massive Fe(II)-bearing hardpan containing melanterite and gypsum is present below the zone of active oxidation. Above this zone, there are discontinuous Fe(III)-bearing cemented layers that are likely oxidized remnants of the original Fe(II) hardpan. Calculated mineral saturation indices are consistent with the observed accumulations of secondary phases. Transient perched water table conditions have developed above the massive Fe(II) hardpan, leading to the lateral transport of sulfide oxidation products along the hardpan and the formation of seepage zones above the permanent water table. Chemical extractions and mineralogical analyses show that trace metals are concentrated in the hardpan layers. Simulations using a reactive solute transport model show close agreement between the predicted and observed accumulations of secondary phases.

Ptacek, C.; Blowes, D.; Jambor, J.; Moncur, M.; Gunsinger, M.; Doerr, N.



The results of transperineal versus transrectal prostate biopsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review was performed to compare the efficacy and complications of transperineal (TP) vs. transrectal (TR) prostate biopsy. A systematic research of PUBMED, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all clinical controlled trials on prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and complications achieved by TP and TR biopsies. Prostate biopsies included sextant, extensive and saturation biopsy procedures.

Peng-Fei Shen; Yu-Chun Zhu; Wu-Ran Wei; Yong-Zhong Li; Jie Yang; Yu-Tao Li; Ding-Ming Li; Jia Wang; Hao Zeng; H Zeng; J Wang




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince most patients do not undergo repeat sextant prostate biopsies after a biopsy is positive for prostate cancer, the true incidence of false-negative biopsies is not well defined. We assess the incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.




Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available



Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  


Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal



CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail:; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail:; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail:; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail:; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail:; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)



CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of spinal lesions  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis of spine lesions is important for its successful management. Imaging–guided percutaneous biopsy is gaining increasing acceptance as a means for obtaining tissue for diagnosis. Most biopsies can be rapidly performed under local anaesthesia, with little patient discomfort and improved safety. Spinal anatomy is, however, complex with many adjacent vital structures. Good knowledge of anatomy and precise needling technique is, therefore, important. Today, biopsy of spinal lesions is best performed under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Indications for imaging-guided biopsy include confirming metastasis in a patient with a known primary tumour, determining the nature of a solitary bone lesion, excluding malignancy in vertebral body compression, and investigating for infection. Among the various issues to be considered are site of lesion, location of adjacent vital structures, approach, and type and size of needle. Complications are rare, particularly when a meticulous technique is applied. In summary, CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and an effective technique for the evaluation of spinal lesions and useful in planning therapy. PMID:21614239

Peh, WCG



Vibrations of the earth's magnetic tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural vibration period of the tail (regarded as bundle of magnetic line-of-force strings) and the characteristic time of recurrence of magnetospheric substorms are of the same order, suggesting the possibility of a relation between these phenomena. A model of the tail in the form of a plasma cylinder whose free boundary is immersed in the interplanetary plasma is examined. The nature of the natural oscillations of the tail excited by variations of the solar wind pressure is studied in this model. These vibrations have a total energy of approximately 10 to the 22nd power erg, which is sufficient to generate magnetospheric substorms.

Yershkovich, A. I.; Nusinov, A. A.



Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: Implications for biogeography and host associations.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host and geographic distribution for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer, remain poorly defined particularly in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from the northern population of Columbia white-tailed deer (Odocoi...


Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...


A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.


Processing of nerve biopsies: A practical guide for neuropathologists  

PubMed Central

Nerve biopsy is a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of peripheral neuropathies. Currently, major indications include interstitial pathologies such as suspected vasculitis and amyloidosis, atypical cases of inflammatory neuropathy and the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies that cannot be specified otherwise. However, surgical removal of a piece of nerve causes a sensory deficit and – in some cases – chronic pain. Therefore, a nerve biopsy is usually performed only when other clinical, laboratory and electrophysiological methods have failed to clarify the cause of disease. The neuropathological work-up should include at least paraffin and resin semithin histology using a panel of conventional and immunohistochemical stains. Cryostat section staining, teased fiber preparations, electron microscopy and molecular genetic analyses are potentially useful additional methods in a subset of cases. Being performed, processed and read by experienced physicians and technicians nerve biopsies can provide important information relevant for clinical management. PMID:22192700

Weis, Joachim; Brandner, Sebastian; Lammens, Martin; Sommer, Claudia; Vallat, Jean-Michel



Uses of Skin Biopsy for Sensory and Autonomic Nerve Assessment  

PubMed Central

Skin biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for small-fiber-predominant neuropathy by the quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). It has the unique advantage of being a minimally invasive procedure with the potential for longitudinal evaluation of both sensory and autonomic fibers. Unmyelinated small fibers are not otherwise quantified objectively with such a level of sensitivity as has been reported with IENFD. Recent advances include an expansion of the skin punch biopsy technique to evaluate larger myelinated fibers and mechanoreceptors, and recent work has also focused on additional methods of quantifying dermal fibers and densely innervated autonomic structures. This review discusses current work using skin biopsy for the pathologic analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in neuropathy of various causes as well as its use in clinical trials. PMID:23250768

Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.



Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy.  

SciTech Connect

Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat biopsies at ages 2 and 4, which showed many atrophic type 1 muscle fibers containing central nuclei and severe type 2 fiber deficiency compatible with centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of muscle showed decreases of type II myosin light chains 2 and 3, suggestive of histochemical type I fiber deficiency. The progressive nature of morphological changes in one of our patients cannot be explained by maturational arrest. Repeat biopsies in cases of CFTD with rapid clinical deterioration may very well show CNM.

Danon, M. J.; Giometti, C. S.; Manaligod, J. R.; Swisher, C.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Medical Coll.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Children's Memorial Hospital



Evaluating dermal myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

Although there has been extensive research on small, unmyelinated fibers in the skin, little research has investigated dermal myelinated fibers in comparison. Glabrous, non-hairy skin contains mechanoreceptors that afford a vantage point for observation of myelinated fibers that have previously been seen only with invasively obtained nerve biopsies. This review discusses current morphometric and molecular expression data of normative and pathogenic glabrous skin obtained by various processing and analysis methods for cutaneous myelinated fibers. Recent publications have shed light on the role of glabrous skin biopsy in identifying signs of peripheral neuropathy and as a potential biomarker of distal myelin and mechanoreceptor integrity. The clinical relevance of a better understanding of the role of dermal myelinated nerve terminations in peripheral neuropathy will be addressed in light of recent publications in the growing field of skin biopsy. PMID:23192899

Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.; Li, Jun



Evaluating dermal myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsy.  


Although there has been extensive research on small, unmyelinated fibers in the skin, little research has investigated dermal myelinated fibers in comparison. Glabrous, nonhairy skin contains mechanoreceptors that afford a vantage point for observation of myelinated fibers that have previously been seen only with invasively obtained nerve biopsies. This review discusses current morphometric and molecular expression data of normative and pathogenic glabrous skin obtained by various processing and analysis methods for cutaneous myelinated fibers. Recent publications have shed light on the role of glabrous skin biopsy in identifying signs of peripheral neuropathy and as a potential biomarker of distal myelin and mechanoreceptor integrity. The clinical relevance of a better understanding of the role of dermal myelinated nerve terminations in peripheral neuropathy will be addressed in light of recent publications in the growing field of skin biopsy. PMID:23192899

Myers, M Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C; Li, Jun



Specimens from Biopsies of Colorectal Polyps Often Harbor Additional Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The utility of examining specimens from colorectal biopsies of polyps for nonneoplastic diseases is currently unknown. Our objectives were to characterize such additional diagnoses that could be rendered. Methods. We retrospectively and prospectively reviewed specimens from endoscopic biopsies of colorectal polyps obtained during routine screening or surveillance. Results. 17 of 168 specimens (10.1%) contained additional diagnoses, including schistosomiasis, eosinophilic colitis, intestinal spirochetosis, melanosis coli, and other entities. These findings were easily overlooked because they often affected mucosa that was spared by the polyps or were often evident only at high magnification. Schistosomiasis, eosinophilic colitis, and intestinal spirochetosis were clinically occult. Conclusions. Specimens from biopsies of colorectal polyps often harbor other diagnoses, in addition to polyps, and can be simultaneously screened for polyps and examined for nonneoplastic diseases. Detection of other diagnoses in addition to polyps requires awareness, examination at high magnification, and examination of areas spared by the polyps. PMID:24455417



Multiparametric MRI-Targeted TRUS Prostate Biopsies Using Visual Registration  

PubMed Central

Prebiopsy multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), followed by transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-G) target biopsies (TB) of the prostate is a key combination for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (CSPCa), to avoid prostate cancer (PCa) overtreatment. Several techniques are available for guiding TB to the suspicious mp-MRI targets, but the simplest, cheapest, and easiest to learn is “cognitive,” with visual registration of MRI and TRUS data. This review details the successive steps of the method (target detection, mp-MRI reporting, intermodality fusion, TRUS guidance to target, sampling simulation, sampling, TRUS session reporting, and quality insurance), how to optimize each, and the global indications of mp-MRI-targeted biopsies. We discuss the diagnostic yield of visually-registered TB in comparison with conventional biopsy, and TB performed using other registration methods. PMID:25525605

Puech, Philippe; Ouzzane, Adil; Gaillard, Vianney; Betrouni, Nacim; Renard, Benoit; Villers, Arnauld; Lemaitre, Laurent



Clinical report: contrast enhancement of tumor perfusion as a guidance for biopsy.  


We describe three cases where biopsies from various tumors were guided by contrast enhancement of tumor perfusion. After i.v. administration of Levovist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), the tumors showed both hyper- and hypovascular areas. Biopsies from the latter showed marked necrosis or fibrosis. This may cause biopsies not being conclusive. To ensure fully diagnostic biopsies from irregular tumors we propose the biopsy to be performed from the most vascular part demonstrated by contrast enhancement. PMID:11118924

Bang, N; Bachmann Nielsen, M; Vejborg, I; Mellon Mogensen, A



How do birds' tails work? Delta-wing theory fails to predict tail shape during flight.  

PubMed Central

Birds appear to use their tails during flight, but until recently the aerodynamic role that tails fulfil was largely unknown. In recent years delta-wing theory, devised to predict the aerodynamics of high-performance aircraft, has been applied to the tails of birds and has been successful in providing a model for the aerodynamics of a bird's tail. This theory now provides the conventional explanation for how birds' tails work. A delta-wing theory (slender-wing theory) has been used, as part of a variable-geometry model to predict how tail and wing shape should vary during flight at different airspeeds. We tested these predictions using barn swallows flying in a wind tunnel. We show that the predictions are not quantitatively well supported. This suggests that a new theory or a modified version of delta-wing theory is needed to adequately explain the way in which morphology varies during flight. PMID:12028763

Evans, Matthew R; Rosén, Mikael; Park, Kirsty J; Hedenström, Anders



The red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa) in North America.  


Oral inoculation of prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, in Kansas, USA, resulted in formation of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. Five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other Buteo spp. in Kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. These results are the first to verify that red-tailed hawks are natural definitive host in North America for F. microti. PMID:1548806

Upton, S J; McKown, R D



Activity and reproduction of the black-tailed jackrabbit in the Coastal Cordgrass Prairie of Texas  

E-print Network

of the variations in daily and seasonal activity pat- terms, and to determine reproductive patterns in the black-tailed jackrabbit (~Le us californicus merriami) 1 in the Coastal Bend area of Texas. Data were collected from June li)66 through August of 1...

Haug, Joseph Carroll




E-print Network

SEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN FLEA COMMUNITIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS OF NORTHWESTERN were collected from prairie dogs trapped in 7 plots (160 x 160 m) in 3 colonies of northwestern Mexico seasons Fig. 1. Prairie dog colony complex in Chihuahua, Mexico, as mapped in 2005. Focal colonies

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


Parasites of the black-tailed jackrabbit in north central Colorado.  


Forty-four black-tailed jackrabbits, Lepus californicus melanotis Mearns, 1890, were collected near Denver from August, 1972, through July, 1973, and amined for parasites. Recovered parasites and their infection rates were: Eimeria sp. 100%, Cittotaenia sp.27%, coenuri of Multiceps sp. 57%, Cediopsylla inaequalis 14%, Hoplopsyllus affinis 9%, Haemodipsus setoni 2%, Dermacentor andersoni 14%, and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris 25%. PMID:1142561

Brittain, P C; Voth, D R



Volatile Compounds from the Forehead Region of Male White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands of cervids may be important in identifying individuals, establishing dominance, and signaling sexual readiness. The secretions from these glands are transferred to the hair for both lubrication and scent communication via forehead rubbing. We collected hair samples from the forehead and back of 10 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages and

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny



Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify




Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean


Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.  


Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still occur in cattle raised in slatted-floor facilities. Because of the animal welfare issues associated with tail docking and tail injuries, we recommend pursuing alternative solutions to reducing the incidence of tail tip injury in feedlot cattle housed in confined slatted-floor facilities. PMID:24987071

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R



The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.



Physical space and long-tail markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul



Effects of Tail on Spinning Aircraft Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment on aircraft spin phenomena was conducted at the low speed wind tunnel of Nagoya University with its exit test section inclined vertically. The model used in this experiment consists of three parts: a main wing, a fuselage, and a tail. Due to the stability effect of the tail, rotation of the model is decreased at low angles of attack, while it is increased at high angles of attack. As a result of pressure measurements, the horizontal tail wing was found to be the cause of this phenomenon. More specifically, a vortex is created from the leading edge of the windward horizontal tail wing, so that negative pressure regions appear on the windward horizontal wing and the vertical wing.

Yamada, Takafumi; Horichi, Takao; Nakamura, Yoshiaki


Type 1 Tails: Solar Wind Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ionization of the gas emitted by a comet is discussed along with the formation of a visible tail, and the bow shock front upstream toward the sun. Questions that a cometary probe can answer are listed.

Biermann, L.



Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs.  


In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically. The tail lengths and diameters differed at slaughter (lengths: 30.6±0.6; 24.9±0.4; 19.8±0.6; 8.7±0.6 cm; P<0.001; tail diameter: 0.5±0.03; 0.8±0.02; 1.0±0.03; 1.4±0.04 cm; P<0.001, respectively). Docking resulted in a higher proportion of tails with neuromas (64 v. 0%; P<0.001), number of neuromas per tail (1.0±0.2 v. 0; P<0.001) and size of neuromas (1023±592 v. 0 ?m; P<0.001). The results show that tail docking piglets using hot-iron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:25482535

Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, H E




SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)




Microsoft Academic Search

We observed Red-tailed Hawks (Buteojamaicensis) and Peregrine Falcons (Falcoperegrinus) hunt- ing Mexican free-tailed bats (7kdarida brasiliensis) during their evening emergence and dawn return at Frio Cave, Uvalde County, Texas in the summer of 1997. Predation by Red-tailed Hawks occurred primarily in the evening (89.5%), and predation by Peregrine Falcons was mostly at dawn (90.5%). In the evening, hawks appeared when




Biopsy techniques for soft tissue and bowel sarcomas.  


There is overlap in the clinical presentation of benign soft tissue tumors and soft tissue sarcomas. A preoperative sarcoma diagnosis would allow for consideration for neoadjuvant therapy, including preoperative radiation, as well as optimal surgical treatment planning, and patient counseling. Image guided core needle biopsy is a low morbidity, cost-effective, highly accurate approach for obtaining a definitive pathologic diagnosis. Any biopsy approach should minimize the potential for tumor seeding of otherwise uninvolved anatomic structures. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015 111:504-512. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663366

Tuttle, Rebecca; Kane, John M



[The role of echoendoscopic biopsy in diagnosing tuberculosis of pancreas].  


The diagnosis of an abdominal mass using imaging techniques is difficult for clinicians and radiologists. We report a case of an atypical peripancreatic mass, mimicking a carcinoma on abdominal computed tomography and which was only diagnosed after an echoendoscopic biopsy of the mass was performed. It is difficult to differentiate abdominal tuberculosis from a neoplasm, especially if there is no pulmonary tuberculosis. Usually, the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis is only confirmed histologically, after surgical resection of the mass. Echoendoscopic biopsy confirmed the infectious nature of the mass and prevented complicated and difficult surgery. PMID:18341981

Coriat, R; Latournerie, M; Galtier, J-B; Michiels, C; Hillon, P; Manfredi, S



[Histologic examinations during bronchial endoscopy: bronchial and transbronchial biopsy].  


Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was introduced by S. Ikeda at the end of the 1960's and has enabled considerable progress to be made in the diagnosis of tumours but equally for interstitial pathology. The different techniques are described and the techniques of transbronchial biopsy are stressed as well as side effects and specific complications such as pneumothorax or haemorrhage. The handling and servicing of the biopsies and the laboratory techniques are detailed. It is the overall quality of these practical aspects on which a correct interpretation of these tiny fragments depends. PMID:1542749

Febvre, M; Capron, F



Biopsy of the Superficial Cortex: Predictors of Effectiveness and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Brain biopsies of superficial cortex are performed for diagnosis of neurological diseases, but preoperative predictors of successful diagnosis and risks are lacking. OBJECTIVE We evaluated effectiveness and outcomes of superficial cortical biopsies and determined preoperative predictors of diagnosis, outcomes, morbidities, and mortality. METHODS A single-institution retrospective analysis of 170 patients who underwent open brain biopsies of superficial cortex was performed. Clinical predictors of effectiveness and outcomes were determined using univariate/multivariate analyses and a system for risk-benefit stratification was created and tested. RESULTS Brain biopsies led to successful diagnosis in 122 of 170 (71.8%) and affected management in 97 of 170 (57.1%) cases. Factors increasing the odds of diagnostic pathology included age older than 45 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-5.27, P < .01), previous cancer diagnosis (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.69-7.85, P < .001), focal (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 1.91-8.00, P < .001) and enhancing (OR: 5.03, 95% CI: 2.41-10.52, P < .001) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy of specific lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (OR: 9.34, 95% CI: 4.29-20.33, P < .001), and use of intraoperative navigation (OR: 6.59, 95% CI: 3.04-14.28, P < .001). Brain biopsies led to symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, other significant morbidities, and perioperative mortality in 12.4%, 16.2%, 37.1%, and 8% of cases, respectively. Risk of postoperative intracranial hemorrhage was increased by a history of aspirin use (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.23-5.28, P < .05) and age older than 60 years (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.36-5.18, P < .01). CONCLUSION Effectiveness and risk of morbidity/mortality can be estimated preoperatively for patients undergoing open brain biopsies of the superficial cortex. Older age and specific imaging characteristics increase the odds of diagnostic biopsy. Conversely, older age and aspirin use increases the risk of postoperative complications. PMID:23632761

Hawasli, Ammar H.; Buckley, Robert T.; Gao, Feng; Limbrick, David D.; Smyth, Matthew D.; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Santiago, Paul; Stewart, Todd J.; Park, Tae S.; Grubb, Robert L.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Rich, Keith M.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Chicoine, Michael R.



Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL™ hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8?±?2.4, 8.8?±?4.0 and 10.4?±?3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL™ hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25–6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16–4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL™ hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05–12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL™ hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K.



Confidence intervals for the tail index  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best-known estimators for the tail index of a heavy-tailed distribution is the Hill estimator. In this paper, confidence intervals based on the asymptotic normal approximation of the Hill estimator are studied. The coverage accuracy is evaluated and the theoretical optimal choice of the sample fraction for the one-sided confidence interval is given. One surprising finding is that

Shihong Cheng; Liang Peng



Anomalously small wave tails in higher dimensions  

E-print Network

We consider the late-time tails of spherical waves propagating on even-dimensional Minkowski spacetime under the influence of a long range radial potential. We show that in six and higher even dimensions there exist exceptional potentials for which the tail has an anomalously small amplitude and fast decay. Along the way we clarify and amend some confounding arguments and statements in the literature of the subject.

Piotr Bizo?; Tadeusz Chmaj; Andrzej Rostworowski



Autoclaved brick from low-silicon tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load-bearing brick is made from low-silicon tailings by pressing and autoclaving process, in the presence of alkali-activated slag\\/fly ash cementing material (AAFSC). Tailings accounts for 83% of the total mass of the brick. The compressive strength of the brick is up to 16.1MPa, bending strength 3.8MPa, and with low drying shrinkage and good freeze–thaw resistance. Some factors influencing the

Feng-qing Zhao; Jing Zhao; Hong-jie Liu




Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner


Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,





SciTech Connect

We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 5{sup 0} x 5{sup 0} region around the planetary nebula (PN) DeHt 5. The images reveal narrow Faraday-rotation structures on the visible disk of DeHt 5, as well as two wider, tail-like, structures 'behind' DeHt 5. Though DeHt 5 is an old PN known to be interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), a tail has not previously been identified for this object. The innermost tail is {approx}3 pc long and runs away from the northeast edge of DeHt 5 in a direction roughly opposite that of the sky-projected space velocity of the white dwarf central star, WD 2218+706. We believe this tail to be the signature of ionized material ram-pressure stripped and deposited downstream during a >74,000 yr interaction between DeHt 5 and the ISM. We estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the inner tail to be -15 {+-} 5 rad m{sup -2}, and, using a realistic estimate for the line-of-sight component of the ISM magnetic field around DeHt 5, derive an electron density in the inner tail of n{sub e} = 3.6 {+-} 1.8 cm{sup -3}. Assuming the material is fully ionized, we estimate a total mass in the inner tail of 0.68 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} and predict that 0.49 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} was added during the PN-ISM interaction. The outermost tail consists of a series of three roughly circular components, which have a collective length of {approx}11.0 pc. This tail is less conspicuous than the inner tail and may be the signature of the earlier interaction between the WD 2218+706 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor and the ISM. The results for the inner and outer tails are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and may have implications for the PN missing-mass problem as well as for models which describe the impact of the deaths of intermediate-mass stars on the ISM.

Ransom, R. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, 583 Duncan Avenue West, Penticton, BC V2A 8E1 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L., E-mail: RRansom@okanagan.bc.c [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada)



The Sodium Tail of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.



Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function. PMID:23470522

Sen?ilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Österlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.



The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.



Detection of Ockelbo virus RNA in skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

A sensitive assay based on the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Ockelbo virus RNA was developed. Two primer pairs from the gene coding for the E2 glycoprotein were chosen. By use of a nested strategy for the primers, as few as 1 to 10 PFU could be detected. The amplified products were visualized as bands of appropriate size on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. The primer pairs allowed amplification of several Ockelbo and Sindbis virus isolates but discriminated between these and other alphaviruses. Ockelbo virus RNA was detected in 4 of 10 skin biopsy specimens collected during the acute stage of the disease. The identities of the amplified products were confirmed by restriction endonuclease cleavage. Acute- and convalescent-phase sera as well as lymphocytes collected during the convalescent phase were negative by the polymerase chain reaction. No infectious virus could be recovered from any of the specimens. Images PMID:8396582

Hörling, J; Vene, S; Franzén, C; Niklasson, B



Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus


Outcomes of Research Biopsies in Phase I Clinical Trials: The MD Anderson Cancer Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background. Research biopsies are crucial for exploring the impact of novel agents on putative targets. The current study assesses the safety and success rate associated with performing such biopsies. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 155 consecutive patients who had one or more research biopsies as part of a phase I trial from September 2004 to October 2009. Results. Of 281 research biopsies performed, 118 were paired before and after treatment biopsies (total = 236 biopsies). The most common sites of biopsy were superficial lymph node (19.9%), followed by liver (16.4%), and then soft tissue (15.7%). Ultrasound-guided biopsies were the most frequent type (53.7%). Among 142 patients who consented for mandatory biopsy, 86.6% had the biopsy performed, compared with 4.4% of 911 patients offered a biopsy on an optional basis (p < .0001). Biopsy was obtained most frequently on industry-sponsored trials; lack of funding on nonindustry trials was the most common reason that biopsies were not obtained. Of 281 single biopsies, only 4 (1.4%) had complications: pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement (n = 2), infection requiring admission (n = 1), and arrhythmia with hypotension (n = 1). All but one biopsy was successful in obtaining tissue. No deaths were attributable to biopsy. Conclusions. Our experience demonstrates that research biopsies in early phase clinical trials are safe (1.4% risk of serious complications), and a higher percentage of patients underwent mandatory biopsies (86.6%) compared with that of the patients with optional biopsies (4.4%). PMID:21859821

El-Osta, Hazem; Wheler, Jennifer; Fu, Siqing; Naing, Aung; Falchook, Gerald; Hicks, Marshall; Wen, Sijin; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Kurzrock, Razelle



Collection understanding  

E-print Network

understanding. By presenting simple visual interfaces and intuitive methods of interacting with a collection, users come to understand the essence of the collection by focusing on the artifacts. This thesis discusses a practical approach for enhancing collection...

Chang, Michelle T.




Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ : Notre travail est une étude rétrospective et descriptive effectuée dans un centre universitaire hospitalier et regroupant 143 malades ayant subi des biopsies rénales pour une suspicion de glomérulo - pathie, de janvier 1989 à décembre 2000. Les glomé - rulonéphrites (GN) les plus fréquemment retrouvées étaient : la glomérulonéphrite mésangiale p r o l i f é r



Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial

Christos Chatzikyrkou; Iyas Hamwi; Christian Clajus; Jan Becker; Carsten Hafer; Jan T Kielstein



Computer card morphometry of jejunal biopsies in childhood coeliac disease.  


The histological changes in 95 jejunal biopsy specimens from children have been analyzed by a new mporphometric technique. The microscope image of the specimen is traced directly onto computer data cards. A simple sketch records accurate quantitative data in a matrix of 840 points, retaining the spatial arrangement of the tissue components. The data are fed via an optical mark data card reader, into a mini-computer. FORTRAN IV programs allow calculation of surface area, villous heights, and component volumes in metric units, and of volume proportions, volume-to-volume ratios, and surface-to-volume ratios. Pictorial and numerical printouts are produced, which are suitable for inclusion in the patient's notes. Jejunal biopsies from 37 controls and 26 untreated coeliac patients were clearly distinguished morphometrically. Sixteen pairs of biopsies from coeliac patients on long-term gluten-free diets before, and 12 weeks after, the reintroduction of dietary gluten significantly reflected the effects of gluten challenge. Comparison of control and abnormal biopsies showed a spatial redistribution of the components, more than a change in their absolute amounts. There was no significant differences in the total epithelial volumes in controls, treated or untreated patients, suggesting that the mucosal lesion in coeliac disease is not a true atrophy. PMID:1127115

Meinhard, E A; Wadbrook, D G; Risdon, R A




PubMed Central

Objectives To describe a novel surgical technique for complete excision of a rectovaginal fistula tract using a disposable biopsy punch during a transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair and present our initial surgical experience. Methods Description of four cases of simple rectovaginal fistulas and an innovative surgical technique for the complete excision of the fistula tract using a disposable biopsy punch. Results Successful three, nine and twelve month follow up of four cases with simple rectovaginal fistulas after transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair using a novel approach for complete fistula tract excision with a disposable biopsy punch and layered non overlapping suture closure. Demographic information reported included age, parity, medical and surgical history as well as fistula characteristics including size, location, presenting symptoms and duration of symptoms. We describe our operative technique with picture description. Conclusion This novel approach using a disposable punch biopsy device to complete excision of simple rectovaginal fistula tracts during a transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair can help with achieving a successful surgical outcome. PMID:24368490

Adelowo, Amos; Ellerkmann, Richard; Rosenblatt, Peter



Evaluation of Electronic Biopsy for Clinical Diagnosis in Virtual Colonoscopy  

E-print Network

not available in optical colonoscopy, an exciting one being the ability to perform an electronic biopsy transfer function mapping higher densities to red and lower densities to blue. The resulting image allows aided detection, there has so far been no study to evaluate the effectiveness of a physician using


Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: diagnosis by liver biopsy.  

PubMed Central

Specimens of liver obtained by needle biopsy from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In one patient the nodularity was apparent on gross examination of the specimen. Portal hypertension was present in the other patient. The cause and pathogenesis of the disorder are poorly understood. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7388707

Qizilbash, A. H.; Castelli, M.



Are posttransplantation protocol liver biopsies useful in the long term?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists about the usefulness of yearly protocol liver biopsies after liver transplantation, mainly among patients with normal transaminase levels. The aim of this study is to determine (1) the prevalence and cause of histological liver injury in transplant recipients with a minimum histological follow-up of 1 year (n = 254), and (2) the correlation between histological findings and transaminase

Marina Berenguer; José M. Rayón; Mart??n Prieto; Victoria Aguilera; David Nicolás; Vicente Ortiz; Domingo Carrasco; Rafael López-Andujar; José Mir; Joaqu??n Berenguer



Zinc-rich synaptic boutons in human temporal cortex biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of zinc-rich synaptic boutons in biopsies of the temporal cortex from epileptic patients who had undergone surgery is described. Unfixed cryostat sections were exposed to H2S vapour to precipitate endogenous zinc, which was subsequently shown by silver enhancement. In the temporal cortex, the stain for zinc was arranged in bands: stain was heavy in layers II and VI,

N Franco-Pons; C Casanovas-Aguilar; S Arroyo; J Rumià; J Pérez-Clausell; G Danscher



Endoscopic biopsy is diagnostic in gastric antral vascular ectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric antral vascular ectasia was endoscopically diagnosed in seven patients. Pathologic characteristics of this entity were defined retrospectively, by studying endoscopic pinch biopsy slides from these seven patients and antrectomy specimens from five patients. A scoring system was developed, and the seven patients were compared prospectively with various control groups. Abnormalities of mucosal vessels (fibrin thrombi and\\/or ectasia) consistently distinguished

John H. Gilliam; Kim R. Geisinger; Wallace C. Wu; Noel Weidner; Joel E. Richter



Total RNA isolation from stallion sperm and testis biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm mRNA transcriptional profiles can be used to evaluate male fertility, yet differences between species in sperm attributes and packaging require adjustments in sperm RNA isolation protocols. The objective was to optimize RNA isolation methodology for fresh, frozen, and extended ejaculates, and epididymal sperm of stallions. Additionally, a protocol for RNA isolation from testis biopsies was established. Separation of sperm

Pranab J. Das; Nandina Paria; Ashley Gustafson-Seabury; Monika Vishnoi; Sankar P. Chaki; Charles C. Love; Dickson D. Varner; Bhanu P. Chowdhary; Terje Raudsepp



The Use of Endometrial Biopsy in the Infertile Mare  

PubMed Central

The results of a study on endometrial biopsies obtained from 700 infertile mares are reported. Infiltrative endometritis was present in 51% consisting of a combination of an acute and chronic cellular response in 6%, mild chronic infiltrations in 35% and moderate to severe chronic infiltrations in 10%. Demonstrable endometrial fibrosis was found in 88% of the mares with the majority having mild (51%) or moderate (35%) changes. The age of the mares and the average number of years barren gradually increased with the severity of endometrial fibrosis, as did the combined incidence of fetal loss (early embryonic death and abortion) during the three year period preceding the biopsy. A significant decrease in foaling percentage for the year following the biopsy was observed with increasing severity of endometrial fibrosis. Chisquare analysis projected a decrease in foaling rate of 22.8% for each category increase in severity. The number of years barren and the farm management system used also had a significant effect on foaling probability. The foaling rates for mares that were bred artificially (82%) under strict veterinary supervision using an extender incorporating gentamicin were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for mares bred in a conventional manner under average management conditions (48%). It was concluded that endometrial biopsy is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic technique. When the degree of fibrosis is used to predict foaling probability, the number of years barren and the breeding method to be used should also be considered to arrive at a more accurate prediction. PMID:7026016

Doig, P. A.; McKnight, J. D.; Miller, R. B.



Hyperspectral Colon Biopsy Classification into Normal and Malignant Categories  

E-print Network

and cure of colon cancer can be improved by efficiently clas- sifying the colon tissue cells from biopsy.1 Colon Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Hyperspectral Imaging Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Colon Cancer Colon cancer

Rajpoot, Nasir


Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of paragonimiasis involving a 12-year-old Latin American boy. The diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a pulmonary nodule. Identification of the species by morphometric analysis of the eggs indicated that the infection was caused by Paragonimus mexicanus. PMID:18385444

Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Citron, Deborah R.; Stager, Charles E.; Laucirica, Rodolfo



Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 total (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.

Hardman, Rulon L., E-mail: [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (United States); Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M. [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)



Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?  


Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology. PMID:20372942

Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S



Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Sonographic examination of the breast with state-of-the-art equipment has become an essential part of the clinical work-up of breast lesions and a valuable adjunct to mammographic screening and physical examination. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) are well-established, valuable techniques that are still used in most cases, whereas vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a more recent technique. VABB has proven clinical value and can be used under sonographic, mammographic, and magnetic resonance imaging guidance. The main indication for the use of VABB is for biopsies of clustered microcalcifications, which are usually performed under stereotactic guidance. This method has been proven reliable and should replace surgical biopsies. The ultrasound-guided procedure is still more a matter of discussion, but it should also replace surgical biopsies for nodular lesions, and it should even replace surgery for the complete removal of benign lesions. This viewpoint is gradually gaining acceptance. Different authors have shown increased diagnostic accuracy of VABB compared to FNA and CNB. VABB particularly leads to less histological underestimation. The other indications for VABB are palpable or nonpalpable nodular lesions or American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 and 4A lesions. For masses that are likely benign or indeterminate, we attempt to completely remove the lesion to eliminate uncertainty on later follow-up images. VABB offers the best possible histological sampling and aids avoidance of unnecessary operations. VABB complications include bleeding or pain during the procedure, as well as postoperative pain, hemorrhaging, and hematomas. But, these hemorrhaging could be controlled by the post-procedural compression and bed resting. Overall, VABB is a reliable sampling technique with few complications, is relatively easy to use, and is well-tolerated by patients. The larger amount of extracted tissue reduces sampling error. PMID:25083505

Hong, Jisun



An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients.

Bachand, Francois; Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Harel, Francois M.Sc. [Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail:



Insect Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use several types of insect sampling and collection equipment to make an insect collection. Learners can collect insects from their schoolyard or yard at home. Insect collections are a good way to estimate the abundance and number of species in an area. This can be a longterm project over a period of days or weeks.




SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)



Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

Beedlow, P.A.



Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats  

PubMed Central

Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.



Analysis of HLA-G expression in serum and biopsy samples of kidney transplant recipients.  


In this study, we analyzed HLA-G expression in serum and graft biopsies of renal transplant patients to find out whether there is any relationship between HLA-G and renal graft acceptance. The transplant patients were divided into two groups: those without any rejection episode (n=32) and those with acute rejection (n=33). Patient sera were collected 1 day before and at various intervals after transplantation. Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in serum was determined using ELISA. In time-course experiment we found that in all patients (with and without rejection) the pre-transplantation level of sHLA-G declined in the early post-transplant period (1-2 weeks). In sera collected over 1-12 months after transplantation, a substantial increase of sHLA-G was detected in patients without rejection while no change or additional decline was observed in recipients with graft rejection. In sera collected after more than 1 year post-transplantation, sHLA-G levels increased in both groups of patients (with or without graft rejection). The time-course of serum sHLA-G antigens in patients with graft rejection was in good correlation with the course of total HLA-G mRNA determined in graft biopsy samples isolated from patients with acute rejection. We further demonstrated that serum sHLA-G values were significantly higher in patients without graft rejection than with rejection (P=0.0058). This observation supports the assumption that the increase of serum sHLA-G may contribute to allograft acceptance. PMID:25468563

Poláková, K; Bandžuchová, H; Žilinská, Z; Chre?ová, S; Kuba, D; Russ, G



Correlation between MRI and biopsies under second look ultrasound.  


The term "second look" lesions in MRI refers to lesions detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. The objectives of our study were to analyse the displacement of targets between MRI and ultrasound; to define discriminating BIRADS morphological criteria to predict benign or malignant character and better establish the indications of second look ultrasound and biopsy; and to analyse the agreement between ultrasound and MRI in terms of morphological criteria. A retrospective and monocentric review was performed of the records of consecutive patients with breast abnormalities (mass or non-mass) initially detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. All patients with abnormalities found during the performance of second look ultrasound and biopsied were included in the study. All lesions were documented using the BIRADS lexicon for MRI and ultrasound. Of 100 included patients, 108 lesions were detected by MRI, found via second look ultrasound and biopsied between January 2008 and 2010. All of the included patients were followed-up for a variable period, from 2 to 5 years. Eighty-two upon 108 biopsied lesions (76%) were benign and 26/108 lesions (24%) were malignant. This study confirmed the switch from procubitus to decubitus essentially displaces the tumour in the antero-posterior direction. It showed that the risk factors were not reliable criteria for establishing an indication for second look ultrasound. This study also showed that circumscribed contours and a progressive enhancement curve (type I) for masses on MRI had the strongest negative predictive value of greater than 0.85. In ultrasound, the round or oval shape, circumscribed contours and the parallel orientation to the skin favoured benignity with a NPV of greater than 0.85. For masses, the study showed that the agreement in interpretation of the benign versus suspicious morphological criteria between the MRI and the ultrasound was very weak for the shape (Kappa=0.09) and weak for the contours (Kappa=0.23). Finally, the MRI overestimated the size of the targets compared to ultrasound (Student t-test, p=0.0001). The performance of second look ultrasound has to be performed after the detection of an abdnormality on MRI even for lesion classified BIRADS 3. The biopsy indications must be wide with insertion of a clip and a control MRI. Only this control allows to stop the investigation if the biopsied lesion is benign. PMID:24525086

Nouri-Neuville, M; de Rocquancourt, A; Cohen-Zarade, S; Chapellier-Canaud, M; Albiter, M; Hamy, A-S; Giachetti, S; Cuvier, C; Espié, M; de Kerviler, É; de Bazelaire, C



Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy  

PubMed Central

Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA?ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy. PMID:20459232

Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.



Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy.  


Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA/ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy. PMID:20459232

Yaseen, Mohammad A; Ermilov, Sergey A; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A



Analysis of data obtained in clinical trials of optical biopsy system for breast cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the clinical trials it was shown, that characteristics of optical scattering and absorption are sensitive to the tissue type and state. In the given report improved optical biopsy system will be presented, clinical trials of which have been conducted in the Regional Oncology Center of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. During a year more than 160 patients with breast tumors were investigated using this system. Radiation from a xenon lamp through an optical fiber placed inside the probe's needle was delivered into the breast. The radiation scattered from the breast tissue was collected by another fibers also placed in the same needle and its spectrum was measured. Obtained optical data was analyzed to find general optical characteristics of scattered radiation in different types of tissue and revealing the major peculiarities in the spectral scattering coefficients of malignant tumors and their distinctions from benign tumors and healthy tissue. Using different mathematical algorithm the typical template of scattering spectrum was found for benign and malignant type of breast tumor. Then the algorithm of automatic detection of malignant spectra in the data flow was developed. Using this algorithm the datasets of all patients were processed and analyzed and the diagnoses were obtained. The automatic diagnoses were compared with those given by physicians. As a result the indexes of sensitivity and specificity for the optical biopsy diagnostic method were found equal to 96% and 80% correspondingly.

Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Kulikov, S. M.; Maslov, N. V.; Bondarenko, S. V.; Shakhova, N. M.; Pavlycheva, I. Y.; Rubenchik, A.; Da Silva, L. B.



An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

Hollmen, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.



Construction and preliminary evaluation of copper tailings reclamation test plots at Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty pilot-scale test plots were constructed in mid-1998 at the Cyprus Miami mine to investigate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of various reclamation strategies for establishment of self-sustaining native vegetation on acidic copper tailings. Four reclamation strategies are being tested: (1) directly covering acidic tailings with varying thicknesses f cover soil; (2) removing and/or neutralizing particularly acidic surgical tailings before soil cover placement, (3) chemically and/or physically inhibiting upward water and solute movement using neutralizing and neutral capillary barriers, and (4) constructing a subgrade of neutral tailings beneath cover soil. Preliminary results suggest that thicker soil covers and capillary barrier test plots initially support vegetation to a greater extent than other test plots, probably because of their increased moisture storage capacity. Results also suggest that salts are beginning to migrate upward from underlying tailings into cover soil. Data collected from ongoing vegetation surveys and soil testing will be used to evaluate the effect of various reclamation strategies on vegetation establishment and the potential impact of upward salt migration.

Chammas, G.A.; McCaulou, D.R.; Jones, G.L.



Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.



Evaluation of gastric biopsies for neoplasia: differences between Japanese and Western pathologists.  


Cited variations in the evaluation of gastric endoscopic biopsies for neoplasms between pathologists in Japan and those in the United States and Europe (the West) may have stemmed from several causes. The five-tiered group classification of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC) for interpretation of biopsies is not used in the West. Some differences may also exist in the morphologic criteria to reach a diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma. The goals of this study were to test the Western and Japanese classifications of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma and to assess the differences between four Japanese and seven Western pathologists. One hundred biopsies, 20 from each of the five categories of the JRSGC scheme as determined by one observer, were collected. The Japanese observers used the JRSGC system, expressed in Roman numerals, whereas Western pathologists used a five- or six-tiered scheme expressed in diagnostic terms. Pairwise agreement was evaluated using k statistics within both groups. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was accepted as the opinion of the majority. The sensitivity and specificity of each reviewer for a certain diagnosis were also assessed. The intragroup agreements were moderate for both the Japanese (mean k = 0.663) and the Westerners (mean k = 0.652). The pairwise agreements between Japanese and Western observers were low (mean k = 0.542). Overall, the sensitivity was low for all Japanese observers for the diagnosis of dysplasia (38.7% vs 92.5%), and the sensitivity for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was high in both groups but higher among the Japanese observers (93.9% and 85.2%, respectively). Overall, the Japanese-Western interobserver agreement was moderate. The JRSCG scheme did not translate into higher interobserver agreement among Japanese observers. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was high for both groups, but the specificity was low among the Japanese. The cause seemed to be centered around the diagnosis of dysplasia in the Western system, which was a lesion frequently interpreted as carcinoma in Japan because of the different definitions of carcinoma in each system. Such a discrepancy might be important because it may explain some of the differences in the prevalence and prognosis of early gastric cancer between Japan and the West. An international effort is needed to harmonize morphologic criteria and analyze whether therapeutic consequences may stem from such discrepancies. PMID:10328081

Lauwers, G Y; Shimizu, M; Correa, P; Riddell, R H; Kato, Y; Lewin, K J; Yamabe, H; Sheahan, D G; Lewin, D; Sipponen, P; Kubilis, P S; Watanabe, H



Microsatellite markers in white-tailed deer.  


A genomic library of DNA from white-tailed deer was constructed for the isolation of d(AC)n microsatellite repeats. PCR primers were designed from regions flanking each repeat and used to amplify DNA samples from a pedigreed herd of white-tailed deer and other artiodactyls. Allelic frequencies, PIC values, and heterozygosity values are reported for five polymorphic markers scored in 41 animals. Homologs of two of the five markers were assigned to bovine chromosomes 4 and 23, respectively, using a panel of bovine+hamster hybrid somatic cell lines. PMID:7658002

DeWoody, J A; Honeycutt, R L; Skow, L C



Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.



Modeling the neutral sodium tails of comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and, at some comets, a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) data taken using CoCam [1], but, since this initial detection, similar features have been observed at near-Sun comets using the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO. A full picture of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be established using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout the orbit. The high efficiency of the sodium D transition has allowed it to be detected in systems, even if the column density of sodium is extremely low. In these instances it is sometimes possible to determine some of the system's characteristics from the sodium emission detection, such as in Io's plasma torus [2] and Enceladus's plume [3,4]. It is hoped that a similar approach may be applied to the active cometary environment, but, at present, the production of neutral sodium is unknown. Various authors [5--9, thorough review presented in 10] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail, and ion tail. The morphology and evolution of the neutral cometary sodium tail are difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three-dimensional, heliocentric-distance-dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model, which incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. Our model was initially based on that of Brown et al [7]. We present preliminary results from this model. We have found initial agreement with the overall morphology and brightness of the neutral sodium tail observed at C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp, for which this phenomenon was studied most extensively) and our model, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present our initial analysis of the likely presence of neutral sodium in the SOHO LASCO images of C/2012 S1 (ISON) and a comparison of this dataset with our model. The versatility of the model allows it to be easily adapted to any other cometary sodium tail.

Birkett, K.; Jones, G.; Coates, A.



Reliability of small amounts of cancer in prostate biopsies to reveal pathologic grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine grade reliability when biopsies contain very small amounts of prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy findings are known to undergrade prostate cancer compared with the pathologic specimens yet remain the only grade guiding disease management.

Christopher R. King; John E. McNeal; Harcharan Gill; James D. Brooks; Sandy Srinivas; Joseph C. Presti Jr



The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution  

SciTech Connect

We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

Papazyan, Romeo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rozengurt, Enrique [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rey, Osvaldo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)]. E-mail:



Motion and deformation compensation for freehand prostate biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a registration pipeline to compensate for prostate motion and deformation during targeted freehand prostate biopsies. We perform 2D-3D registration by reconstructing a thin-volume around the real-time 2D ultrasound imaging plane. Constrained Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and gradient descent optimization are used to rigidly align the moving volume to the fixed thin-volume. Subsequently, B-spline de- formable registration is performed to compensate for remaining non-linear deformations. SSD and zero-bounded Limited memory Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shannon (LBFGS) optimizer are used to find the optimum B-spline parameters. Registration results are validated on five prostate biopsy patients. Initial experiments suggest thin- volume-to-volume registration to be more effective than slice-to-volume registration. Also, a minimum consistent 2 mm improvement of Target Registration Error (TRE) is achieved following the deformable registration.

Khallaghi, Siavash; Nouranian, Saman; Sojoudi, Samira; Ashab, Hussam A.; Machan, Lindsay; Chang, Silvia; Black, Peter; Gleave, Martin; Goldenberg, Larry; Abolmaesumi, Purang



Robotically assisted small animal MRI-guided mouse biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mammals, namely mice and rats, play an important role in biomedical research. Imaging, in conjunction with accurate therapeutic agent delivery, has tremendous value in small animal research since it enables serial, non-destructive testing of animals and facilitates the study of biomarkers of disease progression. The small size of organs in mice lends some difficulty to accurate biopsies and therapeutic agent delivery. Image guidance with the use of robotic devices should enable more accurate and repeatable targeting for biopsies and delivery of therapeutic agents, as well as the ability to acquire tissue from a pre-specified location based on image anatomy. This paper presents our work in integrating a robotic needle guide device, specialized stereotaxic mouse holder, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a long-term goal of performing accurate and repeatable targeting in anesthetized mice studies.

Wilson, Emmanuel; Chiodo, Chris; Wong, Kenneth H.; Fricke, Stanley; Jung, Mira; Cleary, Kevin



Lactic Acid Bacteria Enriched from Human Gastric Biopsies  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to check if viable bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria (LAB), could be enriched from biopsies obtained from healthy gastroscopy patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 13 gastroscopy patients and subjected to an anaerobic or microaerophilic enrichment procedure utilizing the Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit (PMEU). Profuse microbial growth was observed in most cases. Samples plated on MRS showed high numbers of LAB. The most common species characterized were Lactobacillus reuteri, Lact. salivarius, and Streptococcus salivarius. The results demonstrate a continuous presence of viable LAB in healthy stomach. The species are similar to those traditionally used in food applications. The gastric LAB strains could have a potential in developing probiotic foods aimed specially on the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21991494

Hakalehto, Elias; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; Kinnunen, Kristiina; von Wright, Atte



Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E



Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

Riley, Donald R




SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)



Dysplasia-Carcinoma Transition Specific Transcripts in Colonic Biopsy Samples  

PubMed Central

Background The early molecular detection of the dysplasia-carcinoma transition may enhance the strength of diagnosis in the case of colonic biopsies. Our aims were to identify characteristic transcript sets in order to develop diagnostic mRNA expression patterns for objective classification of benign and malignant colorectal diseases and to test the classificatory power of these markers on an independent sample set. Methodology/Principal Findings Colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma specific transcript sets were identified using HGU133plus2 microarrays and 53 biopsies (22 CRC, 20 adenoma and 11 normal). Ninety-four independent biopsies (27 CRC, 29 adenoma and 38 normal) were analyzed on microarrays for testing the classificatory power of the discriminatory genes. Array real-time PCR validation was done on 68 independent samples (24 CRC, 24 adenoma and 20 normal). A set of 11 transcripts (including CXCL1, CHI3L1 and GREM1) was determined which could correctly discriminate between high-grade dysplastic adenoma and CRC samples by 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The discriminatory power of the marker set was proved to be high on independent samples in both microarray and RT-PCR analyses. 95.6% of original and 94.1% of cross-validated samples was correctly classified in discriminant analysis. Conclusions/Significance The identified transcripts could correctly characterize the dysplasia-carcinoma transition in biopsy samples, also on a large independent sample set. These markers can establish the basis of gene expression based diagnostic classification of colorectal cancer. Diagnostic RT-PCR cards can become part of the automated routine procedure. PMID:23155391

Sipos, Ferenc; Spisák, Sándor; Krenács, Tibor; Tóth, Kinga; Leiszter, Katalin; Kalmár, Alexandra; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla



Leptospirosis diagnosed by molecular DNA detection on skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is one of the most common anthropozoonoses in the world. Humans are accidental hosts who get infected through damaged skin or conjunctiva from environmental sources such as soil and water contaminated by urine or tissues from infected animals. We report the case of a young man for whom the diagnosis was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection from a skin biopsy. PMID:22242069

Doudier, Barbara; Laban, Delphine; Cazorla, Cecile; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe



Peripheral neuropathy with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia: biopsies from 5 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, which can cause hypersensitivity vasculitis, was observed in five patients with peripheral neuropathy. Three cases presented with multifocal neuropathies and two cases with symmetrical polyneuropathy. One had cryoglobulinemia with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and IgG polyclonal gammopathy, and the other four had cryoglobulinemia with polyclonal gammopathy. Biopsies showed perivascular infiltration by mononuclaer cells around medium, and mainly small-sized

C. Vital; C. Deminière; A. Lagueny; F. X. Bergouignan; J. L. Pellegrin; M. S. Doutre; A. Clement; J. Beylot



Revisiting Directed Polymers with heavy-tailed disorder  

E-print Network

In this mostly numerical study, we revisit the statistical properties of the ground state of a directed polymer in a $d=1+1$ "hilly" disorder landscape, i.e. when the quenched disorder has power-law tails. When disorder is Gaussian, the polymer minimizes its total energy through a collective optimization, where the energy of each visited site only weakly contributes to the total. Conversely, a hilly landscape forces the polymer to distort and explore a larger portion of space to reach some particularly deep energy sites. As soon as the fifth moment of the disorder diverges, this mechanism radically changes the standard "KPZ" scaling behaviour of the directed polymer, and new exponents prevail. After confirming again that the Flory argument accurately predicts these exponent in the tail-dominated phase, we investigate several other statistical features of the ground state that shed light on this unusual transition and on the accuracy of the Flory argument. We underline the theoretical challenge posed by this situation, which paradoxically becomes even more acute above the upper critical dimension.

Thomas Gueudré; Pierre Le Doussal; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Alberto Rosso



Pitt study finds breast cancer patients with positive ultrasound guided axillary node biopsy need dissection

Contrary to a trend in treatment, breast cancer patients with suspicious lymph nodes should have an ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy, and if that biopsy is positive these patients should undergo an axillary dissection, a new study shows. The study, conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, compared 199 patients with a positive ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy to 434 patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.


Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP



Protocol 1: Acquisition of tumor biopsies through abdominal laparotomy  

PubMed Central

The static analysis of tumor tissues at a single, terminal endpoint has been the mainstay of studies in mouse models of cancer. However, with the development of model systems that reproduce the intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of human tumors, such studies are limited by the need for large numbers of animals to overcome increased intra-group variance. The shortcomings of a single-timepoint approach to molecular analysis are especially apparent in the context of therapeutic studies in which the dynamic response to treatment is of particular consequence. In order to mitigate the effects of intertumoral heterogeneity, multiple tissue samples may be harvested from the same tumor at different timepoints through the use of surgical biopsies. For abdominal tumors, pre-procedure imaging may be utilized to assess the suitability of tumors for biopsy. Sterile surgical techniques are utilized to access the abdominal cavity, and customized instruments facilitate the immobilization and retrieval of tissue samples from hard or fibrous tumors. Thermo-regulation, hemostasis, and wound closure techniques are critical to successful surgical outcomes, while appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, and post-operative recovery regimens are important for maintenance of animal welfare. Using a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we present a comprehensive protocol suitable for the routine acquisition of abdominal tumor biopsies. PMID:24371318

Sastra, Stephen A.; Olive, Kenneth P.



Terminal ileal intubation and biopsy in routine colonoscopy practice.  


This special report focuses on the current literature regarding the utility of terminal ileal (TI) intubation and biopsy. The authors reviewed the literature regarding the clinical benefit of TI intubation at the time of colonoscopy and also the evidence for TI intubation as a colonoscopy quality indicator. TI intubation is useful to identify ileal diseases such as Crohn's disease and additionally as a means of confirming colonoscopy completion when classical caecal landmarks are not confidently seen. Previous studies have demonstrated that TI intubation has variable yield but may be more useful in patients presenting with diarrhea. Reported rates of TI intubation at colonoscopy vary. The authors demonstrate that terminal ileoscopy is feasible in clinical practice and sometimes yields additional clinical information. Additionally it may be used as an indicator of colonoscopy completion. It may be particularly helpful when investigating patients with diarrhea, abnormalities seen on other imaging modalities and patients with suspected Crohn's disease. TIs reported as normal at endoscopy have a low yield when biopsied; however, biopsies from abnormal-looking TIs demonstrate a higher yield and have greater diagnostic value. PMID:25582839

Neilson, Laura J; Bevan, Roisin; Panter, Simon; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Rees, Colin J



Collecting apparatus  


An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)



Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.



Bone biopsy in solitary lesions on bone scan in genitourinary malignancy.  


In the course of stagging for genitourinary malignancy, we identified 9 patients with asymptomatic bone lesions. Biopsies were taken in all cases. In 5 patients, biopsy revealed Paget's disease and, in 3 others, a solitary bone metastasis was confirmed, which demonstrates the utility of this method by avoiding unnecessary, high-risk surgical procedures. In 1 patient the biopsy was normal. PMID:2364967

Zungri, E



Observer error and sampling variability tested in evaluation of hepatitis and cirrhosis by liver biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 50 patients with chronic active liver disease, observer and sampling error in histologically evaluating hepatitis and cirrhosis after blind-needle biopsy of the liver was assessed from coded tissue. This was done by repeated readings of the same specimens by the same pathologist, by sequential biopsies from the same patients with cirrhosis, and by multiple simultaneous biopsies from adjacent areas

Roger D. Soloway; Archie H. Baggenstoss; Leslie J. Schoenfield; W. H. J. Summerskill



Comparison of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy Yield between Standard Forceps and Electrocautery Hot Forceps in Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a commonly performed bronchoscopic procedure. Previous studies have suggested that larger biopsy forceps may improve diagnostic yield; however, the risk of bleeding associated with larger samples may be increased. The hot forceps are large forceps that are connected to an electrocautery system to minimize bleeding at the time of biopsy. Objectives: We evaluated the

Momen M. Wahidi; Scott L. Shofer; Thomas A. Sporn; Armin Ernst



The histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis in fibreoptic gastroscope biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the fibreoptic gastroscope with biopsy facilities has provided the means of obtaining biopsy specimens under direct vision from any part of the stomach. This creates new opportunities for the study of chronic gastritis, and, in particular, its evolution, topographical location, and causal relationships. On the basis of an experience with more than 2,500 biopsy specimens we have

R. Whitehead; S. C. Truelove; M. W. L. Gear



Development of an Outpatient Native Kidney Biopsy Service in Low-Risk Patients: A Multidisciplinary Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the US, native kidney biopsies are usually inpatient procedures. We developed an outpatient biopsy protocol for low-risk patients and assessed its safety and efficacy. Methods: Patients with an SBP <140 mm Hg and a BMI ?35 who were not taking anticoagulants, ASA and NSAIDS in the preceding week were included. Biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance using a

Gearoid M. McMahon; Molly E. McGovern; Vanesa Bijol; Carol B. Benson; Richard Foley; Karen Munkley; Jeffrey Schnipper; Calvin Franz; Julie Lin



Diagnostic value of sural nerve biopsy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the additional diagnostic value of sural nerve biopsy of 64 patients in whom chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was considered, as sural nerve biopsy is recommended in the research criteria of an ad hoc subcommittee to diagnose CIDP.METHODSFirstly, the additional diagnostic value of sural nerve biopsy was analysed with multivariate logistic re- gression. Six clinical features (remitting course,

D. S. M. Molenaar; M. Vermeulen; R de Haan



Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert


Characterization of magnetite nanoparticles for SQUID-relaxometry and magnetic needle biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite nanoparticles (Chemicell SiMAG-TCL) were characterized by SQUID-relaxometry, susceptometry, and TEM. The magnetization detected by SQUID-relaxometry was 0.33% of that detected by susceptometry, indicating that the sensitivity of SQUID-relaxometry could be significantly increased through improved control of nanoparticle size. The relaxometry data were analyzed by the moment superposition model (MSM) to determine the distribution of nanoparticle moments. Analysis of the binding of CD34-conjugated nanoparticles to U937 leukemia cells revealed 60,000 nanoparticles per cell, which were collected from whole blood using a prototype magnetic biopsy needle, with a capture efficiency of >65% from a 750 ?l sample volume in 1 min.

Adolphi, Natalie L.; Huber, Dale L.; Jaetao, Jason E.; Bryant, Howard C.; Lovato, Debbie M.; Fegan, Danielle L.; Venturini, Eugene L.; Monson, Todd C.; Tessier, Trace E.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Bergemann, Christian; Larson, Richard S.; Flynn, Edward R.



Prostatic abscess after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Case report.  


Prostatic abscess (PA) is an uncommon complication after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy with possible heavy outcome too. In this case report (a 68-year-old patient) prostatic abscess presents non specific symptoms: dysuria, supra-pubic pain, urinary frequency, fever 36.0°C (96.8°F). Full blood count, serum urea, electrolytes, liver function test and serum amylase were all normal. There was no growth in his urine culture. Diagnosis is based on digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography. With transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) we observed a hypoechoic area that contained inhomogeneus material. Color and power Doppler sonography showed a hypovascular fluid collection surrounded by perilesional increased parenchymal flow. TRUS-guided aspiration was performed with an 18 Gauge Chiba needle and the pathogen identified was Escherichia Coli. TRUS of the prostate 1 month later showed complete resolution of the PA and patient remained free of any lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24629811

Dell'atti, L



Isolation and Immortalization of Patient-derived Cell Lines from Muscle Biopsy for Disease Modeling.  


The generation of patient-specific cell lines represents an invaluable tool for diagnostic or translational research, and these cells can be collected from skin or muscle biopsy tissue available during the patient's diagnostic workup. In this protocol, we describe a technique for live cell isolation from small amounts of muscle or skin tissue for primary cell culture. Additionally, we provide a technique for the immortalization of myogenic cell lines and fibroblast cell lines from primary cells. Once cell lines are immortalized, substantial expansion of patient-derived cells can be achieved. Immortalized cells are amenable to many downstream applications, including drug screening and in vitro correction of the genetic mutation. Altogether, these protocols provide a reliable tool to generate and preserve patient-derived cells for downstream applications. PMID:25651101

Robin, Jerome D; Wright, Woody E; Zou, Yaqun; Cossette, Stacy C; Lawlor, Michael W; Gussoni, Emanuela



Characterization of magnetite nanoparticles for SQUID-relaxometry and magnetic needle biopsy  

PubMed Central

Magnetite nanoparticles (Chemicell SiMAG-TCL) were characterized by SQUID-relaxometry, susceptometry, and TEM. The magnetization detected by SQUID-relaxometry was 0.33% of that detected by susceptometry, indicating that the sensitivity of SQUID-relaxometry could be significantly increased through improved control of nanoparticle size. The relaxometry data were analyzed by the moment superposition model (MSM) to determine the distribution of nanoparticle moments. Analysis of the binding of CD34-conjugated nanoparticles to U937 leukemia cells revealed 60,000 nanoparticles per cell, which were collected from whole blood using a prototype magnetic biopsy needle, with a capture efficiency of >65% from a 750 µl sample volume in 1 minute. PMID:20161153

Adolphi, Natalie L.; Huber, Dale L.; Jaetao, Jason E.; Bryant, Howard C.; Lovato, Debbie M.; Fegan, Danielle L.; Venturini, Eugene L.; Monson, Todd C.; Tessier, Trace E.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Bergemann, Christian; Larson, Richard S.; Flynn, Edward R.



Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and 'in-plane' or 'out-of-plane' needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5-60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to determine needle tip position and allows fast and accurate needle placement in targeted liver nodules.

Hakime, Antoine, E-mail:; Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia; Barah, Ali; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry De [Gustave Roussy Institute (France)



Enhancing the Safety of Tailings Management Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe (e.g., Baia Mare, Romania, in 2000, Aznalcóllar, Spain, in 1998, and Stava, Italy, in 1985), threatening human health\\/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002

Tamás Meggyes; Ernst Niederleithinger; Karl Josef Witt; Mihály Csövári; Katarzyna Kreft-Burman; Jon Engels; Chris McDonald; Karl Ernst Roehl



Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O



Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...


Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.




Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that




E-print Network

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium


Ferric leaching of copper slag flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrometallurgical production of copper generates slags, a residue with a significant content of this metal. Copper can be recovered from the slags by froth flotation after cooling, crushing, and grinding. The obtained Cu-concentrate is sent to the pyrometallurgical process. If grinding is not fine enough for efficient flotation, copper is lost in tailings. In this paper, the ferric leaching

F. Carranza; N. Iglesias; A. Mazuelos; R. Romero; O. Forcat



Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni



Fluidized-bed combustion of flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical water removal, the flotation tailings containing about 30% moisture are stored in silo (1) which is specially designed for this purpose. The lime required for desulphurizing the flue gas is stored in silo (2) Special silo-discharge device and weigh-feeders pass the two materials to the mixing screw in proportional rates in accordance with the sulphur content and guaranteed




Recurrent Mastitis after Core Needle Biopsy: Case Report of an Unusual Complication after Core Needle Biopsy of a Phyllodes Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: In the routine work-up of suspect breast lesions, ultrasound-controlled core needle biopsy (CNB) is the most common tool to acquire tissue for histopathologic analysis in a safe, quick and convenient way. Complications are generally rare. The most common complications are hematoma and infection, each with less than 1 in 1000 cases. Case Report: Here, we present a case of

Nikola Kasprowicz; Gerd J. Bauerschmitz; Alexandra Schönherr; Stephan E. Baldus; Wolfgang Janni; Svjetlana Mohrmann



Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ?1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ?10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 ?m size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (?-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni ?-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ?1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ?3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom



14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV


On the Queue Tail Asymptotics for General Multifractal Traffic  

E-print Network

On the Queue Tail Asymptotics for General Multifractal Traffic S´andor Moln´ar1 , Trang Dinh Dang1 3889, Fax: (361) 463 3107 {molnar, trang, maricza} Abstract. The tail asymptotics

Molnár, Sándor


TailGate: Handling Long-Tail Content with a Little Help from Friends  

E-print Network

is predominantly long-tailed with a limited interest group, specially if one considers notions like Dunbar's number transfer costs as such content has limited number of views. Two recent trends are making this problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


How to Interpret Thyroid Biopsy Results: A Three-Year Retrospective Interventional Radiology Experience  

SciTech Connect

Results of thyroid biopsy determine whether thyroid nodule resection is appropriate and the extent of thyroid surgery. At our institution we use 20/22-gauge core biopsy (CBx) in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to decrease the number of passes and improve adequacy. Occasionally, both ultrasound (US)-guided FNA and CBx yield unsatisfactory specimens. To justify clinical recommendations for these unsatisfactory thyroid biopsies, we compare rates of malignancy at surgical resection for unsatisfactory biopsy results against definitive biopsy results. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 1979 patients who had a total of 2677 FNA and 663 CBx performed by experienced interventional radiologists under US guidance from 2003 to 2006 at a tertiary-care academic center. In 451 patients who had surgery following biopsy, Fisher's exact test was used to compare surgical malignancy rates between unsatisfactory and malignant biopsy cohorts as well as between unsatisfactory and benign biopsy cohorts. We defined statistical significance at P = 0.05. We reported an overall unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy rate of 3.7% (100/2677). A statistically significant higher rate of surgically proven malignancies was found in malignant biopsy patients compared to unsatisfactory biopsy patients (P = 0.0001). The incidence of surgically proven malignancy in unsatisfactory biopsy patients was not significantly different from that in benign biopsy patients (P = 0.8625). In conclusion, an extremely low incidence of malignancy was associated with both benign and unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy results. The difference in incidence between these two groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, patients with unsatisfactory biopsy specimens can be reassured and counseled accordingly.

Oppenheimer, Jason D., E-mail:; Kasuganti, Deepa; Nayar, Ritu; Chrisman, Howard B.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Nemcek, Albert A.; Ryu, Robert K., E-mail: rryu@nmff.or [Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation, Department of Radiology (United States)



Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.  


In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J




E-print Network

SPACE USE BY ROUND-TAILED MUSKRATS IN ISOLATED WETLANDS ROBERT L. SCHOOLEY* AND LYN C. BRANCH at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA The round-tailed muskrat (Neofiber alleni radiotracked 23 round-tailed muskrats in isolated freshwater wetlands in central Florida. Muskrats used lodges

Branch, Lyn C.



E-print Network

of a minimal set is always nonempty although the tail * *may be empty. When the tail is empty celebrations restrictions on the labeled congruence lattices of algebras in a variety fo* *rce the nonexistence of tails {1 , 2, 3, 4, 5}, is the following. If, for all subalgebras S A2, t* *he labeled congruence

Kiss, Emil


Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1  

E-print Network

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy Kristian W. Sanggaard1 , Carl Chr shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism

Schierup, Mikkel Heide


Tail behavior of a Threshold Autoregressive Stochastic Volatility model  

E-print Network

Tail behavior of a Threshold Autoregressive Stochastic Volatility model Aliou DIOP Dominique GUEGAN of the process (t)t. keywords : Tail Behavior, Heavy Tail, Stochastic Volatility Model, Thresh- old as a particular model of the Stochastic Autoregressive Volatility (SARV) model introduced by Andersen (1994

Boyer, Edmond


Mechanical differences between lumbar and tail discs in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse lumbar and tail discs are both used as models to study disc degeneration; however, the mechanical behavior of these two levels has not been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the elastic and viscoelastic mechanical properties of lumbar and tail discs of the mouse under axial compression–tension loading. We hypothesized that tail discs would have

Joseph J. Sarver; Dawn M. Elliott



Research Article Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve


Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

and effective alternative for immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During a 2-stage Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer and Wilson 2002). Currently, few drug combinations meet these criteria for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus


Population Ecology Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve


Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available



TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer


Performing Nondiagnostic Research Biopsies in Irradiated Tissue: A Review of Scientific, Clinical, and Ethical Considerations  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent development of drugs that target specific pathways in tumors has increased scientific interest in studying drug effects on tumor tissue. As a result, biopsies have become an important part of many early-phase clinical trials. Performing nondiagnostic tumor biopsies raises technical and ethical concerns mostly related to the use of a potentially harmful procedure with no potential benefit to the patient. This issue is complicated by uncertainty about whether performing biopsies in irradiated fields adds significant risk. This article reviews the clinical, scientific, and ethical considerations involved in performing nondiagnostic tumor biopsies in competent adults for research purposes, with a focus on biopsies performed in the setting of therapeutic irradiation. Methods Clinical trials that performed biopsies during or within 4 months of the completion of radiotherapy were identified with a literature review. Results Twenty-nine studies with 2,160 patients were identified. Sixteen of 29 studies reported adverse events (AEs) but did not report active evaluation for biopsy complications. Ten studies did not mention AEs within the study report. At least three studies actively evaluated patients for biopsy complications. Taking this into consideration, 17 (>1%) of 2,160 patients were reported to have biopsy complications, although reporting of AEs was suboptimal in most studies. Conclusion Limited data suggest that biopsies can be performed in irradiated tissues without clinically significant excess risk. Ongoing and future trials including nondiagnostic research biopsies should record and report AEs related to this procedure to provide additional data on safety and toxicity. PMID:18711189

Brown, Aaron P.; Wendler, David S.; Camphausen, Kevin A.; Miller, Franklin G.; Citrin, Deborah



Novel jumbo biopsy forceps for surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease: a comparative retrospective assessment.  


Background and Study Aims. Most available jumbo cup forceps require a 3.7?mm biopsy channel, necessitating the use of standard-sized colonoscope. A newer jumbo forceps (Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo Biopsy Forceps [RJ4]) fits within a 3.2?mm biopsy channel, allowing use with a pediatric colonoscope. To assure the RJ4 did not alter biopsy adequacy, we compared the size and quality of specimens to a historical jumbo cup forceps (Radial Jaw 3 Max Capacity Biopsy Forceps, [RJ3 MC]). Patients and Methods. A retrospective comparative study of biopsies taken with either forceps. Biopsies were compared for diameter, depth, crush artifact, and acceptability for diagnosis. Results. 333 specimens were taken with RJ4 and 335 specimens with the RJ3 MC. Mean sample diameter was 4.45?mm and 4.55?mm for the RJ4 and RJ3 MC (P = 0.41). Mean depth of biopsies with the RJ4 was greater (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Biopsies from the RJ4 are similar in size and quality to biopsies from the RJ3 MC. The RJ4 has the advantage of fitting in a smaller biopsy channel. PMID:22007197

Song, Kenneth; Toweill, Daniel; Rulyak, Stephen J; Lee, Scott D



Functional Studies of the Yeast Med5, Med15 and Med16 Mediator Tail Subunits  

PubMed Central

The yeast Mediator complex can be divided into three modules, designated Head, Middle and Tail. Tail comprises the Med2, Med3, Med5, Med15 and Med16 protein subunits, which are all encoded by genes that are individually non-essential for viability. In cells lacking Med16, Tail is displaced from Head and Middle. However, inactivation of MED5/MED15 and MED15/MED16 are synthetically lethal, indicating that Tail performs essential functions as a separate complex even when it is not bound to Middle and Head. We have used the N-Degron method to create temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants in the Mediator tail subunits Med5, Med15 and Med16 to study the immediate effects on global gene expression when each subunit is individually inactivated, and when Med5/15 or Med15/16 are inactivated together. We identify 25 genes in each double mutant that show a significant change in expression when compared to the corresponding single mutants and to the wild type strain. Importantly, 13 of the 25 identified genes are common for both double mutants. We also find that all strains in which MED15 is inactivated show down-regulation of genes that have been identified as targets for the Ace2 transcriptional activator protein, which is important for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Supporting this observation, we demonstrate that loss of Med15 leads to a G1 arrest phenotype. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the function of the Mediator Tail module. PMID:23991176

Larsson, Miriam; Uvell, Hanna; Sandström, Jenny; Rydén, Patrik; Selth, Luke A.; Björklund, Stefan



Autotrophic Biofilm Development on Superficial Samples of the Gold–Silver Mine Tailings, Valenciana (Mexico): Pioneers in Tailings Remediation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of long term bio-assays on microorganism colonization of mine tailings samples, taken from the Valenciana\\u000a mine tailings (Guanajuato, Mexico), under stable laboratory conditions (humidity, temperature, light exposure). In order to\\u000a identify the main metabolic groups of the potentially colonizing microorganisms and the implications of their growth on the\\u000a main tailing’s characteristics related to biological succession, organic

Jessica Viridiana García-Meza



Biopsy Misidentification Identified by DNA Profiling in a Large Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) prostate cancer risk reduction study randomly assigned 8,231 men to dutasteride or placebo for 4 years. Protocol-mandated biopsies were obtained after 2 and 4 years. After the discovery of three cases of biopsy sample misidentification in the first 2 years, all protocol-mandated biopsy samples were DNA tested to verify biopsy identity. Methods Biopsy and blood DNA profiling was performed retrospectively for the year 2 scheduled biopsies and prospectively for the year 4 scheduled biopsies. Toward the end of year 2, multiple changes were made to improve sample handling and chain of custody. Results Of the 6,458 year 2 and 4,777 year 4 biopsies, 26 biopsies reflecting 13 sample handling errors at year 2 (0.4%) and one biopsy reflecting one sample handling error at year 4 (0.02%) were confirmed to be mismatched to the patient for whom they were originally submitted. Of 6,733 reference blood samples profiled, 31 (0.5%) were found to be mismatched to the patient's verified identity profile. Sample identification errors occurred at local research sites and central laboratories. Conclusion Biopsy misidentification is a potential problem in clinical laboratories and clinical trials. Until now, biopsy misidentification has not been studied in the setting of a large, multinational clinical trial. In the REDUCE study, process improvement initiatives halfway through the trial dramatically reduced biopsy mismatches. The potential for biopsy mismatches in clinical trials and clinical practice is an under-recognized problem that requires rigorous attention to details of chain of custody and consideration of more widespread DNA identity testing. PMID:21444877

Marberger, Michael; McConnell, John D.; Fowler, Ivy; Andriole, Gerald L.; Bostwick, David G.; Somerville, Matthew C.; Rittmaster, Roger S.



Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron



Experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation system  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report early experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system and to compare the results with those of other published studies. Design A nonrandomized case series. Setting An outpatient breast diagnostic centre at a large urban community hospital. Patients Thirty-four women; 27 had suspicious calcifications, 2 had a nonpalpable mass and 5 had both. Intervention The ABBI procedure to excise a breast lesion or obtain a representative sample for histologic examination. Main outcome measures Success of the procedure with respect to diagnosis, sample quality, technical problems, margins of tumour free tissue and patient satisfaction. Results Malignant tissue was diagnosed in 7 women (21%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 2 (6%). In all cancers, the obtained samples had malignant cells present at the margins or less than 1 mm away. Technical problems were encountered in 32% of cases. Manual extraction of the specimen was required in 21% of cases. Conclusions The preliminary data correlate well with those of other published results. Although it is possible that a small number of cases and a relatively high proportion of technical difficulties may represent a normal learning curve, there is a definite need for improvement of some ABBI components. ABBI does not appear to provide adequate margins of uninvolved tissue in patients with cancer and thus should not be used with curative intent. ABBI provides excellent quality samples for pathological study and good patient satisfaction. There are not yet enough data for meaningful comparison of ABBI with stereotactic core biopsy and excisional biopsy with needle localization. PMID:11129832

Perelman, Vsevolod S.; Colapinto, Nicholas D.; Lee, Stephen; Down, Nancy K.; Cook, Dodie M.



Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita



Progress toward optical biopsy: bringing the microscope to the patient.  


The investigation of many lung diseases currently requires bronchoscopic or surgical histopathological tissue biopsy. This creates risks for patients and entails processing costs and delays in diagnosis. However, several mainly probe-based biophotonic techniques that can image solitary lesions and diffuse lung diseases are fuelling a paradigm shift toward real-time in vivo diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses near-infrared light in a process analogous to ultrasonography to image the mucosal and submucosal tissue boundaries of the bronchial tree. With 15-?m resolution, early work suggests it can differentiate between neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, dysplasia, and metaplasia based around epithelial thickness and breaches in the basement membrane. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has superior resolution but less penetration than OCT and employs blue argon laser light to fluoresce the endogenous elastin of (1) the acinar scaffold of the peripheral lung and (2) the basement membrane lying under bronchial mucosa. Initial studies suggest that the regular fibre arrangement of the basement membrane is altered in the presence of overlying malignant epithelium. pCLE produces detailed representations of the alveolar septal walls, microvessels, and some inflammatory cells. A third device, the endocytoscope, is a contact microscope requiring contrast agent to provide subcellular resolution of bronchial mucosa. Further development of these "optical biopsy" techniques and evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the acquired images are needed before they can be considered effective methods for eliminating the need for, and thus risks of, pinch biopsy to enable real-time diagnosis to streamline management. PMID:21336942

Newton, Richard C; Kemp, Samuel V; Shah, Pallav L; Elson, Daniel; Darzi, Ara; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Mulgrew, Stephen; Yang, Guang-Zhong



Lobular carcinoma in situ\\/atypical lobular hyperplasia on breast needle biopsies: does it warrant surgical excisional biopsy? A study of 27 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobular neoplasia including lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) may be identified in breast core needle biopsies as incidental findings or associated with microcalcifications. There are no general consensus guidelines for follow-up management in patients when lobular neoplasia is the only abnormal finding on core needle biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our

Maura O’Neil; Rashna Madan; Ossama W. Tawfik; Patricia A. Thomas; Fang Fan



Prospective Controlled Animal Study on Biopsy Sampling with New Flexible Cryoprobes versus Forceps: Evaluation of Biopsy Size, Histological Quality and Bleeding Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cryoextraction is a procedure used for the recanalization of obstructed airways caused by visible exophytic endobronchial tumor. Biopsy samples obtained by this technique have been shown to be useful for histological assessment. Objectives: The aim of the present animal study was to systematically evaluate biopsy size, histological quality and bleeding risk after cryobiopsy with new, flexible cryoprobes in comparison

Karl-Josef Franke; Dirk Theegarten; Claus Hann von Weyhern; Georg Nilius; Christiane Brueckner; Jürgen Hetzel; Martin Hetzel; Karl-Heinz Ruhle; Markus D. Enderle; Mara N. I. Szyrach



Advanced characterization of microscopic kidney biopsies utilizing image analysis techniques.  


Correct annotation and identification of salient regions in Kidney biopsy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy. This paper presents a tool for the automatic or manual segmentation of such regions along with methodology for their characterization in terms of the exhibited pathology. The proposed implementation is based on custom code written in Java and the utilization of open source tools (i.e. RapidMiner, ImageJ). The corresponding implementation details along with the initial evaluation of the proposed integrated system are also presented in the paper. PMID:23366906

Goudas, Theodosios; Doukas, Charalampos; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias



Seminal vesicle abscess following prostate biopsy requiring transgluteal percutaneous drainage.  


Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUSB) of the prostate directly contaminates the prostate with rectal flora. Patients commonly receive fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics to prevent infection. Infectious complications following TRUSB are increasing. The most common offending organism is Escherichia coli (E. coli), with isolates of this bacteria showing growing resistance to FQs. We present to our knowledge the first reported case of seminal vesicle abscess formation after TRUSB. The abscess was initially not seen on computed tomography and eventually treated with percutaneous drainage by a transgluteal approach. We review literature on infectious complications following TRUSB with implications for future antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:23783054

Bayne, Christopher E; Davis, William A; Rothstein, Christopher P; Engel, Jason D



Sentinel-Node Biopsy or Nodal Observation in Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 1269 patients with an intermediate-thickness primary melanoma, the mean (±SE) estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate for the population was 78.3±1.6% in the biopsy group and 73.1±2.1% in the observation group (hazard ratio for death, 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59 to 0.93; P = 0.009). Five-year melanoma-spe- cific survival rates were similar in the two groups (87.1±1.3% and 86.6±1.6%,

Donald L. Morton; John F. Thompson; Alistair J. Cochran; Nicola Mozzillo; Robert Elashoff; Richard Essner; Omgo E. Nieweg; Daniel F. Roses; Harald J. Hoekstra; Constantine P. Karakousis; Douglas S. Reintgen; Brendon J. Coventry; Edwin C. Glass; He-Jing Wang



Development and initial assessment of Texas Cooperative Extension's white-tailed dear management module  

E-print Network

?s (TCE) White-tailed Deer Management Module (WDMM) delivered over the Internet. The results of this study will provide suggestions about future online wildlife management modules. Data were collected from two populations using questionnaires. A... Face-to-Face vs. Internet Delivery 17 Distance Wildlife Education 19 Internet Surveys vs. Paper Mail-Out Surveys 22 III METHODS/PROCEDURES 24 Research n 24 Samples...

Bedgood, Mark Andrew



Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.




Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied long- tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)feeding behavior and ecology as part of a larger behavioral ecological study at the Natai Lengkuas Station, Tanjung Puting\\u000a National Park, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. I collected data on feeding behavior via scan sampling of all visible individuals\\u000a in the focal group (approximately 800 observation hours). I established vegetational plots and monitored them monthly to

Carey P. Yeager



Volatile compounds from interdigital gland of male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital secretions were collected from eight male white-tailed deer of various ages. Analysis of volatiles was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a modified headspace technique. Forty-six volatile compounds were found including alkanes, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic acids, esters, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur compounds. Eleven occurred in higher concentrations (P0.10) in dominant (3.5-year-old) than in subordinate (1.5-year-old) animals. Dominant males

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny




Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds

Jeomhee Mun; John M. Parker; Marshall White



Do dwarf galaxies form in tidal tails?  

E-print Network

The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG) inside tidal arms of interacting disk galaxies has been studied with N-body and N-body/SPH simulations at different resolutions. In pure N-body simulations no bound objects are formed at high resolution. At low resolution bound objects can form in tidal tails in agreement with previous work. We conclude that tidal dwarf galaxies are not likely to form by pure collisionless collapse in tidal tails. However, the presence of a sufficiently massive and extended gas component in the progenitor disk supports the formation of bound stellar objects in the tidal arms. Our results clearly favor a dissipation supported scenario in which the formation of TDGs is induced by the local collapse of gas which then triggers the collapse of the stellar component.

M. Wetzstein; T. Naab; A. Burkert



Novel tail and head group prostamide probes.  


We report the design and synthesis of novel prostaglandin-ethanolamide (PGE2-EA) analogs containing head and tail group modifications to aid in the characterization of a putative prostamide receptor(s). Our synthetic approach utilizes Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and Wittig reactions to construct the head and the tail moieties of the key PGE2 precursor, which leads to the final products through a peptide coupling, Swern oxidation and HF/pyridine assisted desilylation. The synthesized analogs were shown not to interact significantly with endocannabinoid proteins and recombinant EP1, EP3 and EP4 receptors and suggest a yet to be identified prostamide receptor as their site(s) of action. PMID:25701254

Finnegan, David F; Shelnut, Erin L; Nikas, Spyros P; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Makriyannis, Alexandros



Jay's Collectibles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.



Collecting Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

Barker, Rachel M.


Data Collection  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the various systems that are used for navigation, logging, and data collection during the trip. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued understanding ...


Osteoprotegerin mitigates tail suspension-induced osteopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered protein related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. It has been shown to inhibit ovariectomy (ovx)-induced resorption in rats and increase bone mineral density in young mice. Tail suspension is a procedure that inhibits bone formation in maturing rodents. This study was designed to quantify OPG’s effect on cortical bone formation. Fifty-four mice

T. A. Bateman; C. R. Dunstan; V. L. Ferguson; D. L. Lacey; R. A. Ayers; S. J. Simske



Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.



RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)



Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.  


An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models. PMID:18449428

Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.



The Sulften System - Advanced tail gas treating  

SciTech Connect

The Sulften System is an advanced tail gas treating process that maximizes sulfur recovery efficiency by the combination of new and unique reaction and absorption technologies. The principal feature of the Sulften System is its ability to produce a sulfur plant vent gas effluent with a hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) concentration of less than 10 ppm on a dry and oxygen-free basis. Conventional tail gas treating processes typically produce a vent stream containing 100 to 250 ppm H/sub 2/S. The primary goal of the Sulften System is to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) requirement that direct discharge of H/sub 2/S be limited to concentrations of less than 10 ppm. The resultant benefits of this technological breakthrough are a reduction in total sulfur discharge and incinerator thermal pollution, virtual elimination of incinerator fuel cost, reduction in tail gas treating unit (TGTU) operating cost, and potential reduction in incinerator capital investment for a grassroots unit, while providing the operating ease characteristic of amine-based TGTU processes.

Kroop, L.; Sigmund, P.W.; Taggart, G.W.



Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael



Goodbye Pareto Principle, Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many markets have historically been dominated by a small number of best-selling products. The Pareto principle, also known as the 80\\/20 rule, describes this common pattern of sales concentration. However, information technology in general and Internet markets in particular have the potential to substantially increase the collective share of niche products, thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of

Erik Brynjolfsson; Yu Hu; Duncan Simester



Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

Not Available




Microsoft Academic Search

Fetuses were collected from four Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis niexicana) and a fetal bat cell (FBC) line was established and tested for its ability to support the replication of the ERA vaccine strain of rabies virus. Cytopathic effects were detected in ERA virus-inoculated as well as uninoculated FBC's. Immunoflorescent antibody testing of uninoculated FBC's provided no evidence for the

Richard S. Steece; Charles H. Calisher


Possible Vector Dissemination by Swift Foxes following a Plague Epizootic in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Northwestern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by ac- quiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and sero- logic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes

Brady K. McGee; Matthew J. Butler; Danny B. Pence; James L. Alexander; Janet B. Nissen


Analyses of trace elements on quartz surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden) a few years after remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine the elemental composition of the surface layer, as well as of the first interior layer, of quartz grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The quartz grains were collected from the oxidized and unoxidized zones

B. Müller; M. D. Axelsson; B. Öhlander




Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup


MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig



Diagnosis of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease in gastrointestinal biopsies.  


A 14-year-old boy with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease had a lifelong history of failure to thrive and gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting, pain, and diarrhea, leading to progressive cachexia. At the age of 9 years, after an extensive workup, the diagnosis of Crohn disease was strongly suspected, and he underwent colonoscopy with multiple biopsies. At 11 years of age, vision change and poor balance lead to a diagnosis of leukodystrophy by magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations for metachromatic leukodystrophy, adrenal leukodystrophy, and globoid cell leukodystrophy were all negative. A diagnosis of MNGIE disease was suspected when he continued deteriorating with gastrointestinal symptoms, multiple neurologic deficits, and encephalopathy. Markedly diminished thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased thymidine plasma levels confirmed the diagnosis of MNGIE. At autopsy, megamitochondria were observed by light microscopy in submucosal and myenteric ganglion cells and in smooth muscle cells of muscularis mucosae and muscularis propria, along the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the rectum. Megamitochondria in ganglion cells were also observed in a retrospective review of the endoscopic intestinal biopsies taken at age 9 and 13 years and in the appendectomy specimen obtained 1 month before his demise. This study corroborates the presence of megamitochondria in gastrointestinal ganglion cells in MNGIE disease, better illustrates their detailed morphology, and describes for the first time similar structures in the cytoplasm of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. Pathologists should be able to recognize these structures by light microscopy and be aware of their association with primary mitochondriopathies. PMID:23453626

Perez-Atayde, Antonio R



MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy.  


This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot's accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B; Hricak, Hedvig



Is Visual Registration Equivalent to Semiautomated Registration in Prostate Biopsy?  

PubMed Central

In magnetic resonance iimaging- (MRI-) ultrasound (US) guided biopsy, suspicious lesions are identified on MRI, registered on US, and targeted during biopsy. The registration can be performed either by a human operator (visual registration) or by fusion software. Previous studies showed that software registration is fairly accurate in locating suspicious lesions and helps to improve the cancer detection rate. Here, the performance of visual registration was examined for ability to locate suspicious lesions defined on MRI. This study consists of 45 patients. Two operators with differing levels of experience (<1 and 18 years) performed visual registration. The overall spatial difference by the two operators in 72 measurements was 10.6?±?6.0?mm. Each operator showed a spatial difference of 9.4?±?5.1?mm (experienced; 39 lesions) and 12.1?±?6.6?mm (inexperienced; 33 lesions), respectively. In a head-to-head comparison of the same 16 lesions from 12 patients, the spatial differences were 9.7?mm?±?4.9?mm (experienced) and 13.4?mm?±?7.4?mm (inexperienced). There were significant differences between the two operators (unpaired, P value?=?0.042; paired, P value?=?0.044). The substantial differences by the two operators suggest that visual registration could improperly and inaccurately target many tumors, thereby potentially leading to missed diagnosis or false characterization on pathology. PMID:25821799

Kwak, Jin Tae; Hong, Cheng William; Pinto, Peter A.; Williams, Molly; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Yan, Pingkun; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.



Thyroid core needle biopsy: taking stock of the situation.  


Recently, the microhistologic evaluation by core needle biopsy (CNB) has been reported as high accurate to diagnose thyroid nodules with previous indeterminate or not adequate fine-needle aspiration cytology. In addition, sparse data have been reported regarding the use of CNB in other conditions. Aim of this review was to furnish the state of the art of this topic by summarizing published data about the diagnostic performance of CNB in thyroid lesions, and provide an easy to use reference for clinical practice. Sources encompass studies published through May 2014. Original articles were investigated and following specific aspects were discussed: 1. The "large" needle biopsy in 90's; 2. Complications by and patient's comfort with thyroid CNB; 3. Advantages provided by examination of a microhistologic sample of thyroid nodule; 4. Use of CNB in thyroid nodules with previous not adequate (Thy 1/Class 1/Category I) cytology; 5. Use of CNB in thyroid neoplasms (Thy 3/Class 3/Category III-IV) cytology; 6. Use of CNB in specific ultrasonographic presentations of thyroid nodules or in patients with peculiar clinical contexts; 7. First-line approach by CNB in thyroid nodules; 8. Immunohistochemistry and molecular tests on CNB samples; and 9. Future perspective. PMID:25129650

Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Crescenzi, Anna



Giant retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma: Is preoperative biopsy always mandatory?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Schwannoma is the term given to tumours arising from Schwann cells of any nerve sheath. It may arise in the retroperitoneum, where it can attain enormous sizes and cause considerable diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. A variety of incapacitating symptoms may arise, depending on its size alone and the related contagious organs. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 71-year-old female, who was incapacitated by a giant abdominal mass, associated with weight loss, immobility, general weakness and constipation. Radiologically, the presence of a huge pelviabdominal tumour was confirmed. A preoperative tissue diagnosis was entertained but omitted, and we resorted to direct surgical excision instead. During surgery, significant bleeding from the surrounding lumbar vessels was encountered, but it was controlled and the tumour was excised intact. Histopathologically, it showed the histologic features of ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION In the patient presented here, who was rendered immobile by the tumour, total excision or at least debulking seemed appropriate, regardless of any biopsy result. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma and its variant “ancient schwannoma” should be considered when a huge pelviabdominal tumour is encountered. Although CT guided biopsy may be helpful in reaching a preoperative diagnosis, this might not change the decision for the need of total tumour excision or at least debulking, in the presence of incapacitating symptoms. With large tumours, the possibility of perioperative exanginating haemorrhage should be remembered and the necessary precautions activated. PMID:25553529

Al Skaini, Mohammad Saad; Haroon, Hesham; Sardar, Ali; Bazeed, Mohammad; Al Zain, Abbas; Al Shahrani, Mushabab; El Hakeem, Howaida; Al Shraim, Mubarak; Al Amri, Abdul Rahman M.; Ezzedien Rabie, M.



Curettage of biopsy-diagnosed grade 1 periacetabular chondrosarcoma.  


Intralesional excision of intraosseous grade 1 periacetabular chondrosarcoma may seem an attractive alternative to the current recommendation of joint-sacrificing, en bloc resection. We report eight patients who initially underwent this treatment to identify if local tumor control can be achieved consistently. All patients had a percutaneous biopsy that was interpreted as grade 1 chondrosarcoma. The final histology after curettage indicated Grade 1 chondrosarcoma in five patients, Grade 2 in two, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in one. Three of the five patients with true grade 1 chondrosarcoma have been free of disease at a median followup of 108 months. The other two patients with grade 1 chondrosarcoma on the curettage specimen recurred as higher-grade tumors. Three patients died of high-grade chondrosarcoma at a median of 23 months (range 17-72 months). Overall, the majority of patients in this cohort had either a misdiagnosis or recurrence of higher-grade disease. Based on these observations, in the absence of a predictable method to identify the true intraosseous grade 1 chondrosarcomas of the pelvis, curettage must be undertaken with the understanding that a percutaneous biopsy may misrepresent the histologic grade and that curettage may result in a higher risk of recurrence. PMID:17452919

Normand, Anne N; Cannon, Christopher P; Lewis, Valerae O; Lin, Patrick P; Yasko, Alan W



Atypical apocrine adenosis diagnosed on breast core biopsy: implications for management.  


Apocrine adenosis (AA) and atypical apocrine adenosis (AAA) are uncommon findings in breast biopsies that may be misinterpreted as carcinoma. The data from long-term follow up studies of open biopsies suggest that AAA is not a high-risk or precursor lesion. The clinical significance and risk implications of AAA diagnosed on core biopsy are not well established. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of carcinoma in excision specimens after a core biopsy diagnosis of AA or AAA. We identified 34 core biopsies of AA (22) and AAA (12) performed between 1996 and 2014. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years. The most common indications for core biopsy were calcifications (11), a mass or density (18), and a mass or density with calcifications (3). Two cases were detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Available pathology reports and slides were reviewed, and surgical excision findings were correlated with core biopsy diagnoses. Of the core biopsies with AA or AAA, 7 also contained atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia (AH) and 4 contained ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. In the absence of coexisting AH or carcinoma in the initial core biopsy specimen, none of the surgical excision specimens after a diagnosis of AA (2) or AAA (7) contained ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. AAA by itself is an uncommon core biopsy diagnosis that may not require surgical excision. PMID:25106711

Calhoun, Benjamin C; Booth, Christine N



The Value of Routine Biopsy during Percutaneous Kyphoplasty for Vertebral Compression Fractures  

PubMed Central

Objective Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) is now widely performed to treat VCF, which is usually caused by osteoporosis. Previous researches have reported unsuspected malignancies found by biopsy. However, the safety and cost-effective profiles of routine biopsy during PKP are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of routine biopsy during PKP in treatment of VCF. Methods Ninety-three patients (September 2007–November 2010) undergoing PKP without biopsy were reviewed as the control group. One hundred and three consecutive patients (November 2010–September 2013) undergoing PKP with biopsy of every operated vertebral level were prospectively enrolled as the biopsy group. The rate of unsuspected lesions was reported, and the severe adverse events, surgical duration, cement leakage rate and pain control were compared between the two groups. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups, regarding the severe adverse events, surgical duration, cement leakage rate and pain control. Four unsuspected lesions were found in the biopsy group, three of which were malignancies with a 2.9% (3/103) unsuspected malignancy rate. The economic analysis showed that routine biopsy was cost-effective in finding new malignancies comparing with a routine cancer screening campaign. Conclusions Routine biopsy during PKP was safe and cost-effective in finding unsuspected malignancies. We advocate routine biopsy in every operated vertebral level during PKP for VCF patients. PMID:25526360

Wang, Chu; Cai, Siyi; Zhang, Jia



Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

Moses, Robert W.



Collective Enumeration  

PubMed Central

Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a 2-alternative forced-choice task and when in disagreement, they negotiated joint decisions via verbal communication and received feedback about accuracy at the end of each trial. The results showed that two people could collectively count better than either one alone, but not as well as expected by previous models of collective sensory decision making in more basic perceptual domains (e.g., luminance contrast). Moreover, such collective enumeration benefited from prior, noninteractive practice showing that social learning of how to combine shared information about enumeration required substantial individual experience. Finally, the collective context had a positive but transient impact on an individual's enumeration sensitivity. This transient social influence may be explained as a motivational factor arising from the fact that members of a collective must take responsibility for their individual decisions and face the consequences of their judgments. PMID:22889187

Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint



Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

Not Available



Investigating the antimicrobial peptide 'window of activity' using cationic lipopeptides with hydrocarbon and fluorinated tails.  


To probe the effect of carbon-fluorine bonds on antimicrobial peptide-membrane interactions, 24 cationic lipopeptides were created. The collection of lipopeptides was built from two different peptide sequences, KGK and KKK, with a variety of different lipids selected to probe the effectiveness of both hydrocarbon and fluorinated tails. The antimicrobial activity of each peptide was tested against a mixture of pathogenic and reference bacterial strains, with the cationic disinfectant benzalkonium chloride as a positive control. Non-specific interactions with hydrophobic proteins were assessed by repeating antimicrobial testing in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the toxicity of the lipopeptides was assessed by meas