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Evaluation of Common Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques for Tail Biopsy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V



Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller


Behavioral and Activity Assessment of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) after Tail Biopsy under Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Contemporary laboratory animal guidance suggests that tail biopsy of laboratory mice can be performed before 21 d of age without anesthesia, whereas older mice must receive anesthesia before biopsy. Our objective was to determine whether administration of isoflurane anesthesia before tail biopsy produced a measurable effect on the behavior of mice (n = 196). We evaluated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice at 21 to 24 (weaning), 28 to 31 (delayed weaning), and 42 to 45 (adult) d of age. Mice were observed at the time of biopsy and then twice within the first hour after a sham or tail biopsy. Anxiety-like responses were assessed by using an elevated plus-maze. Activity was evaluated remotely for 120 min. Isoflurane did not diminish acute responses to tail biopsy in mice 31 d or younger compared with sham-biopsied animals but had a significant effect in C57BL/6 biopsied adult mice. In addition, mice of all ages and strains that received anesthesia, regardless of biopsy, spent more time in the enclosed maze arms and had decreased activity up to 5 h after isoflurane exposure. Although tail biopsy should be performed in young mice to avoid transection of distal mature vertebrae, our experimental paradigm indicates that isoflurane anesthesia does not appreciably enhance wellbeing over that of mice biopsied without anesthesia at weaning ages. The influence of inhaled isoflurane was demonstrable and indicated that acute and prolonged alterations in anxiety and activity must be considered when interpreting the impact of anesthesia on tail biopsy across various ages and strains of laboratory mice. PMID:22330716

Hankenson, F Claire; Braden-Weiss, Gillian C; Blendy, Julie A



Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping  

PubMed Central

A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory





... carry only a small risk of bleeding or infection at the biopsy site. For larger open biopsies, there are additional risks that accompany general anesthesia and larger surgical procedures. When To Call a Professional After any ...




... may be needed for complete analysis. After the sampling, the needle will be removed. Once the biopsy ... from the breast through the needle into the sampling chamber. Without withdrawing and reinserting the needle, it ...


Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL  

E-print Network

1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QU�ROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Evaluation of Saphenous Venipuncture and Modified Tail-clip Blood Collection in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 methods of blood collection in unanesthetized mice. The saphenous venipuncture method was compared with a modified tail-clip technique that requires minimal restraint. Mice were evaluated through behavioral observation and plasma corticosterone levels. The results showed that the 2 methods produced similar corticosterone responses and that the tail-clip method produced fewer behavioral reactions. In addition, the effects of saphenous venipuncture method appeared to be dependent on the handler's technical expertise. When a series of 4 blood collections were performed over 1 wk, the 2 methods yielded similar corticosterone levels that did not increase over time. Some of the behavioral signs appeared to increase over the series of blood collections obtained by the saphenous venipuncture method. Serial complete blood counts showed that the tail vessels yielded higher total white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts than did the saphenous vein. Neither method appeared to cause stress-associated changes in the leukogram after serial blood collection. Overall, the effects of modified tail-clip method were similar to those of the saphenous venipuncture method in unanesthetized mice. PMID:18459706

Abatan, Omorodola I; Welch, Kathleen B; Nemzek, Jean A




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation software applied to ion beam analysis use the main scattering event (MSE) approximation. This approximation consist in generating ion trajectories in different directions, making the detection rate independent of the cross-section dependence on the scattering angle, therefore speeding up calculations by a factor 104-106. The event generated bear a probability weight proportional to the cross-section, so in the case of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), events generated with a small scattering angle bear a very large weight, sometimes producing few events with a very large amplitude in the spectrum. They are avoided by setting a cut-off angle, but the signal they represent is in fact an actual contribution to the background signal. Here, it is shown that experimental spectra that include a significant contribution from several wide-angle scattering, such as tails or background signal in heavy ion RBS can be reproduced by a combination of two simulations: one featuring at least one wide-angle scattering, simulated accurately within the MSE approximation, and a background signal part, corresponding to trajectories featuring a series of small-angle scattering, simulated without the MSE approximation; this second simulation is achieved in a few minutes by increasing the detector size and mean free path by large factors, typically 100 each. The events included from the two parts of the simulation are discriminated by the minimum angle of the MSE.

Schiettekatte, François



Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun



Liver biopsy  


Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...


Liver Biopsy  


... 525 KB) Spanish Version Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content DUE TO UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES, PUBLICATION ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ...


Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.  


A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence



Liver Biopsy  


A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...


Gum biopsy  


Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... the mouth in the area of the abnormal gum tissue. You may also have an injection of numbing medicine. A small piece of gum tissue is removed and checked for problems in ...


Endometrial biopsy  


The biopsy is normal if the cells in the sample are not abnormal. ... polyps) Infection Hormone imbalance Endometrial cancer or precancer ( ... due to changes in hormone levels ( anovulatory bleeding )


Biopsy (For Parents)  


... tissues. In an endoscopic biopsy, a small pinching instrument at the end of the endoscope is used ... Biopsy: Bone Marrow Medical Tests and Procedures (Video Landing Page) Word! Biopsy Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow ...


Populations genetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial loci in skin biopsies collected from central and northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): population identity and migratory destinations.  


It has been speculated that humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, from the northeastern North Atlantic breed in tropical waters off the coast of West Africa and therefore that they represent a separate breeding population from that which winters in the West Indies. We determined the genotype at six microsatellite loci as well as the sequence of the first 288 nucleotides in the mitochondrial control region of 133 skin biopsies collected from humpback whales in the central North Atlantic (Iceland and Jan Mayen) and the northeastern North Atlantic (Bear Island and the northern coast of Norway). We detected no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions nor any differences in genotype frequencies between localities at the nuclear loci. However, the mitochondrial analyses revealed two distinct matrilineal aggregations: the central and the northeastern North Atlantic. Our findings were not compatible with the idea of a separate eastern North Atlantic breeding ground unless one has been established recently. The proposed alternative hypothesis of a common North Atlantic panmictic population (wintering primarily in the West Indies) in which individual whales display maternally directed site-fidelity to specific feeding grounds was supported by re-sightings of two northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales in the West Indies. PMID:8952097

Larsen, A H; Sigurjónsson, J; Oien, N; Vikingsson, G; Palsbøll, P



Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.  


Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy



Stereotaxic breast biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotaxically guided core needle biopsy is an important procedure used to decrease the number of surgical breast biopsies, as well as to decrease the expense, inconvenience, and deformity that can result from surgical biopsies. Use of the technique also can decrease the expense of breast cancer screening programs. Stereotaxic core biopsy (SCB) should not be used to biopsy lesions that

D. David Dershaw



Breast biopsy - ultrasound  


Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... to evaluate abnormal findings on a mammogram or breast ultrasound , or during a physical exam. To determine whether ...


Biopsy: What to Expect  


... large, or an excisional biopsy is impractical. Nail bed biopsy : When a dermatologist suspects that melanoma may be present under a nail, a nail bed biopsy is performed. During this procedure, part or ...


Heritability estimation of osteoarthritis in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) with a look toward future data collection  

PubMed Central

We examine heritability estimation of an ordinal trait for osteoarthritis, using a population of pig-tailed macaques from the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC). This estimation is non-trivial, as the data consist of ordinal measurements on 16 intervertebral spaces throughout each macaque’s spinal cord, with many missing values. We examine the resulting heritability estimates from different model choices, and also perform a simulation study to compare the performance of heritability estimation with these different models under specific known parameter values. Under both the real data analysis and the simulation study, we find that heritability estimates from an assumption of normality of the trait differ greatly from those of ordered probit regression, which considers the ordinality of the trait. This finding indicates that some caution should be observed regarding model selection when estimating heritability of an ordinal quantity. Furthermore, we find evidence that our real data have little information for valid heritability estimation under ordered probit regression. We thus conclude with an exploration of sample size requirements for heritability estimation under this model. For an ordinal trait, an incorrect assumption of normality can lead to severely biased heritability estimation. Sample size requirements for heritability estimation of an ordinal trait under the threshold model depends on the pedigree structure, trait distribution and the degree of relatedness between each phenotyped individual. Our sample of 173 monkeys did not have enough information from which to estimate heritability, but estimable heritability can be obtained with as few as 180 related individuals under certain scenarios examined here. PMID:24860700

Chi, Peter B.; Duncan, Andrea E.; Kramer, Patricia A.



Optimization of prostate biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.



Cold knife cone biopsy  


A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The cervix is ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. A cold ...


PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.



Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.



Development of Biopsy Gun for Aspiration and Drug Injection.  


Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi



Breast Lumps - Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... by breast lumps. Breast lumps may be cancerous. Breast cancer occurs in approximately one in every 8 to 9 women. Your doctor may have recommended a biopsy to determine if your lump is cancerous or not. The decision whether or not to have a breast biopsy is also yours. This reference summary will ...


Approaches to the Difficult Drainage and Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous abscess drainage and percutaneous biopsy are effective and widely used techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with abdominal or pelvic abscesses and lesions. Some abscesses and lesions can initially appear unsuitable for percutaneous access for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the circumstances in which collections or lesions may appear undrainable or inaccessible to percutaneous biopsy, and it describes techniques for overcoming these circumstances. PMID:24293798

McDermott, Shaunagh; Levis, Diane A.; Arellano, Ronald S.



Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

A fact sheet that describes the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure, its use in determining the extent, or stage, of cancer in the body, and the results of research on the use of SLNB in breast cancer and melanoma.


Biopsies in uveal melanoma.  


The ability to obtain the proper clinical diagnosis in cases of suspected intraocular tumors has greatly advanced during the past 50 years. The clinical characteristics of most intraocular tumors (size, shape, color, and texture) are detectable by skilled ophthalmoscopic examination and, with the use of adjunctive techniques (mainly ultrasonography), the proper diagnosis can be reached without invasive procedures. Notwithstanding, some intraocular tumors need to be biopsied to obtain a reliable diagnosis. In the cytogenetic era, intraocular tumor management is changing, and tumor-sampling procedures are becoming the main prognostic (and theoretically also diagnostic) tools for uveal melanoma. In spite of the widespread use of biopsies in general surgical practice, in ophthalmic oncology, indications and contraindications for biopsy continue to be under debate. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the role of uveal melanoma biopsy in current clinical practice. PMID:22042015

Midena, Edoardo; Parrozzani, Raffaele



Testicular Biopsy and Histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Indications for testicular biopsy are summarized in Table 11.1. According to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines,\\u000a a therapeutic testicular biopsy (for testicular sperm extraction, TESE) is indicated (1) in the case of obstructive aszoospermia\\u000a (OA), indicated by normal testicular volume, normal FSH (<7 IU\\/l), and low levels of epididymal (?-glucosidase, L-carnitine)\\u000a or seminal vesicle (fructose) markers with no

Martin Bergmann; Sabine Kliesch


Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.



Breast Biopsy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.



Color optical biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam



Transjugular Liver Biopsy.  


Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for evaluation of acute and chronic liver diseases, despite achievements regarding noninvasive diagnosis and staging in liver diseases. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) has proved a good option when ascites and/or significant coagulopathy precludes a percutaneous approach. Because diagnostic hemodynamic procedures can be performed during the same session, it is useful in many clinical settings, regardless of the absence of percuteaneous contraindications. TJLB is a safe technique able to provide good-quality specimens with a low rate of complications. This article presents an overview of TJLB that discusses the technique, applicability, indications, contraindications, complications, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25438282

Ble, Michel; Procopet, Bogdan; Miquel, Rosa; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos



Lung needle biopsy  


Sometimes, a collapsed lung (pneumothorax) occurs after this test. A chest x-ray will be done to check for this. The risk ... certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ...


Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  


... aspiration and biopsy, you can speak with your nurse or doctor before the procedure. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD Date reviewed: April ... Cell Transplants Anemia Biopsy Leukemia Word! Bone Marrow About ...


Liver Biopsy in Cirrhotic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver biopsy remains an important tool for the evaluation of patients with hepatic disease. However, clinicians utilize a variety of biopsy techniques including automated cutting needle devices, manual cutting needles, and aspiration needles. Using a large study cohort of patients with advanced fibrosis\\/cirrhosis we sought to evaluate practices and outcomes of the biopsy technique used by study investigators across the

Kenneth E. Sherman; Zachary D. Goodman; Sara T. Sullivan; Sima Faris-Young



Study Says Biopsies Are Safe  


... January 9, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Biopsy Cancer Pancreatic Cancer FRIDAY, Jan. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer biopsies ... study included more than 2,000 people with pancreatic cancer. Those who received a biopsy using a technique ...


CT-guided biopsy of lung lesions: defining the best needle option for a specific diagnosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of fine and cutting needles in computed tomography guided-biopsy of lung lesions suspicious for malignancy and to determine which technique is the best option for a specific diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the data from 362 (71.6%) patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy and from 97 (19.7%) patients who underwent cutting-needle biopsy between January 2006 and December 2011. The data concerning demographic and lesion characteristics, procedures, biopsy sample adequacy, specific diagnoses, and complications were collected. The success and complication rates of both biopsy techniques were calculated. RESULTS: Cutting-needle biopsy yielded significantly higher percentages of adequate biopsy samples and specific diagnoses than did fine-needle aspiration biopsy (p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of cutting-needle biopsy were 93.8%, 97.3%, and 95.2%, respectively; those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy were 82.6%, 81.3%, and 81.8%, respectively (all p<0.05). The incidence of pneumothorax was higher for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and that of hematoma was higher for cutting-needle biopsy (both p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience using these two techniques for computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy showed that cutting-needle biopsy yielded better results than did fine-needle aspiration biopsy and that there was no significant increase in complication rates to indicate the best option for specific diagnoses. PMID:24838899

Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Hochhegger, Bruno; Chojniak, Rubens; Gross, Jefferson Luiz



Telepathology and Optical Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

Ferrer-Roca, Olga



Transjugular Liver Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector



Transbronchial lung biopsy and pneumothorax.  


Mini-interventional procedures are used in the everyday clinical practice by pulmonary physicians and radiologists. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy forceps are the tools mostly used. During these procedures pneumothorax can occur and immediate treatment is necessary. In our current work, we will focus on minimal invasive techniques for biopsy and pneumothorax treatment. PMID:25337401

Huang, Yong; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Browning, Robert F; Parrish, Scott; Turner, J Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Li, Zhigang; Zarogoulidis, Paul



Clip migration in stereotactic biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Needle localization breast biopsy (NLBB) is the standard for removal of breast lesions after vacuum assisted core biopsy (VACB). Disadvantages include a miss rate of 0% to 22%, a positive margin rate of approximately 50%, and vasovagal reactions (approximately 20%). We hypothesized that clip migration after VACB is clinically significant and may contribute to the positive margin rates seen

Rena Kass; Grace Kumar; V. Suzanne Klimberg; Lawrence Kass; Ronda Henry-Tillman; Anita Johnson; Maureen Colvert; David Harshfield; Soheila Korourian; Rudolph Parrish; Anne Mancino



Transbronchial lung biopsy and pneumothorax  

PubMed Central

Mini-interventional procedures are used in the everyday clinical practice by pulmonary physicians and radiologists. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy forceps are the tools mostly used. During these procedures pneumothorax can occur and immediate treatment is necessary. In our current work, we will focus on minimal invasive techniques for biopsy and pneumothorax treatment. PMID:25337401

Huang, Yong; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Browning, Robert F.; Parrish, Scott; Turner, J. Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Li, Zhigang



Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.



Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler



Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R



Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  


... a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as stem cell transplantation ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). ... For the bone marrow aspiration, the doctor or nurse will carefully insert a needle into the biopsy ...


Percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions; fine needle aspiration biopsy versus core biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the results and complication rate in CT guided percutaneous trans-thoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and core biopsies of lung lesions, and to determine the applicability of these needles. Patients and methods In 242 patients (166 males; 76 females) with mean age of 58.9 years (13–84 years) CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were performed on dual slice CT equipment. The average diameter of lung lesion was 2.9 cm (1.2–6.3 cm). For FNAB’s 20 – 22 G Chiba needles and for core biopsies 14 G biopsy needles were used. The samples were sent for the histological analysis. The cytological or histological results and the eventual complications were compared. Results FNAB’s cytological samples were adequate for definitive diagnosis in 117 patients (79.60 %) and inadequate in 30 patients (20.40 %). Core biopsies samples were adequate in 92 (96.85 %) patients and non- representative (necrotic tissue) in 3 (3.15 %). Pneumothorax as the most frequent complication was detected in 14 (9.7 %) of the patients in the group of FNAB’s and in 30 (31.5 %) of the patients with the core biopsy group. Conclusions The results showed that percutaneous transthoracic CT guided biopsies of lung lesions were an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of lung lesions. Core biopsy gives a higher percentage of representative samples than FNAB, and is a preferred method regardless of the higher rate of complications. PMID:22933975

Beslic, Serif; Zukic, Fuad; Milisic, Selma



Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective flow just prior to onset, suggesting the active role of the ionosphere in the onset process, and adding credibility to the ballooning instability theory of substorm onset. This grant also supported a number of other substorm studies and reviews. These are represented by the list of publications and meeting presentations resulting out of this grant.

Hughes, W. Jeffrey



Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu



Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun


Safety and Adequacy of Percutaneous Biopsies in Pediatric Orthotopic Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background: The gold standard for investigating the cause of renal graft dysfunction is renal biopsy. However, as this procedure is invasive and has inherent risks, its safety must be established. Objective: To determine the safety of percutaneous renal biopsy in pediatric orthotopic renal transplantation. Methods: Percutaneous renal biopsies performed on pediatric orthotopic renal transplants in a single center between 1987 and 2010 were studied. Biopsy specimen adequacy and post-procedure complications were reviewed by prospectively collected data. Results: A total of 54 ultrasound “real-time” guided biopsies in 25 patients were performed. Minimum specimen adequacy was achieved in 98% of biopsy specimens. No major complications were identified; 6% of patients developed minor complications—e.g., grade 3 macroscopic hematuria that did not require intervention. Conclusion: Percutaneous renal biopsies using “real-time” ultrasound guidance on pediatric orthotopic kidney transplants is safe. PMID:25013620

Mackie, F. E.; Kennedy, S. E.; Rosenberg, A. R.; Kainer, G.; Frawley, J. E.; Haghighi, K. S.



Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth



Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage. So far no predictors for tail damage have been found. Predictors

Johan J. Zonderland; Johan W. van Riel; Marc B. M. Bracke; Bas Kemp; Leo A. den Hartog; Hans A. M. Spoolder



Tails of Lorenz curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lorenz dominance criterion is the centre piece of inequality analysis. Yet, the appeal of this criterion, which requires considering Lorenz curves in their entirety, is undermined by the practical problem that many sample Lorenz curves intersect in the tails. The commonly used inferential methods, based on central limit theorem arguments, do not apply to the tails since these contain

Christian Schluter; Mark Trede



Using biopsy to detect prostate cancer.  


Transrectal ultrasound-guided systemic biopsy is the recommended method in most cases with suspicion of prostate cancer. Transrectal periprostatic injection with a local anesthetic may be offered as effective analgesia; periprostatic nerve block with 1% or 2% lidocaine is the recommended form of pain control. On initial biopsy, a minimum of 10 systemic, laterally directed cores is recommended, with more cores in larger glands. Extended prostate biopsy schemes, which require cores weighted more laterally at the base (lateral horn) and medially to the apex, show better cancer detection rates without increasing adverse events. Transition zone biopsies are not recommended in the first set of biopsies, owing to low detection rates. One set of repeat biopsies is warranted in cases with persistent indication. Saturation biopsy (>/=20 cores) should be reserved for repeat biopsy in patients who have negative results on initial biopsy but who are still strongly suspected to have prostate cancer. PMID:19145270

Shariat, Shahrokh F; Roehrborn, Claus G



Using Biopsy to Detect Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Transrectal ultrasound-guided systemic biopsy is the recommended method in most cases with suspicion of prostate cancer. Transrectal periprostatic injection with a local anesthetic may be offered as effective analgesia; periprostatic nerve block with 1% or 2% lidocaine is the recommended form of pain control. On initial biopsy, a minimum of 10 systemic, laterally directed cores is recommended, with more cores in larger glands. Extended prostate biopsy schemes, which require cores weighted more laterally at the base (lateral horn) and medially to the apex, show better cancer detection rates without increasing adverse events. Transition zone biopsies are not recommended in the first set of biopsies, owing to low detection rates. One set of repeat biopsies is warranted in cases with persistent indication. Saturation biopsy (?20 cores) should be reserved for repeat biopsy in patients who have negative results on initial biopsy but who are still strongly suspected to have prostate cancer. PMID:19145270

Shariat, Shahrokh F; Roehrborn, Claus G



Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph



Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy  


... Deficiency , Hemoglobin Abnormalities , Bleeding Disorders Elsewhere On The Web College of American Pathologists: American Society of Hematology: Blood Basics National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: What are bone marrow tests? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: Blood Diseases ...


Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  


A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)



[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.



Helicopter tail rotor noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.



Clinicopathological Study of Prostatic Biopsies  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Prostatism is a common malady in the geriatric age group. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Carcinoma of the prostate are increasingly frequent with advancing age. The aim of the present study is to study the spectrum of prostatic lesions among the biopsies received in a rural hospital. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six cases of prostatic biopsies received in the Department of Pathology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital – Annamalai University were included in the present study. There were 44 needle biopsies and 62 TURP specimens. All the specimens were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and 5? sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H & E stain). Relevant clinical data including age, the presenting complaints and S.PSA values in suspected cases of carcinoma prostate were recorded. Results: Among the 106 biopsies received, 79 (74.52%) cases were of Benign prostatic hyperplasia, two cases (1.89%) were Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and 25 cases (23.58%) were Carcinoma of Prostate. Prostatitis was the most common associated lesion in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting in 25.31% patients. Among the Carcinoma patients, 20 cases (80%) were of Adenocarcinoma of prostate and 5 cases (20%) were Small cell carcinoma of prostate. Both Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Carcinoma prostate were common in the seventh decade. Most common clinical presentation was difficulty in micturition. Most common histological type of Carcinoma prostate was Adenocarcinoma. Serum PSA estimation was done in 49 cases of prostate biopsies. Elevations of serum PSA levels were noted in both BPH and Carcinoma prostate patients.Eight cases of BPH, had serum PSA values in the range of 0-4ng/ml. Six cases of Carcinoma prostate ,had serum PSA values in the range of >80 ng/ml. Conclusion: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most commonly encountered prostatic lesion. Although, investigations like transrectal ultrasonogram and serum PSA estimation aids in diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of prostate can be made by histopathological study of prostatic biopsies. PMID:25386437



Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer  


... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Overview ...


Bronchoscopic biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage.  


Bronchoscopy with biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage, and other sampling techniques are frequently needed to establish definitive diagnoses of pulmonary disorders. Combinations of specimens provide superior results to single specimens alone for lung cancer, including those which are endoscopically visible and peripheral in location. Transbronchial biopsy is useful to establish tissue diagnoses in certain diffuse parenchymal lung diseases with specific recognizable histologic patterns such as sarcoidosis or eosinophilic granuloma, but it is less useful for disorders such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Patients with tuberculosis can be diagnosed by performing bronchoscopy, but other sampling techniques are equally good and safer for the bronchoscopist and other health care workers. Bronchoalveolar lavage is especially valuable for confirming infectious complications in immunocompromised hosts, and it also has great potential to elucidate basic mechanisms of pulmonary diseases in research applications. PMID:8724275

Kvale, P A



Diagnostic value of transcervical endometrial biopsies in domestic dogs compared with full-thickness uterine sections.  


Transcervical endometrial biopsy is a useful tool for obtaining information about uterine health in some species. The clinical application of information gained from histopathological interpretations of endometrial biopsies in the bitch has not been validated. We hypothesized that transcervical endometrial biopsy samples would be as diagnostic as full-thickness uterine sections in identifying cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 20 female adult dogs. Vaginal swabs, gross appearance of the vulva and vaginal tract, and serum progesterone values were used to determine the stage of the oestrous cycle at the time of sampling. The uteri were removed between 1 and 6 days after the biopsy procedure, and full-thickness sections were collected from each uterine horn and ovary and processed for histopathology. Two pathologists, blinded to the origin of each sample, compared full-thickness sections from the excised uteri to the biopsy samples collected via the transcervical technique. Pathologic features noted included: CEH, inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Pathological diagnoses obtained from the biopsy sections were compared with those obtained from the full-thickness sections, as well as comparing diagnoses between the two pathologists, using McNemar's test. Of the 59 total biopsy samples obtained, 54 were considered diagnostic. All stages of the canine oestrous cycle were represented (anoestrus, proestrus, oestrus and dioestrus). Pyometra was not noted in any of the transcervical biopsy sections, but was noted in many of the full-thickness sections collected from dogs in dioestrus, suggesting either that biopsy is not a sensitive indicator of pyometra or that the procedure may induce pyometra in dioestrous dogs. Transcervical endometrial biopsy showed similar sensitivity as full-thickness sections in detecting CEH, inflammation and fibrosis. No differences in describing lesions were detected between pathologists. PMID:23279534

Christensen, B W; Schlafer, D H; Agnew, D W; Wang, C; Kozlowski, C; Asa, C S





... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News 6/9/2014 Medicare Complaint Form 4/3/2014 The Burning Truth 12/19/2013 Osteopathic Training Statement 7/2/2013 The Truth About Tanning 4/24/2013 Sun Safety IQ Online Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...


Hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers.  

PubMed Central

An investigation into the problem of the frequency and hazards of lung biopsy in asbestos workers was performed in two ways. The first study was into the frequency of lung biopsy among 2907 long term asbestos insulation workers in 1981-3 and the second was into the frequency of fatal complications of lung biopsy in 168 deaths from asbestosis among 2271 consecutive deaths of asbestos insulation workers 1967-76. Only 25 (0.9%) of the 2907 asbestos insulation workers reported having had either an open lung biopsy, a needle biopsy, or a transbronchial biopsy. Seven (24%) of these men suffered difficulties as a result of the biopsy. Lung biopsies had been performed on 14 of the 168 workers who died of asbestosis. Three (21%) of these 14 patients had died within 30 days of biopsy as a direct result of the procedure. In most cases there is no need for lung biopsy to establish a diagnosis of asbestosis; generally, it may be defined by history of exposure, clinical and radiological findings, and other well established non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Certainly, legal and compensation recommendation for biopsy should be considered with the possibility of death in mind. If biopsy is performed precautions should be taken, including adequate observation in hospital. PMID:3947578

Lerman, Y; Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J



Pathologic comparison of video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy with traditional open lung biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy is an alternative to traditional open lung biopsy for diagnosis in patients with pleuropulmonary diseases. Between January 7, 1991, and August 3, 1993, 71 consecutive patients had video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy and 42 patients had traditional open lung biopsy. A specific histologic diagnosis that correlated with the clinical findings was sought in each case

Mitsutaka Kadokura; Thomas V. Colby; Jeffrey L. Myers; Mark S. Allen; Claude Deschamps; Victor F. Trastek; Peter C. Pairolero



Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient was temporarily dialyzed; the remaining patient required ureteric stenting. In conclusion, TJRB provides an adequate yield for diagnosis. Complication rates are relatively high, but patients are also at high risk from the conventional percutaneous approach. Patient selection and optimization are critical to avoid major complications.

See, Teik Choon, E-mail: teikchoon.see@addenbrookes.nhs.u [Addenbrookes Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Thompson, Barbara C. [Royal Free Hospital, Department of Nephrology (United Kingdom); Howie, Alexander J. [University College London, Department of Pathology (United Kingdom); Karamshi, M.; Papadopoulou, Anthie M.; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan [Royal Free Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



Diagnostic significance of biopsies in renal masses  

PubMed Central

Introduction We investigated the reliability and mapping of percutaneous needle core biopsies in the kidney in histopathological diagnosis of renal masses particularly for those with suspicious radiologic appearance in an attempt to prevent unnecessary nephrectomies. Material and methods Overall, 96 cases were included in our study that underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy due to renal mass between November 2007 – March 2010. Ex–vivo biopsies 1 cm apart were obtained from the peripheral region of the mass. Additionally, half of these peripheral biopsies were obtained from the central region of the mass. Diagnostic yield of the biopsy cores were correlated. Sensitivity and specificity of peripheral and central biopsies in differentiating benign and malignant tissues were calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant lesions were 93% and 87%, and 90% and 93% for peripheral and central biopsies, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 68%, and 98% and 64% for peripheral biopsies and central biopsies, respectively. Hazard ratio for cigarette smoking and presence of necrosis on CT scans were 4.76 (CI 1, 6–14.3; p = 0.04) and 3.32 (CI 1,2–9.2; p = 0.017) and 3.71 (CI 1.3–10.7; p = 0.013) and 3,51 (CI 1.3–9.6; p = 0.012) for peripheral and central biopsies, respectively. Conclusions Kidney biopsies can be performed in suspicious renal masses of central and peripheral biopsies with similar efficacy.

Dogan, Bayram; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Ozcan, Muhammed Fuat; Asil, Erem; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, Mevlana Derya



Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow  

E-print Network

Does uctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; £uctuating asymmetry; handicap hypothesis; Odocoileus virginianus; sexual selection; white-tailed deer 1

Ditchkoff, Steve



Microsoft Academic Search

th Febr 2007 ; accepted 13 th May 2007) Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and




Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.



Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 ?mol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine



Human tail: nature's aberration.  


Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay



Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)



Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)



"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Urinoma following Kidney Biopsy: A Case Report.  


Major complications of a percutaneous kidney biopsy are infrequent but warrant early detection and appropriate treatment. We herein report a patient who developed urinoma following kidney biopsy in the effort to emphasize the paramount importance for practitioners to recognize this complication. Prompt diagnosis and proper management of urinoma following kidney biopsy is prudent as delayed treatment may lead to abscess formation, hydronephrosis, obstructive uropathy and chronic kidney failure. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25115496

Limwattana, Sorawan; Rianthavorn, Pornpimol



Imaging-guided percutaneous abdominal biopsy.  


Guided percutaneous biopsy has become an important means of diagnosing abdominal lesions. This technique provides necessary pathologic information without resorting to open biopsy. Fluoroscopy, sonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be used for needle guidance, depending on the patient's condition and the size and location of the lesion. These variables also influence selection of needle gauge, tip configuration, and sampling mechanism. The authors describe appropriate techniques for percutaneous biopsy of hepatic, renal, pancreatic, adrenal, and retroperitoneal lesions. PMID:1831639

Gazelle, G S; Haaga, J R



Utility of liver allograft biopsy obtained at procurement.  


Extended-donor criteria (EDC) liver allografts potentiate the role of procurement biopsy in organ utilization. To expedite allocation, histologic evaluation is routinely performed upon frozen-section (FS) specimens by local pathologists. This descriptive study compares FS reports by local pathologists with permanent-section (PS) evaluation by dedicated hepatopathologists, identifies histologic characteristics underrepresented by FS evaluation, and evaluates the efficacy of a biopsy decision analysis based on organ visualization. Fifty-two liver transplants using EDC allografts evaluated by FS with PS were studied. Pathologic worksheets created by an organ procurement organization were applied in 34 FS. PS analysis included 7 staining procedures for 8 histologic criteria. PS from 56 additional allografts determined not to require donor biopsy were also analyzed. A high correlation was observed between FS and PS. Underestimation of steatosis by FS was associated with allograft dysfunction. Surgical assessment of cholestasis, congestion, and steatosis was accurate whereas inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis were underestimated in allografts suffering parenchymal injury. In conclusion, the correlation between FS and PS is high, and significant discrepancies are rare. Biopsy is not a prerequisite for EDC utilization but is suggested in hepatitis C, hypernatremia, donation after cardiac death, or multiple EDC indications. Implementation of a universal FS worksheet could standardize histologic reporting and facilitate data collection, allocation, and research. PMID:18324657

Lo, Irene J; Lefkowitch, Jay H; Feirt, Nikki; Alkofer, Barbara; Kin, Cindy; Samstein, Benjamin; Guarrera, James V; Renz, John F



Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M



Tail aggregation and domain diffusion in ionic liquids.  


An extended multiscale coarse-graining model for ionic liquids is used to investigate the liquid crystal-like phase in certain ionic liquids. The tail groups of the cations with a sufficient side-chain length are found to aggregate, forming spatially heterogeneous domains, due to the competition between the electrostatic interactions between the charged head groups and the anions and the collective short-range interactions between the neutral tail groups. With a sufficiently long alkyl chain at a low enough temperature, the tail domains remain relatively stable, despite the diffusion of individual ions in the liquid phase. With increasing temperature, the average tail domains begin to diffuse, while beyond a transition temperature, their average density has an almost uniform distribution, although the tail groups still form instantaneous domains. PMID:16970489

Wang, Yanting; Voth, Gregory A



HGMS of tin ore tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of Bolivian tin ore tailings have been subjected to High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for the purpose of increasing the tin content, and reducing the iron content which interferes with smelting. The Colavi mine tailing was the discarded product of a froth flotation process and contains about 0.7% by weight of valuable tin. The Atoroma tailing was the

M. Arellano; D. Kelland



Retrograde Synovial Biopsy of the Knee Joint Using a Novel Biopsy Forceps  

PubMed Central

Synovial biopsies of the knee joint are commonly performed arthroscopically with the patient under full or regional anesthesia. To overcome the effort, costs, and potential risks of surgery, we developed an office-based technique for retrograde synovial biopsy using a designated novel biopsy forceps. Using this technique, no arthroscopic or radiologic control is needed to perform rapid synovial biopsies of the knee joint. Concomitant aspiration of synovial fluid can be performed. A technical description of the procedure is given. PMID:25126494

Hügle, Thomas; Leumann, André; Pagenstert, Geert; Paul, Jochen; Hensel, Mathias; Barg, Alexej; Foster-Horvath, Csaba; Nowakowski, Andrej Maria; Valderrabano, Victor; Wiewiorski, Martin



Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun


First report of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) death following penetration of a biopsy dart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remote collection of skin and blubber biopsy samples from free-ranging cetaceans is a powerful technique which has been inc reasingly used by scientists in recent years in a wide range of applications, particularly with respect to genetic and contaminant studie s. Biopsy sampling, if carried out responsibly, is known to cause low-level reactions, and is unlikely to produce long-term

Giovanni Bearzi



Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.  


The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim



Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy  

PubMed Central

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim



Standardization of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy.  


Ultrasound-guided biopsy is more sensitive to biopsy performed under the digital control, because 29% of prostatic cancers are not palpable. On the other hand, at least 30% of cancers are isoechogenic, so they cannot be viewed by transrectal ultrasound examination. It means that target biopsy is not sufficient for diagnosis of localized prostatic cancer, i.e., randomized samples are needed as well. More than ten years ago, the technique of sampling the six specimens became a standard procedure to which previously harvested target specimens from suspected growths were added. Today, the expansion of biopsy protocol is recommended, by obtaining the additional specimens from peripheral lateral area, four plus two samples if the prostate has volume over 50 ml. Larger number of biopsies requires anesthesia. In order to reduce complication, the cleaning of rectal ampulla and prophylactic use of quinolone are suggested. PMID:16673593

Acimovic, M; Tulic, C; Dzamic, Z; Radosavljevic, R; Filimonovic, J; Jovanovic, M; Mitrovic, D; Govedarevic, V; Hadzi-Djokic, J



Diagnostic laparoscopic biopsy for intraabdominal tumors.  


Improvements in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in the incidental detection of intraabdominal tumors. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT)- and ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy, while minimally invasive, often provides specimens that are insufficient for histological evaluation. Moreover, it can be difficult to perform because the location and size of the tumor. In such cases, laparoscopic biopsy is useful because it is less invasive than laparotomy, but more reliable than imaging-guided biopsy, to obtain a sufficient specimen, regardless of the location and size of the tumor. We report a series of seven patients who underwent laparoscopic biopsy of intraabdominal tumors of unknown origin. There were no cases of conversion to laparotomy and all patients were able to resume oral intake on postoperative day 1. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Thus, laparoscopic biopsy for a tumor of unknown origin is useful and minimally invasive. PMID:25212568

Sakamoto, Yasuo; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo



Melanoma staging and sentinel lymph node biopsy.  


Tumor staging of melanoma is a crucial step for estimating patient prognosis, deciding on therapy approach, and efficient collection, analysis, comparison and communication of scientific data across borders and research groups. Recently, the Melanoma Staging Committee of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has proposed a revision of the widely used melanoma staging system, using an evidence-based approach, to reflect the improved understanding of this disease. Important adjustments were made related to the role of mitotic rate as a prognostic factor, definition of N category and classification of all microscopic nodal metastases, regardless of the extent of tumor burden, and specifically including micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry as stage III. These revisions are to be implemented by early 2010 and are likely to be adopted and incorporated in international guidelines. Within the updated AJCC staging system, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains a standard-of-care diagnostic procedure, widely accepted as an important prognostic tool. According to current recommendations, SLNB is routinely offered as a staging procedure in patients with tumors more than 1 mm in thickness. Beyond its prognostic value, the therapeutic benefit of this procedure in improving overall survival yet remains to be proven. This article reviews and discusses the new aspects and challenges of the current staging recommendations for melanoma. PMID:21251448

Forsea, Ana-Maria



Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy.  


A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrument is developed to study endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue as an optical biopsy tool. This instrument is able to spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolve fluorescence signal, thus providing multidimensional information to assist clinical tissue diagnosis. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is used to realize rapid wavelength switch, and a photomultiplier tube and a high-speed digitizer are used to collect the time-resolved fluorescence decay at each wavelength in real time. The performance of this instrument has been characterized and validated on fluorescence tissue phantoms and fresh porcine skin specimens. This dual-arm AOTF design achieves high spectral throughput while allowing microsecond nonsequential, random wavelength switching, which is highly desirable for time-critical applications. In the results reported here, a motorized scanning stage is used to realize spatial scanning for two-dimensional images, while a rapid beam steering technique is feasible and being developed in an ongoing project. PMID:24002188

Nie, Zhaojun; An, Ran; Hayward, Joseph E; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin



Profile of Lesions in Cystoscopic Bladder Biopsies: A Histopathological Study  

PubMed Central

Aim and Introduction: Urinary bladder lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, are collectively responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. Material and Methods: The present prospective study aimed to study the histopathology of various lesions of the urinary bladder through cystoscopic biopsies. All patients who visited Urology Outpatients Department for haematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopy. Results: Histopathological examinations revealed an equal share of non neoplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions. Amongst the non neoplastic lesions, 84% were inflammatory lesions. Urothelial tumours (96%) formed the bulk amongst neoplastic lesions. Conclusion: This article has stressed upon the importance of histopathological examinations in evaluating bladder pathologies. PMID:24086853

Srikousthubha; Sukesh; C.V, Raghuveer; Hingle, Sanjay




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy  


... from the breast through the needle into the sampling chamber. Without withdrawing and reinserting the needle, it ... are collected from around the lesion. After this sampling, the needle will be removed. If a surgical ...


Floods from tailings dam failures.  


This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A



Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

Mineck, R. E.



21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878...Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy plug. (a) Identification. A preformed (polymerized) absorbable lung biopsy plug is intended to...



The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))



Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A



Controversies in transrectal ultrasonography and prostate biopsy.  


Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate is the gold standard for the detection of prostate cancer. In its current form, transrectal gray-scale ultrasound is unable to differentiate malignant prostate tissue from benign tissue. The general indications for performing a sonographic guided biopsy of the prostate are an abnormal digital rectal examination or an abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Several controversial areas remain: the ideal number of biopsy cores, the use of PSA velocity, free PSA, PSA density, age- and race-adjusted PSA, the use of local anesthetics, and the overall best patient preparation methods, including such topics as routine antibiotic prophylaxis or bowel enemas, remain unsettled. There are also unanswered questions regarding repeat biopsy and protocols for managing patients with a diagnosis of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. This article will explore some of the current controversies and review the pertinent literature. PMID:16957611

Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Simmons, Marc; Dakwar, George; Dogra, Vikram



Local anesthesia in transrectal prostate biopsy.  


The administration of local anesthesia both topical and injectable before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is safe and efficacious. We describe our technique and review the relevant published data on this topic. PMID:16765193

Hollingsworth, John M; Miller, David C; Wei, John T



Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation  

E-print Network

Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with ...

Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne



The Effectiveness of Mapping Biopsy in Patients with Extramammary Paget's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intraepithelial carcinoma usually occurring on the skin or mucosa of the perineum. Clinically, it resembles eczema or dermatitis, and misdiagnosis and treatment delays are common. The treatment of choice for EMPD is a wide excision with adequate margins. Wide excision with intraoperative frozen biopsy and Mohs micrographic surgery are common methods; however, these are associated with a high recurrence rate and long operation time, respectively. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2013, 21 patients diagnosed with EMPD underwent mapping biopsy. Biopsy specimens were collected from at least 10 areas, 2 cm from the tumor margin. When the specimens were positive for malignancy, additional mapping biopsy was performed around the biopsy site of the positive result, and continued until no cancer cells were found. Based on the results, excision margins and reconstruction plans were established preoperatively. Results The patients (18 male, 3 female) had a mean age of 66.5 years (range, 50-82 years). Almost all cases involved in the perineal area, except one case of axillary involvement. Permanent biopsy revealed one case (4.8%) of positive cancer cells on the resection margin, in which additional mapping biopsy and re-operation was performed. At the latest follow-up (mean, 27.4 months; range, 12-53 months), recurrence had not occurred. Conclusions Preoperative mapping biopsy enables accurate resection margins and a preoperative reconstructing plan. Additionally, it reduces the operation time and risk of recurrence. Accordingly, it represents an effective alternative to Mohs micrographic surgery and wide excision with intraoperative frozen biopsy. PMID:25396191

Kim, Byung Jun; Park, Shin Ki



Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.  


Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M



The technique of ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.  


This article discusses the preparations for ultrasound guided prostate biopsy, the conditions used and the process of performing a biopsy. The first step in preparing the patient is a cleansing enema before biopsy. Every author proposes the use of a preoperative antibiotic based prophylaxis. Differences may be found in the type, dosage and the duration of this preoperative application, which can last from 2 h to 2 days. For anaesthesia, lidocaine has been proposed, which may be used as a gel applied in the rectum or in the form of a prostate infiltrate. Quite a few colleagues administer a brief intravenous narcosis. A major debate goes on in respect of defining the number of biopsy samples needed. Hodge proposed sextant biopsy in 1989, for which we had false negative findings in 20% of all cases. Because of this, it has recently been suggested that eight or rather ten samples be taken. There are some who question even this. Twelve biopsy samples do offer an advantage compared to six, although in the case of eight this is not the case. We shall present an in depth discussion of the various opinions on the different numbers of biopsies samples required. For the sample site, the apex, the base and the middle part are proposed, and (completing the process) two additional samples can also be taken from the transition zone (TZ), since 20% of all prostate cancers originate from TZ. In case of a palpable nodule or any lesion made visible by TRUS, an additional, targeted, biopsy has to be performed. Certain new techniques like the 3-D Doppler, contrast, intermittent and others shall also be presented. The control of the full length of samples taken by a gun, as well as the proper conservation of the samples, are parts of pathological processing and of the technical tasks. A repeated biopsy is necessary in the case of PIN atypia, beyond which the author also discusses other indications for a repeated biopsy. We may expect the occurrence of direct postoperative complications and it is necessary to know how to treat these. PMID:15455255

Romics, Imre



The Earth and Comets' Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN spite of the unreserved predictions of astronomers, the earth did not pass through the tail of Halley's comet on May 18-19, nor subsequently. The tail as seen in the morning sky, previous to the transit of the comet across the sun's disc, appeared like a long and straight beam of light stretching from the horizon to Aquila. It was

R. T. A. Innes



Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.



Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.



Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) is previously applied for biopsy of skin due to its high lateral resolution, low out-of-focus damage, and intrinsic 3D section capability. However, for future clinical applications without surgery, current 700-850 nm based laser scanning technology still presents several limitations including low penetration depth, in-focus cell damages, multi-photon phototoxicity due to high optical intensity in the 800 nm wavelength region, and toxicity if exogenous fluorescence markers were required. Here we demonstrate a novel noninvasive optical biopsy method called harmonics optical biopsy (HOB), which combines both second harmonic generation imaging and third harmonic generation imaging. Due to virtual transition nature of harmonic generations and based on light sources with an optical wavelength located around the biological penetration window (~1300nm), our HOB can serve as a truly non-invasive biopsy tool with sub-micron three-dimensional spatial resolution without any energy deposition and exogenous contrast agents. From preliminary experiment result, our HOB can reconstruct 3D cellular and subcellular images from skin surface through dermis. Besides, by utilizing backward propagating detection geometry, we will show that this technique is ideal for non-invasive clinical biopsy of human skin diseases and even useful for the early diagnosis of skin cancer symptom such as the angiogenesis.

Tai, Shih-Peng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chu, Shi-Wei; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Liao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang



Optimizing Prostate Biopsy Techniques hat is the optimal biopsy strategy for detecting  

E-print Network

Optimizing Prostate Biopsy Techniques W hat is the optimal biopsy strategy for detecting clinically important prostate carcinoma? I am not sure we are any closer in 2007 than we were in 1989 when the 6-core. The 3 variables of tumor volume, tumor location and prostate gland size alter the likelihood of cancer

Serfling, Robert


Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.



Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail:; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)



Value of Routine Transition Zone Biopsies in Patients Undergoing Ultrasound-Guided Sextant Biopsies for the First Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the efficacy of routine transition zone biopsies in patients undergoing ultrasound-guided sextant biopsies for the first time because of a suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) or an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Patients and Methods: During sextant prostatic biopsy two additional transition zone biopsies were performed in 164 consecutive patients: in 98 because of a serum

J. Morote; M. López; G. Encabo; I. de Torres



Non- biopsy methods to determine hepatic fibrosis  

E-print Network

The prognosis and clinical management of chronic liver diseases are highly dependent on the extent of liver fibrosis. Bigger the fibrosis, worse the prognosis; and bigger the risk of progression to cirrhosis. In current practice, liver biopsy is most frequently performed to assess the grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis thereby providing prognostic information on which to base treatment decisions upon. Liver biopsy is becoming more and more useless in the management of chronic liver disease due to large sampling error, consistent inter-observer disagreement, high emotional cost of patient, enormous health care commitment in case of rare but possible severe complications, the fact that it is a snapshot of a process that is everything but a frozen one. Therefore, every methodology that avoids performing this invasive procedure is welcome. The purpose of this article is to present the noninvasive evaluation of patients with chronic liver disease as an alternative of liver biopsy in the assessment of hepatic structure and function.

Carmen Fierbinteanu-braticevici; Monica Purcarea


Comparison of Surface Swab and Quantitative Biopsy Cultures Dependent on Isolated Microorganisms from Burn Wounds  

PubMed Central

Objective: Infections are one of the most important and potentially serious complications of burn wounds. Quantitative biopsy cultures are useful for showing that a burn wound infection is not present, but these cultures are not useful for showing that an infection is present. Swab cultures are used to diagnosis surface colonization and may not accurately reflect the organism(s) causing the wound infection. Materials and Methods: To perform a comparison of surface swab and biopsy cultures for isolated microorganisms from burn wounds, 160 biopsy/surface swab pairs were collected from 160 patients. Results: Seventy-seven patients (48.1%) showed positive micro-organism cultures from the burn wounds; 19.3 percent had both positive surface cultures and significant bacterial counts from the biopsy cultures, whereas 28.8 percent of the patients had only positive surface cultures. There was moderate agreement (41%) between the results of surface swab and quantitative biopsy cultures used to diagnose burn wound infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45.5%) was the most predominantly isolated bacteria from the wounds, and there was good concordance between the results of the surface swab and quantitative biopsy culture samples (78%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) and Escherichia coli strains were only isolated from the surface swab samples because they are colonizing bacteria. The univariate analysis revealed that there were significant associations between the results of the positive biopsy cultures and the total surface body area, open flame burns, prolonged hospitalization and female gender (p<0.05). Conclusion: Surface swab and quantitative biopsy cultures have a high rate of concordance in predicting P. aeruginosa invasion and the colonization of E. coli and CNS strains in burn wounds.

Vural, Mete Koray; Altoparlak, Ulku; Celebi, Demet; Akcay, Mufide Nuran



Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.



Distribution of the Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata) in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the geographic distribution of any species is an important first step toward understanding its ecology. Long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata) are secretive and diffi- cult to detect, so little is known about their distribution in Illinois. To fill this gap in the knowledge, we solicited information from museum curators about the sites where long-tailed weasel specimens were collected in Illinois

Saleen M. Richter; Eric M. Schauber



Retroperitoneoscopic renal biopsy: still a good indication!  


The histological evaluation of the renal parenchyma is often essential in cases of several renal diseases and provides useful information in determining the prognosis and guiding treatment. In patients with contraindications to percutaneous kidney biopsy, retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is to be preferred as a minimally invasive technique. However, there are cases in which the LESS technique is difficult to perform, especially given that the learning curve is not optimal. We present a case of a Jehovah's Witness patient with severe obesity, in whom conventional retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy was preferred to the LESS technique. PMID:25198939

Micali, Salvatore; Dandrea, Matteo; De Carne, Cosimo; Martorana, Eugenio; De Stefani, Stefano; Cappelli, Gianni; Bianchi, Giampaolo



Integrated laser-guided CT biopsy.  


The diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies is dependent on accurate needle insertion. A laser-assisted angle selection system was custom fabricated and used during a CT-guided lung biopsy. Off-target error was measured comparing standard methods to the laser method while pointing towards the target from the skin. The difference between the planned angle and selected angle using the laser-assisted system was 2°, improved from 12° with the standard method. Although yet to be confirmed, laser-assisted angle selection systems may improve the accuracy of needle placement, which may translate into improved outcomes for certain needle based procedures. PMID:24035262

Hong, Cheng William; Xu, Sheng; Imbesi, Kimberly L; Wood, Bradford J



Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.



The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks



Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.  


Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. Anat Rec, 298:354-375, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25132483

Russo, Gabrielle A



Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk  

E-print Network

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University Humboldt Univ-Berlin Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ-Berlin 1 / 26 #12

Li, Haijun



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...


Discordance between skin biopsy and kidney biopsy in an X-linked carrier of Alport syndrome.  


Alport syndrome (AS) is the most common form of hereditary nephritis. Females with X-linked AS are heterozygous carriers of the disease mutation. Carrier status in females without a family history has traditionally been diagnosed by kidney biopsy; more recently skin biopsy has been utilized. We report on a 14-year-old girl with long-standing hematuria and intermittent proteinuria who underwent kidney and skin biopsy to establish a definitive diagnosis. Electron microscopy showed extensive thinning of glomerular basement membrane (GBM), with no evidence of lamination. Immunofluorescence staining showed continuous GBM staining for the alpha3(IV) and alpha5(IV) collagen chains, whereas the epidermal basement membrane showed discontinuous alpha5(IV) collagen staining consistent with an X-linked carrier of AS. Few reports have shown discordance between kidney and skin biopsy findings as seen in this case, presumably due to X chromosome lyonization. We therefore suggest that simultaneous kidney and skin biopsies may be more accurate in the assessment of potential female carriers of AS than either kidney biopsy or skin biopsy alone. PMID:17294221

Hamiwka, Lorraine A; George, David H; Grisaru, Silviu; Midgley, Julian P



Sedoanalgesia With Midazolam and Fentanyl Citrate Controls Probe Pain During Prostate Biopsy by Transrectal Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the pain intensity of patients administered midazolam and fentanyl citrate before undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This was a study in patients with different indications for prostate biopsy in whom 5 mg of midazolam and 50 µg of fentanyl citrate was administered intravenously 3 minutes before the procedure. After biopsy, pain was assessed by use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) in three stages: VAS 1, during probe introduction; VAS 2, during needle penetration into prostate tissue; and VAS 3, in the weeks following the exam. Pain intensity at these different times was tested with stratification by age, race, education, prostate volume, rebiopsy, and anxiety before biopsy. Pain was ranked according to the following scores: 0 (no pain), 1-3 (mild pain), 4-7 (moderate pain), and 8-10 (severe pain). Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon two-tailed tests with a significance of 5%. Results Pain intensity was not influenced by any risk factors. The mean VAS 1 score was 1.95±1.98, the mean VAS 2 score was 2.73±2.55, and the mean VAS 3 score was 0.3±0.9, showing greater pain at the time of needle penetration than in other situations (VAS 2>VAS 1>VAS 3, p=0.0013, p=0.0001, respectively). Seventy-five percent of patients reported a VAS pain scale of less than 3.1 or mild pain. Conclusions Intravenous sedation and analgesia with midazolam and fentanyl citrate is a good method for reducing pain caused by prostate biopsy, even during probe insertion. PMID:24578806

Tsuji, Fábio Hissachi; Chambó, Renato Caretta; Agostinho, Aparecido Donizeti; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza



18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard



Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.



Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.



Fine-needle aspiration biopsy and other biopsies in suspected intraocular malignant disease: a review.  


Ocular oncologists require a strong indication for intraocular biopsy before the procedure can be performed because it carries a risk for serious eye complications and the dissemination of malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the extent to which this restricted practice is supported by evidence from previous reports and to outline our main indications and contraindications. The different intraocular biopsy techniques in the anterior and posterior segment are discussed with a focus on our preferred method, fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). In the literature, complications are typically under-reported, which reduces the possibilities of evaluating the risks correctly and of making fair comparisons with other biopsy methods. In FNAB, the exact placement of the needle is critical, as is an accurate assessment of the size of the lesion. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is usually not a reliable diagnostic tool in lesions < 2 mm in thickness. It is very advantageous to have a cytopathologist present in the operating theatre or close by. This ensures adequate sampling and encourages repeated biopsy attempts if necessary. This approach reduces false negative results to < 3%. Adjunct immunocytochemistry is documented to increase specificity and is essential for diagnosis and management in about 10% of cases. In some rare pathological processes the diagnosis depends ultimately on the identification of specific cell markers. An accurate diagnosis may have a decisive influence on prognosis. The cytogenetic prognostications made possible after FNAB are reliable. Biopsy by FNA has a low complication rate. The calculated risk for retinal detachment is < 4%. Intraocular haemorrhage is frequently observed, but clears spontaneously in nearly all cases. Only a single case of epibulbar seeding of malignant cells at the scleral pars plana puncture site of transvitreal FNAB has been documented. Endophthalmitis has been reported and adequate standard preoperative preparation is obligatory. An open biopsy is still an option in the anterior segment, but has been abandoned in the posterior segment. Although vitrectomy-based procedures are becoming increasingly popular, we recommend using FNAB as part of a stepwise approach. A vitrectomy-assisted biopsy should be considered in cases where FNAB fails. In any adult patient with suspected intraocular malignancy in which enucleation is not the obvious treatment, the clinician should strive for a diagnosis based on biopsy. When the lesion is too small for biopsy or the risks related to the procedure are too great, it is reasonable to be reluctant to biopsy. The standards applied in the treatment of intraocular malignant diseases should be equivalent to those in other fields of oncology. Our view is controversial and contrary to opinion that supports current standards of care for this group of patients. PMID:19719804

Eide, Nils; Walaas, Lisa



Colonic Lymphangiomatosis Resolved after Excisional Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of the lymphatic system that involves a benign proliferation of the lymphatics, with no established treatment method. Multiple colonic lymphangioma, or colonic lymphangiomatosis, is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis that was detected during a colonoscopic examination conducted as part of a general health check-up. The lesion completely resolved after excisional biopsy.

Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Gyu Won; Cho, Hye Jae



Sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile carcinoma.  


Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a fairly new technique that is becoming the standard of care for regional lymph node staging of many solid tumors. This technique is based on the hypothesis of stepwise distribution of malignant cells in the lymphatic system. The absence of tumor cells in the first lymph node(s) in the lymphatic drainage of a tumor would indicate the absence of further spread in the regional lymph node basin(s). Therefore, this first lymph node is the guardian (sentinel) of the regional lymph node basin. To localize the sentinel node preoperatively, lymphoscintigraphy is usually performed after intradermal peritumoral injections of colloid particles labeled with technetium-99m. The tracer is transported through the lymphatic channels to the first draining nodes in the groins and is visible on the lymphoscintigram as hot spots. The main advantage of SLN biopsy in penile cancer is to decrease the treatment-related morbidity without compromising the survival benefit for the patient. Recent figures indicate a false-negative rate of 7%, with a complication rate of less than 5% for SLN biopsy. In conclusion, sentinel node biopsy of patients with penile cancer has evolved into a highly reliable procedure enabling the detection of lymph node invasion at the earliest possible time with minimal morbidity. With this technology at hand, which minimizes the treatment-related morbidity, there is hardly any place for standard lymphadenectomy in penile cancer patients. PMID:22641958

Horenblas, Simon



Sentinel node biopsy: an in depth appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in primary breast cancer has been taken-up widely to avoid the morbidity attributable to axillary node clearance (ANC). Currently many issues surrounding SNB are undecided. This review summarises why some form of axillary surgery is required and presents data on all aspects of SNB including methodology, clinical results and problems that may delay the introduction of

Andrew H. Strickland; Nicolas Beechey-Newman; Christopher B. Steer; Peter G. Harper



Lymphogranuloma venereum: biopsy, serology, and molecular biology.  

PubMed Central

A 21 year old woman presented with painful groin lymphadenopathy and malaise. Lymph node biopsy, to exclude atypical infection and malignancy, suggested the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. This diagnosis was confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction, with the patient subsequently admitting to a casual sexual contact within the United Kingdom. Alternative methods of investigation of this disease are discussed. Images PMID:9534754

Kellock, D J; Barlow, R; Suvarna, S K; Green, S; Eley, A; Rogstad, K E



Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization for Breast Biopsy Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to clarify contradictions in the literature concerning the dependence of ultrasound attenuation on the pathological state of breast tissue; sound speed is also determined as an important, non-controversial characteristic of pathological state. These data are required for an adequate assessment of the potential of ultrasound transmission and CT imaging in breast cancer detection. Freshly excised biopsy specimens

P. D. Edmonds; C. L. Mortensen




SciTech Connect

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson



Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy  

PubMed Central

Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 ?m FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics. PMID:23412009

Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.



Discrepancy between Medical Evidence Form 2728 and Renal Biopsy for Glomerular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a commonly utilized database for epidemiologic research of ESRD patients. USRDS uses Medical Evidence Form 2728 to collect medical information about ESRD patients. The validity of the Form 2728 “primary cause of renal failure” field for glomerular diseases has not been evaluated, although inconsistencies between Form 2728 information and medical records have been documented previously with respect to comorbidities. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Form 2728 information was linked with renal biopsy results from the Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network (GDCN) for 217 patients with biopsy-confirmed glomerular diseases who had reached ESRD. Biopsy results were compared with the Form 2728 “primary cause of renal failure” field. Diseases were considered individually, and also categorized into commonly used disease groups. Percentage of agreement and disease-specific measures of validity were calculated. Results: Overall agreement between renal biopsy and Form 2728 was low (14.8% overall, 23.0% when categorized). Agreement was better after Form 2728 was revised in 1995 (10.0% before versus 23.2% after overall). The cause of ESRD field was left blank in 57% of the forms submitted for glomerular disease patients. Individual glomerular diseases had very low specificities, but tended to have high positive predictive values. Conclusions: Form 2728 does not accurately reflect the renal pathology diagnosis as captured by biopsy. The large degree of missing data and misclassification should be of concern to those performing epidemiologic research using Form 2728 information on glomerular diseases. PMID:20688886

Hogan, Susan L.; Jennette, Caroline E.; Kenderes, Barbara; Krisher, Jenna; Jennette, J. Charles; McClellan, William M.



Clinical significance of repeat sextant biopsies in prostate cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesSix random systematic core biopsies (SRSCB) of the prostate is considered by many to represent the standard method of detecting prostate cancer. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the transrectal ultrasound (TRU)S-guided needle biopsies in 89 consecutive patients with a history of biopsy-proven prostate cancer. These patients underwent repeat biopsy prior to enrollment in an ongoing, randomized protocol. We

Nicholas Stroumbakis; Michael S. Cookson; Victor E. Reuter; William R. Fair



Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer may be used in place of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if SNB accurately\\u000a stages the axilla. This study assessed the success and accuracy of axillary SNB with isosulfan blue (ISB) and technetium-99\\u000a sulfur colloid (TSC) compared to ALND.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Forty-two women with T1 or T2 breast cancer underwent SNB and

John M. Barnwell; Mark A. Arredondo; Daniel Kollmorgen; John F. Gibbs; Dominick Lamonica; William Carson; Paul Zhang; Janet Winston; Stephen B. Edge



[Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].  


We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions. PMID:23017279

Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A



Iatrogenic post biopsy hemobilia with pseudoaneurysm.  


Hemobilia is defined as bleeding into the biliary tree from an abnormal communication between a blood vessel and bile duct. It is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and iatrogenic most of the times. We report a case of hemobilia secondary to percutaneous liver biopsy presenting with classical Quincke's triad in a young lady which was treated with combined biliary balloon sweep thrombectomy and transarterial embolization for complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:25404450

Qureshi, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Musarrat; Butt, Muhammad Qaisar; Nomani, Ali Zohair



The tail of integrin activation  

PubMed Central

Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D



Non – biopsy methods to determine hepatic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The prognosis and clinical management of chronic liver diseases are highly dependent on the extent of liver fibrosis. Bigger the fibrosis, worse the prognosis; and bigger the risk of progression to cirrhosis. In current practice, liver biopsy is most frequently performed to assess the grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis thereby providing prognostic information on which to base treatment decisions upon. Liver biopsy is becoming more and more useless in the management of chronic liver disease due to large sampling error, consistent inter–observer disagreement, high emotional cost of patient, enormous health care commitment in case of rare but possible severe complications, the fact that it is a snapshot of a process that is everything but a frozen one. Therefore, every methodology that avoids performing this invasive procedure is welcome. The purpose of this article is to present the noninvasive evaluation of patients with chronic liver disease as an alternative of liver biopsy in the assessment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20108754

Purcarea, M



Ability of Sextant Biopsies to Predict Radical Prostatectomy Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. There are few studies evaluating multiple variables on sextant biopsies with the intent to predict stage in radical prostatectomy specimens.Methods. We studied 113 sextant biopsies with corresponding totally submitted radical prostatectomy specimens. Variables evaluated on sextant biopsies included total length and percent of cancer; maximum length and percent of cancer on one core; location (apex, mid, base); bilaterality; Gleason

Marcia L Wills; Jurgita Sauvageot; Alan W Partin; Robin Gurganus; Jonathan I Epstein



Aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) is a diagnostic method that has been used extensively in Sweden for a quarter of a century. The technical steps involved in this biopsy procedure are described, and the differences from large needle biopsy techniques are pointed out. An overview is given of the different pathologic conditions that present as thyroid nodules and are recognizable by

Torsten Löwhagen; Jan-Silvester Willems; Göran Lundell; Rolf Sundblad; Per-Ola Granberg



A New Apparatus for Standardized Rat Kidney Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney. PMID:25506931

Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P. M.



Early protocol renal allograft biopsies and graft outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early protocol renal allograft biopsies and graft outcome. To evaluate whether biopsies performed early after transplantation in stable grafts can predict graft failure due to chronic transplant nephropathy, a protocol biopsy was performed at three months in 98 patients treated with antilymphocytic antibodies, cyclosporine and prednisone. Patients were followed for 58 ± 16 months. Histological diagnosis according to the Banff

Daniel Serón; Francesc Moreso; Jordi Bover; Enric Condom; Salvador Gil-Vernet; Conxa Cañas; Xavier Fulladosa; Joan Torras; Marta Carrera; Josep Maria Grinyó; Jeroni Alsina



Lateral biopsies added to the traditional sextant prostate biopsy pattern increases the detection rate of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error and data based upon whole-mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a three-dimensional computer-assisted prostate biopsy simulator suggests that an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. The simulated 10-core biopsy pattern (traditional sextant

JJ Bauer; J Zeng; W Zhang; DG McLeod; IA Sesterhenn; RR Connelly; SK Mun; JW Moul



Use of Three Additional Mid Biopsies to Improve Local Assessment of Prostate Cancer in Patients with One Positive Sextant Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Routine sextant biopsies have proven useful in the diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer. A single positive biopsy is more frequently associated with a smaller tumor and a low risk of positive margins. Nevertheless, the risk of positive margins in patients with 1 positive sextant biopsy remains high (20%). A better assessment of local invasion is therefore needed.

L. Salomon; M. Colombel; J. J. Patard; J. Bellot; D. K. Chopin; C. C. Abbou



Comparative Study of Two Different TRUS–Guided Sextant Biopsy Techniques in Detecting Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)–guided sextant biopsy technique, which puts more emphasis on the apical region of the prostate where most prostate carcinomas (PCs) develop, with the standard sextant biopsy technique.Methods: A total of 280 patients with suspected PC were included in this analysis. Twelve biopsy cores were obtained from all patients.

Clemens Brössner; Stefan Madersbacher; Guenther Bayer; Armin Pycha; H. Christoph Klingler; Ulrich Maier



Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.



Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja



Sentinel node biopsy and improved patient care.  


Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is based on the hypothesis that the sentinel lymph node (SLN) reflects the lymph-node status and a negative SLN might allow complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to be avoided. Past and current sentinel lymph node clinical trials for breast carcinoma have addressed the prognostic and therapeutic benefits of this technique and as such, SLNB has become a standard of care for select breast cancer patients. This article reviews the history of SLNB as well as current guidelines and recent controversies. PMID:25546431

Giuliano, Armando E; Gangi, Alexandra



Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden


An acceleration mechanism for cometary plasma tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cometary plasma tail formation by the interaction between the solar wind plasma flow and the plasma at the head of the coma is discussed using the unipolar electric generation theory. The plasma in the 'plasma tail' is almost directly accelerated from the cometary ionopause along the sun-nucleus line where the tail current flows. For steady state solar wind conditions, the

Shigeyuki Minami; R. S. White



Obliteration of symptomatic Schatzki rings with jumbo biopsy forceps (with video).  


A Schatzki ring is a submucosal, fibrotic thickening located at the gastroesophageal junction. Endoscopic treatment traditionally involves disruption of the ring. Many approaches have been described including bougies, balloons, biopsies, and diathermic monopolar incision. While all of these approaches are effective in the short-term, recurrence is common. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of complete excision of the ring using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. Our main outcome measurements were the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of complete obliteration of Schatzki rings using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. We designed an observational study using a standard protocol for patient management and data collection using a university hospital as our setting. We followed 10 patients with dysphagia due to a Schatzki's ring, six of whom had previously undergone bougienage or balloon dilation. Five patients were on maintenance therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and one with an H2 blocker. Complete endoscopic obliteration of the Schatzki rings with a cold jumbo biopsy forceps was achieved in all 10 patients requiring a mean of 9.8 biopsies (range 8-12). Omeprazole (20?mg twice daily) was prescribed after the procedure. All 10 patients demonstrated improvement in dysphagia after treatment, which persisted during a mean follow-up time of 379 days (range 63-496 days). There were no serious complications. The limitations of our study include lack of a control group, a small sample size, and being a single-institution study. We concluded that complete Schatzki ring obliteration with jumbo cold biopsy forceps is a safe, feasible, and effective endoscopic treatment. PMID:24552567

Gonzalez, A; Sullivan, M F; Bonder, A; Allison, H V; Bonis, P A; Guelrud, M



Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.  


Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer. PMID:17092883

Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L



Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)



Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  


The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K



Frameless robotic stereotactic biopsies: a consecutive series of 100 cases.  


OBJECT Stereotactic biopsy procedures are an everyday part of neurosurgery. The procedure provides an accurate histological diagnosis with the least possible morbidity. Robotic stereotactic biopsy needs to be an accurate, safe, frameless, and rapid technique. This article reports the clinical results of a series of 100 frameless robotic biopsies using a Medtech ROSA device. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed their first 100 frameless stereotactic biopsies performed with the robotic ROSA device: 84 biopsies were performed by frameless robotic surface registration, 7 were performed by robotic bone fiducial marker registration, and 9 were performed by scalp fiducial marker registration. Intraoperative flat-panel CT scanning was performed concomitantly in 25 cases. The operative details of the robotic biopsies, the diagnostic yield, and mortality and morbidity data observed in this series are reported. RESULTS A histological diagnosis was established in 97 patients. No deaths or permanent morbidity related to surgery were observed. Six patients experienced transient neurological worsening. Six cases of bleeding within the lesion or along the biopsy trajectory were observed on postoperative CT scans but were associated with transient clinical symptoms in only 2 cases. Stereotactic surgery was performed with patients in the supine position in 93 cases and in the prone position in 7 cases. The use of fiducial markers was reserved for posterior fossa biopsy via a transcerebellar approach, via an occipital approach, or for pediatric biopsy. CONCLUSIONS ROSA frameless stereotactic biopsies appear to be accurate and safe robotized frameless procedures. PMID:25380111

Lefranc, Michel; Capel, Cyrille; Pruvot-Occean, Anne-Sophie; Fichten, Anthony; Desenclos, Christine; Toussaint, Patrick; Le Gars, Daniel; Peltier, Johann



Systematic extended and saturation prostate biopsy: when and how.  


The increasing incidence of prostate cancer is manly due to the improvement of systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy techniques. The objective of this review is to analyze the different approaches and the most common schemes used to perform prostate biopsy, the role of the anesthetic procedures, of the complementary imaging methods and the histological evaluation of the biopsy results. The actual indications to perform prostate biopsy have been also critically reviewed. We performed a review of the literature by searching Medline Database with the following key words: prostate cancer, diagnosis, trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS), prostate biopsy, anaesthesia and prognosis. Prostate biopsy is always performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance with both transrectal and transperineal approach, with a minimal core number of 10. The extended protocols include lateral peripheral zone cores and cores from lesions found on palpation or imaging. Saturation biopsies should be performed only in case of repeat biopsies. The refinement of effective local anesthesia has allowed to increase the number of biopsies without important side effects. Complementary imaging methods might be adopted in order to reduce the number of unnecessary procedures .The histological issues related to the number and the location of cores are still matter of debate as important prognostic factors. According to international guidelines, the factors most involved in performing prostate biopsy still include suspicious digital rectal examination and PSA. Both the transrectal and the transperineal approach in prostatic biopsy are valid in term of detection rate and low incidence of side effects. The initial biopsy scheme in mainly extended, saturation biopsy has to be considered only in the repeat setting, with the eventual help of the complementary imaging methods. The histological issues has to be considered about patient's prognosis. PMID:20562798

Scattoni, V; Maccagnano, C; Zanni, G; Angiolilli, D; Raber, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F




Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of serum, liver, kidney, and heart were collected for selenium analysis from 174 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus mrginianus) in southern Florida (USA), 1984 to 1988, to de- termine the selenium status of these animals. Deer were obtained from eight sites and classified by five age-class groups. For serum and the three tissues analyzed, selenium concentrations varied significantly (P < 0.001)

Lee R. McDowell; Donald J. Forrester; Stephen B. Linda; Scott D. Wright; Nancy S. Wilkinson


Differences in pain perception during open muscle biopsy and Bergstroem needle muscle biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Open surgical muscle biopsy (OB) and percutaneous Bergstroem needle muscle biopsy (NB) are equally accepted procedures. However, there are no data comparing intraprocedural pain for both techniques. We designed this prospective trial to test the hypothesis that the less invasive NB causes less intraprocedural pain than OB. Methods In a two-center prospective trial, 33 patients underwent both procedures in one session. All patients quantified intraprocedural pain using the numeric rating scale (NRS). Mean NRS values were calculated along with the difference in NRS values (?NRS) between both types of biopsies. Results Mean NRS values were 4.5 (±2.7 standard deviation [SD]) for NB and 3.2 (±2.1) for OB (P=0.02). Of the patients, 57.6% described the ?NRS as ?2 NRS points. Regarding the pain categories “mild” (NRS 0–3), “moderate” (NRS 4–7), and “severe” (NRS 8–10), no significant difference was observed between NB and OB. Patients who found NB to be more uncomfortable were more likely to quantify the ?NRS as >2 NRS points than patients finding OB more uncomfortable. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that intraprocedural pain in NB is less than in OB. When informing the patient about both types of muscle biopsies, the amount of intraprocedural pain should not serve as a differentiating characteristic. PMID:25429236

Dengler, Julius; Linke, Peter; Gdynia, Hans J; Wolf, Stefan; Ludolph, Albert C; Vajkoczy, Peter; Meyer, Thomas



Endoparasites of Northern Sharp-Tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus phasianellus, as Related to Age and Position on the Lek  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only indication of endoparasites found in male sharp-tailed grouse collected during the breeding season from the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada, were nematode eggs of an unknown species. Nematode egg loads of male sharp-tailed grouse that occupied central territories on leks (mating areas) were not significantly different from those o f birds in peripheral territories, nor



Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.  


We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S



Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.



Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora



The difficult biopsy: let’s make it easier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image-guided percutaneous biopsies of abdominal and pelvic organs are an integral part of the daily practice of many radiologists. Fortunately, most image-guided percutaneous biopsies are straightforward. At times, however, image-guided percutaneous biopsies can be technically challenging due to various factors, including proximity of surrounding vessels or organs, “moving targets” due to respiratory motion, or difficulties in detecting lesions with certain

Ronald S Arellano; Michael Maher; Debra A Gervais; Peter F Hahn; Peter R Mueller



Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate\\u000a the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using\\u000a the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy\\u000a included acute renal

Teik Choon See; Barbara C. Thompson; Alexander J. Howie; M. Karamshi; Anthie M. Papadopoulou; Neil Davies; Jonathan Tibballs



Qualitative assessment of pain management in patients undergoing computed tomography-guided transthoracic lung biopsy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Unpublished questionnaire data collected by the authors’ institution (Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario) indicates that patients often experience significant pain while undergoing lung biopsy, yet receive only a fraction of the maximum allowable dosage of analgesic. OBJECTIVES: To qualitatively assess current pain management practices from the patient perspective. Patient education and patient satisfaction were also evaluated. METHODS: From March through June 2012, participants were contacted via telephone within one week of their procedure until data saturation was reached. The semistructured interviews were based on a study-specific interview template. Thematic analysis of qualitative study data was used to identify recurring interview topics. RESULTS: A consecutive sample of 16 outpatients who had undergone image-guided transthoracic lung biopsy at the authors’ institution were interviewed. None of the study participants reported noteworthy pain associated with the insertion of lung biopsy needles. The most significant pain was caused by positioning within the computed tomography scanner, particularly among participants who were in the prone position. All participants reported high satisfaction with the amount of analgesic received. Potential complications and recovery period details were identified as areas for improved patient education. CONCLUSIONS: At the authors’ institution, pain associated with lung biopsy needle insertion was well controlled. Positional pain is common for patients required to be in the prone position. Potential solutions include increasing awareness of positional pain and instituting additional supportive equipment. PMID:24761429

Wong, Erin T; Dunham, Carol; Patsios, Demetris



Chinese nomogram to predict probability of positive initial prostate biopsy: a study in Taiwan region  

PubMed Central

Several nomograms for prostate cancer detection have recently been developed. Because the incidence of prostate cancer is lower in Chinese men, nomograms based on other populations cannot be directly applied to Chinese men. We, therefore, developed a model for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy using clinical and laboratory data from a Chinese male population. Data were collected from 893 Chinese male referrals, 697 in the derivation set and 196 in the external validation set, who underwent initial prostate biopsies as individual screening. We analyzed age, prostate volume, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examinations (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) echogenicity. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals and P values. Independent predictors of a positive biopsy result included advanced age, small prostate volume, elevated total PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination, and hyperechoic or hypoechoic TRUS echogenicity. We developed a predictive nomogram for an initial positive biopsy using these variables. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 88.8%, which was greater than that of the prediction based on total PSA alone (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 74.7%). If externally validated, the predictive probability was 0.827 and the accuracy rate was 78.1%, respectively. Incorporating clinical and laboratory data into a prebiopsy nomogram improved the prediction of prostate cancer compared with predictions based solely on the individual factors. PMID:24121978

Kuo, Shu-Chun; Hung, Shun-Hsing; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lu, Chin-Li; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Zou, Jian-Fang; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Huang, Chien-Cheng



Cryobiopsy: Should This Be Used in Place of Endobronchial Forceps Biopsies?  

PubMed Central

Forceps biopsies of airway lesions have variable yields. The yield increases when combining techniques in order to collect more material. With the use of cryotherapy probes (cryobiopsy) larger specimens can be obtained, resulting in an increase in the diagnostic yield. However, the utility and safety of cryobiopsy with all types of lesions, including flat mucosal lesions, is not established. Aims. Demonstrate the utility/safety of cryobiopsy versus forceps biopsy to sample exophytic and flat airway lesions. Settings and Design. Teaching hospital-based retrospective analysis. Methods. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing cryobiopsies (singly or combined with forceps biopsies) from August 2008 through August 2010. Statistical Analysis. Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results. The comparative analysis of 22 patients with cryobiopsy and forceps biopsy of the same lesion showed the mean volumes of material obtained with cryobiopsy were significantly larger (0.696?cm3 versus 0.0373?cm3, P = 0.0014). Of 31 cryobiopsies performed, one had minor bleeding. Cryopbiopsy allowed sampling of exophytic and flat lesions that were located centrally or distally. Cryobiopsies were shown to be safe, free of artifact, and provided a diagnostic yield of 96.77%. Conclusions. Cryobiopsy allows safe sampling of exophytic and flat airway lesions, with larger specimens, excellent tissue preservation and high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24066296

Rubio, Edmundo R.; le, Susanti R.; Whatley, Ralph E.; Boyd, Michael B.



Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses  

PubMed Central

Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction–defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive–when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico



Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma biopsy: a single institution experience.  


Tumor biopsy is rarely performed in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) due to the presumed risk of surgical complications, although data on the surgery related morbidity of DIPG biopsy is sparse. We performed a retrospective review on 22 consecutive cases of DIPG diagnosed from 2002 to 2012 at Children's Hospital of Michigan, 15 of which underwent biopsy. Transient new or worsening neurological deficits were observed in three of 15 cases following surgery. No surgery related mortality or permanent deficit was observed, and the mean overall survival was 10.4 ± 3.8 months. Undergoing biopsy did not adversely affect the outcome. PMID:25263768

Wang, Zhihong J; Rao, Latha; Bhambhani, Kanta; Miller, Kathy; Poulik, Janet; Altinok, Deniz; Sood, Sandeep



Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)



Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing



Organochlorine levels in subcutaneous blubber biopsies of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins ( Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were determined in subcutaneous blubber of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea. From 1990 to 1993, 68 fin whale and 89 dolphin blubber biopsies were analysed. The whales were sampled while passing through the Ligurian Sea, whereas the dolphins were collected in different areas of the Mediterranean:

Letizia Marsili; Silvano Focardi



Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories  

E-print Network

The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

McQueen, Kelvin J



Repeat Prostate Biopsy Strategies after Initial Negative Biopsy: Meta-Regression Comparing Cancer Detection of Transperineal, Transrectal Saturation and MRI Guided Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is no consensus on how to investigate men with negative transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-B) but ongoing suspicion of cancer. Three strategies used are transperineal (TP-B), transrectal saturation (TS-B) and MRI-guided biopsy (MRI-B). We compared cancer yields of these strategies. Methods Papers were identified by search of Pubmed, Embase and Ovid Medline. Included studies investigated biopsy diagnostic yield in men with at least one negative TRUS-B and ongoing suspicion of prostate cancer. Data including age, PSA, number of previous biopsy episodes, number of cores at re-biopsy, cancer yield, and Gleason score of detected cancers were extracted. Meta-regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Results Forty-six studies were included; 12 of TS-B, 14 of TP-B, and 20 of MRI-B, representing 4,657 patients. Mean patient age, PSA and number of previous biopsy episodes were similar between the strategies. The mean number of biopsy cores obtained by TP-B and TS-B were greater than MRI-B. Cancer detection rates were 30·0%, 36·8%, and 37·6% for TS-B, TP-B, and MRI-B respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed that MRI-B had significantly higher cancer detection than TS-B. There were no significant differences however between MRI-B and TP-B, or TP-B and TS-B. In a sensitivity analysis incorporating number of previous biopsy episodes (36 studies) the difference between MRI-B and TP-B was not maintained resulting in no significant difference in cancer detection between the groups. There were no significant differences in median Gleason scores detected comparing the three strategies. Conclusions In the re-biopsy setting, it is unclear which strategy offers the highest cancer detection rate. MRI-B may potentially detect more prostate cancers than other modalities and can achieve this with fewer biopsy cores. However, well–designed prospective studies with standardised outcome measures are needed to accurately compare modalities and define an optimum re-biopsy approach. PMID:23460864

Nelson, Adam W.; Harvey, Rebecca C.; Parker, Richard A.; Kastner, Christof; Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.



Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.



Predictive Value of Benign Percutaneous Adrenal Biopsies in Oncology Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Percutaneous CT guided biopsy is accepted as a safe procedure for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal masses in oncologic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a ‘negative for tumour’ adrenal biopsy in the oncologic patient population by assessing subsequent outcome including clinical course, size and imaging characteristics of the adrenal lesions on follow-up

M. G Harisinghani; M. M Maher; P. F Hahn; D. A Gervais; K Jhaveri; J Varghese; P. R Mueller



My approach to the interpretation of endometrial biopsies and curettings  

PubMed Central

A major proportion of the workload in many histopathology laboratories is accounted for by endometrial biopsies, either curettage specimens or outpatient biopsy specimens. The increasing use of pipelle and other methods of biopsy not necessitating general anaesthesia has resulted in greater numbers of specimens with scant tissue, resulting in problems in assessing adequacy and in interpreting artefactual changes, some of which appear more common with outpatient biopsies. In this review, the criteria for adequacy and common artefacts in endometrial biopsies, as well as the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in general, are discussed, concentrating on areas that cause problems for pathologists. An adequate clinical history, including knowledge of the age, menstrual history and menopausal status, and information on the use of exogenous hormones and tamoxifen, is necessary for the pathologist to critically evaluate endometrial biopsies. Topics such as endometritis, endometrial polyps, changes that are induced by hormones and tamoxifen within the endometrium, endometrial metaplasias and hyperplasias, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, histological types of endometrial carcinoma and grading of endometrial carcinomas are discussed with regard to endometrial biopsy specimens rather than hysterectomy specimens. The value of ancillary techniques, especially immunohistochemistry, is discussed where appropriate. PMID:16873562

McCluggage, W G



Real time MRI-ultrasound image guided stereotactic prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To report a technique for target directed transperineal ultrasound guided biopsy using high resolution endorectal MRI images Ultrasound fusion. Two patients presented after external beam irradiation for prostate cancer with a rising PSA. An Endorectal MRI using a 1.5 Tesla scanner was obtained. Subsequently a Transrectal Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed. The Ultrasound probe was fixed to a stepper-stabilizer to

Irving Kaplan; Nicklas E. Oldenburg; Paul Meskell; Michael Blake; Paul Church; Edward J. Holupka



Virtual Reality Simulation of Liver Biopsy with a Respiratory Component  

E-print Network

20 Virtual Reality Simulation of Liver Biopsy with a Respiratory Component Pierre-Frédéric Villard1-specific data. Key features of this simulator include the incorporation of modifiable respiratory movements (interventional radiologists). In the case of liver biopsy, which has the added challenge of respiratory motion

Boyer, Edmond


Transvaginal ultrasound, uterine biopsy and hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the importance of endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: Eighty patients with postmenopausal bleeding were submitted to transvaginal ultrasound followed by endometrial biopsy. Hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage were carried out to confirm normality of the uterine cavity. Results: The endometrial echo could be visualized in all patients with postmenopausal bleeding. The

M. G. Giusa-Chiferi; W. J. Gonçalves; E. G. Baracat; L. Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Neto; C. C. R. Bortoletto; G. Rodrigues de Lima



Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation Michael Baumanna,c  

E-print Network

Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation Michael Baumanna,c , Pierre Mozerb , Vincent are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Before Endometrial Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if the use of oral misoprostol in women undergoing endometrial biopsy reduces procedural discomfort. Methods: Women undergoing endometrial biopsy were randomized to receive either 400g misoprostol or a vitamin B6 placebo orally 12 hours prior to the procedure, and were stratified based on menopausal status. The primary outcome was procedural discomfort on a visual analogue scale (0-10).

Joan M. G. Crane; Catherine Craig; Lesa Dawson; Teresa O'Grady; Elias Bartellas; Donna Hutchens



Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan  

E-print Network

Short note Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan Centre for Food and Animal Research) Summary ― Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be anal- yzed for copper or vitamin E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


PET-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy  

PubMed Central

Multimodatity imaging is a promising approach for improving prostate cancer detection and diagnosis. This article describes various concepts in PET-directed, ultrasound-guided biopsies and highlights a new PET/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy system for prostate cancer detection. PMID:25392702

Fei, Baowei; Nieh, Peter T; Schuster, David M; Master, Viraj A



Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of uranium mill tailings by high-temperature sintering (>1050°C) has been investigated as a means of controlling the release of ²²²Rn and leachable contaminants. Thermal stabilization in laboratory trials at 1200°C reduced the radon emanation of various tailings by factors ranging from 37 to 1400 depending on the mineralogy of the tailings. The leachability of most contaminants (e.g., Al,

David R. Dreesen; Edward J. Cokal; Lawrence E. Wangen; Joel M. Williams; Edward F. Thode



Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.



Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.



[Prostate biopsy. Update for indication, procedure, and future developments].  


Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is considered the gold standard in the primary investigation of a suspicious prostate-related finding. The procedure can be carried out with ten probes or more on the lateral side of the prostate, after administering antibiotic prophylaxis and applying local anesthesia. The indication for a biopsy depends on the results of the digitorectal examination, on the serum prostate-specific antigen level, on the individual patient's wish and on his comorbidities. Whether multiparametric imaging should be used before or during the course of a primary or repeated biopsy in order to identify suspicious prostate lesions is the subject of current investigations. Extended biopsy protocols require further clinical investigations before they can become the new standard in the diagnostic work-up. This review delivers an update on the indication for, and technique of, prostate biopsies. PMID:25023240

Machtens, S; Roosen, A; Stief, C G; Truß, M C



Aorto-oesophageal fistula: an unusual complication of oesophageal biopsies  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of an aorto-oesophageal fistula presenting in a patient undergoing investigation for possible oesophageal malignancy who underwent multiple oesophageal biopsies. A 73-year-old gentleman underwent endoscopic biopsy of an oesophageal lesion. Histology showed only inflammatory changes, endoscopy was repeated and again biopsy showed only inflammatory changes. The patient then presented with severe haematemesis, which was shown by CT angiogram to be due to an aorto-oesophageal fistula. This was treated with endovascular stenting, and the patient recovered well. Sequential imaging has shown gradual resolution of the submucosal swelling and lymphadenopathy, excluding the possibility of underlying oesophageal malignancy. This is the first reported case of aorto-oesophageal fistulation as a complication of endoscopic oesophageal biopsies. Aorto-oesophageal fistula is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening cause of haematemesis. It is a potential complication of endoscopic oesophageal biopsy. PMID:22696721

Wiggins, Tom; Chaudry, Muhammed Asif; Vasas, Peter; Bryant, Catherine; Hughes, Frances



Wean-Tail Log.xls

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER


Biopsies: next-generation biospecimens for tailoring therapy.  


The majority of samples in existing tumour biobanks are surgical specimens of primary tumours. Insights into tumour biology, such as intratumoural heterogeneity, tumour-host crosstalk, and the evolution of the disease during therapy, require biospecimens from the primary tumour and those that reflect the patient's disease in specific contexts. Next-generation 'omics' technologies facilitate deep interrogation of tumours, but the characteristics of the samples can determine the ultimate accuracy of the results. The challenge is to biopsy tumours, in some cases serially over time, ensuring that the samples are representative, viable, and adequate both in quantity and quality for subsequent molecular applications. The collection of next-generation biospecimens, tumours, and blood samples at defined time points during the disease trajectory--either for discovery research or to guide clinical decisions--presents additional challenges and opportunities. From an organizational perspective, it also requires new additions to the multidisciplinary therapeutic team, notably interventional radiologists, molecular pathologists, and bioinformaticians. In this Review, we describe the existing procedures for sample procurement and processing of next-generation biospecimens, and highlight the issues involved in this endeavour, including the ethical, logistical, scientific, informational, and financial challenges accompanying next-generation biobanking. PMID:23799370

Basik, Mark; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Rousseau, Caroline; Diaz, Zuanel; Tejpar, Sabine; Spatz, Alan; Greenwood, Celia M T; Batist, Gerald



Skin biopsies for cell cultures from Mediterranean free-ranging cetaceans.  


The aim of this study was to develop a useful method for obtaining viable tissue samples for establishing cell cultures from skin biopsies of free-ranging cetaceans. The skin biopsies were performed by two methods: dart from an air gun and dart from a crossbow. The dart tip was modified to collect tissue. The tissue was kept in tissue culture medium at ambient temperature, then processed within 24 h. Many modifications in culture technique, with respect to conventional culture methods for human fibroblasts, were made. The cultures thus obtained can be used for many purposes, including genetic and toxicological studies. In toxicology they are an alternative in vitro system for studying threatened animals such as marine mammals. In particular, fibroblasts can be used to test the vulnerability of cetaceans and pinnipeds to different environmental contaminants such as organochlorine compounds, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:11460744

Marsili, L; Fossi, M C; Neri, G; Casini, S; Gardi, C; Palmeri, S; Tarquini, E; Panigada, S



Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface  

PubMed Central

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.



Sentinel node biopsy in early vulvar cancer  

PubMed Central

Lymph node pathologic status is the most important prognostic factor in vulvar cancer; however, complete inguinofemoral node dissection is associated with significant morbidity. Lymphoscintigraphy associated with gamma-probe guided surgery reliably detects sentinel nodes in melanoma and breast cancer patients. This study evaluates the feasibility of the surgical identification of sentinel groin nodes using lymphoscintigraphy and a gamma-detecting probe in patients with early vulvar cancer. Technetium-99m-labelled colloid human albumin was administered perilesionally in 37 patients with invasive epidermoid vulvar cancer (T1–T2) and lymphoscintigraphy performed the day before surgery. An intraoperative gamma-detecting probe was used to identify sentinel nodes during surgery. A complete inguinofemoral node dissection was then performed. Sentinel nodes were submitted separately to pathologic evaluation. A total of 55 groins were dissected in 37 patients. Localization of the SN was successful in all cases. Eight cases had positive nodes: in all the sentinel node as positive; the sentinel node was the only positive node in five cases. Twenty-nine patients showed negative sentinel nodes: all of them were negative for lymph node metastases. Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel-node biopsy under gamma-detecting probe guidance proved to be an easy and reliable method for the detection of sentinel node in early vulvar cancer. This technique may represent a true advance in the direction of less aggressive treatments in patients with vulvar cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646880

Cicco, C De; Sideri, M; Bartolomei, M; Grana, C; Cremonesi, M; Fiorenza, M; Maggioni, A; Bocciolone, L; Mangioni, C; Colombo, N; Paganelli, G



Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia) and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface) and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman's triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT) scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas. PMID:24932027

Kundu, Zile Singh



Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate: random sextant versus biopsies of sono-morphologically suspicious lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided multiple systematic random biopsies are presently the method of choice for determining the presence or absence of prostate cancer. TRUS image information is only used to guide the biopsy needle into the prostate, but not to localize and target cancerous lesions. Our aim in this study was to evaluated the possible predictive value of tumor suspicious

Tillmann Loch; Ursula Eppelmann; Jan Lehmann; Bernd Wullich; Annemie Loch; Michael Stöckle



A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement  

E-print Network

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E} Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs


Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus


Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.?METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.?RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.?CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.?? PMID:9810952

Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.




Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic




Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.  


Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status. PMID:24640925

Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker



Ionospheric Signatures of Plasmaspheric Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct comparisons between GPS maps of total electron content (TEC) over the North American continent with Millstone Hill radar observations of storm enhanced density and low and high-altitude satellite measurements of the perturbation of the outer plasmasphere during the March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storm. We find that storm enhanced density (SED) [Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1675, 1993] and plumes of greatly-elevated TEC result from the erosion of the outer plasmasphere by penetration jet electric fields. Boundaries of the SED/TEC plumes identified at low altitude map directly onto the magnetospheric determination of the boundaries of the plasmapause and plasmaspheric tail determined by EUV imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. Ground-based GPS observations and radar scans are used to present 2-D snapshots of the ionospheric SED, while DMSP overflights identify the magnetospheric boundaries and mechanisms which contribute to these events. During this event, sunward-convecting plumes of high-TEC plasmaspheric material span the continent from New England to the Canadian Yukon and are responsible for significant ionospheric space weather effects including steep TEC gradients [Vo and Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 21555, 2001] and the occurrence of mid-latitude radio scintillation. Characteristics of the SED/TEC plumes/tails for the March 31, 2001 event are. TEC ~100 TECu; F-region (300 km - 1000 km altitude) sunward velocity ~1000 m/s; sunward flux ~ 5*E24 ions s-1. Total transport to dayside magnetopause/merging region (3-hr event) is ~ 5*E28 ions.

Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Goldstein, J.; Rich, F. J.



Percutaneous core needle biopsy versus open biopsy in diagnostics of bone and soft tissue sarcoma: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Biopsy is a crucial step within the diagnostic cascade in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue sarcoma. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard. However, recent literature suggests similar results for percutaneous biopsy techniques. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective analysis was to compare open and percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) regarding their accuracy in diagnosis of malignant musculoskeletal lesions. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, all patients with suspected malignant primary bone or soft tissue tumour undergoing a percutaneous CNB or open biopsy and a subsequent tumour resection at our department were identified and enrolled. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for both biopsy techniques and compared using Fisher’s exact test. Results A total of 77 patients were identified and enrolled in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy were 100% for CNB in bone tumours. Sensitivity (95.5%), NPV (91.7%) and diagnostic accuracy (93.3%) for open biopsy in bone tumours showed slightly inferior results without statistical significance (p?>?0.05). In soft tissue tumours favourable results were obtained in open biopsies compared to CNB with differences regarding sensitivity (100% vs. 81.8%, p?=?0.5), NPV (100% vs. 50%, p?=?0.09) and diagnostic accuracy (100% vs. 84.6%, p?=?0,19) without statistical significance. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 92.9% for CNB and 98.0% for open biopsy (p?=?0.55). A specific diagnosis could be obtained in 84.2% and 93.9%, respectively (p?=?0.34). Conclusion In our study we found moderately inferior results for the percutaneous biopsy technique compared to open biopsy in soft tissue tumours whereas almost equal results were obtained for both biopsy techniques for bone tumours. Thus, CNB is a safe, minimal invasive and cost-effective technique for diagnosing bony lesions. In soft tissue masses, the indication for percutaneous core needle biopsy needs to be made carefully by an experienced orthopaedic oncologist with respect to the suspected entity, size of necrosis and location of the lesion to avoid incorrect or deficient results. PMID:23114293



Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential value of neuroendoscopic biopsies in pediatric patients with peri-\\u000a or intraventricular tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2001 to 2008, 49 pediatric patients (mean age, 12.16 years) with tumors located in the intraventricular or paraventricular\\u000a areas underwent neuroendoscopic biopsy, with or without simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Neuroendoscopic biopsies\\u000a were performed to verify the histological diagnosis

Ji Hye Song; Doo-Sik Kong; Hyung Jin Shin



[Skin biopsy for the diagnosis of nervous system diseases].  


Skin biopsy is a powerful diagnostic tool in dermatology. Its use has been extended to other medical specialties, allowing the diagnosis of several diseases that previously required complex and high risk diagnostic procedures. Skin contains numerous cell types, including blood vessels and peripheral nerves and represents a window to the systemic circulation and nervous system. In this review we discuss the use of skin biopsy to diagnose nervous system diseases in which patients do not exhibit any clinical cutaneous manifestations. We review the usefulness of skin biopsy in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), some lysosomal storage diseases, Lafora disease and in peripheral neuropathies. PMID:18949191

de la Sotta F, Pilar; Romero G, William; González B, Sergio




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeLittle is known why certain prostate cancers are missed on biopsy. In patients with a needle biopsy diagnosis of cancer it is also unknown whether repeat needle biopsy provides useful information to predict extent of disease.

Jonathan I. Epstein; Patrick C. Walsh; Jurga Sauvageot; H. Ballentine Carter



MRI-Targeted Biopsies versus Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Localized Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Naïve Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction. To compare, in the same cohort of men, the detection of clinically significant disease in standard (STD) cores versus multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) targeted (TAR) cores. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 129 biopsy naïve men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. These patients underwent prebiopsy mpMRI with STD systematic biopsies and TAR biopsies when lesions were found. The agreement between the TAR and the STD protocols was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results. Cancer detection rate of MRI-targeted biopsy was 62.7%. TAR protocol demonstrated higher detection rate of clinically significant disease compared to STD protocol. The proportion of cores positive for clinically significant cancer in TAR cores was 28.9% versus 9.8% for STD cores (P < 0.001). The proportion of men with clinically significant cancer and the proportion of men with Gleason score 7 were higher with the TAR protocol than with the STD protocol (P = 0.003; P = 0.0008, resp.). Conclusion. mpMRI improved clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate compared to STD protocol alone with less tissue sampling and higher Gleason score. Further development in imaging as well as multicentre studies using the START recommendation is needed to elucidate the role of mpMRI targeted biopsy in the management of prostate cancer.

Peltier, Alexandre; Aoun, Fouad; Lemort, Marc; Kwizera, Félix; Paesmans, Marianne; Van Velthoven, Roland



14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...



14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...



Drill biopsy in the diagnosis of lung lesions.  

PubMed Central

A high speed pneumatic drill was used to perform 190 percutaneous transthoracic biopsies in 161 patients. The resultant cores of tissue provided a definite diagnosis in 146 patients, giving a success rate of 90.7%. Complications occurred in 58 patients, subcutaneous emphysema being the most common, though only seven patients required active treatment, giving a rate of 3.7% for important complications. One patient died within 24 hours of the biopsy procedure owing to asphyxia resulting from aspiration of the contents of an acutely dilated stomach. Our experience clearly establishes that the drill biopsy as used by us is simple and safe and can be carried out in an outpatient department, yielding better overall results than any other procedure for closed biopsy of the lung currently practised. PMID:3424267

Shatapathy, P; Sahoo, R C; Rao, K M; Krishnan, K V; Rau, P V; Padhee, A



Pulmonary sarcoidosis: An important differential diagnosis in transbronchial lung biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Lungs and lymphatics are the principal sites affected by this disease. The disorder is often not suspected by physicians. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done on 140 transbronchial lung biopsies received for histopathological examination in the Department of Pathology for 1 year in a multispeciality tertiary care hospital, in Delhi. Results: Out of 140 transbronchial lung biopsies studied, 13 cases of sarcoidosis were diagnosed histopathologically. In these patients a clinical, pathological, and radiological corelation was done. And a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was given after excluding other granulomatous lesions. Conclusion: Transbronchial lung biopsies have become an important tool in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in present time. Hence sarcoidosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when dealing with granulomatous lesions in lung biopsies. PMID:24778476

Mahapatra, Qury S.; Sahai, Kavita; Rathi, K. R.; Singh, Sarvinder; Sharma, Shruti



Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate.  


Accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer has eluded clinicians for decades. With our current understanding of prostate cancer, urologists should devise and confidently present the available treatment options - active surveillance/radical treatment/focal therapy to these patients. The diagnostic modalities used for prostate cancer have the dual problem of false negativity and overdiagnosis. Various modifications in the prostate biopsy techniques have increased the accuracy of cancer detection, but we are still far from an ideal diagnostic technique. Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate is an exhaustive biopsy technique that has been improvised over the past decade, and has shown superior results to other available modalities. We have carried out a PubMed search on the available experiences on this diagnostic modality, and along with our own experiences, we present a brief review on transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate. PMID:25421717

Sivaraman, Arjun; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Ahallal, Youness; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Prapotnich, Dominique; Cathelineau, Xavier



Design of an endoscopic biopsy needle with flexural members  

E-print Network

As a minimally invasive means of extracting a tissue sample from a patient, current endoscopic biopsy needles generally do not preserve tissue histology and often require multiple attempts to obtain a tissue sample. This ...

Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-



A tissue stabilization device for MRI-guided breast biopsy.  


We present a breast tissue stabilization device that can be used in magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy. The device employs adjustable support plates with an optimized geometry to minimize the biopsy target displacement using smaller compression than the conventional parallel plates approach. It is expected that the reduced compression will cause less patient discomfort and improve image quality by enhancing the contrast intake. Precomputed optimal positions of the stabilization plates for a given biopsy target location are provided in a look-up table. The results of several experiments with a prototype of the device carried out on chicken breast tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design when compared with conventional stabilization methods. The proposed stabilization mechanism provides excellent flexibility in selecting the needle insertion point and can be used in manual as well as robot-assisted biopsy procedures. PMID:25023957

Patriciu, Alexandru; Chen, Maggie; Iranpanah, Behzad; Sirouspour, Shahin



Geometric Evaluation of Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy  

E-print Network

Geometric Evaluation of Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy Misop Han the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, and Seoul National University (JK), Seoul transrectal ultrasound Submitted for publication March 7, 2012. Supported by Award R21CA141835 from

Kim, Jongwon


Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Systemic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSBx) is the standard procedure for diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa), but reveals a limited accuracy for the detection of cancer. Currently, multiparametric MR imaging (mp-MRI) is increasingly regarded as a promising method to detect PCa with an excellent positive predictive value. The use of mp-MRI during a MRI-guided biopsy (MRGB) procedure improves the quality of a targeted biopsy. The aim of this article is to provide an overview about the MRGB technique for PCa detection, to review the accuracy and clinical indications of MRGB and discuss its current issues and further directions. A MRGB seems accurate and efficient for the detection of clinically significant PCa in men with previous negative TRUSBx. Moreover, it may decrease the detection of clinically insignificant cancers with fewer biopsy cores.



Calciphylaxis in a dialysis patient diagnosed by muscle biopsy.  


Calciphylaxis is a rare condition seen mostly in patients with chronic renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism who develop painful skin lesions and myopathy secondary to extensive small vessel calcification, which leads to tissue ischemia. It is typically diagnosed by a biopsy of prominent skin lesions. Here, we report a 49-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on chronic peritoneal dialysis who presented with weakness, myalgias, and necrotic skin lesions. Multiple skin biopsies were nondiagnostic because of severe extensive necrosis, and the diagnosis of systemic calciphylaxis was eventually made by a muscle biopsy. This case demonstrates the significant muscle involvement in calciphylaxis and highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion for patients with risk factors for calciphylaxis, even when skin biopsy does not confirm it. PMID:24534833

Stavros, Kara; Motiwala, Rajeev; Zhou, Lan; Sejdiu, Fatmir; Shin, Susan



Effect of a combined aspiration and core biopsy technique on quality of core bone marrow specimens.  


For cases requiring both a bone marrow aspirate and core biopsy, using the same needle and site (i.e., a combined technique) can decrease time, expense, and discomfort compared with the independent (direct) collection of each specimen. The benefits of the combined approach should not be achieved at the expense of specimen quality. In this study, core bone marrow samples obtained from the proximal humerus of 26 dogs by a combined technique immediately posteuthanasia were compared with core samples obtained directly from the opposite humerus. Both core samples from each dog were compared for relative overall quality. Biopsies were unsuccessful in four dogs using the combined technique and in one dog by the direct technique. Marrow length was shorter and hemorrhage artifact was more common using the combined technique. There were no differences in cellularity, megakaryocyte count, the myeloid/erythroid ratio (M/E ratio), iron stores, or diagnostic quality. Direct core biopsy remains the ideal technique; however, the degree of compromise was small in the samples obtained from the combined technique. For clinical patients, the advantages of the combined technique must continue to be weighed against potential loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:23148134

Reeder, Jason P; Hawkins, Eleanor C; Cora, Michelle C; Marks, Steven L; Grindem, Carol B



75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...



Evaluation of major constraints to revegetation of lead/zinc mine tailings using bioassay techniques.  


The residues from the extraction of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) ores of most Pb/Zn mines are permanently stored in tailings ponds, which require revegetation to reduce their environmental impact. This can only be done if the main constraints on plant establishment are evaluated. This can readily be done by field and greenhouse studies. To test this, the properties of different tailings from Lechang Pb/Zn mine located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China have been studied. Physical and chemical properties including concentrations of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) in the tailings and soils collected from different sites have been measured. The results showed that tailings contain low nitrogen (0.016-0.075%), low-organic matter (0.58-1.78%), high salt (3.55-13.85 dS/m), and high total and diethylene-tetramine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations (total: 1,019-1,642 microg g(-1) Pb, 3,078-6,773 microg g(-1) Zn, 8-23 microg g(-1) Cd, and 85-192 microg g(-1) Cu; DTPA-extractable: 59-178 microig g(-1) Pb, 21-200 microg g(-1) Zn, 0.30-1.5 mcirog g(-1) Cd, and 4.3-12 microg g(-1) Cu). Aqueous extracts of tailings/soils (10%, 20% and 30%, w/v) from different sites were prepared for testing their effects on seed germination and root elongation of a vegetable crop Brassica chinensis and a grass species Cynodon dactylon. It was found that root elongation provided a better evaluation of toxicity than seed germination. The ranking of toxicity using root elongation was: high-sulfur tailings > tailing dam > sparsely vegetated tailings > densely vegetated tailings > mountain soil for both plants. This order was consistent with DTPA-extractable Pb contents in the tailings and soils. B. chinensis seedlings were then grown in the mixtures of different proportions of tailings and farm soil for 4 weeks, and the results (dry weights of seedlings) were in line with the root elongation test. All these demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity, especially available Pb, low content of nutrient, and poor physical structure were major constraints on plant establishment and colonization on the Pb/Zn mine tailings. PMID:12137044

Ye, Z H; Shu, W S; Zhang, Z Q; Lan, C Y; Wong, M H



Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

Mitchell, Michael J. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Montgomery, Mark [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Reiter, Charles G. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Culp, William C., E-mail: [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)



Transsternal surgical biopsy of a mediastinal mass under local anesthesia.  


We describe a minimally invasive transsternal surgical approach to obtain biopsies from retrosternal masses under local anesthesia. This original procedure was carried out in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome because she was unfit to undergo a CT-guided biopsy and at high risk for narcosis. In patients with such features this procedure could be preferable to conventional techniques. The transsternal approach is reliable, produces minimal trauma and no risk of pleural or vessel injury, and is very fast. PMID:23748825

Bedini, Amedeo Vittorio; Libretti, Lidia; Pirondini, Emanuele



The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

Hwang, Sung II; Lee, Hak Jong



Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.



Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses.  


Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol



[Evolution of the transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy technique].  


To analyze the various techniques of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate described in the literature, as well as the anesthesia modalities for its performance. The diagnostic yield of the classic sextant biopsy, described 16 years ago and considered the standard technique ever since, has been overcome by the extended biopsy techniques (greater number of cores from more prostatic areas in each biopsy). Although their intra-study yield is better than sextant biopsy, the scarce randomized studies have not demonstrated a statistically significant improvement. These new techniques of extended biopsy significantly increase the rate of minor complications, not the major. It has not been demonstrated an increase in either the perception of pain or the diagnosis of non-significant tumors. Any anesthetic technique employed diminishes significantly the perception of pain by the patient. The periprostatic nerve blockage with infiltration of lidocaine is better than the rest of the techniques. The best technique of infiltration and the most effective lidocaine dose are to be defined yet. These techniques do not increase complications and only prolong the procedure briefly. PMID:16800136

Herranz Amo, Felipe; Diéz Cordero, José María; Cabello Benavente, Ramiro



Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses  

PubMed Central

Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

Ha, Seung Beom



Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available



Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers II: Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and HI rich, optically bright Eastern tail and an HI-rich, optically faint Western tail. Non-detection of CO in the Western Tail by Braine et al. (2001) suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H-alpha narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the Western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 micron [CII] emission at the location of the three most luminous H-alpha sources in the Eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H-alpha source in the Western tail. The Western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the Eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [CII] emission suggests the Western tail HII region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The Western tail is...

Knierman, Karen; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M; Charlton, Jane



Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  


Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal



Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal



Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...



Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:We compared the performance of the extended multisite directed biopsy strategy to the sextant component of this strategy for predicting the pathological stage and Gleason score of the radical prostatectomy specimen.




A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.


CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail:; Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Lammer, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Biederer, Juergen [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)



Responsible Collecting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, examines how to responsibly collect and keep specimens. The article discusses the reasons why collecting specimens is important and the behaviors and attitudes that define responsible collecting for both scientists and students.


Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to estimate the tumor volume from the corresponding positive core volumes. Finally, we propose an algorithm for developing a statistically optimized prostate needle biopsy protocol. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.

Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.



Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture  

SciTech Connect

Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti



Contaminants in molting long-tailed ducks and nesting common eiders in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, we collected blood from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and blood and eggs from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at near-shore islands in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and at a reference area east of Prudhoe Bay. Blood was analyzed for trace elements and egg contents were analyzed for trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

J. c. Franson; T. e. Hollmen; P. l. Flint; J. b. Grand; R. b. Lanctot



Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify



Volatile Compounds from the Forehead Region of Male White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions produced by sebaceous and apocrine glands of cervids may be important in identifying individuals, establishing dominance, and signaling sexual readiness. The secretions from these glands are transferred to the hair for both lubrication and scent communication via forehead rubbing. We collected hair samples from the forehead and back of 10 male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages and

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny




Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean



E-print Network

SEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN FLEA COMMUNITIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS OF NORTHWESTERN were collected from prairie dogs trapped in 7 plots (160 x 160 m) in 3 colonies of northwestern Mexico seasons Fig. 1. Prairie dog colony complex in Chihuahua, Mexico, as mapped in 2005. Focal colonies

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


Parasites of the black-tailed jackrabbit in north central Colorado.  


Forty-four black-tailed jackrabbits, Lepus californicus melanotis Mearns, 1890, were collected near Denver from August, 1972, through July, 1973, and amined for parasites. Recovered parasites and their infection rates were: Eimeria sp. 100%, Cittotaenia sp.27%, coenuri of Multiceps sp. 57%, Cediopsylla inaequalis 14%, Hoplopsyllus affinis 9%, Haemodipsus setoni 2%, Dermacentor andersoni 14%, and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris 25%. PMID:1142561

Brittain, P C; Voth, D R




E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures


Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy  

PubMed Central

Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments. PMID:23284771

Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Danielsen, Carl Chr.; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S.; Rydtoft, Louise M.; Mortensen, Martin B.; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.



The red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa) in North America.  


Oral inoculation of prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, in Kansas, USA, resulted in formation of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. Five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other Buteo spp. in Kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. These results are the first to verify that red-tailed hawks are natural definitive host in North America for F. microti. PMID:1548806

Upton, S J; McKown, R D



Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers. II. Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4: 1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H? narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 ?m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H? sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H? source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.; Charlton, Jane




SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)



Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study.  


This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 +/- 2.4, 8.8 +/- 4.0 and 10.4 +/- 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25-6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16-4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05-12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K; Hauser, Nik




Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner


Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,




Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  


Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M



The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince most patients do not undergo repeat sextant prostate biopsies after a biopsy is positive for prostate cancer, the true incidence of false-negative biopsies is not well defined. We assess the incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.




Advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) and management of nonpalpable breast abnormalities: a community hospital experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of diagnostic techniques have been in use for determining the nature of non-palpable mammographic abnormalities over the last decade, these include stereotactic and ultrasound guided cytology, core biopsy and vacuum assisted core biopsy techniques as well as open surgical breast biopsy. Recently, a less invasive alternative has been investigated; the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI) technique (U.S. Surgical

I. A. Jacobs; A. H. Chevinsky; W. Diehl; T. J. Smith



Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed:

Adrián Rojo; Luis Cubillos



Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

School Libraries in Canada, 2002



Insect Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use several types of insect sampling and collection equipment to make an insect collection. Learners can collect insects from their schoolyard or yard at home. Insect collections are a good way to estimate the abundance and number of species in an area. This can be a longterm project over a period of days or weeks.

Hill, Ryan; Vandersal, Nicole; Purcell, Alison



Ectoparasites of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summers of 1982 and 1983, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys lu- dovicianus) were examined for parasites. Those collected and their respective prevalence in- cluded Linognathoides cynomyis (46.3%), Opisocrostis hirsutus (53.7%), Opisocrostis tu- berculatus cynomuris (2.4%), Androlaelaps fah- renholzi (12.2%), Ixodes scuiptus (2.4%) and Dermacentor andersoni (4.9%). The collection data indicated that L. cynomyis, 0. hirsutus and A. fahrenholzi were

Glenn E. Kietzmann


Prospective study of sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background To report our experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging patients with conjunctival melanoma. Methods A prospective review of patients with conjunctival melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at St Bartholomew's Hospital from May 2008 to May 2012. The selection criterion for sentinel node biopsy depended on the tumour thickness (?2?mm) and location of the conjunctival melanoma. The main outcome measures were the incidence of sentinel lymph node positivity and the procedure-related complications. Results In 4?years, 26 out of 70 patients met the selection criteria for sentinel lymph node biopsy. 4 patients declined and 22 patients consented for the procedure. Technetium-99m failed to identify a sentinel lymph node in four of the 22 patients (18%). Of the remaining 18 patients, two were found to have subclinical micrometastasis in regional lymph nodes. Median follow-up was 20?months (range 6–36?months). No false-negative events were observed. Complications of the procedure included transient blue staining of the epibulbar surface in five patients and transient facial nerve palsy in one patient. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a safe procedure with minimal complications. It should be considered for the staging of conjunctival melanomas, especially melanomas in non-limbal location or conjunctival melanomas ?2?mm thick. PMID:24064944

Cohen, Victoria M L; Tsimpida, Maria; Hungerford, John L; Jan, Hikmat; Cerio, Rino; Moir, Graeme



CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail:; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail:; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail:; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail:; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail:; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)



Peripheral autonomic neuropathy: diagnostic contribution of skin biopsy.  


Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing. PMID:23037327

Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco



Use of local anesthesia in transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy.  


Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy of the prostate is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer. Intraprostatic administration of local anesthesia significantly decreases pain during prostatic biopsy. Transrectal ultrasound guided intraprostatic lidocaine administration along with intrarectally lidocaine gel is a new local anesthesia technique for prostatic biopsy. It was a randomized prospective, comparative, interventional type of the study. A total of 60 patients of age over 55 years included in the study among them 30 patients with transrectal lidocaine gel was in Group I and 30 patients with intraprostatic lidocaine injection with intra rectal gel were in Group II. The mean age was almost identically distributed between the two groups (p=0.668). About 47% of patients in Group I exhibited hard prostate on digital rectal examination (DRE), 33.3% single nodule and 20% multinodule compared to 33.3% of patients in Group II had hard prostate, 26.7% single nodule and 40% multinodule (p=0.236). The mean serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) was significantly higher in Group II than that in Group I (36.7±9.2 vs. 7.5±5.8ng/ml; p=0.007). The mean pain intensity during biopsy was almost two times higher in Group I than in Group II (p<0.001). The present study concludes that the intraprostatic lidocaine injection along with intra rectal lidocaine gel is less painful method and can be considered in all patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. PMID:24858158

Saha, P K; Alam, S M; Khatun, U S; Rahman, M H; Gupta, S D



CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of spinal lesions  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis of spine lesions is important for its successful management. Imaging–guided percutaneous biopsy is gaining increasing acceptance as a means for obtaining tissue for diagnosis. Most biopsies can be rapidly performed under local anaesthesia, with little patient discomfort and improved safety. Spinal anatomy is, however, complex with many adjacent vital structures. Good knowledge of anatomy and precise needling technique is, therefore, important. Today, biopsy of spinal lesions is best performed under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Indications for imaging-guided biopsy include confirming metastasis in a patient with a known primary tumour, determining the nature of a solitary bone lesion, excluding malignancy in vertebral body compression, and investigating for infection. Among the various issues to be considered are site of lesion, location of adjacent vital structures, approach, and type and size of needle. Complications are rare, particularly when a meticulous technique is applied. In summary, CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and an effective technique for the evaluation of spinal lesions and useful in planning therapy. PMID:21614239

Peh, WCG



Multiparametric MRI-Targeted TRUS Prostate Biopsies Using Visual Registration  

PubMed Central

Prebiopsy multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), followed by transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-G) target biopsies (TB) of the prostate is a key combination for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (CSPCa), to avoid prostate cancer (PCa) overtreatment. Several techniques are available for guiding TB to the suspicious mp-MRI targets, but the simplest, cheapest, and easiest to learn is “cognitive,” with visual registration of MRI and TRUS data. This review details the successive steps of the method (target detection, mp-MRI reporting, intermodality fusion, TRUS guidance to target, sampling simulation, sampling, TRUS session reporting, and quality insurance), how to optimize each, and the global indications of mp-MRI-targeted biopsies. We discuss the diagnostic yield of visually-registered TB in comparison with conventional biopsy, and TB performed using other registration methods. PMID:25525605

Puech, Philippe; Ouzzane, Adil; Gaillard, Vianney; Betrouni, Nacim; Renard, Benoit; Villers, Arnauld; Lemaitre, Laurent



Nocardiosis dissemination following transthoracic needle biopsy: two case reports.  


Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare respiratory infection whose diagnosis can easily be missed because there are no suggestive symptoms. Nocardiosis is typically regarded as an opportunistic infection, but one-third of infected patients are immunocompetent. We present two situations of pulmonary lesions in immunocompetent people. A CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy was performed in both cases but was not informative. Suppurative inflammation had developed as a complication of the procedure in the biopsy site after 1-2 weeks. Pus was aspirated and culture showed Nocardia spp. Therefore we hypothesize that the pulmonary lesion was caused initially by Nocardia which had subsequently disseminated to the chest wall after the biopsy. Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was undertaken. Resolution of the disease was evaluated according to the clinical symptoms and radiological resolution after 6 months therapy. PMID:20610935

Forner, Gabriella; Mengoli, Carlo; Fuser, Rodolfo; Scotton, Pier Giorgio



Processing of nerve biopsies: A practical guide for neuropathologists  

PubMed Central

Nerve biopsy is a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of peripheral neuropathies. Currently, major indications include interstitial pathologies such as suspected vasculitis and amyloidosis, atypical cases of inflammatory neuropathy and the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies that cannot be specified otherwise. However, surgical removal of a piece of nerve causes a sensory deficit and – in some cases – chronic pain. Therefore, a nerve biopsy is usually performed only when other clinical, laboratory and electrophysiological methods have failed to clarify the cause of disease. The neuropathological work-up should include at least paraffin and resin semithin histology using a panel of conventional and immunohistochemical stains. Cryostat section staining, teased fiber preparations, electron microscopy and molecular genetic analyses are potentially useful additional methods in a subset of cases. Being performed, processed and read by experienced physicians and technicians nerve biopsies can provide important information relevant for clinical management. PMID:22192700

Weis, Joachim; Brandner, Sebastian; Lammens, Martin; Sommer, Claudia; Vallat, Jean-Michel



Uses of Skin Biopsy for Sensory and Autonomic Nerve Assessment  

PubMed Central

Skin biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for small-fiber-predominant neuropathy by the quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). It has the unique advantage of being a minimally invasive procedure with the potential for longitudinal evaluation of both sensory and autonomic fibers. Unmyelinated small fibers are not otherwise quantified objectively with such a level of sensitivity as has been reported with IENFD. Recent advances include an expansion of the skin punch biopsy technique to evaluate larger myelinated fibers and mechanoreceptors, and recent work has also focused on additional methods of quantifying dermal fibers and densely innervated autonomic structures. This review discusses current work using skin biopsy for the pathologic analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in neuropathy of various causes as well as its use in clinical trials. PMID:23250768

Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.



Optimal combinations for detection of prostate cancer: systematic sextant and laterally directed biopsies versus systematic sextant and color doppler-targeted biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine the accuracy of different combinations of biopsies in detecting prostate cancer. The standard sextant protocol for obtaining prostate biopsy underestimates the presence of prostate cancer. Conversely, an increased cancer detection rate has been obtained with additional laterally directed biopsies. The results of the studies dedicated to transrectal color Doppler (CD) sonography have shown that it might detect neoplastic

Sergey Kravchick; Shmuel Cytron; Ronit Peled; Daniel London; Yosef Sibi; David Ben-Dor



Febrile Urinary Tract Infection After Prostate Biopsy and Quinolone Resistance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Complications after prostate biopsy have increased and various causes have been reported. Growing evidence of increasing quinolone resistance is of particular concern. In the current retrospective study, we evaluated the incidence of infectious complications after prostate biopsy and identified the risk factors. Materials and Methods The study population included 1,195 patients who underwent a prostate biopsy between January 2007 and December 2012 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Cases of febrile UTI that occurred within 7 days were investigated. Clinical information included age, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era. Patients received quinolone (250 mg intravenously) before and after the procedure, and quinolone (250 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 3 days. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to investigate the predictive factors for febrile UTI. Results Febrile UTI developed in 39 cases (3.1%). Core numbers increased from 2007 (8 cores) to 2012 (12 cores) and quinolone-resistant bacteria began to appear in 2010 (quinolone-resistance era). In the univariate analysis, core number?12 (p=0.024), body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2 (p=0.004), and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.014) were significant factors. However, in the multivariate analysis adjusted for core number, the results were not significant, with the exception of BMI>25 kg/m2 (p=0.011) and biopsy during the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.035), which were significantly associated with febrile UTI. Conclusions Quinolone resistance is the main cause of postbiopsy infections in our center. We suggest that further evaluation is required to validate similar trends. Novel strategies to find alternative prophylactic agents are also necessary. PMID:25324949

Choi, Joong Won; Chang, In Ho; Kim, Kyung Do; Moon, Young Tae; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Min Su; Kwon, Jong Kyou



Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.



Poorly differentiated component in gastric pinch biopsies predicts submucosal invasion  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic resection has become standard therapy for selected patients with early gastric carcinoma (EGC). However, the preoperative diagnostic accuracy for excluding submucosal (SM) invasion is not precise. Moreover, histologic features predicting SM invasion in gastric carcinomas (SMiGC) have not been studied extensively. Methods Pre-treatment gastric biopsies from 60 patients with SM invasion who underwent endoscopic resection were reviewed and compared to 58 biopsies of lesions confirmed to be intramucosal carcinomas (IMC). For validation of the results, an independent cohort consisting of 616 gastric biopsies confirmed as EGC were analyzed. For statistical analyses, ?-square test, Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic progression tests were used. Results In the biopsy specimens of patients with SMiGCs, differentiated histology, poorly differentiated component, wisps of muscularis mucosa, tumor cribriforming, papillary architecture, desmoplasia and intraglandular eosinophilic necrotic debris (IEND) were observed in 96.7%, 36.7%, 16.7%, 16.7%, 23.3%, 40%, and 46.7% of cases, respectively, while the same features were observed in 100%, 5.2%, 0%, 1.7%, 5.2%, 19%, and 22.4% of biopsies with IMC. In multivariate analyses, poorly differentiated component [odds ratio (OR), 9.59, p?=?0.002], IEND [OR, 6.23, p?=?0.012], tumor cribriforming [OR, 4.66, p?=?0.03] and papillary architecture [OR, 5.52, p?=?0.018] were significantly associated with the detection of SM invasion. In the validation cohort, poorly differentiated component (p?=?0.003) and papillary architecture (p?=?0.008) remained significant. Conclusion Poorly differentiated component and papillary architecture are significant histopathologic predictors of SM invasion in pretreatment gastric biopsies of lesions considered for endoscopic therapy. Additional prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: PMID:24555807



Three-dimensional ultrasound-guided breast biopsy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a mechanically constrained, 3D ultrasound- guided core-needle breast biopsy device. With modest breast compression, 3D ultrasound scans localize suspicious masses. A biopsy needle is mechanically guided into position for firing into the sampling region. Th needle is parallel to the transducer, allowing real-time guidance during needle insertion. Lesion sampling is verified by another ultrasound image after firing. Two procedures quantified targeting accuracy of this apparatus. First, we biopsied eleven breast phantoms containing 123 embedded, cylindrical lesions constructed from PVA-C (poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel) with diameters ranging from 1.6 to 15.9mm. Identification of the colored lesion in the biopsy sample and analysis of the post-biopsy US images provided a model for the success rates. Using this, we predict that our apparatus will require six passes to biopsy a 3.0 mm lesion with 99% confidence. For the second experiment, agar phantoms were embedded with four rows of 0.8mm stainless steel beads. A 14-gauge needle was inserted to each bead position seen in a 3D ultrasound scan and the tip position was compared to the pre-insertion bead position. The inter-observer standard errors of measurement were less than 0.15 and 0.28mm for the bead and needle tip positions, respectively. The off-axis 3D 95% confidence intervals were determined to have widths between 0.43 and 1.71mm, depending on direction and bead position.

Smith, Wendy L.; Surry, Kathleen J. M.; Campbell, Laura; Mills, Greg; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron



Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers: Star Formation Efficiency in the Western Tail of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios < 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{\\alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({\\Sigma}SFR) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed ...

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf; Wehner, Elizabeth; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L1



Why do Birds have Tails? The Tail as a Drag Reducing Flap, and Trim Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds have tails, bats do not. Does this fundamental difference in flight morphology reveal a difference in flight capability, and if so are birds or bats better fliers? I use Munk's stagger theorem, and Prandtl's relation for the induced drag of a biplane to show that for a given lift, and given wingspan, the induced drag of the wing-tail combination

Adrian L. R. Thomas



Needle biopsy diagnosis of solitary amyloid nodule of the lung.  


Solitary amyloid nodule of the lung is an unusual form of localized amyloidosis which is rarely diagnosed prior to surgical resection. This report describes a case of solitary amyloid nodule of the lung which was suggested prospectively on the initial needle biopsy. The histologic and cytologic features of the lesion appear to be characteristic and may allow a definitive diagnosis to be made on needle biopsy. The differential diagnosis from necrotic tumor and medullary carcinoma is described. The subsequently resected nodule was studied by both electron microscopy and immunofluorescent techniques. Immunofluorescent staining failed to confirm an origin of the lesion from a single clone of plasma cells. PMID:6931466

Tomashefski, J F; Cramer, S F; Abramowsky, C; Cohen, A M; Horak, G



The kidney biopsy in lupus nephritis: is it still relevant?  


The kidney biopsy is the standard of care for diagnosis of lupus nephritis and remains necessary to ensure accurate diagnosis and guide treatment. Repeat biopsy should be considered when therapy modifications are necessary, as in cases with incomplete or no response, or when stopping therapy for those in remission. There are several promising biomarkers of kidney disorders; however, these markers need to be validated in a prospective clinical trial before being applied clinically. Molecular analysis may provide the information presently lacking from current evaluation of kidney disorders and may better inform on prognosis and treatment considerations. PMID:25034161

Rovin, Brad H; Parikh, Samir V; Alvarado, Anthony



Laparoscopically assisted liver biopsy with a hemostatic plug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Percutaneous and open liver biopsies are routine procedures for diagnosing liver pathology. However, the procedure can carry\\u000a significant morbidity and even mortality, especially in the event of an uncorrectable coagulopathy or a highly vascular tumor.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A technique described for use in such circumstances involves laparoscopy for identification of the lesion to be biopsied,\\u000a enables placement of a gelatin hemostatic plug

J. S. Karpelowsky; A. Numanoglu; N. M. A. Bax; H. Rode



Catastrophic sepsis and hemorrhage following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies.  


We report 2 cases of catastrophic complications following routine transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. The first patient incurred near-fatal septic shock due to multi-resistant Escherichia coli. Due to the severity of his shock, he developed bilateral leg gangrene requiring amputations. The second patient incurred significant hemorrhage eventually requiring an emergent general anesthesia and surgical management to control hemorrhage after other measures failed. While rare events, these reports emphasize the caution needed for physicians who routinely order prostate biopsies. PMID:20174484

Toren, Paul; Razik, Roshan; Trachtenberg, John



Thoracoscopic lung biopsy in a patient with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) during thoracoscopic lung biopsy\\u000a (TSLB).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  LAM is a rare idiopathic disease characterised by progressive deterioration in respiratory function, occurring almost exclusively\\u000a in women. In establishing the diagnosis, an open lung biopsy (OLB) has been employed in patients with relatively normal lung\\u000a function. However, TSLB rather than OLB

Tatsusuke Yoshikawa; Zen’ichiro Wajima; Akira Ogura; Kazuyuki Imanaga; Tetsuo Inoue



Detection of Ockelbo virus RNA in skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

A sensitive assay based on the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Ockelbo virus RNA was developed. Two primer pairs from the gene coding for the E2 glycoprotein were chosen. By use of a nested strategy for the primers, as few as 1 to 10 PFU could be detected. The amplified products were visualized as bands of appropriate size on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. The primer pairs allowed amplification of several Ockelbo and Sindbis virus isolates but discriminated between these and other alphaviruses. Ockelbo virus RNA was detected in 4 of 10 skin biopsy specimens collected during the acute stage of the disease. The identities of the amplified products were confirmed by restriction endonuclease cleavage. Acute- and convalescent-phase sera as well as lymphocytes collected during the convalescent phase were negative by the polymerase chain reaction. No infectious virus could be recovered from any of the specimens. Images PMID:8396582

Hörling, J; Vene, S; Franzén, C; Niklasson, B




Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez



X-Ray Tail in NGC 7619  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the southwest direction; moreover, we identify for the first time a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (northeast) side of the galaxy. The density, temperature, and pressure jump at the northeast discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to the surrounding hot gas. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (<=1/2 solar), indicating that the gas in the tail is originated from the galaxy. The possible origin of the head-tail structure is either ongoing ram pressure stripping or sloshing. The morphology of the structure is more in line with a ram pressure stripping phenomenon, while the position of NGC 7619 at the center of the Pegasus I group, and its dominance, would prefer sloshing.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eunhyeuk; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Trinchieri, Ginevra



Collecting Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, takes a look at collecting plant specimens. The article discusses what tools are needed to collect specimens, how to press and dry specimens and has tips for numbering and labeling specimens.


Collecting apparatus  


An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)



Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

Beedlow, P.A.



Pseudoxanthoma elasticum confirmed by genetic analysis but not by skin biopsy: a case report and review of the literature.  


In patients with angioid streaks, additional investigations are useful to identify underlying systemic disease, unless age and short peripapillary streaks are indicative of senile streaks as an isolated abnormality. In middle-aged or young adults with angioid streaks and no obvious systemic disease, the possibility of a hemoglobulinopathy or pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) as etiologic entities should be investigated. Hemoglobinopathies can be excluded based on blood screening and the absence of typical ocular fundus changes, such as retinal vessel tortuosity. This allows making a presumed clinical diagnosis of PXE in patients with angioid streaks, based on exclusion of a hemoglobinopathy, and on the presence of extensive angioid streaks, peau d'orange, crystalline bodies and comet tail lesions. For confirmation of PXE, the gold standard was dermatologic examination and skin biopsy, but since the last decade molecular diagnosis is available. In rare cases, PXE can be diagnosed using molecular techniques in patients with apparently normal skin and negative skin biopsies, as demonstrated in this case and another case published in 2011. PMID:24923087

Van Loey, S; Leys, A



Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats  

PubMed Central

Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.



Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 "By our galactic standards, these are extremely lonely stars," said Mark Voit, another team member from MSU. "If life was to form out there on a planet a few billion years from now, they would have very dark skies." The gas that formed the orphan stars was stripped out of its parent galaxy by the pressure induced by the motion of the galaxy through the multimillion degree gas that pervades the intergalactic space of the galaxy cluster. Eventually most of the gas will be scoured from the galaxy, depleting the raw material for new stars, and effectively stopping further star formation in the galaxy. This process may represent an important but short-lived stage in the transformation of a galaxy. Although apparently rare in the present-day universe, galactic tails of gas and orphan stars may have been more common billions of years ago when galaxies were younger and richer in star-forming gas. These results will appear in the December 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. The SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope) is a joint project of Michigan State University, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas (CNPq-Brazil), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.



Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat



An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  


An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M



Construction and preliminary evaluation of copper tailings reclamation test plots at Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty pilot-scale test plots were constructed in mid-1998 at the Cyprus Miami mine to investigate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of various reclamation strategies for establishment of self-sustaining native vegetation on acidic copper tailings. Four reclamation strategies are being tested: (1) directly covering acidic tailings with varying thicknesses f cover soil; (2) removing and/or neutralizing particularly acidic surgical tailings before soil cover placement, (3) chemically and/or physically inhibiting upward water and solute movement using neutralizing and neutral capillary barriers, and (4) constructing a subgrade of neutral tailings beneath cover soil. Preliminary results suggest that thicker soil covers and capillary barrier test plots initially support vegetation to a greater extent than other test plots, probably because of their increased moisture storage capacity. Results also suggest that salts are beginning to migrate upward from underlying tailings into cover soil. Data collected from ongoing vegetation surveys and soil testing will be used to evaluate the effect of various reclamation strategies on vegetation establishment and the potential impact of upward salt migration.

Chammas, G.A.; McCaulou, D.R.; Jones, G.L.



Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.



Optical Biopsy in Human Pancreatobiliary Tissue Using Optical Coherence  

E-print Network

Optical Biopsy in Human Pancreatobiliary Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography G.J. TEARNEY, Ph-sectional tomographic imaging in human tissue. OCT is analogous to ultrasound B mode imaging except that it uses light, and pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The ability of OCT to provide high-re solution imaging of pancreatobiliary

Boppart, Stephen


Endoscopic biopsy is diagnostic in gastric antral vascular ectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric antral vascular ectasia was endoscopically diagnosed in seven patients. Pathologic characteristics of this entity were defined retrospectively, by studying endoscopic pinch biopsy slides from these seven patients and antrectomy specimens from five patients. A scoring system was developed, and the seven patients were compared prospectively with various control groups. Abnormalities of mucosal vessels (fibrin thrombi and\\/or ectasia) consistently distinguished

John H. Gilliam; Kim R. Geisinger; Wallace C. Wu; Noel Weidner; Joel E. Richter



Biopsy findings in malignant histiocytosis presenting as lethal midline granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal biopsy findings in malignant histiocytosis presenting clinically as lethal midline granuloma are characterised by necrosis and infiltration of atypical histiocytic cells with a diffuse positive reaction for non-specific esterase. This cellular character was common to midline malignant reticulosis, and midline malignant reticulosis and malignant histiocytosis are thought to be the same disease. Patterns of histiocytic infiltration in the nasal

K Aozasa



Observer variability in histopathological reporting of cervical biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sections from 100 cervical biopsy specimens were studied by 12 consultant histopathologists to determine the robustness of the existing pathology terminology and classification. Analysis by kappa statistics showed good agreement in the diagnosis of CIN 3 and squamous carcinoma but an inability to distinguish accurately between the lesser grades of CIN. It is recommended that the classification be changed to

A J Robertson; J M Anderson; J S Beck; R A Burnett; S R Howatson; F D Lee; A M Lessells; K M McLaren; S M Moss; J G Simpson



Hyperspectral Colon Biopsy Classification into Normal and Malignant Categories  

E-print Network

and cure of colon cancer can be improved by efficiently clas- sifying the colon tissue cells from biopsy.1 Colon Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Hyperspectral Imaging Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Colon Cancer Colon cancer

Rajpoot, Nasir



E-print Network

Wolfson Medical Vision Lab University of Oxford UK ABSTRACT Diagnosis and cure of colon cancer can between the benign and malignant classes of the colon tissue biopsies. 1. INTRODUCTION Colon cancer is a malignant disease of the large bowel. Af- ter lung and breast cancer, colorectal cancer (a combined term

Qureshi, Hammad


M. tuberculosis in Lymph Node Biopsy Paraffin-Embedded Sections  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is one of the most common forms of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Objective. To evaluate the magnitude of M. tuberculosis from lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections among suspected patients visiting the Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Method. A cross-sectional study design of histological examination among lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections by Ziehl-Neelsen and hematoxylin/eosin staining technique was conducted from December, 2009, to October, 2010, at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Pathology. Result. Histopathological examination of the specimens by hematoxylin and eosin staining technique revealed the presence of granulomas. But for the caseation and necrosis they were present in 85% cases of nodal tissue biopsies. From those, 56.7% were from females. The presence of acid-fast bacilli was microscopically confirmed by ZN staining in 37 (61.7%) of the nodal tissue biopsies. Conclusion and Recommendation. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is significantly more common in females. Hence, attention should be given for control and prevention of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:22567262

Eshete, Abdurehman; Zeyinudin, Ahmed; Ali, Solomon; Abera, Solomon; Mohammed, Mona



Quantification of Spatial Structure of Human Proximal Tibial Bone Biopsies  

E-print Network

acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity analysis, measures of complexity, micro-CT, osteoporosis, histomorphometry PACS: 87.57.-s, 87.59.Fm, 81 tibial bone biopsies acquired by micro-CT. We propose that the structure of the bone can be regarded

Prohaska, Steffen



PubMed Central

Objectives To describe a novel surgical technique for complete excision of a rectovaginal fistula tract using a disposable biopsy punch during a transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair and present our initial surgical experience. Methods Description of four cases of simple rectovaginal fistulas and an innovative surgical technique for the complete excision of the fistula tract using a disposable biopsy punch. Results Successful three, nine and twelve month follow up of four cases with simple rectovaginal fistulas after transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair using a novel approach for complete fistula tract excision with a disposable biopsy punch and layered non overlapping suture closure. Demographic information reported included age, parity, medical and surgical history as well as fistula characteristics including size, location, presenting symptoms and duration of symptoms. We describe our operative technique with picture description. Conclusion This novel approach using a disposable punch biopsy device to complete excision of simple rectovaginal fistula tracts during a transvaginal rectovaginal fistula repair can help with achieving a successful surgical outcome. PMID:24368490

Adelowo, Amos; Ellerkmann, Richard; Rosenblatt, Peter



Toward guided breast biopsy using diffractive energy imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Diagnostics, Inc. (ADI) has developed a technique using Diffractive Energy Imaging (DEI) to provide an accurate, non-ionizing method for continuously tracking biopsy needles. The method utilizes ultrasound to generate large field-of-view, high resolution, multiplanar images. Accurate, real-time biopsy guidance using DEI is possible by identifying the physical relationship between a lesion and a focal plane or image slice. The lesion is located by progressively focusing through the breast volume until the lesion is visualized with enough clarity to distinguish it from surrounding tissue. The selected focal plane identifies the lesion location along a medial-lateral axis through the breast. This plane is identified for the physician using a laser point to paint a line on the skin surface. Cartesian coordinates applied to the image slice define a location for surgical incision and needle entry along this focal plane. Maintaining the needle within the defined focal plane and tracking the needle in real-time on a high-resolution monitor ensures a direct line approach through the tissue to the targeted lesion. Data indicate that physicians experienced in biopsy but without prior DEI operational experience are successful in acquiring simulated targets embedded in biopsy phantoms.

Fecht, Barbara A.; Jensen, Patrick S.



Cerebral salt wasting after pituitary exploration and biopsy: case report.  


We report a case of hyponatremia associated with volume depletion after pituitary exploration and biopsy. The presence of clinical dehydration precluded diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The absence of a hypoadrenal state and the patient's response to volume reexpansion were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cerebral salt wasting. PMID:3703220

Andrews, B T; Fitzgerald, P A; Tyrell, J B; Wilson, C B



Histopathology of Thalassemic Heart Disease: An Endomyocardial Biopsy Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right ventricle endomyocardial biopsies were obtained from 13 thalassemic patients. Clinical profiles were investigated, and serum ferritin tests were assessed using diagnostic kits. Histochemical iron detection (Perls method) and immunohistochemical stain for ferritin were performed in the endomyocardial samples. Histologic iron overload was observed in eight patients, and variable iron deposits were recognized by a semiquantitative method. There was a



An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients.

Bachand, Francois; Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Harel, Francois M.Sc. [Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail:



The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution  

SciTech Connect

We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

Papazyan, Romeo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rozengurt, Enrique [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rey, Osvaldo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)]. E-mail:



The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni’s correction when necessary. Overall diagnostic yield was 90.6% for all 309 lesions (bone 91.6% vs. soft tissue 89.3%, p?=?0.5125). The diagnostic accuracy of the 185 core needle biopsies, which were confirmed by definitive surgical biopsies, was 84.3% (bone 88.9% vs. soft tissue 79.1%, p?=?0.0669). The yields of homogenous bone tumours (96.8%) were not significantly higher than those of bone tumours with a heterogenic architecture (86.4%, p?=?0.0794). The difference between accuracies for homogenous bone tumours (89.1%) and heterogenous bone tumours (85.0%) was not significant (p?=?0.6930). However, for soft tissue tumours, homogenous tumours had a significantly higher diagnostic yield than heterogenous tumours (97.5% vs. 81.4%, p?=?0.0036). Diagnostic accuracy for homogenous tumours was also significantly higher than that for heterogenous soft tissue tumours (94.4% vs. 60.6%, p?biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions is a safe and effective procedure if it is performed selectively in soft tissue tumours with homogenous architectures. PMID:19655141

Sung, Ki-Sun; Shon, Min-Soo



Breast biopsy in women 30 years old or less.  


Forty women 30 years of age or less underwent breast biopsy at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between January 1980 and January 1989. Thirty-eight of the 40 women had a palpable breast mass. Thirty-one of these young women had self-detected breast masses, and the median duration before presentation was 6 months. Physical characteristics were described in 30 of the masses. Twenty-three were described as "fibroadenomas" or smooth, firm, and mobile. Seven masses were described as irregular. The median size of the breast mass was 1.5 cm (range: 0.5 to 9.0 cm). Mammography was performed in 20 patients, but results were reported as abnormal in only 6. Twenty of the masses were described histologically as fibroadenoma. Twelve were described histologically as "fibrocystic disease" or "stromal fibrosis." One case (2.5%) was invasive adenocarcinoma. Probability of serious underlying breast pathology in young women is low but not nil. Noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are proposed by some authors as cost-efficient methods that may substitute for open biopsy in these patients. Unfortunately, false-negative results persist and are particularly unacceptable in these young women. During the same time period as our study, 54 women aged 30 years or less were referred to Roswell Park Cancer Institute with a previously diagnosed invasive breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer in this biopsy series was 2.5%. The potential costs of misdiagnosed early breast cancer in young women negate any rationalization for less invasive biopsy techniques. Following aspiration to rule out a benign cyst, and a possible period of brief observation for spontaneous resolution (2 or 3 months), excisional biopsy is recommended for young women with a breast mass. PMID:8506971

Palmer, M L; Tsangaris, T N



Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for breast cancer.  


Sonographic examination of the breast with state-of-the-art equipment has become an essential part of the clinical work-up of breast lesions and a valuable adjunct to mammographic screening and physical examination. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) are well-established, valuable techniques that are still used in most cases, whereas vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a more recent technique. VABB has proven clinical value and can be used under sonographic, mammographic, and magnetic resonance imaging guidance. The main indication for the use of VABB is for biopsies of clustered microcalcifications, which are usually performed under stereotactic guidance. This method has been proven reliable and should replace surgical biopsies. The ultrasound-guided procedure is still more a matter of discussion, but it should also replace surgical biopsies for nodular lesions, and it should even replace surgery for the complete removal of benign lesions. This viewpoint is gradually gaining acceptance. Different authors have shown increased diagnostic accuracy of VABB compared to FNA and CNB. VABB particularly leads to less histological underestimation. The other indications for VABB are palpable or nonpalpable nodular lesions or American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 and 4A lesions. For masses that are likely benign or indeterminate, we attempt to completely remove the lesion to eliminate uncertainty on later follow-up images. VABB offers the best possible histological sampling and aids avoidance of unnecessary operations. VABB complications include bleeding or pain during the procedure, as well as postoperative pain, hemorrhaging, and hematomas. But, these hemorrhaging could be controlled by the post-procedural compression and bed resting. Overall, VABB is a reliable sampling technique with few complications, is relatively easy to use, and is well-tolerated by patients. The larger amount of extracted tissue reduces sampling error. PMID:25083505

Park, Hai-Lin; Hong, Jisun



Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others



The Reliability of Endoscopic Biopsies in Assessing HER2 Status in Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Study Comparing Biopsies with Surgical Samples  

PubMed Central

AIM: The aim of this study is to validate the accuracy of HER2 assessment on biopsies by comparing matched biopsy/surgical material from the same patients. METHODS: HER2 status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 103 cases of gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers in coupled biopsy and surgical material. RESULT: Complete concordance between IHC and FISH results on biopsy versus surgical samples was noted in 80% and 95% of cases, respectively. At comprehensive comparison, including IHC and FISH data on biopsy and surgical samples, 89% of biopsies were predictive of HER2 status in surgical samples, whereas 11% showed variable inconsistencies. The majority of these (10 of 12 cases) showed IHC score 0/1+ on biopsy but were all IHC positive and amplified at surgery; in particular, three (3 of 35; 8.5%) IHC score 0 and four (4 of 16; 25%) IHC score 1+ cases were FISH amplified on biopsy material also, whereas the remaining three cases were FISH non-amplified on biopsy. The percentage of cases, which were FISH amplified with IHC score 1+ or 2+ on biopsies, were similar (25% and 33%, respectively) and they also shared a similar grade of amplification. These data suggest that both IHC score 1+ and 2+ on biopsy material represent “equivocal cases” that may merit further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive value of HER2 IHC in biopsies is high. FISH analysis should be considered for IHC score 2+ and 1+ biopsy cases. Approximately 8% of cases will not be accurately predicted by biopsy evaluation. PMID:23418612

Grillo, Federica; Fassan, Matteo; Ceccaroli, Chiara; Giacometti, Cinzia; Curto, Monica; Zagonel, Vittorina; Ceppa, Paola; Nitti, Donato; Castoro, Carlo; Fiocca, Roberto; Rugge, Massimo; Mastracci, Luca



Revisiting Directed Polymers with heavy-tailed disorder  

E-print Network

In this mostly numerical study, we revisit the statistical properties of the ground state of a directed polymer in a $d=1+1$ "hilly" disorder landscape, i.e. when the quenched disorder has power-law tails. When disorder is Gaussian, the polymer minimizes its total energy through a collective optimization, where the energy of each visited site only weakly contributes to the total. Conversely, a hilly landscape forces the polymer to distort and explore a larger portion of space to reach some particularly deep energy sites. As soon as the fifth moment of the disorder diverges, this mechanism radically changes the standard "KPZ" scaling behaviour of the directed polymer, and new exponents prevail. After confirming again that the Flory argument accurately predicts these exponent in the tail-dominated phase, we investigate several other statistical features of the ground state that shed light on this unusual transition and on the accuracy of the Flory argument. We underline the theoretical challenge posed by this situation, which paradoxically becomes even more acute above the upper critical dimension.

Thomas Gueudré; Pierre Le Doussal; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Alberto Rosso




SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)



Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  


The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert



Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert



Mobility of heavy metals from tailings to stream waters in a mining activity contaminated site.  


In this paper the results of a recent characterization of Rio Piscinas (SW of Sardinia, Italy) hydrological basin are reported. In such area (about 50 km2), previous mining activities caused a serious heavy metal contamination of surface waters, groundwater, soils and biota. Acid mine drainage phenomena were observed in the area. The main sources of contamination are the tailings stored in mine tunnels and abandoned along fluvial banks. A methodological approach was adopted in order to identify relations between tailings and water contamination. Representative samples of tailings and stream sediments samples were collected. XRD analyses were performed for mineralogical characterization, while acid digestion was carried out for determining metal contents. Batch sequential leaching tests were performed in order to assess metal mobility. Also groundwater and stream water were sampled in specific locations and suitably characterized. All information collected allowed the understanding of the effect of tailings on water contamination, thus contributing to the qualitative prediction of pollution evolution on the basis of metal mobility. Finally, a potential remediation strategy of stream water is proposed. PMID:16216301

Concas, A; Ardau, C; Cristini, A; Zuddas, P; Cao, G



Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.



Behavioural observations of puppies undergoing tail docking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of 50 puppies of traditionally docked breeds was recorded during and after the procedure of tail docking at the University of Queensland Companion Animal Veterinary Hospital. The behaviours were recorded at the time of the procedure and then in 5 second intervals for the first minute followed by 10 second intervals until the pup settled to sleep. All

G. J. Noonan; J. S. Rand; J. K. Blackshaw; J. Priest




Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that



Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.



Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.




E-print Network

­tail distributions, beta distribution, confluent hypergeometric function, Tricomi function, Laguerre series expan distributions functions, Laplace transforms, moments and asymptotics by exploiting connections to the Tricomi­ sions, special functions, random splitting, products of independent random variables ABSTRACT Motivated

Whitt, Ward


Fluidized-bed combustion of flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical water removal, the flotation tailings containing about 30% moisture are stored in silo (1) which is specially designed for this purpose. The lime required for desulphurizing the flue gas is stored in silo (2) Special silo-discharge device and weigh-feeders pass the two materials to the mixing screw in proportional rates in accordance with the sulphur content and guaranteed




Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O



The mine tailing accident in Aznalcollar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive amounts of acidic waters and mud (pH?3) containing toxic metals such as zinc, lead, arsenic, copper, antimony, cobalt, thallium, bismuth, cadmium, silver, mercury and selenium were released in the surroundings of Doñana Park as a consequence of the mine tailings spill accident in Aznalcollar (SW Spain). This introductory paper describes the main characteristics of Doñana Park, the mine activities

Joan O Grimalt; Miguel Ferrer; Enrique Macpherson



VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)



Transverse tails and higher order moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tails that may be engendered in a beam's transverse phase space distribution by, e.g., intrabunch wakefields and nonlinear magnetic fields, are an important diagnostic and object of tuning in linear colliders. Wire scanners or phosphorescent screen monitors yield one dimensional projected spatial profiles of such beams that are generically asymmetric around their centroids, and therefore require characterization by the

W. L. Spence; F.-J. Decker; M. D. Woodley



Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.  


The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T



Correlations in quantum plasmas. II. Algebraic tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a system of point charges that interact through the three-dimensional electrostatic Coulomb potential (without any regularization) and obey the laws of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Bose or Fermi statistics, the static correlations between particles are shown to have a 1\\/r6 tail, at least at distances that are large with respect to the length of exponential screening. After a review

F. Cornu




E-print Network

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÃ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium


Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.



Significance of Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation and High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose In clinical practice, atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are two common findings on prostate biopsies. Knowing the frequency of a prostate cancer diagnosis on repeat biopsies would aid primary treating physicians regarding their decisions in suspicious cases. Materials and Methods One hundred forty-three patients in whom biopsies revealed ASAP or HGPIN or both were enrolled in the present study; prostate cancer was not reported in the biopsy specimens and at least one repeat biopsy was performed. Age, digital rectal examination findings, prostate volumes, and free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and the biopsy results of the patients were recorded. Results Of the 97 patients with ASAP on the first set of biopsies, prostate cancer was diagnosed in the second and third biopsies of 32 and 6 patients, respectively. Prostate cancer was not detected in the second or third biopsies of the 40 patients with HGPIN in the first biopsy. Of the 6 patients with ASAP+HGPIN in the first biopsy, prostate cancer was detected in 3 patients in the second biopsy and in 1 patient in the third biopsy. Conclusions The diagnosis of ASAP is a strong risk factor for prostate cancer. A repeat biopsy should be performed for the entire prostate subsequent to the diagnosis of ASAP. In patients with HGPIN according to the biopsy result, the clinical decision should be based on other parameters, such as PSA values and rectal examination, and a repeat biopsy should be avoided if the initial biopsy was performed with multiple sampling. PMID:22195261

Çal??kan, Selahattin; Öztürk, Metin ?shak; Güne?, Mustafa; Karaman, M. Ihsan



Detection of prostate cancer: a comparative study of the diagnostic efficacy of sextant transrectal versus sextant transperineal biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The optimal biopsy strategy for the detection of prostate cancer still needs to be established, since a considerable proportion of clinically significant cancers remains undiagnosed on routine sextant transrectal biopsy. To assess the efficacy of transperineal biopsy to detect prostate cancer, we compared this approach to systematic sextant transrectal biopsy in a simulation experiment.Methods. Ultrasound-guided sextant transverse (transrectal) biopsy

André N Vis; Michiel O Boerma; Stefano Ciatto; Robert F Hoedemaeker; Fritz H Schröder; Theo H van der Kwast



High-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM): a tool for visualizing skin biopsies.  


We evaluate the usefulness of digital volume data produced with the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) method for visualizing the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of components of human skin, and present protocols designed for processing skin biopsies for HREM data generation. A total of 328 biopsies collected from normally appearing skin and from a melanocytic nevus were processed. Cuboidal data volumes with side lengths of ~2×3×6 mm3 and voxel sizes of 1.07×1.07×1.5 µm3 were produced. HREM data fit ideally for visualizing the epidermis at large, and for producing highly detailed volume and surface-rendered 3D representations of the dermal and hypodermal components at a structural level. The architecture of the collagen fiber bundles and the spatial distribution of nevus cells can be easily visualized with volume-rendering algorithms. We conclude that HREM has great potential to serve as a routine tool for researching and diagnosing skin pathologies. PMID:25198556

Geyer, Stefan H; Nöhammer, Maria M; Mathä, Markus; Reissig, Lukas; Tinhofer, Ines E; Weninger, Wolfgang J



Any detectable thyroglobulin in lymph node biopsy washouts suggests local recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer.  


The sensitivity of local recurrence detection in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increased by measuring thyroglobulin in needle washouts from lymph node fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNA-Tg). Recent studies have proposed minimum diagnostic threshold values for FNA-Tg and have reported interference from Tg antibodies (Tg Ab), leading to low or false-negative results. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of local DTC recurrence in patients referred to a single pathology service used by our tertiary teaching hospital, the first such study in an Australian cohort. Data were collected from the pathology service database for FNA-Tg over an 18-month period, and the results of 69 FNA-Tg samples from 57 patients were obtained. FNA-Tg findings were compared with cytology and histology when patients proceeded to surgery. Using the functional sensitivity as the cut-off, detectable FNA-Tg (?0.9??g/l) had a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 50% and positive predictive value of 95.7%. Our results suggest that detectable FNA-Tg leads to histological confirmation of local nodal DTC recurrence and would support a decision to proceed to surgery. Serum Tg Ab can, however, interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Thus, we now recommend routine use of FNA-Tg washouts in all lymph node FNA biopsies for the detection of DTC recurrence. PMID:25125556

Yap, Natalie Su-Jing; Maher, Richard; Learoyd, Diana Louise



Peripheral compressing artifacts in brain tissue from stereotactic biopsy with side-cutting biopsy needle: a pitfall for adequate glioma grading  

PubMed Central

Aims: The stereotactic brain biopsy is an essential diagnostic procedure in modern neurologic patient management. A side-cutting biopsy needle is one of the most widely used needle types. Recently we found a characteristic tissue artifact named “peripheral compressing artifact” in the brain tissues biopsied using a side-cutting needle of Leksell’s system. We investigate prevalence, possible cause and its clinical implication of this type of artifact. Materials and methods: We examined the biopsies from 80 patients (44 cases of gliomas, 13 lymphomas, 7 germ cell tumors, 2 other tumors, 1 metastatic carcinoma, 4 non-tumorous conditions such as demyelinating disease and 8 non-diagnostic) in the stereotactic biopsy group with a suspected brain tumor, who underwent a stereotactic brain biopsy using side-cutting needle of Leksell’s system. We also evaluated 16 cases of open brain biopsies without Leksell’s system as a control group. Results: The artifact is a semi-circular or band-like tissue compression in the periphery of the biopsied tissue. This artifact was found in 30 (37.5%) out of 80 cases and 57 (11.9%) out of 477 biopsied pieces. It might be produced during rotating of the inner cannula of the biopsy needle. Histologically, it might be misinterpreted as “hypercellular”, “spindle”, “well circumscribed”, or rarely as “pseudopalisading” especially in glioma. Conclusions: Awareness of this artifact would help making the appropriate pathological diagnosis for glioma. PMID:22011740

Kim, S.H.; Chang, W.S.; Kim, J.P.; Minn, Y.K.; Choi, J.; Chang, J.W.; Kim, T.S.; Park, Y.G.; Chang, J.H.



Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ?1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ?10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 ?m size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (?-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni ?-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ?1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ?3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom



Evaluation of gastric biopsies for neoplasia: differences between Japanese and Western pathologists.  


Cited variations in the evaluation of gastric endoscopic biopsies for neoplasms between pathologists in Japan and those in the United States and Europe (the West) may have stemmed from several causes. The five-tiered group classification of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC) for interpretation of biopsies is not used in the West. Some differences may also exist in the morphologic criteria to reach a diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma. The goals of this study were to test the Western and Japanese classifications of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma and to assess the differences between four Japanese and seven Western pathologists. One hundred biopsies, 20 from each of the five categories of the JRSGC scheme as determined by one observer, were collected. The Japanese observers used the JRSGC system, expressed in Roman numerals, whereas Western pathologists used a five- or six-tiered scheme expressed in diagnostic terms. Pairwise agreement was evaluated using k statistics within both groups. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was accepted as the opinion of the majority. The sensitivity and specificity of each reviewer for a certain diagnosis were also assessed. The intragroup agreements were moderate for both the Japanese (mean k = 0.663) and the Westerners (mean k = 0.652). The pairwise agreements between Japanese and Western observers were low (mean k = 0.542). Overall, the sensitivity was low for all Japanese observers for the diagnosis of dysplasia (38.7% vs 92.5%), and the sensitivity for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was high in both groups but higher among the Japanese observers (93.9% and 85.2%, respectively). Overall, the Japanese-Western interobserver agreement was moderate. The JRSCG scheme did not translate into higher interobserver agreement among Japanese observers. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was high for both groups, but the specificity was low among the Japanese. The cause seemed to be centered around the diagnosis of dysplasia in the Western system, which was a lesion frequently interpreted as carcinoma in Japan because of the different definitions of carcinoma in each system. Such a discrepancy might be important because it may explain some of the differences in the prevalence and prognosis of early gastric cancer between Japan and the West. An international effort is needed to harmonize morphologic criteria and analyze whether therapeutic consequences may stem from such discrepancies. PMID:10328081

Lauwers, G Y; Shimizu, M; Correa, P; Riddell, R H; Kato, Y; Lewin, K J; Yamabe, H; Sheahan, D G; Lewin, D; Sipponen, P; Kubilis, P S; Watanabe, H



Upgrading and upstaging in prostate cancer: From prostate biopsy to radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of cancer-related mortality after lung cancer. Several studies have evaluated the correlation between bioptic and pathological Gleason score (GS), documenting a correlation ranging between 30 and 60%. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the association between bioptic and pathological GS in a series of patients undergoing prostate needle biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy. We also aimed to evaluate the possible prognostic factors of upgrading and upstaging. We prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed data from 300 consecutive patients who underwent radical retropubic or robot-assisted prostatectomy at our Institution. Patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy, transrectal or transperineal, with a minimum of 5 samples, were included in this study. Upgrading and downgrading were defined as increase or decrease, respectively, from one prognostic grade group to another, similar to up- or downstaging. The mean age of the patients was 62.97 years and the mean prostate-spesific antigen (PSA) level was 7.83 ng/ml. A total of 51.3% of the population underwent a transperineal prostate biopsy. The most frequently represented bioptic GS was 3+3 (64.0%) followed by 3+4=7 (15.6%); the most frequent pathological Gleason score was 3+4 (44.3%), followed by 3+3 (31.0%). With reagard to the bioptic GS 4-5-6 group, approximately half of the specimens (46.7%) were subsequently upgraded to GS 3+4, and 5.3% to 4+3. With regards to the bioptic GS 3+4 group, 57.4% was confirmed in the surgical specimen. In the 4+3 group, 23.5% of the cases was downgraded to 3+4 and 35.3% was confirmed. With regards to stage, ~39.7% of the patients received an upstaging on the pathological specimen. We evaluated the correlations between preoperative serum PSA level, prostate volume, digital rectal examination and biopsy type and none of the variables considered exhibited a correlation with any upgrading (P>0.05). Moreover, we evaluated the correlations between the aforementioned variables and upstaging and, at the multivariate analysis, only a serum PSA <4 ng/ml was found to be an independent variable predictive of upstaging (P=0.017). Therefore, new tools are required to predict upgrading and upstaging of our patients, in order to ensure better counseling for optimal treatment planning. PMID:25279213




Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails  

SciTech Connect

Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions.

Higashi, Tsunehito [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Isobe, Keisuke [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morimoto, Akihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Shimada, Tomoko [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Shogo [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe, Wataru [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyoshi [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail:



14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV


Collecting Rocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

Barker, Rachel M.


Data Collection  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the various systems that are used for navigation, logging, and data collection during the trip. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued understanding ...


Collective Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the notion of collective intentionin teams of agents involved in cooperative problem solving(CPS) in multiagent systems(MAS) is investigated. Starting from individual inten- tions, goals ,a ndbeliefs defining agents' local asocial motivational and informational attitudes, we arrive at an understanding of a collective intention in a team of agents. The presented definitions are rather strong, in particular a

Barbara Dunin-keplicz; Rineke Verbrugge



Collective Enumeration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint



Jay's Collectibles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.



Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela



Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and

J. J. Zonderland; B. Kemp; M. B. M. Bracke; Hartog den L. A; H. A. M. Spoolder



Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.  


In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J



The Power Principle and Tail-Fatness Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

When insurance claims are governed by fat-tailed distributions, gross uncertainty about the value of the tail-fatness index is virtually inescapable. In this paper a new premium principle (the power principle) analogous to the exponential principle for thin-tailed claims, is discussed. Pareto premiums determined under the principle have a transparent ratio structure, cater convincingly for uncertainty in the tail-fatness index, and

Roger Gay



Six Additional Systematic Lateral Cores Enhance Sextant Biopsy Prediction of Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the contribution of 6 additional systematically obtained, laterally directed biopsy cores to traditional sextant biopsy for the prediction of final pathological findings in the radical prostatectomy specimen.




Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.



Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from black- and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and Cynomys leucurus) in central and southeast Wyoming.  


Feces collected from live-trapped black- (Cynomys ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) from central and southeastern Wyoming were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of eimerian species. Six species (Eimeria adaensis [black-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 33%, white-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 51%], Eimeria beecheyi [8%, 28%], Eimeria callosper-mophili [64%, 71%], Eimeria lateralis [3%, 7%], Eimeria morainensis [19%, 8%], and Eimeria spermophili [2%, 1%]) were identified from both host species. Eimeria pseudospermophili was found infecting only black-tailed (prevalence = 1%) and Eimeria bilamellata only in white-tailed prairie dogs (2%). Reinfections in individual hosts were observed with E. callospermophili and E. adaensis. Comparison of these results with the published literature suggests that the host genera Cynomys and Spermophilus share a common guild of eimerians and that members of this guild have a long evolutionary association with these hosts, or host switching, or both, is common between these groups. PMID:9057719

Seville, R S



Transvenous hepatic biopsy in stable Fontan patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.  


Liver pathology complicates Fontan palliation. Previous reports established that both hepatic sinusoidal and portal fibrosis occur in patients after Fontan procedures. Past studies predominantly included symptomatic patient cohorts. Thus, the authors of this study aimed to characterize hepatic pathology via transvenous hepatic biopsies in 21 asymptomatic patients at the time of elective cardiac catheterization. Seven of these patients (33 %) were accompanied by an interventional procedure. Hepatic biopsies showed evidence of either sinusoidal or portal fibrosis or both in all but one patient. The findings showed a statistically significant (p = 0.005) moderately strong positive correlation between fibrosis scores and time since Fontan surgery. Additionally, no significant correlation was found between fibrosis scores and inferior vena cava pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, platelet counts, or serum laboratory testing of hepatic function. PMID:24817681

Evans, William N; Winn, Brody J; Yumiaco, Noel S; Galindo, Alvaro; Rothman, Abraham; Acherman, Ruben J; Restrepo, Humberto



Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.



Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.



In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed  

E-print Network

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano, John Olson, and Jim are concerned about the negative effects coyotes may have on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus

Watson, Craig A.



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



The Action of Waving Cylindrical Tails in Propelling Microscopic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of the tail of a spermatozoon is discussed from the hydrodynamical point of view. The tail is assumed to be a flexible cylinder which is distorted by waves of lateral displacement propagated along its length. The resulting stress and motion in the surrounding fluid is analyzed mathematically. Waves propagated backwards along the tail give rise to a forward

Geoffrey Taylor



Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available



G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of  

E-print Network

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

Cai, Long


Aspects of the permanent storage of uranium tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium tailings are generated as solid and liquid wastes in uranium mining\\/milling operations. Since most of the uranium deposits in the world have low grades, millions of tonnes of such wastes are produced annually. Often, the uranium tailings are locally disposed of, using sites with suitable conditions to construct tailings basins. The main concern during the operation of a disposal

A. Al-Hashimi; G. J. Evans; B. Cox



Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett


TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer


Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1  

E-print Network

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy Kristian W. Sanggaard1 , Carl Chr shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism

Schierup, Mikkel Heide


Liver biopsy in children 2014: who, whom, what, when, where, why?  


Liver biopsy is the standard procedure for obtaining hepatic tissue for histopathological examination. The three major techniques are percutaneous, transvenous, and laparoscopic/open biopsy, with either cutting or suction needles. The indications for liver biopsy are shifting as knowledge of etiologies, non-invasive biomarker alternatives, and treatment options in paediatric liver disease expand. This mini-review presents specific indications, alternative approaches, methods, complications, and contraindications for paediatric liver biopsy. PMID:24924903

Dezs?fi, Antal; Knisely, Alexander S



Surveillance biopsies in children post-kidney transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance biopsies are increasingly used in the post-transplant monitoring of pediatric renal allograft recipients. The\\u000a main justification for this procedure is to diagnose early and presumably modifiable acute and chronic renal allograft injury.\\u000a Pediatric recipients are theoretically at increased risk for subclinical renal allograft injury due to their relatively large\\u000a adult-sized kidneys and their higher degree of immunological responsiveness. The

Patricia E. Birk


Repeat renal biopsy in children with severe idiopathic tubulointerstitial nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic (primary) tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) of childhood is relatively rare. Four children, two with concomitant uveitis, aged 8–14 years, with idiopathic TIN who underwent repeat renal biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. At presentation, all had a significant elevation of the urinary ß 2-microglobulin\\/creatinine ratio (ß2MG ratio), ranging from 10,100 to 44,550, with increased histological indices of tubulointerstitial scores (TI scores) in excess

Koichi Suzuki; Hiroshi Tanaka; Etsuro Ito; Shinobu Waga



The learning curve in sentinel node biopsy: The ALMANAC experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a minimally invasive procedure to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Like any\\u000a new surgical procedure, it is associated with a learning curve. This article describes the learning curve as part of the ALMANAC\\u000a trial. The first phase of this trial is a validation phase in which surgeons perform SNB followed by an

Dayalan Clarke; Robert G. Newcombe; Robert E. Mansel



Application of statistical cancer atlas for 3D biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. While the exact cause is still under investigation, researchers agree on certain risk factors like age, family history, dietary habits, lifestyle and race. It is also widely accepted that cancer distribution within the prostate is inhomogeneous, i.e. certain regions have a higher likelihood of developing cancer. In this regard extensive work has been done to study the distribution of cancer in order to perform biopsy more effectively. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was demonstrated along with an optimal biopsy scheme achieving a high detection rate. In this paper we discuss the complete construction and application of such an atlas that can be used in a clinical setting to effectively target high cancer zones during biopsy. The method consists of integrating intensity statistics in the form of cancer probabilities at every voxel in the image with shape statistics of the prostate in order to quickly warp the atlas onto a subject ultrasound image. While the atlas surface can be registered to a pre-segmented subject prostate surface or instead used to perform segmentation of the capsule via optimization of shape parameters to segment the subject image, the strength of our approach lies in the fast mapping of cancer statistics onto the subject using shape statistics. The shape model was trained from over 38 expert segmented prostate surfaces and the atlas registration accuracy was found to be high suggesting the use of this method to perform biopsy in near real time situations with some optimization.

Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.



Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.



Flow cytometric evaluation of skin biopsies for mycosis fungoides.  


Multicolor flow cytometry (FC) is indispensable for lymphoma diagnosis and classification, but its utility in evaluating skin biopsies for mycosis fungoides (MF) is not well established. We describe the largest series to date of skin biopsies evaluated by FC for MF (n = 33), and we compare the flow cytometric results with the histologic, molecular, and clinical findings. Abnormal T-cell populations were identified by FC in 14 of 18 patients (78%) having histologically confirmed MF and in no patient whose histology was negative or indeterminate for MF (n = 14). One patient had histologic, flow cytometric, and molecular findings compatible with MF, but this patient's clinical course was more suggestive of a drug eruption. Fourteen of 15 abnormal T-cell populations showed definitive aberrant expression of at least 2 surface antigens, including CD2 (47%), CD3 (67%), CD4, CD5 (87%), CD7, and CD45 (67%); most cases (67%) had light scatter properties suggesting increased cell size and/or cytoplasmic complexity. The high specificity of FC suggests that it will be a useful adjunct to routine histology in the evaluation of diagnostic skin biopsies for MF. PMID:21552102

Jokinen, Chris H; Fromm, Jonathan R; Argenyi, Zsolt B; Olerud, John; Wood, Brent L; Greisman, Harvey A



Protocol 1: Acquisition of tumor biopsies through abdominal laparotomy  

PubMed Central

The static analysis of tumor tissues at a single, terminal endpoint has been the mainstay of studies in mouse models of cancer. However, with the development of model systems that reproduce the intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of human tumors, such studies are limited by the need for large numbers of animals to overcome increased intra-group variance. The shortcomings of a single-timepoint approach to molecular analysis are especially apparent in the context of therapeutic studies in which the dynamic response to treatment is of particular consequence. In order to mitigate the effects of intertumoral heterogeneity, multiple tissue samples may be harvested from the same tumor at different timepoints through the use of surgical biopsies. For abdominal tumors, pre-procedure imaging may be utilized to assess the suitability of tumors for biopsy. Sterile surgical techniques are utilized to access the abdominal cavity, and customized instruments facilitate the immobilization and retrieval of tissue samples from hard or fibrous tumors. Thermo-regulation, hemostasis, and wound closure techniques are critical to successful surgical outcomes, while appropriate anesthetic, analgesic, and post-operative recovery regimens are important for maintenance of animal welfare. Using a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we present a comprehensive protocol suitable for the routine acquisition of abdominal tumor biopsies. PMID:24371318

Sastra, Stephen A.; Olive, Kenneth P.



Liquid biopsies in lung cancer: The new ambrosia of researchers.  


In the last decades the approach to cancer patient management has been deeply revolutionized. We are moving from a "one-fits-all" strategy to the "personalized medicine" based on the molecular characterization of the tumor. In this new era it is becoming more and more clear that the monitoring of the disease is fundamental for the success of the treatment, thus there is the need of new biomarker discovery. More precisely in the last years the scientific community has started to use the term "liquid biopsy". A liquid biopsy is a liquid biomarker that can be easily isolated from many body fluids (blood, saliva, urine, ascites, pleural effusion, etc.) and, as well as a tissue biopsy, a representative of the tissue from which it is spread. In this review we will focus our attention on circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, exosomes and secretomes with the aim to underlie their usefulness and potential application in a clinical setting for lung cancer patient management. PMID:25444714

Rolfo, Christian; Castiglia, Marta; Hong, David; Alessandro, Riccardo; Mertens, Inge; Baggerman, Geert; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Passiglia, Francesco; Carreca, Anna P; Taverna, Simona; Vento, Renza; Peeters, Marc; Russo, Antonio; Pauwels, Patrick



Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic infarction after liver biopsy  

PubMed Central

Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms (HAP) are rare events, particularly after liver biopsy, but can be associated with serious complications. Therefore a high suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report on a case of HAP that potentially formed after a liver biopsy in a patient with sarcoidosis. The HAP in our case was virtually undetectable initially by angiography but resulted in several complications including recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic cholecystitis and finally hepatic infarction with abscess formation until it became detectable at a size of 5-mm. The patient remains asymptomatic over a year after endovascular embolization of the HAP. In this report, we demonstrate that a small HAP can avoid detection by angiography at an early stage while being symptomatic for a prolonged course. A high clinical suspicion with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is needed in symptomatic patients with history of liver biopsy despite initial negative work up. Once diagnosed, HAP can be safely and effectively treated by endovascular embolization. PMID:24587666

Bishehsari, Faraz; Ting, Peng-Sheng; Green, Richard M



Non-biopsy methods to determine hepatic fibrosis.  


The prognosis and clinical management of chronic liver diseases are highly dependent on the extent of liver fibrosis. Bigger the fibrosis, worse the prognosis; and bigger the risk of progression to cirrhosis. In current practice, liver biopsy is most frequently performed to assess the grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis thereby providing prognostic information on which to base treatment decisions upon. Liver biopsy is becoming more and more useless in the management of chronic liver disease due to large sampling error, consistent inter-observer disagreement, high emotional cost of patient, enormous health care commitment in case of rare but possible severe complications, the fact that it is a snapshot of a process that is everything but a frozen one. Therefore, every methodology that avoids performing this invasive procedure is welcome. The purpose of this article is to present the noninvasive evaluation of patients with chronic liver disease as an alternative of liver biopsy in the assessment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20108754

Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen; Purcarea, Monica



Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay



Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology.  


Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding. PMID:24818087

Shyamala, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay



Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye.

Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP



Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms  

E-print Network

biopsies of breast phantoms were conducted by a board-certified radiologist, with each set of five biopsies board-certified radiologist, blinded to the actual biopsy guidance mechanism, evaluated the ultrasound technology. The notion of augmenting the view of one's surroundings with computer-generated images has its


Is Systematic Sextant Biopsy Suitable for the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal extent of the prostate biopsy remains controversial. There is a need to avoid detection of insignificant cancer but not to miss significant and curable tumors. In alternative treatments of prostate cancer, repeated sextant biopsies are used to estimate the response. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of a repeated systematic sextant biopsy as

A. Manseck; M. Froehner; S. Oehlschlaeger; O. Hakenberg; K. Friedrich; F. Theissig; M. P. Wirth



Systematic 5 Region Prostate Biopsy is Superior to Sextant Method for Diagnosing Carcinoma of the Prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe number of patients undergoing prostate biopsy has dramatically increased due to prostate specific antigen screening. The low specificity of this screening tool requires prostate biopsy for diagnosis of prostate cancer. The sextant biopsy technique has been used widely with success in diagnosing carcinoma of the prostate. However, concern has arisen that the original sextant method may not include an

L. Andrew Eskew; Ricky L. Bare; David L. McCullough



Number of positive systematic sextant biopsies predicts surgical margin status at radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether the number of positive sextant biopsies contributes to the prediction of positive surgical margins, as the value of systematic prostate biopsies in predicting margin status at radical prostatectomy is unclear.Methods. Consecutive patients (n = 108) who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy and systematic sextant biopsies were retrospectively evaluated. Serum prostate-specific antigen, digital rectal examination, primary Gleason grade,

Vida S Tigrani; Vivek Bhargava; Katsuto Shinohara; Joseph C Presti



Comparison of Mid-Lobe versus Lateral Systematic Sextant Biopsies in the Detection of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Systematic sextant biopsies are a powerful tool in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Interpretation of the histopathologic results of these biopsies plays a central role in treatment decisions. This biopsy approach was originally described as sampling the prostate in the mid-lobe, parasagittal plane at the apex, mid-gland, and base, bilaterally. Morphometric analysis of prostate specimens has revealed that most

Martha K. Terris; Eric M. Wallen; Thomas A. Stamey



Value of Ultrasound-Guided Systematic Sextant Biopsies in Prostate Tumor Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the value of positive sextant biopsies in assessing the location of prostate tumors within radical prostatectomy specimens and to determine if prostate weight influences the results. Methods: From 1988 to 1996, 166 radical prostatectomies were performed for localized prostate cancer diagnosed by means of ultrasound-guided sextant biopsies. The location of the biopsies was compared with that of

Laurent Salomon; Marc Colombel; Jean-Jacques Patard; Marie-Aude Lefrère-Belda; Jacqueline Bellot; Dominique Chopin; Clement-Claude Abbou



Evaluation of cultural techniques for isolating Campylobacter pyloridis from endoscopic biopsies of gastric mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and three gastroscopic biopsies from 80 patients were cultured for Campylobacter pyloridis and studied histologically. Active chronic gastritis, as shown by the presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, was diagnosed in 51 biopsies and C pyloridis was found in 47. Sixteen gastric biopsies showed normal histology (no inflammation); C pyloridis was detected in only one of these, and a second

C S Goodwin; E D Blincow; J R Warren; T E Waters; C R Sanderson; L Easton



The histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis in fibreoptic gastroscope biopsy specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the fibreoptic gastroscope with biopsy facilities has provided the means of obtaining biopsy specimens under direct vision from any part of the stomach. This creates new opportunities for the study of chronic gastritis, and, in particular, its evolution, topographical location, and causal relationships. On the basis of an experience with more than 2,500 biopsy specimens we have

R. Whitehead; S. C. Truelove; M. W. L. Gear



Observer error and sampling variability tested in evaluation of hepatitis and cirrhosis by liver biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 50 patients with chronic active liver disease, observer and sampling error in histologically evaluating hepatitis and cirrhosis after blind-needle biopsy of the liver was assessed from coded tissue. This was done by repeated readings of the same specimens by the same pathologist, by sequential biopsies from the same patients with cirrhosis, and by multiple simultaneous biopsies from adjacent areas

Roger D. Soloway; Archie H. Baggenstoss; Leslie J. Schoenfield; W. H. J. Summerskill



The effect of shot biopsy on behavior, salivary cortisol, and heart rate in slaughter pigs.  


This paper describes behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to shot biopsy, an experimental method used to study muscle tissue processes or to predict meat quality. One biopsy sample from the longissimus muscle was obtained from 23-wk-old gilts (n = 10) using a cannula connected to a captive bolt. Ten other gilts were used as a control and received a sham shot. One week later, a second biopsy was taken from the same gilts. Behavioral and salivary cortisol responses to both biopsies were similar (P > .10). Pigs flinched in response to the biopsies. Salivary cortisol concentrations were increased (P < .05) 15 min after the biopsy as compared with pretreatment levels, but absolute levels were not different (P > .10) from the control group. In both biopsy and control groups, heart rate increased (P < .001) in response to the presence of the technician. In response to the first biopsy, heart rate increased (P < .01) as compared with the rate during the 5-s period before the biopsy, but heart rate did not increase in response to the second biopsy. The biopsy pigs showed a decrease (P < .05) in initiating contact with the technician in the second test. We conclude that shot biopsy had a significant acute effect on behavior and heart rate. Therefore, the usefulness of this technique in studies in which the behavioral and heart rate responses are measured is limited. PMID:10438003

Geverink, N A; Ruis, M A; Eisen, R; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, H J; Wiegant, V M



Safety and tissue yield for percutaneous native kidney biopsy according to practitioner and ultrasound technique  

PubMed Central

Background Although percutaneous renal biopsy remains an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases, in recent times the traditional procedure of nephrologists has been performed by non-nephrologists rather than nephrologists at many institutions. The present study assessed the safety and adequacy of tissue yield during percutaneous renal biopsy according to practitioners and techniques based on ultrasound. Methods This study included 658 native renal biopsies performed from 2005 to 2010 at a single centre. The biopsies were performed by nephrologists or expert ultrasound radiologists using the ultrasound-marked blind or real-time ultrasound-guided techniques. Results A total of 271 ultrasound-marked blind biopsies were performed by nephrologists, 170 real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies were performed by nephrologists, and 217 real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies were performed by radiologists during the study period. No differences in post-biopsy complications such as haematoma, need for transfusion and intervention, gross haematuria, pain, or infection were observed among groups. Glomerular numbers of renal specimens from biopsies performed by nephrologists without reference to any technique were higher than those obtained from real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies performed by expert ultrasound radiologists. Conclusions Percutaneous renal biopsy performed by nephrologists was not inferior to that performed by expert ultrasound radiologists as related to specimen yield and post-biopsy complications. PMID:24957046



Characterization of magnetite nanoparticles for SQUID-relaxometry and magnetic needle biopsy  

PubMed Central

Magnetite nanoparticles (Chemicell SiMAG-TCL) were characterized by SQUID-relaxometry, susceptometry, and TEM. The magnetization detected by SQUID-relaxometry was 0.33% of that detected by susceptometry, indicating that the sensitivity of SQUID-relaxometry could be significantly increased through improved control of nanoparticle size. The relaxometry data were analyzed by the moment superposition model (MSM) to determine the distribution of nanoparticle moments. Analysis of the binding of CD34-conjugated nanoparticles to U937 leukemia cells revealed 60,000 nanoparticles per cell, which were collected from whole blood using a prototype magnetic biopsy needle, with a capture efficiency of >65% from a 750 µl sample volume in 1 minute. PMID:20161153

Adolphi, Natalie L.; Huber, Dale L.; Jaetao, Jason E.; Bryant, Howard C.; Lovato, Debbie M.; Fegan, Danielle L.; Venturini, Eugene L.; Monson, Todd C.; Tessier, Trace E.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Bergemann, Christian; Larson, Richard S.; Flynn, Edward R.




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) were historically found in shrub steppe, meadow steppe, steppe, and deciduous shrub communities throughout much of eastern Washington. The current range, consisting of8 relatively small, isolated, populations, is less than 3% of historic range. Information collected since 1954 indicates 58% of 107 known,lek complexes,are currently vacant. Many of the vacant lek complexes,(53%) are

Michael A. Schroeder; W. Hays; A. Murphy; D. John Pierce


Volatile compounds from interdigital gland of male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital secretions were collected from eight male white-tailed deer of various ages. Analysis of volatiles was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a modified headspace technique. Forty-six volatile compounds were found including alkanes, arenes, aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic acids, esters, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur compounds. Eleven occurred in higher concentrations (P0.10) in dominant (3.5-year-old) than in subordinate (1.5-year-old) animals. Dominant males

J. W. Gassett; D. P. Wiesler; A. G. Baker; D. A. Osborn; K. V. Miller; R. L. Marchinton; M. Novotny



Post-conflict behaviour among wild long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure originally developed for the study of post-conflict behaviour in captive groups was used to study a group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the wild. During 5 months, 156 post-conflict observations on victims of agonistic conflicts were collected and compared with matched-control observations. The findings reported previously for a captive group of the same species were confirmed. After

Filippo Aureli




Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds

Jeomhee Mun; John M. Parker; Marshall White



Effects of Snow on Sitka Black-Tailed Deer Browse Availability and Nutritional Carrying Capacity in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow affects the nutritional ecology of northern ungulates during winter through burial of important winter forages. We used nonlinear regression analyses to model snow-burial dynamics of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) browse biomass, a key winter food item of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitchensis) in southeastern Alaska, USA. During November 2003-March 2004 we collected data from 546 individually marked twigs located


The application of remote sensing in the environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond: a case study in Zhangjiakou area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a kind of huge environmental risk source, tailings pond could cause a huge environmental disaster to the downstream area once an accident happened on it. Therefore it has become one key target of the environmental regulation in china. Especially, recently environmental emergencies caused by tailings pond are growing rapidly in China, the environmental emergency management of the tailings pond has been confronting with a severe situation. However, the regulatory agency is badly weak in the environmental regulation of tailings pond, due to the using of ground surveys and statistics which is costly, laborious and time consuming, and the lacking of strong technical and information support. Therefore, in this paper, according to the actual needs of the environmental emergency management of tailings pond, we firstly make a brief analysis of the characteristics of the tailings pond and the advantages and capability of remote sensing technology, and then proposed a comprehensive and systematic indexes system and the method of environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond based on remote sensing and GIS. The indexes system not only considers factors from the upstream area, the pond area and the downstream area in a perspective of the risk space theory, but also considers factors from risk source, risk receptor and risk control mechanism in a perspective of risk systems theory. Given that Zhangjiakou city has up to 580 tailings pond and is nearly located upstream of the water source of Beijing, so finally we apply the proposed indexes system and method in Zhangjiakou area in China to help collect environmental risk data of tailings pond in that area and find out it works well. Through the use case in Zhajiakou, the technique of using remote sensing to monitor environmental risk of tailings pond is feasible and effective, and would contribute to the establishment of `Space-Ground' monitoring network of tailings pond in future.

Xiao, Rulin; Shen, Wenming; Fu, Zhuo; Shi, Yuanli; Xiong, Wencheng; Cao, Fei



Micrometeorite Collecting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel



Pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma on needle biopsy and simple prostatectomy.  


Prostatic adenocarcinoma resembling benign hyperplastic glands architecturally is a recently recognized entity. In the only prior study on this entity, 100 needle biopsies were studied and only two contained carcinoma with pseudohyperplastic features, which occupied a small percentage of the cancer. The current study investigates histologic attributes of pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma on needle biopsy and simple prostatectomy in which the pseudohyperplastic regions represent the majority of the cancer. The authors reviewed outside cases received in consultation by one of the authors (J.I.E.) and the surgical pathology files of Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 1991 to August 1998 and identified 20 cases of needle biopsy and simple prostatectomy in which > or =60% of the cancer had benign architectural features. The majority (19 of 20) were consult cases. Of the 20 cases studied, 16 were needle biopsies, two were transurethral resections of the prostate, and two were enucleations. Cancer involved one core in 75% of the needle biopsies. In 13 of the 20 cases (65%), > or =90% of the cancer had pseudohyperplastic features. Benign features included papillary infoldings in all cases, large atypical glands in 95% of cases, branching in 45% of cases, and corpora amylacea in 20% of cases. The extent of pseudohyperplastic cancer ranged from 1.0 to 10.0 mm (average, 3.7 mm). Within the pseudohyperplastic foci, features helpful in establishing a malignant diagnosis were nuclear enlargement in 95% of cases, pink amorphous secretions in 70% of cases, occasional to frequent nucleoli in 45% of cases, and crystalloids in 45% of cases. Other features associated with malignancy (mitoses, blue-tinged mucin, adjacent high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and perineural invasion) were seen infrequently. Immunohistochemical stains for high-molecular weight keratin showed an absence of basal cells in the pseudohyperplastic areas in all 20 cases, confirming the diagnosis of cancer. It is critical to recognize pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma and the features needed to establish a malignant diagnosis so these carcinomas are not misdiagnosed as benign. PMID:10935644

Levi, A W; Epstein, J I



Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and 'in-plane' or 'out-of-plane' needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5-60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to determine needle tip position and allows fast and accurate needle placement in targeted liver nodules.

Hakime, Antoine, E-mail:; Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia; Barah, Ali; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry De [Gustave Roussy Institute (France)



Collection understanding  

E-print Network

research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... ................................................................................................................................61 vii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. System overview???????????????????????...26 Figure 2. System design????????????????????????....27 Figure 3. Using streaming collage for understanding the Online Picasso Collection......29 Figure 4...

Chang, Michelle T.



Spoon Collective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spoon Collective houses descriptive information, discussion archives, paper archives, and links to Websites for three dozen listservs related to the discussion of philosophy, sociology, political science, and literary theory. Some of the topics for the lists include Postcolonialism, Poststructuralism, Feminism, Marxism, and Cultural Studies. Thirteen of the lists are dedicated to the work of influential thinkers, including Jean Baudrillard, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger. All content at the Spoon Collective can be searched aggregately.


Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy and light ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process.

Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Arridge, C. S.; Jones, G. H.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.



Structure of the tail fin in teleosts.  


A morphologic study of the structure of the tail fin in eight species of teleosts was performed by aid of the Picrosirius-polarization method, which is a specific histochemical method for the detection of collagen in tissue sections. This structure is composed mainly of skeletal elements, the fin rays, covered by skin. Fin rays are bound to each other and to the surrounding tissues by a series of collagenous ligaments forming a complex, highly pliable and resistant structure. Although the general structural pattern of tail fins was consistent in all species studied, the comparative aspects reported in this paper show that variations in the form and size of their components are responsible for the morphologic diversities which are closely related to specific functional adaptations. Morphometric data on the number and size of actinotrichia in normal adult specimens are presented. PMID:6850759

Becerra, J; Montes, G S; Bexiga, S R; Junqueira, L C



Cancer detection rates of different prostate biopsy regimens in patients with renal failure.  


We aimed to evaluate the cancer detection rates of 6-, 10-, 12-core biopsy regimens and the optimal biopsy protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with renal failure. A total of 122 consecutive patients with renal failure underwent biopsy with age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels up to 20 ng/mL. The 12-core biopsy technique (sextant biopsy + lateral base, lateral mid-zone, lateral apex, bilaterally) performed to all patients. Pathology results were examined separately for each sextant, 10-core that exclude parasagittal mid-zones from 12-cores (10a), 10-core that exclude apex zones from 12-cores (10b) and 12-core biopsy regimens. Of 122 patients, 37 (30.3%) were positive for prostate cancer. The cancer detection rates for sextant, 10a, 10b and 12 cores were 17.2%, 29%, 23.7% and 30.7%, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a, 10b and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 40%, 27.5% and 43.2% among the sextant technique, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 17.1% and 21.6% among 10b biopsy technique, respectively. There were no statistical differences between 12 core and 10a core about cancer detection rate. Adding lateral cores to sextant biopsy improves the cancer detection rates. In our study, 12-core biopsy technique increases the cancer detection rate by 5.4% among 10a core but that was not statistically different. On the other hand, 12-core biopsy technique includes all biopsy regimens. We therefore suggest 12-core biopsy or minimum 10-core strategy incorporating six peripheral biopsies with elevated age- specific PSA levels up to 20 ng/mL in patients with renal failure. PMID:24797801

Ho?can, Mustafa Burak; Özorak, Alper; Oksay, Taylan; Perk, Hakk?; Arma?an, Abdullah; Soyupek, Sedat; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Ko?ar, Alim



Realtime TRUS/MRI Fusion Targeted-Biopsy for Prostate Cancer: A Clinical Demonstration of Increased Positive Biopsy Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a system for fusion of realtime transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) with pre-acquired 3D images of the prostate is presented with a clinical demonstration on a cohort of 101 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer. Electromagnetically tracked biopsy guides for endocavity ultrasound transducers were calibrated and used to fuse MRI-based suspicious lesion locations with ultrasound image coordinates. The prostate shape is segmented from MRI in a semi-automated fashion via a model-based approach, and intraoperative image registration is performed between MR and ultrasound image space to superimpose target fiducials markers on the ultrasound image. In order to align both modalities, a surface model is automatically extracted from 2D swept TRUS images using a partial active shape model, utilizing image features and prior statistics. An automatic prostate motion compensation algorithm can be triggered as needed. The results were used to display live TRUS images fused with spatially corresponding realtime multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of the MR image volume. In this study, all patients were scanned with 3T MRI and TRUS for biopsy. Clinical results show significant improvement of target visualization and of positive detection rates during TRUS-guided biopsies. It also demonstrates the feasibility of realtime MR/TRUS image fusion for out-of-gantry procedures.

Kadoury, Samuel; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Glossop, Neil; Choyke, Peter; Turkbey, Baris; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Kruecker, Jochen


Electromigration of arsenic and co-existing metals in mine tailings.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of enhanced electrokinetic remediation technology for controlled leaching and collection of labile arsenic fractions from mine tailings. Direct current was applied to tailings for 20 d using ammonium oxalate and sodium hydroxide as enhancement solutions. Migration of arsenic was observed, resulting in 63-71% removal near the cathode but only 6-17% overall removal in the entire tailings matrix in 20 d. However, significant migration of arsenic towards the anode and accumulation in a collection well near the anode was observed, especially under alkaline conditions. Thus, treatment time and consumption of chemicals could probably be reduced by installing specific collection or adsorption zones near the anode. A relationship between electrokinetic mobility of arsenic and other elements and their extractability in sequential extraction tests was established, indicating that dissolution or desorption of the elements and thermodynamic conditions (pH and Eh gradient) played a bigger role in the electrokinetic removal process than electromigration of soluble ions. PMID:20888026

Isosaari, Pirjo; Sillanpää, Mika



Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.  


An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models. PMID:18449428

Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael



RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)



Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium  

E-print Network

We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.

T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram



Decommissioning of the old pyritic tailings facility previously used in a talc operation, eastern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luikonlahti tailings facility was originally constructed for tailings from an old copper mine operation and was later used for tailings from talc processing. Geochemical partitioning showed that the pyritic tailings were only partially oxidized in dried layers under the magnesite tailings at the edges of the impoundment, whereas water saturated layers below these edges and the tailings in the

Marja Liisa Räisänen; Petri Juntunen


Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael



Bayesian estimation of false-negative rate in a clinical trial of sentinel node biopsy.  


Estimating the false-negative rate is a major issue in evaluating sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for staging cancer. In a large multicentre trial of SNB for intra-operative staging of clinically node-negative breast cancer, two sources of information on the false-negative rate are available.Direct information is available from a preliminary validation phase: all patients underwent SNB followed by axillary nodal clearance or sampling. Of 803 patients with successful sentinel node localization, 19 (2.4 per cent) were classed as false negatives. Indirect information is also available from the randomized phase. Ninety-seven (25.4 per cent) of 382 control patients undergoing axillary clearance had positive axillae. In the experimental group, 94/366 (25.7 per cent) were apparently node positive. Taking a simple difference of these proportions gives a point estimate of -0.3 per cent for the proportion of patients who had positive axillae but were missed by SNB. This estimate is clearly inadmissible. In this situation, a Bayesian analysis yields interpretable point and interval estimates. We consider the single proportion estimate from the validation phase; the difference between independent proportions from the randomized phase, both unconstrained and constrained to non-negativity; and combined information from the two parts of the study. As well as tail-based and highest posterior density interval estimates, we examine three obvious point estimates, the posterior mean, median and mode. Posterior means and medians are similar for the validation and randomized phases separately and combined, all between 2 and 3 per cent, indicating similarity rather than conflict between the two data sources. PMID:17133626

Newcombe, Robert G



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.



Possible Vector Dissemination by Swift Foxes following a Plague Epizootic in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Northwestern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by ac- quiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and sero- logic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes

Brady K. McGee; Matthew J. Butler; Danny B. Pence; James L. Alexander; Janet B. Nissen



Microsoft Academic Search

We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup


Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

Not Available



Prevention of needle-tract seeding by two-step freezing after lung cancer biopsy.  


Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a method to detect malignancy for undetermined pulmonary nodules, but has the potential to spread malignant cells from the tumor to the pleural cavity or chest wall. We developed a two-step freezing method to avoid needle-tract seeding, by use of percutaneous cryoablation after biopsy but before the biopsy needle was removed. A man aged 72 years was admitted because of a large mass in right upper lobe. After biopsy, the patient underwent surgery. Pathological assessment of the resected tumor showed that tissue around the biopsy probe and cryoprobe had been killed before needle withdrawal. PMID:23361472

Mu, Feng; Liu, Shu-Peng; Zhou, Xu-Long; Chen, Ji-Bing; Li, Hai-Bo; Zuo, Jian-Sheng; Xu, Ke-Cheng



Accuracy Evaluation of a 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System  

PubMed Central

Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions. PMID:24392206

Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei



Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

Not Available




Microsoft Academic Search

Sera collected from a captive population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileusvirgini- anus) penned in the lower peninsula of Michigan were assayed over a 29-mo period for neutral- izing antibody to California serogroup viruses. In all, 130 individual white-tailed deer were bled one to 22 times between June 1983 and November 1985. Of the 130 sampled after active trans- mission had ceased,

Paul R. Grimstad; Diane G. Williams; Stephen M. SchmiW


Carnival Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Come to the carnival" is a common refrain in New Orleans during the month of February, and this intoxicating collection from Tulane University pays homage to this wonderful cultural tradition. The collection includes over 1,500 float designs from the "Golden Age" of carnival by notable designers such as Jennie Wilde, B.A. Wikstrom, and Charles Briton. Support for the project comes from the late Charles L. "Pie" Dufour who left funds to continue the preservation of these rare and unique ephemeral materials. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they may wish to start with fanciful designs like the 1870 "Twelfth Night Revelers" float or the 1891 "Atlanteans" design. Also, visitors can select the work of a particular float designer or krewe of note. Also, visitors can search the entire collection by keyword.



Antislavery Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digital collections at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst are top-flight and this collection continues that grand tradition. The Antislavery Collection contains several hundred pamphlets and books pertaining to slavery and antislavery in New England from 1725-1911. These items include speeches, sermons, proceedings, and other publications from organizations such as the American Anti-Slavery Society, the American Colonization Society, and a small number of pro-slavery tracts. Visitors can browse the selected titles alphabetically or perform a more detailed search across all of the items. Several documents should not be missed, including speeches by Horace Mann and Ezra Gannett's "Relation of the North to Slavery" delivered in Boston in 1854.


Oz Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of Oz is a big place, and this particular digital collection from the University of Minnesota pays homage to some of its many characters, stories, and more. The materials here were collected by Laura Jane Musser, and they include annual meeting program notes from the International Wizard of Oz club, sheet music from Oz-related productions, catalogs, and coloring books. The digitized materials also include a number of famous books from the Oz series, such as "The Marvelous Land of Oz" and "The Land of Oz". Visitors can use a finding aid to make their way through the materials, and if they are interested in doing research with these materials they can learn more about making a visit to the collections.


Blood Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.



Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron



Tailings basin reclamation: Atlantic City Iron Mine, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An 81 ha (200 ac) tailings impoundment at a taconite operation in Wyoming abandoned in 1985 has been a source of blowing dust. The site qualified for reclamation under Wyoming's Abandoned Mine Land program. The reclamation design included: incorporating commercially available organic amendments and fertilizers into a 300 mm (12 in.) thick cap of a sterile gravelly clay loam cover material, planting trees in the protective wind/snow shadows of rock beams and rock snow fences, lowering the water level n a flooded mine pit that was feeding uncontrolled seeps, and constructing a wide tailings pond spillway that allows flood control while minimizing seasonal water level fluctuations in the pond. The construction of the earthwork aspects of the design were completed over two construction seasons, including work during the winter at this high-altitude (2,470 m [8,100 ft.]) site. This occurred because snow from an early winter storm that collected behind the rock beams and rock snow fences was slow to melt. Furthermore, the increased snow catch made the site too wet the following spring to allow seeding during the normal seeding window; a fall planting was necessary. The rocky nature of the cover material prompted the development of innovative reclamation approaches, including fabricating a rock rake bulldozer blade and applying organic soil amendments by aerial spraying. A randomly-configured two-acre test plot was installed to evaluate the benefits of various soil amendments as the site matures. Future work on the site will include tree seedling planting and plugging of a decant pipeline.

Gusek, J.J.; Richmond, T.C.



Novel pathogenic mutations and skin biopsy analysis in Knobloch syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To facilitate future diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS) and better understand its etiology, we sought to identify not yet described COL18A1 mutations in KS patients. In addition, we tested whether mutations in this gene lead to absence of the COL18A1 gene product and attempted to better characterize the functional effect of a previously reported missense mutation. Methods Direct sequencing of COL18A1 exons was performed in KS patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We used immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsies to evaluate the presence of type XVIII collagen in four KS patients carrying two already described mutations: c.3277C>T, a nonsense mutation, and c.3601G>A, a missense mutation. Furthermore, we determined the binding properties of the mutated endostatin domain p.A1381T (c.3601G>A) to extracellular matrix proteins using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance assays. Results We identified four novel mutations in COL18A1, including a large deletion involving exon 41. Skin biopsies from KS patients revealed lack of type XVIII collagen in epithelial basement membranes and blood vessels. We also found a reduced affinity of p.A1381T endostatin to some extracellular matrix components. Conclusions COL18A1 mutations involved in Knobloch syndrome have a distribution bias toward the coding exons of the C-terminal end. Large deletions must also be considered when point mutations are not identified in patients with characteristic KS phenotype. We report, for the first time, lack of type XVIII collagen in KS patients by immunofluorescent histochemistry in skin biopsy samples. As a final point, we suggest the employment of this technique as a preliminary and complementary test for diagnosis of KS in cases when mutation screening either does not detect mutations or reveals mutations of uncertain effect, such as the p.A1381T change. PMID:19390655

Suzuki, Oscar; Kague, Erika; Bagatini, Kelly; Tu, Hongmin; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Carvalhaes, Lorenza; Gava, Elisandra; de Oliveira, Gisele; Godoi, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; Kitten, Gregory; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Passos-Bueno, Maria-Rita



Experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation system  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report early experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system and to compare the results with those of other published studies. Design A nonrandomized case series. Setting An outpatient breast diagnostic centre at a large urban community hospital. Patients Thirty-four women; 27 had suspicious calcifications, 2 had a nonpalpable mass and 5 had both. Intervention The ABBI procedure to excise a breast lesion or obtain a representative sample for histologic examination. Main outcome measures Success of the procedure with respect to diagnosis, sample quality, technical problems, margins of tumour free tissue and patient satisfaction. Results Malignant tissue was diagnosed in 7 women (21%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 2 (6%). In all cancers, the obtained samples had malignant cells present at the margins or less than 1 mm away. Technical problems were encountered in 32% of cases. Manual extraction of the specimen was required in 21% of cases. Conclusions The preliminary data correlate well with those of other published results. Although it is possible that a small number of cases and a relatively high proportion of technical difficulties may represent a normal learning curve, there is a definite need for improvement of some ABBI components. ABBI does not appear to provide adequate margins of uninvolved tissue in patients with cancer and thus should not be used with curative intent. ABBI provides excellent quality samples for pathological study and good patient satisfaction. There are not yet enough data for meaningful comparison of ABBI with stereotactic core biopsy and excisional biopsy with needle localization. PMID:11129832

Perelman, Vsevolod S.; Colapinto, Nicholas D.; Lee, Stephen; Down, Nancy K.; Cook, Dodie M.



Contemporary pathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancers missed by 6-and 12-core biopsy and diagnosed with a 21-core biopsy protocol.  

E-print Network

groups according to the diagnosis site: sextant (6 first cores; group 1), peripheral zone (12 first cores;3 Introduction Hodge's sextant prostate biopsy scheme significantly increased cancer detection [1]. The systematic sextant biopsy protocol has been the standard procedure for detecting prostate cancer (PCa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Prospective Controlled Animal Study on Biopsy Sampling with New Flexible Cryoprobes versus Forceps: Evaluation of Biopsy Size, Histological Quality and Bleeding Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cryoextraction is a procedure used for the recanalization of obstructed airways caused by visible exophytic endobronchial tumor. Biopsy samples obtained by this technique have been shown to