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1

Evaluation of tail biopsy collection in laboratory mice (Mus musculus): vertebral ossification, DNA quantity, and acute behavioral responses.  

PubMed

A preferred method to genotype genetically engineered mice is through collection of distal tail tissue (tail biopsy) followed by DNA isolation. Currently, general or local anesthesia (or both) is recommended for biopsy after 3 wk of age, the time after which tail vertebrae are considered to be ossified. Our objective was to rigorously evaluate vertebral development, DNA content, and acute behavioral responses at different ages by harvesting tail biopsies of different lengths. We evaluated laboratory mice from 5 inbred strains and 1 outbred stock at each of 12 ages (3 to 42 d of age). Biopsies of 5-, 10-, and 15-mm lengths were obtained. Vertebrae were graded according to level of ossification by using complementary modalities of high-resolution microradiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. Vertebral development progressed at different rates among the strains, with mature tail vertebrae containing endplates detectable in the tail of some strains by 10 d of age. Within the distal 2 mm of tail, end plates were not identified before 21 d of age. DNA yield (DNA weight/tissue weight) was greatest from the 5-mm biopsy harvest. Acute behavioral responses to biopsy varied by age and strain, and these differences were associated with vertebral maturation. Vertebral development progressed most rapidly in C57BL/6 mice, which also demonstrated the highest response rate to biopsy, whereas BALB/c mice had slower vertebral development and were less responsive. These findings support the collection of minimal lengths of tail tissue from mice at ages younger than 17 d, unless anesthesia or analgesia is provided. PMID:19049247

Hankenson, F Claire; Garzel, Laura M; Fischer, David D; Nolan, Bonnie; Hankenson, Kurt D

2008-11-01

2

Evaluation of common anesthetic and analgesic techniques for tail biopsy in mice.  

PubMed

Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888

Jones, Carissa P; Carver, Scott; Kendall, Lon V

2012-11-01

3

Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

4

Behavioral and Activity Assessment of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) after Tail Biopsy under Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Contemporary laboratory animal guidance suggests that tail biopsy of laboratory mice can be performed before 21 d of age without anesthesia, whereas older mice must receive anesthesia before biopsy. Our objective was to determine whether administration of isoflurane anesthesia before tail biopsy produced a measurable effect on the behavior of mice (n = 196). We evaluated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice at 21 to 24 (weaning), 28 to 31 (delayed weaning), and 42 to 45 (adult) d of age. Mice were observed at the time of biopsy and then twice within the first hour after a sham or tail biopsy. Anxiety-like responses were assessed by using an elevated plus-maze. Activity was evaluated remotely for 120 min. Isoflurane did not diminish acute responses to tail biopsy in mice 31 d or younger compared with sham-biopsied animals but had a significant effect in C57BL/6 biopsied adult mice. In addition, mice of all ages and strains that received anesthesia, regardless of biopsy, spent more time in the enclosed maze arms and had decreased activity up to 5 h after isoflurane exposure. Although tail biopsy should be performed in young mice to avoid transection of distal mature vertebrae, our experimental paradigm indicates that isoflurane anesthesia does not appreciably enhance wellbeing over that of mice biopsied without anesthesia at weaning ages. The influence of inhaled isoflurane was demonstrable and indicated that acute and prolonged alterations in anxiety and activity must be considered when interpreting the impact of anesthesia on tail biopsy across various ages and strains of laboratory mice.

Hankenson, F Claire; Braden-Weiss, Gillian C; Blendy, Julie A

2011-01-01

5

Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Tissue sampling ... biopsy is called a percutaneous biopsy. It removes tissue using a hollow tube called a syringe. The needle is passed several times through the tissue being examined. The surgeon uses the needle to ...

6

Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmonics-based optical microscopy has been widely applied in biomedical researches due to its noninvasiveness to the studied biomaterials. Due to momentum conservation consideration, most previous studies collect harmonics generation signals in a forward geometry, especially for third harmonic generation signals. However, the adopted forward transmission type geometry is not feasible for future clinical diagnosis. In this paper, first virtual biopsy

Shih-Peng Tai; Tsung-Han Tsai; Wen-Jeng Lee; Dar-Bin Shieh; Yi-Hua Liao; Hsin-Yi Huang; Kenneth Y.-J. Zhang; Hsiang-Lin Liu; Chi-Kuang Sun

2005-01-01

7

Evaluation of Saphenous Venipuncture and Modified Tail-clip Blood Collection in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 methods of blood collection in unanesthetized mice. The saphenous venipuncture method was compared with a modified tail-clip technique that requires minimal restraint. Mice were evaluated through behavioral observation and plasma corticosterone levels. The results showed that the 2 methods produced similar corticosterone responses and that the tail-clip method produced fewer behavioral reactions. In addition, the effects of saphenous venipuncture method appeared to be dependent on the handler's technical expertise. When a series of 4 blood collections were performed over 1 wk, the 2 methods yielded similar corticosterone levels that did not increase over time. Some of the behavioral signs appeared to increase over the series of blood collections obtained by the saphenous venipuncture method. Serial complete blood counts showed that the tail vessels yielded higher total white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts than did the saphenous vein. Neither method appeared to cause stress-associated changes in the leukogram after serial blood collection. Overall, the effects of modified tail-clip method were similar to those of the saphenous venipuncture method in unanesthetized mice.

Abatan, Omorodola I; Welch, Kathleen B; Nemzek, Jean A

2008-01-01

8

Ex vivo and in vivo oral cancer diagnosis using backward-collected third harmonic generation biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ex vivo and in vivo oral cancer diagnoses are demonstrated using noninvasive third-harmonic-generation biopsy. Through its superior spatial resolution on nucleus, oral cancer cells in hamster oral cavities are successfully identified without any exogenous markers.

Shih-Peng Tai; Dar-Bin Shieh; Wen-Jeng Lee; Che-Hang Yu; Ping-Ching Wu; Yana Wu; Chi-Kuang Sun

2006-01-01

9

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

10

Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

2005-01-01

11

Liver biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. The skin will be cleansed, and a small ... chance of puncturing the lung or tearing the liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

12

Cone Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Cone Biopsy What is a cone biopsy? A cone biopsy is a treatment for pre-cancerous cervical disease. It refers to a surgical procedure in which a ... as there is proper followup. Who needs a cone biopsy? There are various reasons for having to ...

13

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

PubMed

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

14

Rectal biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

A rectal biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of rectal tissue for examination. ... A rectal biopsy is usually part of anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy . A digital rectal exam is done first. Then, a ...

15

Tongue biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - tongue ... A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. You will get numbing medicine at the place where the ... provider will gently stick the needle into the tongue and removes a tiny piece of tissue. Some ...

16

PREVALENCE OF THE LYME DISEASE SPIROCHETE, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, IN DEER TICKS (IXODES DAMMINI) COLLECTED FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS WRGINIANUS) IN SAINT CROIX STATE PARK, MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a special two-day hunt (11, 12 November 1989) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota (USA), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. Of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were thedeer tick, Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative

James S. Gill; Russell C. Johnson; Myra K. Sinclair; A. R. Weisbrod

17

Kidney biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... order a kidney biopsy if you have: An unexplained drop in kidney function Blood in the urine that does not go away Protein in the urine found during a urine test A transplanted kidney, which needs to be monitored using a biopsy

18

Bone Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... can be performed using local anesthesia and moderate (conscious) sedation, while the surgical biopsy involves a larger ...

19

Muscle biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Muscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital myopathy Metabolic defects of the muscle A muscle biopsy ... done to tell the difference between nerve and muscle disorders. A muscle that has recently been injured, such ...

20

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver and quickly withdrawn. This removes a core of liver tissue. After the procedure, the child is observed and monitored regularly until it’s safe to go home. The time of discharge differs according to the age of the child and the reason for the biopsy. It can vary from 6 to 24 hours. ...

21

Computational optical biopsy.  

PubMed

Optical molecular imaging is based on fluorescence or bioluminescence, and hindered by photon scattering in the tissue, especially in patient studies. Here we propose a computational optical biopsy (COB) approach to localize and quantify a light source deep inside a subject. In contrast to existing optical biopsy techniques, our scheme is to collect optical signals directly from a region of interest along one or multiple biopsy paths in a subject, and then compute features of an underlying light source distribution. In this paper, we formulate this inverse problem in the framework of diffusion approximation, demonstrate the solution uniqueness properties in two representative configurations, and obtain analytic solutions for reconstruction of both optical properties and source parameters. PMID:15955235

Li, Yi; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Ge

2005-01-01

22

Heritability estimation of osteoarthritis in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) with a look toward future data collection  

PubMed Central

We examine heritability estimation of an ordinal trait for osteoarthritis, using a population of pig-tailed macaques from the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC). This estimation is non-trivial, as the data consist of ordinal measurements on 16 intervertebral spaces throughout each macaque’s spinal cord, with many missing values. We examine the resulting heritability estimates from different model choices, and also perform a simulation study to compare the performance of heritability estimation with these different models under specific known parameter values. Under both the real data analysis and the simulation study, we find that heritability estimates from an assumption of normality of the trait differ greatly from those of ordered probit regression, which considers the ordinality of the trait. This finding indicates that some caution should be observed regarding model selection when estimating heritability of an ordinal quantity. Furthermore, we find evidence that our real data have little information for valid heritability estimation under ordered probit regression. We thus conclude with an exploration of sample size requirements for heritability estimation under this model. For an ordinal trait, an incorrect assumption of normality can lead to severely biased heritability estimation. Sample size requirements for heritability estimation of an ordinal trait under the threshold model depends on the pedigree structure, trait distribution and the degree of relatedness between each phenotyped individual. Our sample of 173 monkeys did not have enough information from which to estimate heritability, but estimable heritability can be obtained with as few as 180 related individuals under certain scenarios examined here.

Chi, Peter B.; Duncan, Andrea E.; Kramer, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

23

Design of collective Thomson scattering system using 77 GHz gyrotron for bulk and tail ion diagnostics in the large helical device.  

PubMed

Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system is expected to be a strong diagnostic tool for measuring thermal and fast ion distribution function at a local point inside plasmas. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system using a gyrotron at the frequency range of 77 GHz has been installed at the large helical device (LHD). The feasibility of CTS system using the 77 GHz gyrotron is assessed in terms of scattering spectrum and a background noise of the electron cyclotron emission, which affect the signal to noise ratio, with the realistic plasma parameters and incident port locations of LHD. Based on the calculated scattering spectra for bulk and tail fast ion diagnostics, the scattering radiation receiver system with gyrotron frequency feedback circuit is proposed to avoid the frequency chirping. PMID:19044547

Nishiura, M; Tanaka, K; Kubo, S; Saito, T; Tatematsu, Y; Notake, T; Kawahata, K; Shimozuma, T; Mutoh, T

2008-10-01

24

Broad-tailed force distributions and velocity ordering in a heterogeneous membrane model for collective cell migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated velocity patterns and associated large length-scale transmission of traction forces have been observed in collective live cell migration as a response to a “wound”. We argue that a simple physical model of a force-driven heterogeneous elastic membrane sliding over a viscous substrate can qualitatively explain a few experimentally observed facts: i) the growth of velocity ordering which spreads from

Tripti Bameta; Dipjyoti Das; Sumantra Sarkar; Dibyendu Das; Mandar M. Inamdar

2012-01-01

25

PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

2011-12-01

26

Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology  

PubMed Central

Triple assessment is a standard method for assessment of breast diseases, which includes clinical evaluation, radiographic assessment and pathological assessment. Biopsy for breast disease is the gold standard for pathological assessment, including incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy and bite biopsy. With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual transition from traditional open surgery to biopsy. This review summarizes the current situation and development of breast biopsy technology to provide an insight into the latest details such as the safety and reliability as the basis for selection of the most appropriate techniques for specific settings.

Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Zheng, Yi-Qiong

2013-01-01

27

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

28

Breast biopsy - stereotactic  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - breast - stereotactic; Core needle breast biopsy - stereotactic; Stereotactic breast biopsy ... following: Fine needle aspiration Hollow needle (called a core needle) Vacuum-powered device Both a needle and ...

29

Breast biopsy - ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... following: Fine needle aspiration Hollow needle (called a core needle) Vacuum-powered device Both a hollow needle ...

30

Tail planes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents methods by which the cells of large commercial airplanes may be reduced. The tail of large airplanes represent an area where considerable improvement in weight and size reduction can be attained.

Constantin, L

1926-01-01

31

Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

Abdrashitov, G.

1943-01-01

32

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

33

Considerations Regarding Prostate Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the current clinical practice concerning prostate biopsies and indications for prostate biopsies and to study the value of biopsies in grading and staging of prostate cancer. Methods: The literature from 1990 onwards was reviewed systematically. A selection out of the huge number of publications concerning the subject was made based on the relevance of the study (e.g.,

Harrie P. Beerlage; Theo M. de Reijke; Jean J. M. C. H. de la Rosette

1998-01-01

34

Utilization trends and positive biopsy rates for prostate biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011.  

PubMed

This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009-2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009 to 2011 there was no significant difference in specimen vials per biopsy across sites of service. Increased cancer detection rate correlated significantly with increased number of specimens examined. Segregation of prostate biopsy cores into 10 to 12 unique specimen vials has been widely adopted by urologists across sites of service. PMID:24659910

Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

2013-01-01

35

Utilization Trends and Positive Biopsy Rates for Prostate Biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011  

PubMed Central

This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009–2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009 to 2011 there was no significant difference in specimen vials per biopsy across sites of service. Increased cancer detection rate correlated significantly with increased number of specimens examined. Segregation of prostate biopsy cores into 10 to 12 unique specimen vials has been widely adopted by urologists across sites of service.

Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

2013-01-01

36

Bone lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Coccidiomycosis Histoplasmosis Mycobacteria infection Osteitis fibrosa Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Rickets ... Bone fracture Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Damage to surrounding ... Infection near the biopsy area Note: Some people with bone ...

37

Consolidation of Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of...

J. D. Nelson R. E. Wardell S. R. Abt W. P. Staub

1983-01-01

38

Approaches to the Difficult Drainage and Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous abscess drainage and percutaneous biopsy are effective and widely used techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with abdominal or pelvic abscesses and lesions. Some abscesses and lesions can initially appear unsuitable for percutaneous access for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the circumstances in which collections or lesions may appear undrainable or inaccessible to percutaneous biopsy, and it describes techniques for overcoming these circumstances.

McDermott, Shaunagh; Levis, Diane A.; Arellano, Ronald S.

2012-01-01

39

Open pleural biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... small plastic tube in your chest to prevent air and fluid from building up Today, most centers use a technique called video-assisted thoracoscopy, which uses a camera and tiny instruments to biopsy the pleural area. With this method, ...

40

Bone marrow biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... the bone. This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are removed. Pressure and a bandage are applied to the biopsy site. A bone marrow aspirate may also be ...

41

Biopsy (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... samples) will look at the tissue under a microscope and then give the information to your doctor, ... anything during the procedure. Explain the biopsy in simple language, and make sure your child understands where ...

42

Deciding whom to biopsy.  

PubMed

Biopsy results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that prostate cancer exists at all PSA levels and that a significant number of men with "normal" PSA levels have high grade cancer. These findings and the low specificity of total PSA in discriminating cancer from benign disease have added to the debate about how best to use PSA in selecting men for prostate biopsy. Lower PSA thresholds for consideration of biopsy, particularly in younger men, are advocated by some. PSA velocity measurements may assist in the identification of men most likely to harbor cancer, and lower PSA velocity thresholds may be more appropriate in younger men. A more individualized approach using a predictive model developed from PCPT biopsy results is promoted by others. While able to incorporate risk variables other than PSA, including new markers, this risk calculator does not include PSA velocity since this variable was not found to have independent predictive value in this model. This article will present differing viewpoints on selecting men for prostate biopsy, one advocating the use of a PSA cut-off or PSA velocity measure (Dr. Catalona) and the other arguing for the routine use of established risk nomograms (Dr. Klein). PMID:20816613

Amling, Christopher L; Catalona, William J; Klein, Eric A

2010-01-01

43

Breast Biopsy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

1994-01-01

44

Uranium Mill Tailings Management  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements).

Nelson, J.D.

1982-01-01

45

Percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the history, technique, applications, advantages, disadvantages and complications of percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy. This technique, particularly when performed with a time needle (21-gauge or less), is a relatively painless, inexpensive and safe method of obtaining a pathologic diagnosis, and it can often be carried out at the bedside or in the outpatient department. It complements other methods and may obviate, but never precludes, subsequent excisional biopsy. Its advantages are insufficiently recognized. Considerable expertise of the cytopathologist and close cooperation with the clinician are necessary for consistent results. Images FIG. 1

McLoughlin, M. J.; Ho, C. S.; Tao, L. C.

1978-01-01

46

Color optical biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam

2014-02-01

47

The Skin Punch Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7

Blakeman, J. M.

1983-01-01

48

Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully.

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

2013-01-01

49

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

50

Transrectal Prostatic Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Transrectal prostatic biopsy specimens were taken from 218 patients with prostatic symptoms—138 by the Franzen aspiration technique without anaesthesia as outpatients and 80 by the Silverman technique under general anaesthesia. A reliable diagnosis was obtained in 82% of the former and 95% of the latter. Imagesp596-a

Hendry, W. F.; Williams, J. P.

1971-01-01

51

Deciding whom to biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that prostate cancer exists at all PSA levels and that a significant number of men with “normal” PSA levels have high grade cancer. These findings and the low specificity of total PSA in discriminating cancer from benign disease have added to the debate about how best to use PSA in

Christopher L. Amling; William J. Catalona; Eric A. Klein

2010-01-01

52

Detailing the human tail.  

PubMed

There have been 23 true vestigial tails reported in the literature since 1884. A new case is described, and its magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features are presented. A review of the literature and analysis of the pathological characteristics reveal that the vestigial human tail may be associated with other abnormalities. Vestigial tails contain adipose and connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves and are covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord elements are lacking. Tails are easily removed surgically without residual effects. Since 29% (7 of 24) of the reported tails have been associated with other malformations, careful clinical evaluation of these patients is recommended. PMID:3284435

Dubrow, T J; Wackym, P A; Lesavoy, M A

1988-04-01

53

Prospective clinical experience with research biopsies in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

There are ethical concerns regarding the performance of biopsies in patients for research purposes. We examined our single-institution experience regarding acceptance, safety, and success rate with research biopsies in patients with breast cancer. Among patients with data from paired samples, receptor status agreement between primary and metastatic samples was examined, either on first recurrence or after progression on one or more lines of therapy. An IRB-approved prospective study at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute collects research biopsies as additional passes at the time of a clinical biopsy (AB, additional biopsy) or as a separate procedure for banking purposes (RPOB, research purposes only biopsy). Biopsies are not linked to a specific therapeutic or correlative trial. Grade 2-5 adverse events are prospectively collected. 151 patients were included in the analytic cohort (total procedures = 161); 80.8 % underwent AB, 17.2 % underwent RPOB, and 2.0 % underwent both AB and RPOB. Most patients were white (88.7 %) with a performance status of 0-1 (94.0 %). 96.0 % of patients underwent a biopsy in the setting of known or suspected metastatic disease. Receptor status between primary cancer and recurrent research biopsies differed in 43.2 % of patients with available data (18.8 % among patients who underwent the research biopsy before any systemic treatment, 48.1 % after treatment). Tissue was successfully collected in 92.3 % of patients undergoing AB and 100 % patients undergoing RPOB. Only three (2.0 %) patients had adverse events ? grade-2: one grade-2 pain; one grade-2 pneumothorax; and one grade-3 pain. Our experience suggests research biopsies can be performed safely with a high rate of successful tissue collection. Consistent with previous reports we found a high rate of discordance between primary and metastatic samples, which was even higher among treated patients. This supports continued efforts to study tissue samples at multiple points in a patient's disease course. PMID:24113744

Vaz-Luis, Ines; Zeghibe, Catherine A; Frank, Elizabeth S; Sohl, Jessica; Washington, Kimberly E; Silverman, Stuart G; Fonte, Joseph M; Mayer, Erica L; Overmoyer, Beth A; Richardson, Andrea L; Krop, Ian E; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

2013-11-01

54

Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective flow just prior to onset, suggesting the active role of the ionosphere in the onset process, and adding credibility to the ballooning instability theory of substorm onset. This grant also supported a number of other substorm studies and reviews. These are represented by the list of publications and meeting presentations resulting out of this grant.

Hughes, W. Jeffrey

1998-01-01

55

Skin biopsy and psoriasis.  

PubMed

A total of 33 skin biopsies were sent to Bangladesh institute of health Science (BIHS) hospital at Mirpur, Dhaka by Consultant skin for histopathological diagnosis between a period of one year and three months. Out of these 33 skin biopsies histopathological diagnosis of psoriasis was made for 13(39.39%), chronic non specific dermatitis (eczema) in 4(12.12%), lichenoid lesion 4(12.12%). Ashy dermatosis 3(9.09%), Nevus 2(6.06%) and corn, hemangioma, prurigo simplex, pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), dermatofibroma, 1(3.03%) each. The main presenting feature of these patients were erythematous, prurituc, silvery, scale, plaques or papules for a period between 2 months to 15 years. It is evident from the present study that among different skin lesions sent for histological diagnosis, Psoriasis is common skin pathology in dermatological practice. PMID:20639826

Rahman, M T; Monami, N S; Ferdousi, S; Tahmin, T

2010-07-01

56

Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu

2011-01-01

57

Telepathology and Optical Biopsy  

PubMed Central

The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

Ferrer-Roca, Olga

2009-01-01

58

Open Lung Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Steady improvement in the diagnostic appraisal of obscure pulmonary and mediastinal disease has permitted more intelligent treatment, better prognosis, and where necessary more accurate assessment of compensability. Open lung biopsy is designed to obtain material for pathological study when there is no pleural, mediastinal, or airway lesion on which to base a working diagnosis. A study of 54 patients in whom lung biopsy was performed at the Toronto General Hospital and Weston Sanatorium is reported. A positive tissue diagnosis was obtained in approximately 75%. The procedure is considered relatively innocuous if sensible selection is exercised to exclude patients with terminal disease, particularly that associated with severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. No major complications occurred in this series. It is concluded that open lung biopsy might reasonably receive much wider application than in the past in cases in which a definite diagnosis cannot otherwise be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11

Delarue, Norman C.; Strangway, Donald W.

1964-01-01

59

Tails of Bacterial Motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cytoplasm of living cells provides a complex fluid environment in which intracellular bacteria live and move. By analyzing the easily visible curved actin ``comet-tail'' of polymerization-based-motility bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, we can learn about sub-micron structure and dynamics of the tail and of the bacterial surface enzyme that catalyzes tail formation. By characterizing the motility, we can transform such motile systems into probes of the cytoplasmic environment.

Rutenberg, Andrew; Grant, Martin

2001-03-01

60

High-intensity focused ultrasound for liver biopsy hemostasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of HIFU application to control postliver biopsy hemorrhage. Yorkshire pigs were anesthetized and their livers were surgically exposed. Core biopsies (n=74) were performed on the exposed hepatic parenchyma with 14-gauge (n=41) and 18-gauge (n=33) core biopsy needles that were inserted 1.5-2 cm deep into the liver. Hemorrhage was determined from the weight of the blood collected from each biopsy puncture site using surgical sponges immediately after biopsy needle retraction. To stop hemorrhage, immediate HIFU was applied to the needle entry site (n=44) after needle retraction. HIFU was generated using a piezoelectric (PZT) transducer (diameter=42 mm, F number=1.2) at 4.23 MHz. Whole-blood clotting times were measured at various times throughout the experiments. Mean blood loss from control biopsy sites using a 14-gauge needle (n=18) was 1.78 g, while mean blood loss using an 18-gauge needle (n=10) was 1.22 g (two 14-gauge-needle control biopsies were excluded). Virtually no blood loss was measured from the biopsy needle entry site after HIFU application for both 14- and 18-gauge-needle biopsies. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated a marked difference between control sites and HIFU-treated sites where successful hemostasis was achieved.

Deng, Cheri; Wang, Hesheng; Zhou, Yun; Dogra, Vikram; Exner, Agata; Bhatt, Shweta; Haaga, John; Stowe, Nicholas

2001-05-01

61

CT-guided biopsy of lung lesions: defining the best needle option for a specific diagnosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of fine and cutting needles in computed tomography guided-biopsy of lung lesions suspicious for malignancy and to determine which technique is the best option for a specific diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the data from 362 (71.6%) patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy and from 97 (19.7%) patients who underwent cutting-needle biopsy between January 2006 and December 2011. The data concerning demographic and lesion characteristics, procedures, biopsy sample adequacy, specific diagnoses, and complications were collected. The success and complication rates of both biopsy techniques were calculated. RESULTS: Cutting-needle biopsy yielded significantly higher percentages of adequate biopsy samples and specific diagnoses than did fine-needle aspiration biopsy (p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of cutting-needle biopsy were 93.8%, 97.3%, and 95.2%, respectively; those of fine-needle aspiration biopsy were 82.6%, 81.3%, and 81.8%, respectively (all p<0.05). The incidence of pneumothorax was higher for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and that of hematoma was higher for cutting-needle biopsy (both p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience using these two techniques for computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy showed that cutting-needle biopsy yielded better results than did fine-needle aspiration biopsy and that there was no significant increase in complication rates to indicate the best option for specific diagnoses.

Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Hochhegger, Bruno; Chojniak, Rubens; Gross, Jefferson Luiz

2014-01-01

62

Stereotactic and ultrasound-guided breast biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous imaging-guided needle biopsy has increasingly become an alternative to surgical biopsy for the histologic assessment of breast lesions. Percutaneous biopsy is faster, less invasive, and less expensive than surgical biopsy. Tissue acquisition is performed with automated core needles or directional vacuum-assisted biopsy probes. Guidance for percutaneous biopsy is usually provided by stereotaxis, ultrasound, and, more recently, under the guidance

T. H. Helbich; W. Matzek; M. H. Fuchsjäger

2004-01-01

63

[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

1997-01-01

64

Human tails and pseudotails.  

PubMed

A case of a tail in a 2-week-old infant is reported, and findings from a review of 33 previously reported cases of true tails and pseudotails are summarized. The true, or persistent, vestigial tail of humans arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail. It contains adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of striated muscle, blood vessels, and nerves and is covered by skin. Bone, cartilage, notochord, and spinal cord are lacking. The true tail arises by retention of structures found normally in fetal development. It may be as long as 13 cm, can move and contract, and occurs twice as often in males as in females. A true tail is easily removed surgically, without residual effects. It is rarely familial. Pseudotails are varied lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to persistent vestigial tails. The most frequent cause of a pseudotail in a series of ten cases obtained from the literature was an anomalous prolongation of the coccygeal vertebrae. Additional lesions included two lipomas, and one each of teratoma, chondromegaly , glioma, and a thin, elongated parasitic fetus. PMID:6373560

Dao, A H; Netsky, M G

1984-05-01

65

Collective instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

K.Y. Ng

2003-08-25

66

Estimating tail probabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

1982-12-01

67

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail around high activity comets. We present a brief overview of neutral sodium tail observations to date and discuss the importance of theoretical modelling in understanding these data. We have developed a new, 3D Monte-Carlo model of cometary sodium that incorporates several advancements over previous models. It includes weightings due to solar flux variation with heliocentric distance, and comprehensive handling of the Swings and Greenstein effects on the neutral sodium tail, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets. Some preliminary results from this model are presented, including predictions of the structure of the eagerly anticipated neutral sodium tail at Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-09-01

68

Wagging tail vibration absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

1969-01-01

69

Uranium Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the...

L. H. McLaren

1982-01-01

70

The Tail Suspension Test  

PubMed Central

The tail-suspension test is a mouse behavioral test useful in the screening of potential antidepressant drugs, and assessing of other manipulations that are expected to affect depression related behaviors. Mice are suspended by their tails with tape, in such a position that it cannot escape or hold on to nearby surfaces. During this test, typically six minutes in duration, the resulting escape oriented behaviors are quantified. The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds. Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. We also offer a solution to the tail climbing behavior, a common problem that renders this test useless in some mouse strains, such as the widely used C57BL/6. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test.

Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Bhat, Shambhu; Gould, Todd D.

2012-01-01

71

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

72

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Child If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

73

Pleural needle biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... a collection of fluid around the lung (persistent pleural effusion) or other abnormality of the pleural membrane. Pleural ... Broaddus VC, Light RW. Pleural effusion. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, ... Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB ...

74

Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

75

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-07-01

76

[Percutaneous liver biopsy in outpatients].  

PubMed

We studied prospectively 44 patients with diffuse liver disease. We performed percutaneous liver biopsy in these outpatients. They were required to be in absolute response during the following 4-6 hours after the biopsy was completed. After that period, they could go home and have a relative rest for the remnant day. These patients were followed by clinical evaluation and by real time abdominal ultrasound. We found some complications: Transitory arterial hypotension, pain in the site of puncture, hepatic hematomas. Only one of the patients with hematomas required hospitalization during 24 hours. The mortality was 0%. According to our experience, the hepatic biopsy is a procedure that can be performed in outpatients with a wide margin of security. An important point of view to consider is the economic advantage since it means a decrease in costs by each hepatic biopsy accomplished considering the cost/day of hospitalization. PMID:2152257

Ocampo, M E; Piñero, R; Urquiola, G; Marsicano, L; Salomón, A; Poleo, J R

1990-01-01

77

Arterioportal Fistula Following Liver Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure which is utilized frequently in liver transplant recipients. Here we report the experience of the University of Pittsburgh with an unusual complication of this procedure occurring in liver transplant recipients.

JABBOUR, NICOLAS; REYES, JORGE; ZAJKO, ALBERT; NOUR, BAKR; TZAKIS, ANDREAS G.; STARZL, THOMAS E.; VAN THIEL, DAVID H.

2010-01-01

78

Liver Biopsy in Human Leptospirosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liver biopsies of proved human cases of leptospirosis showed partial disappearance and/or distortion of bile ductules and sinusoidal pole microvilli. The more severe cases showed definite mitochondrial pathology. Enlargement of the intercellular spaces wa...

T. de Brito

1967-01-01

79

[Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy].  

PubMed

The definitive diagnosis of several hematological diseases, as for instance leukaemias, unexplained pancytopenias and other bone marrow disorders, requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Not only haematologists, but also internists, need to master this rather invasive procedure. The knowledge of indications, contra-indications, potential complications and their prevention of its complications is of utmost importance. This article reviews these topics about bone marrow biopsy, giving some practical advices on this procedure. PMID:19055151

Moix, Paul-André; Favre, Lucie; Rosselet, Anne; Monti, Matteo

2008-10-29

80

Testicular biopsy helping assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

Authors have performed testis biopsy on 21 male patients according to the predesigned protocol. The biopsy has been carried out from scrotal excision, with the exposure of both testis with microsurgical method. The results have been evaluated according to the spermogram groups. Correlation of FSH values and histological appearance of both testis was analyzed. Their method and experiences have been evaluated the effectiveness of assisted reproduction. PMID:10935137

Erdei, E; Magyar, E; Lellei, I; Rózsahegyi, J; Laki, A; Rusz, A; Papp, G

1999-01-01

81

Tail vaccination in cats: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Feline injection site sarcomas affect 1-10 cats per every 10,000 vaccinated and are associated with high mortality. Radical resection may be curative, but is often associated with prolonged recovery, disfigurement and loss of function when tumors occur at currently recommended injection sites. The objective of this study was to assess alternatives to currently recommended vaccination sites in terms of preference by oncology practitioners, ease of injection and serological responses. Surgical, radiation and medical oncology practitioners were surveyed regarding their preference for vaccination sites based on the ease of tumor resection. A six-point Likert scale was used to measure each cat's behavioral reaction to vaccination when injected subcutaneously in the distal hind limb or the distal tail. Serum collected before and 1-2 months after vaccination was tested for antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and rabies virus (RV). The preferred sites for vaccination by 94 oncology practitioners were below the stifle (41%) and the tail (30%). There were no significant differences in the cats' behavioral reaction to vaccination below the stifle (n = 31) and in the distal tail (n = 29). Of the cats seronegative for FPV at the time of vaccination, 100% developed protective antibody titers (?40) against FPV 1-2 months following vaccination. For cats seronegative for RV, all but one cat (tail vaccine) developed acceptable antibody titers (?0.5 IU/ml) against RV. Tail vaccination was well tolerated and elicited similar serological responses to vaccination in the distal limbs. PMID:24108201

Hendricks, Cleon G; Levy, Julie K; Tucker, Sylvia J; Olmstead, Shaye M; Crawford, P Cynda; Dubovi, Edward J; Hanlon, Cathleen A

2014-04-01

82

Distribution of arsenic and nickel in uranium mill tailings, Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rabbit Lake U mine in-pit tailings management facility (TMF) is located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The tailings body is approximately 425 m long×300 m wide and 91 m thick at its centre. An investigation of the TMF was performed to collect tailings samples from depth to quantify the distribution of As and Ni in the tailings with respect to ore type and

R Donahue; M. J Hendry; P Landine

2000-01-01

83

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

84

Clinical usefulness of temporal artery biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the diagnostic usefulness of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis (TA) and establish clinical features capable of predicting its positivity we have retrospectively studied the biopsy specimens and the clinical features of 103 patients who had undergone temporal artery biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy reached a positive predictive value of 90.2% with respect to the final diagnosis based on

J Vilaseca; A González; M C Cid; J Lopez-Vivancos; A Ortega

1987-01-01

85

Incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The reported biopsy-proven glomerulo- nephritis incidence varies according to population characteristics, the unknown true glomerulonephritis incidence and biopsy rate. Reported glomerulonephri- tis incidence should be evaluated against the biopsy rate. Methods. We report here the glomerulonephritis incidence in our University Hospital (UH) consecutive biopsy material. It is compared to those from surrounding central hospitals (CH), previous single- centre studies

Ole Wirta; Jukka Mustonen; Heikki Helin; Amos Pasternack

86

Needle core biopsy for breast lesions: An audit of 467 needle core biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in urban India. Triple assessment includes clinical, radiological and cytological assessment of breast lesions. Guided core needle biopsy has replaced fine needle aspiration cytology in most of the western countries. In resource poor countries FNAC is still a very valuable and cost effective method to diagnose breast lesions. Pitfalls include increased rates of non diagnostic smears, and inadequate smears. Further procedures may be required and this increases the cost, anxiety and delay in diagnosis. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the concordance of radiological and histopathology findings in BI-RADS category 3,4,5 lesions following a core biopsy. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from consecutive symptomatic and opportunistic screen detected patients with abnormalities who underwent ultrasound guided interventional procedures from Jan 2010 to Aug 2011. Symptomatic patients underwent clinical examination, mammogram and breast ultrasound. Women under 35 years of age had only breast ultrasound. Core biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance or clinically by a breast surgeon/ radiologist for BI-RADS category 3,4,5 lesions. Statistical Methods: Chi square test was done to show the strength of association of imaging findings and histopathology results of core biopsy. Results: 437 patients were symptomatic and 30 patients had screen detected abnormalities. The positive predictive value for BI-RADS 5 lesions for malignancy is 93.25% and the negative predictive value of BI-RADS category 3 lesions for cancer is 98.4%. False negative diagnosis on core biopsy was 0.85%. We were able to defer surgery in 60% of the patients with a clear radiological and pathological benign diagnosis. Conclusion: The PPV and NPV for cancer is high with needle core biopsy in BI-RADS 3,4,5 lesions. Where there is no discordance between clinical, radiology and pathology findings, surgery can be avoided in benign lesions. While in resource poor countries FNAC continues to be a valuable method in the diagnosis of palpable and non palpable breast lesions, the practice of needle core biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information.

Radhakrishna, Selvi; Gayathri, Anu; Chegu, Deepa

2013-01-01

87

Faun tail nevus  

PubMed Central

Faun tail nevus is a posterior midline cutaneous lesion of importance to dermatologists as it could be a cutaneous marker for its underlying spine and spinal cord anomaly. We report a 13-year-old girl with excessive hair growth over the lumbosacral region since birth. There was associated spinal anomaly with no neurological manifestation affecting the lower spinal cord. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. The patient reported for cosmetic disability. This case is reported for its clinical importance.

Yamini, M.; Sridevi, K. S.; Babu, N. Prasanna; Chetty, Nanjappa G.

2011-01-01

88

Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

2013-12-01

89

The tail plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with the calculation of the equilibrium, statistical stability, and damping of the tail plane. The author has simplified the present theory of longitudinal stability for the particular purpose of obtaining one definite coefficient characteristics of the effect of the tail plane. This coefficient is obtained by substituting certain aerodynamic characteristics and some dimensions of the airplane in a comparatively simple mathematical expression. Care has been taken to confine all aerodynamical information necessary for the calculation of the coefficient to the well-known curves representing the qualities of the wing section. This is done by making use of the present results of modern aerodynamics. All formulas and relations necessary for the calculation are contained in the paper. They give in some cases only an approximation of the real values. An example of calculation is added in order to illustrate the application of the method. The coefficient indicates not only whether the effect of the tail plane is great enough, but also whether it is not too great. It appears that the designer has to avoid a certain critical length of the fuselage, which inevitably gives rise to periodical oscillations of the airplane. The discussion also shows the way and in what direction to carry out experimental work.

Munk, Max M

1923-01-01

90

Radium226 in uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the physical state of226Ra in uranium mill tailings was undertaken by Chemex Laboratories Ltd. under contract to NUTP. A test portion of a leached uranium ore was collected just prior to neutralization with lime and subjected to repetitive batch water leaching. The leachates were analyzed for barium, lead,226Ra, iron and sulphate. The experimental results suggest that226Ra is

H. F. Steger; M. Legeyt

1987-01-01

91

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

92

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy have a central place in the diagnosis of haematological disorders. Marrow procedures have a reputation for being unpleasant and painful but when performed carefully, with appropriate use of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, they should hold no fears for the patient. PMID:1958933

Williamson, P J; Smith, A G

1991-11-01

93

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

94

Using Biopsy to Detect Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Transrectal ultrasound-guided systemic biopsy is the recommended method in most cases with suspicion of prostate cancer. Transrectal periprostatic injection with a local anesthetic may be offered as effective analgesia; periprostatic nerve block with 1% or 2% lidocaine is the recommended form of pain control. On initial biopsy, a minimum of 10 systemic, laterally directed cores is recommended, with more cores in larger glands. Extended prostate biopsy schemes, which require cores weighted more laterally at the base (lateral horn) and medially to the apex, show better cancer detection rates without increasing adverse events. Transition zone biopsies are not recommended in the first set of biopsies, owing to low detection rates. One set of repeat biopsies is warranted in cases with persistent indication. Saturation biopsy (?20 cores) should be reserved for repeat biopsy in patients who have negative results on initial biopsy but who are still strongly suspected to have prostate cancer.

Shariat, Shahrokh F; Roehrborn, Claus G

2008-01-01

95

Improving clay-based tailings disposal: Case study on coal tailings  

SciTech Connect

The role of swelling clays in hindering the compressional dewatering characteristics of coal-mine tailings is examined. The effects of electrolyte concentration and ion exchange in improving the shear and compressional rheology are compared. Suspensions studied include actual mine tailings (thickener feed and thickener underflow) as well as synthetic clay dispersions made from clay collected from the coal seam. It was shown that the most important parameter in controlling the properties of the tailings suspension is controlled dispersion in the presence of a Ca{sup 2+} electrolyte concentration in excess of that required to (1) prevent initial swelling and (2) provide full cation exchange of the clay. Under these electrolyte conditions, complete delamination of the clay did not occur, and both the dewatering and handling characteristics of the resultant suspensions improved dramatically.

Kretser, R. de; Scales, P.J.; Boger, D.V. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)] [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

1997-07-01

96

Naturally Occurring Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To determine the distribution of lesions and extent of tissues infected with Mycobacterium bovis in a captive population of white-tailed deer. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—116 captive white-tailed deer. Procedure—Deer were euthanatized, and postmortem examinations were performed. Tissues with gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were collected for microscopic analysis and bacteriologic culture. Tissues from the head, thorax, and abdomen of deer with

Mitchell V. Palmer; Diana L. Whipple; Janet B. Payeur; David P. Alt; Kevin J. Esch; Colleen S. Bruning-Fann; John B. Kaneene

2000-01-01

97

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

98

The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

99

Imaging biopsy composition at ACL reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose Early-stage osteoarthritis (OA) includes glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and collagen disruption that cannot be seen on morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T1? MRI is a measurement that probes the low-frequency rate of exchange between protons of free water and those from water associated with macromolecules in the cartilage’s extracellular matrix. While it has been hypothesized that increased water mobility resulting from early osteoarthritic changes cause elevated T1? MRI values, there remain several unknown mechanisms influencing T1? measurements in cartilage. The purpose of this work was to relate histological and biochemical metrics directly measured from osteochondral biopsies and fluid specimens with quantitative MRI-detected changes of in vivo cartilage composition. Patients and methods Six young patients were enrolled an average of 41 days after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Femoral trochlear groove osteochondral biopsies, serum, and synovial fluid were harvested during ACL reconstruction to complement a presurgery quantitative MRI study (T1?, T2, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage [dGEMRIC] relaxation times). A high-resolution MRI scan of the excised osteochondral biopsy was also collected. Analyses of in vivo T1? images were compared with ex vivo T1? imaging, GAG assays and histological GAG distribution in the osteochondral biopsies, and direct measures of bone and cartilage turnover markers and “OA marker” 3B3 in serum and synovial fluid samples. Conclusion T1? relaxation times in patients with a torn ACL were elevated from normal, indicating changes consistent with general fluid effusion after blunt joint trauma. Increased chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) production of chondroprotective lubricin may relate to cartilage surface disruption by blunt trauma and CPC amplification of joint inflammation. Disparity between ex vivo and matched in vivo MRI of trochlear cartilage suggests MRI signal differences that may be related to the synovial fluid environment. T1? is emerging as a promising MRI biomarker to relate noninvasive measures of whole-joint condition and cartilage composition to direct measures of cartilage changes in the acute phase of joint injuries.

Pedersen, Douglas R; Martin, James A; Thedens, Daniel R; Klocke, Noelle F; Roberts, Nathaniel H; Goetz, Jessica E; Amendola, Annunziato

2013-01-01

100

Helicopter Tail-Boom Strakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yaw control and overall efficiency increased at hover and low speeds. Wind-tunnel investigation showed strake located on left side of tail boom has potential to reduce high adverse side loads on tail boom in hover and in sideward flight. Test demonstrated addition of single long strake to left side of tail boom most effective configuration for reducing left pedal requirements in right sideward flight.

Kelley, H. L.; Phelps, A. E., III; Wilson, J. C.

1986-01-01

101

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

102

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-04-01

103

Biopsies  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially ... the scanner and monitors your examination in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear ...

104

Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... AOA and ACGME Agree to Single GME Accreditation System 1/23/2014 AOCD Response to recent NY Times Article 12/19/2013 Osteopathic Training Statement Online Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

105

Liver biopsy methods for pediatric oncology patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Liver biopsy is a high-risk procedure in oncology patients, and optimal methods for children have not been established.¶Objective. To assess the effectiveness and safety of two methods of performing liver biopsy in pediatric oncology patients.¶Materials and methods. Between May 1997 and July 1999, 51 liver biopsies (22 percutaneous and 29 transjugular) were performed. The 22 percutaneous\\u000a biopsies (13 focal

Fredric A. Hoffer

2000-01-01

106

Diagnostic value of transcervical endometrial biopsies in domestic dogs compared with full-thickness uterine sections.  

PubMed

Transcervical endometrial biopsy is a useful tool for obtaining information about uterine health in some species. The clinical application of information gained from histopathological interpretations of endometrial biopsies in the bitch has not been validated. We hypothesized that transcervical endometrial biopsy samples would be as diagnostic as full-thickness uterine sections in identifying cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 20 female adult dogs. Vaginal swabs, gross appearance of the vulva and vaginal tract, and serum progesterone values were used to determine the stage of the oestrous cycle at the time of sampling. The uteri were removed between 1 and 6 days after the biopsy procedure, and full-thickness sections were collected from each uterine horn and ovary and processed for histopathology. Two pathologists, blinded to the origin of each sample, compared full-thickness sections from the excised uteri to the biopsy samples collected via the transcervical technique. Pathologic features noted included: CEH, inflammation and periglandular fibrosis. Pathological diagnoses obtained from the biopsy sections were compared with those obtained from the full-thickness sections, as well as comparing diagnoses between the two pathologists, using McNemar's test. Of the 59 total biopsy samples obtained, 54 were considered diagnostic. All stages of the canine oestrous cycle were represented (anoestrus, proestrus, oestrus and dioestrus). Pyometra was not noted in any of the transcervical biopsy sections, but was noted in many of the full-thickness sections collected from dogs in dioestrus, suggesting either that biopsy is not a sensitive indicator of pyometra or that the procedure may induce pyometra in dioestrous dogs. Transcervical endometrial biopsy showed similar sensitivity as full-thickness sections in detecting CEH, inflammation and fibrosis. No differences in describing lesions were detected between pathologists. PMID:23279534

Christensen, B W; Schlafer, D H; Agnew, D W; Wang, C; Kozlowski, C; Asa, C S

2012-12-01

107

3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

108

Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications.

Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

2013-01-01

109

20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in...performed, a complete copy of the autopsy report shall be submitted to the Office...prior to March 31, 1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall be considered even...

2010-04-01

110

20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in...performed, a complete copy of the autopsy report shall be submitted to the Office...prior to March 31, 1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall be considered even...

2009-04-01

111

Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon

2005-01-01

112

Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infini...

A. R. George S. T. Chou

1986-01-01

113

On Tail Biting Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce generalized tail biting encoding as a means to ameliorate the rate deficiency caused by zero-tail convolutional encoding. This technique provides an important link between quasi-cyclic block and convolutional codes. Optimum and suboptimum decoding algorithms for these codes are described and their performance determined by analytical and simulation techniques.

H. H. Ma; J. Wolf

1986-01-01

114

Uranium Mill Tailings and Radon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is e...

L. A. Hanchey

1981-01-01

115

Human tail with spina bifida.  

PubMed

A true human tail is a rare occurrence and is defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion with skin covering connective tissue, muscle, vessels and nerves. We report a case of true human tail in a child, which is a very rare happening in humans. PMID:19922280

Chauhan, S P S; Gopal, N N; Jain, Mohit; Gupta, Anurag

2009-12-01

116

Patient's comfort with and tolerability of thyroid core needle biopsy.  

PubMed

Recently, the core needle biopsy (CNB) has been proposed as a complementary test for thyroid nodules with inconclusive cytology by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However, there have been no reports regarding patient comfort during and after CNB or tolerability of this procedure. Here we aimed to investigate and compare comfort with and tolerability of the CNB and FNA procedures. A 21 gauge needle was used for collection in CNB procedures, and a 23 gauge needle was used for collection in FNA procedures. Sixty-one consecutive patients underwent both biopsies and were asked to evaluate their comfort during and after these procedures by a structured questionnaire. A total of 58 (95 %) patients reported local pain during both biopsies. Two patients reported pain only during CNB, and one reported no pain. Mild pain was reported in 87 % of CNB cases. Local pain after biopsy was reported in 29 % of FNA and 45 % of CNB. The occurrence of pain in the first minutes following CNB was significantly higher than FNA (p = 0.008), while there was not a significant difference in pain at later time points after the procedures. Finally, patients were asked to evaluate the degree of tolerability of the two sampling techniques, and FNA and CNB were reported as tolerable in 82 and 83 %, respectively. The results from a questionnaire evaluating patients' comfort level showed no significant difference between the tolerability of CNB and FNA. This finding suggests that CNB may be performed with a reasonable level of patient comfort. PMID:23673868

Nasrollah, Naim; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Fabio; Amendola, Stefano; Guidobaldi, Leo; Ventura, Claudio; Maglio, Riccardo; Nigri, Giuseppe; Romanelli, Francesco; Valabrega, Stefano; Crescenzi, Anna

2014-02-01

117

Prostate biopsy for the interventional radiologist.  

PubMed

Prostate biopsies are usually performed by urologists in the office setting using transrectal ultrasound (US) guidance. The current standard of care involves obtaining 10-14 cores from different anatomic sections. Biopsies are usually not directed into a specific lesion because most prostate cancers are not visible on transrectal US. Color Doppler, US contrast agents, elastography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR imaging/US fusion are proposed as imaging methods to guide prostate biopsies. Prostate MR imaging and fusion biopsy create opportunities for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to play an increasingly important role in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, targeted biopsy, surveillance, and focal therapy of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:24581731

Hong, Cheng William; Amalou, Hayet; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Yan, Pingkun; Kruecker, Jochen; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J

2014-05-01

118

Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

1985-01-01

119

Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

2013-02-01

120

Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in planning transthoracic CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions. Methods Thirteen patients with lung lesions suspicious for malignancy underwent CT-guided biopsy. Chest DW-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation were performed to aid biopsy planning with fused images. MRI was indicated due to large heterogeneous masses, association with lung atelectasis/consolidation/necrosis, and/or divergent results of other biopsy type and histopathology versus clinical/radiological suspicion. Eight patients underwent PET/CT to identify appropriate areas for biopsy. Results Mean patient (n?=?9 males) age was 59 (range, 30 to 78) years. Based on DW-MRI results, biopsies targeted the most suspicious areas within lesions. All biopsied areas showed higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs (mean, 0.79 (range, 0.54 to 1.2)?×?10?3 mm2/s), suggesting high cellularity. In patients who underwent PET/CT, areas with higher 18-fluorodeoxyglucose concentrations (standard uptake value mean, 7.7 (range, 3.6 to 13.7)) corresponded to areas of higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs. All biopsies yielded adequate material for histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions Functional imaging is useful for lung biopsy planning. DW-MRI and PET/CT increase overall performance and enable the collection of adequate material for specific diagnosis.

2014-01-01

121

Recovery of Potash Feldspar from Molybdenite Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines used several laboratory batch flotation schemes combined with magnetic separation to investigate the feasibility of recovering potash feldspar and glass sands from molybdenite tailings. Four molybdenite tailings or prospective tailings...

W. H. Eddy G. V. Sullivan

1980-01-01

122

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

1986-01-01

123

Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 ?mol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine

2012-02-01

124

Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective.  

PubMed

The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim-Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

Agarwal, S K; Sethi, S; Dinda, A K

2013-07-01

125

Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations.

Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

2013-01-01

126

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

127

Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.

Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S

1940-01-01

128

Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing imageguided core-needle biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a side-firing fiber optic sensor based on near-infrared spectroscopy for guiding core needle biopsy diagnosis of breast cancer. The sensor is composed of three side firing optical fibers (two source fibers and one detection fiber), providing two source-detector separations. The entire assembly is inserted into a core biopsy needle, allowing for sampling to occur at the biopsy site. A multi-wavelength frequency-domain near-infrared instrument is used to collect diffuse reflectance in the breast tissue through an aperture on the biopsy needle before the tissue is removed for histology. Preliminary in vivo measurements performed on 10 normal or benign breast tissues from 5 women undergoing stereo- or ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy show the ability of the system to determine tissue optical properties and constituent concentrations, which are correlated with breast tissue composition derived from histopathology.

Yu, Bing; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Harter, Josephine M.; Zhu, Changfang; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2007-06-01

129

Stereotactic breast biopsy: pitfalls and pearls.  

PubMed

Stereotactic breast biopsies have become indispensable and the standard of care for patients in whom screening mammography or tomosynthesis reveals breast lesions suggestive of malignancy. A variety of stereotactic biopsy systems and needle types are now available, which allow more accurate sampling of lesions as well as successful biopsy of lesions in difficult locations in patients of all body habitus. We discuss how to plan, perform, and follow up stereotactic biopsies. Most importantly, we offer suggestions on how to avoid problems and complications and detail how to achieve technical success even in the most challenging cases. Stereotactic biopsy has proven over time to be an accurate and acceptable alternative to surgical biopsy for histopathologic diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Successful performance of this minimally invasive procedure spares women from undergoing potentially deforming and expensive procedures to diagnose breast disease. PMID:24636329

Huang, Monica L; Adrada, Beatriz E; Candelaria, Rosalind; Thames, Deborah; Dawson, Debora; Yang, Wei T

2014-03-01

130

Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features.

Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

2010-01-01

131

Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

SciTech Connect

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with respect to matric suction is established by testing reconstituted tailings samples in a modified triaxial cell, in which matric suction can be controlled. The contribution of matric suction to the shear strength is interpreted as an additional apparent cohesion for use in bearing-capacity calculations. Because of the nonlinearity of the shear-strength profile, a numerical method of analysis is adopted to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the desiccated tailings. A subsequent decrease in bearing capacity following 2D water infiltration into a partially capped tailings deposit and accompanying suction loss is investigated.

Rassam, D.W.; Williams, D.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1999-07-01

132

Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.  

PubMed

A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

2013-11-15

133

Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease.

Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M

2014-01-01

134

[The role of ultrasonography and biopsy following kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

Several complications can occur during both the early and late postoperative periods after kidney transplantation. The methods used to follow up 575 kidney transplanted patients, (transplantations performed between October 1979 and November 1997) in the early (within 6 weeks) and late postoperative periods have been assessed. The diagnostic value of core biopsies and ultrasound examinations, the prevalence of complications, and the applicability of the diagnostic tools in the evaluation of the graft status and viability were analyzed. In the early postoperative period, graft rupture occurred more frequently after biopsy than in the late period (7.4% vs 0.82%), this leading graft loss in 18 of 20 cases. The sonographically diagnosed morphologic and functional changes were also analyzed. Sonography proved a very accurate method for the detection of perirenal fluid collections and masses and severe vascular complications. The data demonstrated that biopsy is indicated in the early postoperative period when the result of sonography is doubtful. In the late postoperative period, biopsy should be performed in every case. PMID:9729678

Marofka, F; Szenohradszky, P; Csajbók, E; Szederkényi, E; Morvay, Z; Iványi, B

1998-08-01

135

Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

136

Correlation between Positive Rate and Number of Biopsy Samples on Urease Test in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

To identify the correlation between the number of gastric biopsy samples and the positive rate, we compared the results of urease test using one and three biopsy samples from each 255 children who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The children were divided into three age groups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15 yr. The gastric endoscopic biopsies were subjected to the urease test. That is, one and three gastric antral biopsy samples were collected from the same child. The results of urease test were classified into three grades: Grade 0 (no change), 1 (6-24 hr), 2 (1-6 hr), and 3 (<1 hr). The positive rate of urease test was increased by the age with no respect to the number of gastric biopsy samples (one biopsy P = 0.001, three biopsy P < 0.001). The positive rate of the urease test was higher on three biopsy samples as compared with one biopsy sample (P < 0.001). The difference between one and three biopsy samples was higher in the children aged 0-9 yr. Our results indicate that the urease test might be a more accurate diagnostic modality when it is performed on three or more biopsy samples in children.

Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

2014-01-01

137

[Fibrosing mediastinitis diagnosed by thoracoscopic biopsy].  

PubMed

We report a rare case of fibrosing mediastinitis diagnosed by thoracoscopic biopsy. A 56-year-old female visited our hospital with an abnormal mediastinal shadow on chest X ray. Chest computed tomography revealed a paravertebral tumor from Th9 to Th11. Pathological examination of thoracoscopic biopsy specimen showed fibrous tissue with mild inflammation and no malignant feature. Final diagnosis was idiopathic fibrosing mediastinitis. The paravertebral lesion shrinked spontaneously 5 months later after biopsy. PMID:24322358

Takahashi, Kazuya; Horio, Hirotoshi; Murakami, Satoko; Harada, Masahiko

2013-12-01

138

Biopsy of Pediatric Brain Stem Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

26 patients, average age of 7.3 years, had biopsies of a brain stem tumor. 62% of the patients presented with hydrocephalus, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were placed 7–10 days prior to biopsy. The midbrain was biopsied 13 times, the pons 3 and the medulla 12 times. Tissue for histopathologic examination was obtained at each operation and demonstrated astrocytoma in 13 patients,

D. H. Reigel; T. B. Scarff; J. E. Woodford

1979-01-01

139

The structure of comet tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present models of the plasma tails of comets are described. The interaction of the solar wind with ions from the cometary atmosphere is discussed, and the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection observed in plasma tails is explained. The accomplishments of the ICE mission to the Comet Giacobini-Zinner are summarized, and the tasks and expected contributions from upcoming Soviet, European, and Japanese missions to Comet Halley are addressed.

Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

1986-01-01

140

Financial Risk and Heavy Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of great importance for those in charge of managing risk to understand how financial asset returns are distributed. Practitioners often assume for convenience that the distribution is normal. Since the 1960s, however, empirical evidence has led many to reject this assumption in favor of various heavy-tailed alternatives. In a heavy-tailed distribution the likelihood that one encounters significant deviations

Brendan O. Bradley; Murad S. Taqqu

2001-01-01

141

Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature. PMID:15876775

Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

2005-04-01

142

Prostate Biopsy: Current Status and Limitations  

PubMed Central

The technique of prostate biopsy has evolved over the past 10 years to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer. Extended biopsy schemes can be performed in the office under local anesthesia and are well tolerated. In addition to detection, the role of extended biopsy schemes in refining tumor grading and risk assessment has become better defined. This review discusses the evolution of prostate biopsy techniques from the sextant scheme to the extended scheme and demonstrates the latter’s utility in clinical decision making.

Presti, Joseph C

2007-01-01

143

Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study.

2010-01-01

144

Significance of Random Bladder Biopsies in Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcome of random bladder biopsies in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) undergoing transurethral resection (TUR). Patients and Method This study included 234 consecutive patients with NMIBC who underwent random biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium of the bladder, including the anterior wall, posterior wall, right wall, left wall, dome, trigone and/or prostatic urethra, during TUR. Result Thirty-seven patients (15.8%) were diagnosed by random biopsies as having urothelial cancer. Among several factors available prior to TUR, preoperative urinary cytology appeared to be independently related to the detection of urothelial cancer in random biopsies on multivariate analysis. Urinary cytology prior to TUR gave 50.0% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity, 56.8% positive predictive value and 89.3% negative predictive value for predicting the findings of the random biopsies. Conclusion Biopsies of normal-appearing urothelium resulted in the additional detection of urothelial cancer in a definite proportion of NMIBC patients, and it remains difficult to find a reliable alternative to random biopsies. Collectively, these findings suggest that it would be beneficial to perform random biopsies as part of the routine management of NMIBC.

Kumano, Masafumi; Miyake, Hideaki; Nakano, Yuzo; Fujisawa, Masato

2013-01-01

145

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

SciTech Connect

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

146

Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.  

PubMed

No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

2013-08-01

147

Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

2013-04-01

148

Uranium-mill-tailings conditioning technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physico-chemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sntering tailings at high temperatures (1100 to 1200°C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200°C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands

D. R. Dreesen; E. J. Cokal; P. D. OBrien; E. F. Thode; L. E. Wangen; J. M. Williams

1982-01-01

149

Breast Cancer Risk Prediction and Mammography Biopsy Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Controversy continues about screening mammography, in part because of the risk of false-negative and false-positive mammograms. Pre-test breast cancer risk factors may improve the positive and negative predictive value of screening. Purpose To create a model that estimates the potential impact of pre-test risk prediction using clinical and genomic information on the reclassification of women with abnormal mammograms (BI-RADS3 and BI-RADS4 [Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System]) above and below the threshold for breast biopsy. Methods The current study modeled 1-year breast cancer risk in women with abnormal screening mammograms using existing data on breast cancer risk factors, 12 validated breast cancer single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and probability of cancer given the BI-RADS category. Examination was made of reclassification of women above and below biopsy thresholds of 1%, 2%, and 3% risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data were collected from 1996 to 2002. Data analysis was conducted in 2010 and 2011. Results Using a biopsy risk threshold of 2% and the standard risk factor model, 5% of women with a BI-RADS3 mammogram had a risk above the threshold, and 3% of women with BIRADS4A mammograms had a risk below the threshold. The addition of 12 SNPs in the model resulted in 8% of women with a BI-RADS3 mammogram above the threshold for biopsy and 7% of women with BI-RADS4A mammograms below the threshold. Conclusions The incorporation of pre-test breast cancer risk factors could change biopsy decisions for a small proportion of women with abnormal mammograms. The greatest impact comes from standard breast cancer risk factors.

Armstrong, Katrina; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Jinbo; Demeter, Mirar N. Bristol

2012-01-01

150

Use of renal biopsy in the elderly.  

PubMed

Renal biopsy is an essential tool in the management of kidney disease. A biopsy provides a diagnosis, guides therapy and aids in prognosis, and this is true for persons of all ages. For a variety of reasons, nephrologists are sometimes hesitant to perform a biopsy in an older person. There is the major issue of a lack of perceived benefit that the biopsy will not show a treatable lesion and that therapy may not be possible in an older person. Additionally, concerns of safety may also influence the decision to biopsy. In this review, we will address these issues in the context of clinical renal syndromes and common kidney diseases in the elderly and weigh the benefit of biopsy in various situations. In general, the indications are the same as in the adult population, as is the risk associated with the biopsy procedure. Therapy, as for adults, is often successful, although further assessment of risk-benefit ratio is necessary. Age, by itself, is not a contraindication to biopsy. PMID:21113798

Mohamed, Nasreen; John, Rohan

2011-06-01

151

Use of midazolam for percutaneous liver biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard procedure for percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) involves only the use of local anesthesia. However, at times, a PLB can be frightening and uncomfortable. Such experiences often limit the willingness of patients to undergo subsequent follow-up biopsies. To investigate the ability of midazolam, a new water-soluble benzodiazepine preparation, noted for its potency, rapid onset of action, and amnestic qualities,

Douglas E. Brouillette; Young-Kul Yoo; Mai-Ching Chien; Mordechai Rabinovitz; Ralph E. Tarter; David H. Van Thiel

1989-01-01

152

Labial salivary gland biopsy in Sjögren's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A labial biopsy technique is described and was used to study 40 patients with connective tissue disease and 60 postmortem subjects. More than one focus of lymphocytes per 4 sq mm of minor salivary tissue was found to be a consistent finding in patients with Sjögren's disease. The labial biopsy is shown to be a further valuable investigative procedure in

D. M. Chisholm; D. K. Mason

1968-01-01

153

[Usefulness of comparing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings prior to repeat biopsy and negative initial biopsy as a decision-making method for repeat prostate biopsy].  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed the data from a cohort of 44 patients with one initial negative transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy who underwent a repeat biopsy from 2006 to 2013. At each biopsy session, we checked patient age, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, PSA velocity, months from the initial biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted, 1.5 Tesla pelvic-phased array) prior to repeat biopsy and initial negative biopsy. Mean age was 68.2±8.82 years. PSA was 11.5±7.65 ng/ml before repeat biopsy. Prostate cancer was detected in 15 (34.0%) patients at repeat biopsy. In univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRI findings before repeat biopsy were significant independent predictors of a positive repeat biopsy. At per patient analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 66.6, 68.9, 71.4 and 80.0% for MRI before repeat biopsy. No suspicious lesion on MRI before repeat biopsy was relevant to negative biopsy. According to the comparison of MRI findings prior to repeat biopsy and negative initial biopsy, suspicious MRI findings at the peripheral zone before repeat biopsy and initial negative biopsy were relevant to a high cancer detection rate (83.3%) at repeat prostate biopsy. These results suggested that the absence of a suspicious lesion on MRI before repeat biopsy could guide the avoidance of repeat biopsy and suspicious MRI findings at the peripheral zone before repeat biopsy and initial negative biopsy could guide repeat biopsy. PMID:24882227

Sawazaki, Harutake; Sengiku, Atsushi; Imamura, Masaaki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ogura, Keiji; Kobayashi, Hisato

2014-04-01

154

The ossification process of the developing antler in the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples were obtained from the growing tips of the main beam and tines of two-and three-year-old, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout the active growing season. The samples were prepared by routine and special histological techniques. The histological differentiation of the antler proceeded through a complex series of changes. The series originated with reserve mesenchymal tissue, progressed through the differentiation

W. J. Banks

1974-01-01

155

Magnetohydrodynamics of Mira's cometary tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The asymptotic giant-branch, long-period variable star Mira exhibits a 4 parsec long cometary tail in the far-ultraviolet. We address the issue of the origin of this structure and its emission process by simulating the transition of this star from the interstellar medium to the Local Bubble, which is a tenuous, high-pressure medium. Methods: We use the hydrodynamic and the magnetohydrodynamic modules of the PLUTO astrophysical code to carry out our simulations. We study the system without a cooling function, with a simplified exponential cooling function, and with a simplified nonequilibrium cooling function. Results: We find evidence that magnetohydrodynamics constrain the shape of the cometary tail and explain features of its far-ultraviolet emission. We suggest an emission process that involves C0 excitation through inelastic electron collisions and a two-photon continuum to explain the luminosity of Mira's tail.

Gómez, E. A.

2013-10-01

156

Pain and anxiety during bone marrow biopsy.  

PubMed

A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed bone marrow aspirates and biopsies from the posterior iliac crest. Demographics, disease category, performance score, source of information, number of previous biopsies, experience of the hematologist, and length and quality of the biopsy were recorded. Pain and anxiety were measured using a visual analog scale and verbal rating score. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate regression. The median pain score was 1.9 (range 0-10); 21% did not experience any pain. Anxiety scored 1.8 (range 0-10), and correlated positively with pain (p = .000). By univariate analysis, young age, poor performance, the physician as source of information, and prolonged procedures were associated with more pain. In multivariate analysis, anxiety, information from the physician, and a prolonged procedure persisted. Length or artifacts of the core biopsy did not correlate with pain. In conclusion, bone marrow biopsies performed in an optimal setting by experienced hematologists cause only mild pain, with, however, some patients experienced serious problems. To reduce pain, not only careful local anesthesia, but also the addition of systemic analgesics and especially anxiety reduction seems to be useful. PMID:24315253

Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

2013-12-01

157

Facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy.  

PubMed

Temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard investigation of giant cell arteritis and is recommended in suspected cases despite a sensitivity of 81-91%. This review highlights the potential risk of facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy and introduces recent advances in the emerging role of imaging modalities. When these non-invasive techniques are used in conjunction with American College of Rheumatology scoring, which includes clinical features and biochemical test results, temporal artery biopsy may be avoided in selected cases. PMID:24780014

Gunawardene, Ar; Chant, H

2014-05-01

158

Pretreatment scalene node biopsy in cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed

To evaluate incidence of scalene node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix, 20 patients had scalene fat-pad node biopsy. All cases were staged according to FIGO criteria and abdominal lymph nodes were studied by CT and lymphangiography. Scalene node metastases were found in 2 patients with clinically suspicious node and pelvic and paraaortic nodes involvement. Seven patients had sinus histiocytosis in scalene node biopsy and this seems related to a more favourable prognosis. From this study it appears that scalene node biopsy is not a routine procedure and should be performed in all patients with palpable supraclavicular masses or when paraortic nodes are involved. PMID:3391207

Trinci, M; Raffetto, N; Petrozza, V; Melis, M; Biagini, C

1988-01-01

159

Digital core biopsy tissue texture used to distinguish benign from malignant breast calcifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid missing breast malignancies, large numbers of benign breast lesions must be biopsied. To reduce the number of benign biopsies, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) method has been developed which is based on tissue texture surrounding calcifications. When core samples are obtained stereotaxically, a digital record of the area biopsied is available. This method has been tested on 82 biopsies containing calcifications. Of these, 52 were benign and 30 were malignant. A region of interest centered on the biopsied area was processed to obtain texture features. Both co-occurrence and fractal features were collected and used with stepwise linear discriminant analysis to isolate useful features. A jackknife method identified ten features that gave a probability distribution associated with malignancy. Because of this association, a probability could be selected which eliminated 12 of the 52 benign biopsies without missing a malignancy. Thirty-nine could be avoided if five malignancies could be followed rather than biopsied. Unfortunately, four of these five missed malignancies do not have strong visual signs of malignancy and so the texture measurement error would not be overruled by radiological signs.

Kimme-Smith, Carolyn; Thiele, David; Johnson, Timothy; Zhou, Wensheng; Bassett, Lawrence W.

1996-04-01

160

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

161

Estimating Tails of Probability Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the asymptotic properties of estimators of the tail of a distribution based on the excesses over a threshold. A key idea is the use of Pickands' generalised Pareto distribution and its fitting, in most cases, by the method of maximum likelihood. The results cover all three limiting types of extreme value theory. We propose a new estimator for

Richard L. Smith

1987-01-01

162

Uranium-Mill-Tailings Conditioning Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physico-chemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is ...

D. R. Dreesen E. J. Cokal P. D. O'Brien E. F. Thode L. E. Wangen

1982-01-01

163

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they...

J. N. Hartley G. W. Gee

1984-01-01

164

Stage Determination of Breast Cancer Biopsy Using Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze biopsy biochemistry and hence distinguish between the breast cancer stages was investigated. The biopsy samples were obtained from 13 patients who were clinically diagnosed with breast cancer. A preliminary diagnosis of some breast cancer patient was realized by pathologist of the Cancer Institute. The biopsies were put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at a Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the breast cancer stages of biopsies can be discriminated when the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is applied to their Raman spectra. Ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be an excellent technique for stage determination of breast cancer.

González-Solís, J. L.; Aguiñaga-Serrano, B. I.; Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.; Oceguera-Villanueva, A.

2011-08-01

165

Multi-element analysis of biopsy samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element analysis of biopsy samples represents a difficult analytical problem because of: a) the small amount of material available for analysis and b) the lack of adequate reference materials for microanalytical investigations. In this report we have evaluated the capabilities of X-ray fluorescence in both standard and total reflection geometry, proton-induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis for multi-elemental analysis of biopsy samples.

Valkovic, V.; Bernasconi, G.; Haselberger, N.; Makarewicz, M.; Ogris, R.; Moschini, G.; Bogdanovic, I.; Jaksic, M.; Valkovic, O.

1993-04-01

166

Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution.

Shih-Peng Tai; Tsung-Han Tsai; Shi-Wei Chu; Wen-Jeng Lee; Yi-Hua Liao; Hsin-Yi Huang; Chi-Kuang Sun

2005-01-01

167

Turbo decoding with tail-biting trellises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-biting codes are considered as component codes for parallel concatenated block codes. Based on the two-dimensional weight distribution of tail-biting codes, we calculate the minimum distance of the parallel concatenated code and give guidelines on how to choose good tail-biting component codes. We show how to encode tail-biting codes using systematic feedback encoders, which is an important design criterion. The

C. Weiss; Christian Bettstetter; Sven Riedel

1998-01-01

168

Needle aspiration biopsy: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Since its inception more than 50 years ago at Memorial Hospital for Cancer (New York), needle aspiration biopsy has traveled to its present popularity over a torturous road. The early influence of Stewart on the interpretation of aspiration smears and the use of this biopsy method is still worthy of review, particularly the importance of close cooperation between clinician and pathologist. While cytology has been profoundly influenced by individual cell interpretation as practiced by Papanicolaou, it is really pattern recognition that dominates successful diagnosis by the aspiration biopsy smear method. Present concerns over technical variation in procurement of the biopsy and staining methods should be of less importance than identification of the aspiration methodology that produces the best-quality microscopic image. Reliability of diagnosis by aspiration smear must also be judged by a suitable and reproducible standard, something that is not necessarily fulfilled by tissue pathology, although many would believe otherwise. The author proposes that aspiration may also now be judged, like tissue pathology, by clinical outcome. The application and ease of procuring cell samples from tumors for cell image analysis, for flow cytometry and ploidy studies, and for gene rearrangement place this biopsy method in the forefront of the integration of biologic research and clinical medicine. Aspiration biopsy has caused us to explore how the human eye and brain analyze microscopic images and may even assist in the design of useful artificial intelligence diagnostic systems in the future. PMID:2656496

Frable, W J

1989-06-01

169

Thoracic core needle biopsy using ultrasound guidance.  

PubMed

This article demonstrates the usefulness of ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of thoracic lesions. Between January 1997 and June 2000, 45 US-guided core needle biopsies were performed in the department of radiology. This method was chosen in every case when the lesion abutted the chest wall. Conventional histologic examinations supplemented by immunohistochemical methods were performed. The location and size of the mass, the number of samplings, the needle size, the histologic results, and any complications were recorded. Twenty-two lesions reached the anterior, six reached the lateral, and 14 reached the posterior chest wall. Biopsies were performed on three masses from the supraclavicular region. The mean diameter was 4.5 cm and the number of passes was 1.8; 18-G, 16-G, and 14-G needles were used in 41, two, and two cases, respectively. In 43 of the 45 cases (95.68%), an exact histologic diagnosis could be provided. In two cases, only necrotic tissue was seen in the biopsy sample. No major complications occurred. Minor complications, including pain and collaptiform weakness, were documented in four patients. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of thoracic lesions is a safe, quick, and accurate method. For diagnosing thoracic lesions, a single sample with an 18-G biopsy needle is sufficient to achieve a final diagnosis when using appropriate histologic methods. PMID:12973082

Morvay, Z; Szabó, E; Tiszlavicz, L; Furák, J; Troján, I; Palkó, A

2001-06-01

170

Hepatic Mitochondrial Function Analysis Using Needle Liver Biopsy Samples  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and Aim Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF) analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg) obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. Methods An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. Results The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean). Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n?=?6 each) showed low coefficient of variation (<10%) in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC) capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR). Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. Conclusion Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

Hosking, Alexander W. G.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.

2013-01-01

171

Comparison of glomerular number and specimen length obtained from 100 dogs via percutaneous echo-assisted renal biopsy using two different needles.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate possible differences in the number of glomeruli and length of renal biopsies collected in canine subjects by two different types of biopsy needles: a semiautomatic 18-gauge Trucut and an automated 18-gauge Jamshidi modified (Biopince). One hundred biopsy samples obtained from dogs of different ages and gender affected by different nephropathies were evaluated retrospectively. All animals were biopsied using one of the two different needles. Biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance and evaluated by a single pathologist. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate possible differences in the number of glomeruli and length of renal biopsies collected comparisons were determined between subgroups of dogs with or without the identification of renal interstitial infiltrates and/or fibrosis. Neither the mean difference of the number of glomeruli nor the length of tissue sample collected with the different needles was significantly different. Likewise, the average biopsy length did not differ in dogs with or without renal interstitial infiltrate in animals biopsied with either biopsy needle. Both the Biopince and the Trucut devices provide diagnostically adequate biopsy renal specimens using ultrasound-guidance. PMID:16250404

Zatelli, Andrea; D'Ippolito, Paola; Zini, Eric

2005-01-01

172

Colonization of mine tailings by marine invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine if a tailings substrate would inhibit recolonization of benthic macrofauna upon closure of a submarine tailings disposal (STD) operation. Trays of defaunated marine sediment, serving as a reference, and trays of tailings from a proposed gold mine were placed at 21 m depth on the ocean floor to allow colonization via settlement from the

E. R Kline; M. S Stekoll

2001-01-01

173

Tail Dependence for Heavy-Tailed Scale Mixtures of Multivariate Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tail dependence of multivariate distributions is frequently studied via the tool of copulas. This paper develops a general method, which is based on multivariate regular variation, to evaluate the tail dependence of heavy-tailed scale mixtures of multivariate distributions, whose copulas are not explicitly accessible. Tractable formulas for tail dependence parameters are derived, and a sucient condition under which the

Haijun Li; Yannan Grace Sun

174

Parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space.  

PubMed

Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old man with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for 3 months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review, parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS. PMID:23524806

Polat, Kerem; Do?an, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

2013-03-01

175

Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  

PubMed

The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

2005-10-01

176

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation\\/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich

1982-01-01

177

Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants  

SciTech Connect

A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

1999-12-01

178

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

179

Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with

Daud W. Rassam; David J. Williams

1999-01-01

180

Tadpole tail regeneration in Xenopus.  

PubMed

Some organisms have a remarkable ability to heal wounds without scars and to regenerate complex tissues following injury. By gaining a more complete understanding of the biological mechanisms that promote scar-free healing and tissue regeneration, it is hoped that novel treatments that can enhance the healing and regenerative capacity of human patients can be found. In the present article, we briefly examine the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the regeneration of the Xenopus tadpole tail. PMID:24849228

Chen, Yaoyao; Love, Nick R; Amaya, Enrique

2014-06-01

181

Chapter 17 Placing soil covers on soft mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings are typically silt-sized materials derived from mineral processing, which are conventionally pumped as an aqueous slurry, thickened tailings or tailings paste to a tailings storage facility, usually a surface impoundment. On discharge, an aqueous tailings slurry forms a delta, on which the tailings particles undergo hydraulic sorting, sedimentation and self-weight consolidation, and desiccation on exposure to evaporation. Their

David John Williams

2005-01-01

182

Open rib biopsy guided by radionuclide technique  

SciTech Connect

When abnormally increased radioactivity is seen in a rib or ribs by bone imaging in a patient with suspected or known malignancy, it frequently is difficult to differentiate fracture from metastatic disease. Histological examination of the lesion is crucial for diagnosis, staging, and planning of therapy. To assess the value of external localization of the site or sites of abnormal uptake in a rib as a guide for open rib biopsy, 10 patients (7 men, 3 women; age range, 34 to 68 years) with known or suspected malignancy were studied. With reference to the oscilloscope image, a cobalt 57 marker was placed on the skin overlying the focus of increased uptake, and the area of increased activity was marked on the skin as a guide to surgical resection. Of ten resected ribs, four showed metastatic disease and five had fractures. (One patient underwent two external marking procedures and two surgical procedures.) Rib biopsy was not performed in 1 patient because prior to the surgical procedure, a small subcutaneous nodule adjacent to the skin marker was excised and confirmed to be carcinoma. Appropriate courses of management (operation, irradiation, chemotherapy) were taken after the biopsies. The surgeon responsible for the biopsy should be present during the skin-marking procedure, and the area beneath the scapula and the region adjacent to the spine should be avoided. Our results indicate that the technique is a very useful aid for approaching open rib biopsies more precisely.

Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Magoun, S.; Dillon, M.L.

1984-07-01

183

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

1999-06-01

184

CT-guided renal biopsy using a coaxial technique and an automated biopsy gun.  

PubMed

In this series, 35 patients with medical renal disease had renal biopsy guided by computed tomography (CT). Biopsies were done by a coaxial technique in which a thin-walled 16 guage guide needle is placed adjacent to the renal capsule of the lower pole. An 18 gauge cutting needle is then placed through the guide needle, and multiple samples (2 to 4) are obtained with an automated biopsy gun. Adequacy of specimens is immediately checked in the CT suite using low-power microscopy. Specimens are submitted for light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Adequate tissue for definite diagnosis was obtained in 33 of the 35 patients (94%). One patient had moderate postbiopsy bleeding and was hospitalized. There were no major complications. CT-guided renal biopsy using a coaxial technique and automated biopsy gun is an effective means of obtaining tissue for the evaluation of medical renal disease. PMID:7732444

Kudryk, B T; Martinez, C R; Gunasekeran, S; Ramirez, G

1995-05-01

185

Evaluation of Preincubation Time Interval in Testicular Biopsy to Obtain Optimum Sperm Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective: In sever oligospermia; one of the paths used for surgical sperm retrieval (SSR) is to extract sperm via a testicular biopsy. The aim of our study is to determine the reliable time interval between testicular biopsy and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure in order to obtain optimumsperm parameters (count, motility and normal morphology). Materials and Methods: This cohort study was carried out on 30 patients which were candidates for ICSI. After collection and keeping the samples obtained from the testicular biopsy in Ham’s F10 environment, the concentration, motility and morphology of the sperm in each sample was evaluated immediately as well as 2 and 4 hours after processing. The Data were then compared with each other. For the statistical analysis, Friedman, Willcoxon and Cochran tests were used. Results: The mean of sperm concentration was 5.69 ± 6.14 million and the motility was10.83 ± 12.63% at 2 hours following biopsy which was significantly higher than those obtained after 0 and 4 hours of the biopsy (p <0.05). Conclusion: The reliable preincubation time which resulted in the highest rate of spermatozoa parameters after testicular biopsy and before incubation was 2 hours.

Yousefnia Pasha, Yousef-Reza; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam-Ali; Zeinalzadeh, Mahtab; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Ramaji, Arsalan-Ali

2012-01-01

186

Reliability of receptor assessment on core needle biopsy in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

We compared the breast core needle biopsy and the resection specimen with respect to estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status to identify predictors for discordant findings. We retrospectively collected data from 526 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. ER, PR and HER2 status had been assessed in both the core needle biopsy and resection specimen. The assessment of ER by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in core needle biopsy was false negative in 26.5% and false positive in 6.8% of patients. For the PR status the false negative and false positive results of core needle biopsy were 29.6% and 10.3%, respectively. The results of the HER2 status, as determined by IHC and silver in situ hybridization (SISH), were false negative in 5.4% and false positive in 50.0%. We need to be aware of the problem of false negative and false positive test results in ER, PR and HER2 assessment in core needle biopsy and the potential impact on adjuvant systemic treatment. With current techniques, we recommend using the resection specimen to measure these receptors in patients without neoadjuvant treatment. A better alternative might be the use of tissue microarray, combining both core needle biopsy and resection specimen. PMID:23269610

Seferina, S C; Nap, M; van den Berkmortel, F; Wals, J; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

2013-04-01

187

Diagnostic value of imprint cytology during image-guided core biopsy in improving breast health care.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imprint cytology (IC) of breast core biopsy under ultrasound guidance and to assess the value of a rapid on-site preliminary diagnosis of breast lesions. A total of 437 breast core needle biopsies under ultrasound guidance with touch imprint cytology, histology, and final diagnosis were reviewed. These cases were collected from archived files at our institution. Of 437 core biopsies, IC classified 241 (55%) as benign; 22 (5%) as probably benign; 28 (6%) as probably malignant; 107 (25%) as malignant; and 39 (9%) as inadequate for IC diagnosis. Histological classifications for the 437 cases were: 285 (65%) benign; 132 (30%) malignant; 16 (4%) atypical hyperplasia; and 4 (1%) inadequate specimen. The overall sensitivity and specificity indices of IC were 95% and 96%, respectively, for benign and probably benign lesions vs malignant and probably malignant breast lesions. The overall positive and negative predictive values were 91% and 97%, respectively. The overall accuracy was 95% (379 of 398 cases, excluding specimens inadequate for IC diagnosis). IC of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy provides a rapid and reliable preliminary diagnosis for breast lesions; it also serves as a means to verify the adequacy of biopsy specimens and to optimize the biopsy procedure. Use of IC may reduce anxiety in patients with benign lesions and expedite the diagnosis and assessment of treatment options in patients with breast cancer. PMID:21325248

Masood, Shahla; Feng, Dian; Tutuncuoglu, Osman; Fischer, Gabor; Bakhshandeh, Maryam; Bertholf, Roger L; Wolfson, David

2011-01-01

188

Heavy metal contamination in tailings and rocksamples from an abandoned goldminein Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Active and abandoned primary and secondary goldmines have been observed to be major sources of metals into the environment. This study assessed the level of metal concentrations in rock and tailing samples collected from the abandoned primary goldmine site at Iperindo. A total of five rock and ten tailing samples were collected for this study. The tailing samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis using standard methods. The samples were analyzed for metals using inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry technique. The results obtained indicated that tailings were acidic (pH 5.02), with electrical conductivity 133.4 ?S/cm, cation exchange capacity 8.95 meq/100 g, available phosphorus was 4.74 mg/L, organic carbon 5.58 %, and organic matter 9.63 %. The trends for metal concentrations within the samples were in the order: Zn?>?Cu?>?Co?>?Pb?>?Cr?>?As?>?Cd for rock samples, Cu?>?Zn?>?Cr?>?Pb?>?As?>?Co?>?Cd in tailing samples. Cd, Pb, and Zn in the rock were above the Abundance of Elements in Average Crustal Rocks standards. Principal component analysis showed higher variations among samples in Iperindo. Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, As, and Zn were strongly loaded to principal component 1, with these metals significantly contributing to variations in 65.76 % of rock and 53.24 % of tailing. This study suggests that the metal concentration in tailings is a reflection of the metal composition of the rocks. PMID:23949700

Gbadebo, A M; Ekwue, Y A

2014-01-01

189

Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

2014-05-01

190

Surgery and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining sentinel node is also a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with sentinel node metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether sentinel node biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.

2008-01-01

191

Aspiration biopsy of carcinoma of the pancreas.  

PubMed Central

Peroperative pancreatic aspiration biopsies were performed on 21 patients with pancreatic lesions using a standard 20-ml disposable syringe and a 21-gauge needle. No complications were recorded which could be attributed to this procedure. A further 10 aspiration biopsies were carried out on postmortem specimens in an attempt to determine the accuracy of this method in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the pancreas. It is concluded that peroperative pancreatic needle biopsy is a safe procedure which is easily performed without special instruments. In can be of enormous value to the surgeon in planning the treatment of patients with pancreatic lesions. In cases where there is an operable mass in the pancreas it offers a simple and quick method of determining the presence of malignant cells and thus definitive surgery may be performed with confidence. For the inoperable cases it offers a method of histological confirmation of the operative findings.

Shorey, B A

1975-01-01

192

Breast biopsy technique: a plea for cosmesis.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among American women. Early detection and treatment greatly increase long-term survival rates, but many women delay seeking treatment of suspected lesions out of fear of mutilation. Unfortunately, this fear is compounded by the fact that although 60% to 80% of all biopsies prove benign, many women are left with unsightly scars from the biopsies themselves. The great majority of these avoidable scars result from the use of radial biopsy incisions, which are unnecessary in virtually all cases. Most lesions can be reached via periareolar incisions and even those few that require incisions away from the areola can be reached through incisions that follow Langer's lines circumferential to the breast. Even total subcutaneous mastectomy and reconstruction can often be done via periareolar incisions, with minimal scarring, less likelihood of keloid formation, no deformity, and less emotional trauma for the recovered patient. PMID:3945847

Ersek, R A; Denton, D R

1986-02-01

193

Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: hshima@k8.dion.ne.jp; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)

2007-07-15

194

Results of low threshold to biopsy following high-intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Context: There are different treatment options for localized prostate cancer. The success of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is based largely on biochemical prostate specific antigen (PSA) results. Aims: To evaluate the impact of using a low PSA threshold to perform prostate biopsies after HIFU in order to more accurately gauge treatment success. Settings and Design: Eleven patients underwent HIFU at Sydney Adventist Hospital in Sydney, 10 as primary and 1 as salvage therapy [post external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)]. The median age was 67 years (49–77 years). This was a prospective case series. Materials and Methods: Between 2006 and 2008, the Sonoblate device was used. Prostate biopsies were 12-core biopsies performed under local anesthesia, if PSA was ?0.5 ng/mL or after two consecutive rises in PSA. The statistical analysis involved prospective data collection of results to calculate median and ranges. Results: The median PSA at diagnosis was 6.7 ng/mL (5.7–10.8 ng/mL). The median follow-up was 16 months (7–26 months). Nine men (82%) had post-HIFU biopsy. The median time to post-HIFU biopsy was 11.6 months (5–20 months), and all nine men had biopsy-proven residual disease. Conclusions: A low threshold to re-biopsy post-HIFU reveals a high local failure rate of 82%. Oncological efficacy is questioned, and using high threshold to biopsy may therefore be overestimating the effectiveness of HIFU as a primary treatment for localized prostate cancer.

Haddad, Richard L.; Hossack, Tania A.; Woo, Henry H.

2012-01-01

195

Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy.  

PubMed

We introduce a needle probe based on photoacoustics (PA) to extend the scope of optical needle methods in guiding biopsies. Pulsed light is coupled to an optical fiber in a needle to be inserted in tissue, and PA signals are detected using an ultrasound imager used for needle guidance. This PA needle samples large volumes and possesses an imaging component so that sites forward and off-axis of the fiber are surveyed. This allows navigation of those regions for optical characterization and direct biopsy in a subsequent step. The concept is explored on simple phantoms and biological specimens. PMID:23817760

Piras, Daniele; Grijsen, Chiel; Schütte, Peter; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

2013-01-01

196

[Sentinel node biopsy using dye methods].  

PubMed

At first, sentinel node identification was performed using dyes such as isosulfan blue dye and patent blue dye. Although dye localization is a simple and cheap method, this procedure requires training and the success rate and accuracy are not very good. It is considered that the addition of a radiocolloid injection is needed for sentinel node biopsy in melanoma and breast cancer. For gastrointestinal tract malignancies, good results were reported in several feasibility studies. However, the validity of sentinel node biopsy for those malignancies depends on the results of a large ongoing clinical trial. PMID:14628709

Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Koyama, Hiroki

2003-11-01

197

Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

2008-07-01

198

Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

2000-04-01

199

Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy methodology: retrospective comparison of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach versus the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach  

PubMed Central

Background Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy technology represents the current standard of care for the evaluation of indeterminate and suspicious lesions seen on diagnostic breast ultrasound. Yet, there remains much debate as to which particular method of ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. The aim of the current study was to compare and contrast the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach and the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach. Methods A retrospective analysis was done of all ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed by either the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach or the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach by a single surgeon from July 2001 through June 2009. Results Among 1443 ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed, 724 (50.2%) were by the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy technique and 719 (49.8%) were by the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy technique. The total number of false negative cases (i.e., benign findings instead of invasive breast carcinoma) was significantly greater (P = 0.008) in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (8/681, 1.2%) as compared to in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (0/652, 0%), with an overall false negative rate of 2.1% (8/386) for the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group as compared to 0% (0/148) for the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (81/719, 11.3%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (18/724, 2.5%) were recommended for further diagnostic surgical removal of additional tissue from the same anatomical site of the affected breast in an immediate fashion for indeterminate/inconclusive findings seen on the original ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Significantly more (P < 0.001) patients in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (54/719, 7.5%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (9/724, 1.2%) personally requested further diagnostic surgical removal of additional tissue from the same anatomical site of the affected breast in an immediate fashion for a benign finding seen on the original ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Conclusions In appropriately selected cases, the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach appears to be advantageous to the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach for providing the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information.

2011-01-01

200

Survival of white-tailed deer in an intensively farmed region of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested habitat, but limited information has been collected in intensively farmed regions. The objectives of this study were to determine survival and cause-specific mortality of neonate, fawn female, and adult female white-tailed deer in an intensively farmed (>80% land cover) region of Minnesota. We captured and

Todd J. Brinkman; Jonathan A. Jenks; Christopher S. DePerno; Brian S. Haroldson; Robert G. Osborn

2004-01-01

201

Mineral\\/water interactions in tailings from a tungsten mine, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore-water geochemistry and mineralogy of tailings derived from a granitic tungsten deposit were characterized by collecting pore-water samples at discrete depth intervals throughout the tailings for the analysis of major and minor element concentrations. Mineralogical samples from the oxidation zone were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM\\/EDS), electron microprobe (EMP) combined

B. M. Petrunic; T. A. Al

2005-01-01

202

Comparison of echocardiography-guided and fluoroscopy-guided endomyocardial biopsy techniques.  

PubMed

The accuracy of bioptome placement for endomyocardial biopsy was evaluated using standard fluoroscopic guidance and compared simultaneously with two-dimensional echocardiography in six healthy subadult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Despite perceived adequate positioning of the bioptome toward the septum when judged using fluoroscopy, only one out of the six placements were actually positioned in the right ventricular apex toward the septum when evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography. The bioptome was readily relocated to the right ventricular apex/septal location by echocardiography. The forceps were easily visualized at all times and the open cups were readily directed into the desired location for biopsy. Based on a subjective score for tissue quantity from 1 to 4 (poor to excellent), biopsies collected by echocardiographic-guided technique had a mean score of 3.4, while biopsies collected by fluoroscopic-guided technique had a mean score of 1.8. In summary, this study suggests that endomyocardial biopsy locations can be accurately positioned using two-dimensional echocardiography with the advantages of less radiation, lower procedural costs, and direct visualization of the sampling site. Clear definition of endocardial surface as afforded by echocardiography may enhance tissue sample quality and lower potential complications from this procedure. PMID:15869156

Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

2005-01-01

203

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Autopsy and Open-Lung Biopsy Tissues by Nested PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nested PCR specific for the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 gene was used to diagnose mycoplasma infection in two cohort patients with severe pneumonia within 24 h of tissue receipt. A postmortem diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection was obtained for the first patient, who died without the collection of appropriate paired samples for serodiagnosis. An open-lung biopsy obtained from the second

DEBORAH F. TALKINGTON; W. LANIER THACKER; DAVID W. KELLER; JØRGEN S. JENSEN

1998-01-01

204

Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the spine: results of 430 biopsies  

PubMed Central

Biopsies of lesions in the spine are often challenging procedures with significant risk of complications. CT-guided needle biopsies could lower these risks but uncertainties still exist about the diagnostic accuracy. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided needle biopsies for bone lesions of the spine. We retrieved the results of 430 core needle biopsies carried out over the past fifteen years at the authors’ institute and examined the results obtained. Of the 430 biopsies performed, in 401 cases the right diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (93.3% accuracy rate). Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, inflammatory, and systemic pathologies. There were only 9 complications (5 transient paresis, 4 haematomas that resolved spontaneously) that had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on the patient’s outcome. In conclusion we can assert that this technique is reliable and safe and should be considered the gold standard in biopsies of the spine.

Rimondi, Eugenio; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Casadei, Roberto; Alberghini, Marco; Malaguti, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Durante, Stefano; Mercuri, Mario

2008-01-01

205

Reduced Rate of Repeated Prostate Biopsies Observed in ConfirmMDx Clinical Utility Field Study  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of prostate cancer is dependent on histologic confirmation in biopsy core tissues. The biopsy procedure is invasive, puts the patient at risk for complications, and is subject to significant sampling errors. An epigenetic test that uses methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic status of the prostate cancer–associated genes GSTP1, APC, and RASSF1 has been clinically validated and is used in clinical practice to increase the negative predictive value in men with no history of prostate cancer compared with standard histopathology. Such information can help to avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. The repeat biopsy rate may provide preliminary clinical utility evidence in relation to this assay's potential impact on the number of unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies performed in US urology practices. Objective The purpose of this preliminary study was to quantify the number of repeat prostate biopsy procedures to demonstrate a low repeat biopsy rate for men with a history of negative histopathology who received a negative epigenetic assay result on testing of the residual prostate tissue. Methods In this recently completed field observation study, practicing urologists used the epigenetic test called ConfirmMDx for Prostate Cancer (MDxHealth, Inc, Irvine, CA) to evaluate cancer-negative men considered at risk for prostate cancer. This test has been previously validated in 2 blinded multicenter studies that showed the superior negative predictive value of the epigenetic test over standard histopathology for cancer detection in prostate biopsies. A total of 5 clinical urology practices that had ordered a minimum of 40 commercial epigenetic test requisitions for patients with previous, cancer-negative biopsies over the course of the previous 18 months were contacted to assess their interest to participate in the study. Select demographic and prostate-screening parameter information, as well as the incidence of repeat biopsy, specifically for patients with a negative test result, was collected and merged into 1 collective database. All men from each of the 5 sites who had negative assay results were included in the analysis. Results A total of 138 patients were identified in these urology practices and were included in the analysis. The median age of the men was 63 years, and the current median serum prostate-specific antigen level was 4.7 ng/mL. Repeat biopsies had been performed in 6 of the 138 (4.3%) men with a negative epigenetic assay result, in whom no evidence of cancer was found on histopathology. Conclusion In this study, a low rate of repeat prostatic biopsies was observed in the group of men with previous histopathologically negative biopsies who were considered to be at risk for harboring cancer. The data suggest that patients managed using the ConfirmMDx for Prostate Cancer negative results had a low rate of repeat prostate biopsies. These results warrant a large, controlled, prospective study to further evaluate the clinical utility of the epigenetic test to lower the unnecessary repeat biopsy rate.

Wojno, Kirk J.; Costa, Frank J.; Cornell, Robert J.; Small, Jeffrey D.; Pasin, Erik; Van Criekinge, Wim; Bigley, Joseph W.; Van Neste, Leander

2014-01-01

206

Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing kidney graft biopsies after transplantation, highlighting the relevance of biopsy findings in the immediate and early post-transplant period (from days to weeks after implantation), the first post-transplant year, and the late period (beyond the first year). We focus on how biopsy findings change over time, and the wide variety of pathological features that characterize the major clinical diagnoses facing the clinician. This article also includes a discussion of acute cellular and humoral rejection, the toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and the widely varying etiologies and characteristics of chronic lesions. Emerging technologies based on gene expression analyses and proteomics, the in situ detection of functionally relevant molecules, and new bioinformatic approaches that hold the promise of improving diagnostic precision and developing new, refined molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention are also presented.

Williams, Winfred W.; Taheri, Diana; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Colvin, Robert B.

2013-01-01

207

Clinical aspects of sentinel node biopsy  

PubMed Central

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy requires validation by a backup axillary dissection in a defined series of cases before becoming standard practice, to establish individual and institutional success rates and the frequency of false negative results. At least 90% success in finding the SLN with no more than 5-10% false negative results is a reasonable goal for surgeons and institutions learning the technique. A combination of isotope and dye to map the SLN is probably superior to either method used alone, yet a wide variety of technical variations in the procedure have produced a striking similarity of results. Most breast cancer patients are suitable for SLN biopsy, and the large majority reported to date has had clinical stage T1-2N0 invasive breast cancers. SLN biopsy will play a growing role in patients having prophylactic mastectomy, and in those with 'high-risk' duct carcinoma in situ, microinvasive cancers, T3 disease, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SLN biopsy for the first time makes enhanced pathologic analysis of lymph nodes logistically feasible, at once allowing greater staging accuracy and less morbidity than standard methods. Retrospective data suggest that micrometastases identified in this way are prognostically significant, and prospective clinical trials now accruing promise a definitive answer to this issue.

Cody, Hiram S

2001-01-01

208

Nuclear scan-guided rib biopsy  

SciTech Connect

The bone scan is a sensitive screening device that is frequently used to stage the condition of patients with known or suspected malignant disease. Abnormal findings on bone scan are associated with corresponding normal findings on radiographs in approximately 50% of cases. Definitive tissue diagnosis of the bone lesion is often needed to determine optimal therapy, but localization of the lesion is imprecise unless it is palpable. Use of the nuclear scan to localize and mark the rib enhances the precision of the biopsy procedure. Thirty-three consecutive patients with cancer who had bone scans suggestive of rib abnormalities underwent nuclear scan-guided biopsy. Each patient had a repeat localizing scan with a maximum permissible dose of technetium 99m radionuclide on the day of the planned biopsy. The site of abnormality was marked with methylene blue injected into the skin overlying the lesion and down to the periosteum at the specific site. The patient was then taken to the operating room and the marked area was excised through a small incision. Pathologic abnormality was identified in all but one of the resected specimens, an accuracy rate of 97%. Despite a presumed or proved diagnosis of cancer in 33 patients, 16 specimens (48%) were benign. There were no complications associated with this technique, which reduces the morbidity and increases the precision of rib biopsy.

Moores, D.W.; Line, B.; Dziuban, S.W. Jr.; McKneally, M.F. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

209

Perforation from endoscopic small bowel biopsy.  

PubMed Central

Two patients, having undergone an apparently straightforward endoscopy with small bowel biopsy, developed a perforation. One, who proved to have normal small bowel mucosa, needed laparotomy and suturing of the duodenal perforation. The other, who had coeliac disease, settled with conservative management.

Scott, B; Holmes, G

1993-01-01

210

Lymphogranuloma venereum: biopsy, serology, and molecular biology.  

PubMed Central

A 21 year old woman presented with painful groin lymphadenopathy and malaise. Lymph node biopsy, to exclude atypical infection and malignancy, suggested the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. This diagnosis was confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction, with the patient subsequently admitting to a casual sexual contact within the United Kingdom. Alternative methods of investigation of this disease are discussed. Images

Kellock, D J; Barlow, R; Suvarna, S K; Green, S; Eley, A; Rogstad, K E

1997-01-01

211

Breast core needle biopsy: issues and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core needle biopsy (CNB) is increasingly being used in the investigation of breast disease whether this is asymptomatic and suspected after screening mammography, or presents symptomatically in the patient. In most cases, the result of the procedure provides a definitive diagnosis or at least provides information that is used to plan the further management of the patient. There are, however,

Michael Bilous

2010-01-01

212

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of uranium mill tailings by high-temperature sintering (>1050°C) has been investigated as a means of controlling the release of ²²²Rn and leachable contaminants. Thermal stabilization in laboratory trials at 1200°C reduced the radon emanation of various tailings by factors ranging from 37 to 1400 depending on the mineralogy of the tailings. The leachability of most contaminants (e.g., Al,

David R. Dreesen; Edward J. Cokal; Lawrence E. Wangen; Joel M. Williams; Edward F. Thode

1984-01-01

213

226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.  

PubMed

Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams. PMID:11379070

Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

2001-01-01

214

Treatment of Subclinical Injuries Detected by Protocol Biopsy Improves the Long-Term Kidney Allograft Function: A Single Center Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe long-term benefit of early treatment of subclinical disorders detected in kidney allografts by protocol biopsy is controversial. We collected 145 protocol biopsies from 113 recipients for comparison with 51 control patients in a single-center, prospective, randomized trial.

E. Szederkényi; B. Iványi; Z. Morvay; P. Szenohradszki; B. Borda; F. Marofka; É. Kemény; G. Lázár

2011-01-01

215

Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

2013-12-01

216

My approach to reporting a gastric biopsy  

PubMed Central

The protracted inflammation of the gastric mucosa induces profound changes in the microenvironment of the gastric cells. These changes modify the molecular signals that orchestrate morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the stem cells of the crypts. The expression of this adjustment to the new microenvironment is evidenced by the appearance of differentiated metaplastic cells (intestinal, bronchial—ciliated, pancreatic or (pseudo) pyloric, all deriving from the same embryological origin). The inability of stem cells to readapt to the new microenvironment may lead to genomic aberrations such as the retention of cellular products (glassy cells) or to neoplastic transformation. In this report, parameters such as gastric mucosal inflammation, Helicobacter pylori, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and/or pseudopyloric metaplasia found in gastric biopsy specimens were individually classified according to their extension in sections as grade 1 (focal distribution in sections from individual biopsy specimens) and grade 2 (present in the entire width—distance across—in sections from individual biopsy specimen). The rationale is that a biopsy grade 2 was harvested from a larger mucosal area having that particular change. Each individual parameter gives a score, and the sum of all individual scores gives the total score. The proposed system might allow monitoring the results of treatment in follow?up biopsies. Divergent clinical results in the frequency/incidence of gastritis (including body–autoimmune gastritis), of H pylori strains, of various metaplasias and neoplasias, in disparate geographical regions substantiate the conviction that these parameters are much influenced by the environment. This knowledge is crucial, considering that environmental diseases are theoretically preventable.

Rubio, Carlos A

2007-01-01

217

Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  

PubMed

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

2008-03-18

218

The human tail and spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed

Recent publications have endeavoured to differentiate between the true, or vestigial tail, and the pseudotail by clinical and pathological examination, and have indicated the benign nature of the true tail. The true tail arises from the most distal remnant of the embryonic tail, contains adipose, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue, and is covered by skin. Pseudotails represent a variety of lesions having in common a lumbosacral protrusion and a superficial resemblance to vestigial tails. A review of the case reports indicates spina bifida to be the most frequent coexisting anomaly with both. A review of occult spinal dysraphism shows it to be associated with cutaneous signs in more than 50% of instances. Three cases of spinal dysraphism with tail-like cutaneous structures are described and their radiological, operative, and pathological findings presented. The classification of each of the appendages into true tail or pseudotail remains obscure. Although the finding of these three tails was the subject of much curiosity, surgical treatment was clearly designed to adequately deal with the associated dysraphic state. The presence of a tail-like appendage in the lumbosacral region should alert the clinician to the possibility of underlying spinal dysraphism. Preoperative assessment must include a complete neurological history and examination as well as computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1779337

Belzberg, A J; Myles, S T; Trevenen, C L

1991-10-01

219

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: clinical experience and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with an increased risk of metastases. The role of sentinel\\u000a lymph node (SLN) biopsy in these patients remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, we collected clinical data on six\\u000a patients with clinical N0 high-risk SCC that underwent SLN biopsy between 1999 and 2006 and performed a literature review\\u000a of SLN procedures for

Steve Kwon; Zhao Ming Dong; Peter C Wu

2011-01-01

220

Diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis and amyloidosis mediated cardiomyopathy by VATS pleural biopsy for chronic pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis is a family of diseases characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid protein, causing altered physiology based on its abnormal deposition in an organ. The etiology of persistent pleural effusions in patients with systemic amyloidosis is unknown. Endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard of diagnosis for patients with cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis. We present the case of a patient with systemic amyloidosis whose diagnosis was made by pleural pathology collected via video-assisted thoracic surgery after a false negative endomyocardial biopsy.

Harvey-Taylor, Jessica; Zhang, Yanhong; Kuderer, Valerie

2013-01-01

221

Comparison of sonoelastography guided biopsy with systematic biopsy: impact on prostate cancer detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was performed to determine the value of sonoelastography (SE) targeted biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa)\\u000a detection. A series of 230 male screening volunteers was examined. Two independent examiners evaluated each subject. One single\\u000a investigator performed ?5 SE targeted biopsies into suspicious regions in the peripheral zone only. The stiffness of the lesion\\u000a was displayed by SE and

Leo Pallwein; Michael Mitterberger; Peter Struve; Wolfgang Horninger; Friedrich Aigner; Georg Bartsch; Johann Gradl; Matthias Schurich; Florian Pedross; Ferdinand Frauscher

2007-01-01

222

Liquid biopsy of atherosclerosis using protoporphyrin IX as a biomarker.  

PubMed

Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a derivative of hematoporphyrin, can accumulate in rapidly growing tissues, including tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The objective of this study is to employ PPIX fluorescence to detect the changes in blood caused by the formation of atheromatous plaques in arteries; this measurement can function as a liquid biopsy. For this purpose twenty four rabbits were randomly divided into groups: control group (CG)--fed with a normal diet, and an experimental group (EG)--fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and after 22, 43, 64 days to measure biochemical factors. The aortas were removed after 22, 43 and 64 days to assess the atherosclerotic plaques. PPIX was extracted from the blood and fluorescence was measured in the 550-750 nm range from samples that were excited at 405 nm. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was administered intravenously to increase the PPIX fluorescence intensity in the arteries and consequently in the liquid biopsy of the atherosclerotic plaques. The results have shown that the PPIX fluorescence increased as the atheromatous plaques grew. The aorta fluorescence and the PPIX fluorescence increased in the animals in the experimental group that received ALA. PPIX that accumulates in atheromatous plaques transfers to the blood and can be analyzed by extracting porphyrin from total blood. Therefore, this method can aid in the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis with high sensitivity. PMID:24432352

Nascimento da Silva, Monica; Sicchieri, Letícia Bonfante; de Oliveira Silva, Flávia Rodrigues; Andrade, Maira Franco; Courrol, Lilia Coronato

2014-03-21

223

Determination of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Biopsies by PCR.  

PubMed

Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of H. pylori in biopsy specimens from symptomatic patients by PCR. In addition, the rate of cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 virulence genes was determined. Materials and Methods. One hundred antral gastric biopsy specimens were collected during endoscopy from patients suffering from gastroduodenal symptoms. The samples were collected by the gastroenterologists in their own clinics in Ramallah, Palestine. DNA was extracted from the biopsies and subsequently used for PCR identification of H. pylori and the virulence genes using specific primers. Results. The rate of positive H. pylori in the collected biopsies was 44%. The rates of the virulence genes in this sample: cagA, vacA, iceA1, and iceA2 were 65.9%, 40.9%, 63.6%, and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusion. The iceA2 gene was the most frequent in this study. Much research is necessary to determine the presence of an association of this gene with gastric pathology. Variation in the rates of the iceA gene in different countries is a strong indication of its geographical distribution. This study would provide important information regarding the prevalence of virulence genes (vacA, cagA, iceA1, and iceA2) in H. pylori strains in the sample tested in this country. PMID:23691338

Essawi, Tamer; Hammoudeh, Wail; Sabri, Israr; Sweidan, Walid; Farraj, Mohammad A

2013-01-01

224

Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings through the Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774).  

PubMed

Coal mining is an activity with a high potential for environmental pollution. Coal has been described as the most significant pollutant of all the fossil fuels, containing a heterogeneous mixture. Many elements present in coal byproducts as well as coal tailings are rich in potentially toxic and genotoxic metals, which ultimately lead to profound changes in cells, tissues, populations, and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings using the land snail Helix aspersa. Animals were divided in three groups, clustered in plexiglass cages: control (animals fed with organic lettuce), coal tailings (animals living in a layer of pyrite tailings and fed with organic lettuce), and mine lettuce (animals fed with lettuce grown in an area located in a deposit of coal tailings). The hemolymph was collected at different exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 1 month) for comet assay analyses. Results showed that the animals of the coal tailings and mine lettuce groups presented higher levels of DNA damage in relation to the control group at all exposure times, but with a peak of DNA damage in 48 h and 96 h. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa has proven to be a sensitive instrument for a better risk assessment of environmental pollution. PMID:20372882

Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; da Silva, Juliana; Zocche, Jairo José; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Boufleur, Liana Appel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2010-11-01

225

Comet tail formation: Giotto observations  

SciTech Connect

The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

1986-01-01

226

Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

2012-01-01

227

Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon’s diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine.

Araujo-Perez, Felix; McCoy, Amber N.; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M.; Smith, Kevin M.; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S.; Asher, Gary N.; Keku, Temitope O.

2012-01-01

228

Stability properties of a cometary plasma tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear stability of the plasma tail of a comet is numerically investigated. Effects both of finite resistivity and of velocity shear are taken into account. The tail appears to be unstable against Kelvin-Helmholtz-like modes in which a certain amount of reconnection occurs. Because of the velocity flow shear the perturbation extends far beyond the singular layer and affects in

Francesco Malara; Giorgio Einaudi; Andre Mangeney

1989-01-01

229

CISLUNAR GEOMAGNETIC TAIL GRADIENT IN 1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, the geomagnetic tail field gradient during the summers of 1966 and 1967 is examined for secular change. We use data from Ames magnetometers on Explorers 33 and 35. The 1967 data are compared with the earlier published 1966. Explorer 33 results [Mihalo. v et al., 1968]. Secular change of the tail field magnitude gradient is not found

J. D. Mihalov; C. P. Sonett

1968-01-01

230

Tale of tails: Parallelism and prehensility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of prehensile tails among only five platyrrhine genera-Cebus, Alouatta, Lagothrix, Ateles, and Bmchyteles-might be inter- preted as evidence that these are a closely related, possibly monophyletic group. In the absence of behavioral data, it is impossible to test whether all possess equivalent biological roles; such would lend credence to the idea that their tails evolved from an homologous,

Alfred L. Rosenberger

1983-01-01

231

Unified Approach to Estimating Tail Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tail estimators are proposed which make minimal assumptions and let the data dictate the form of the probability model. These estimators use only the observations in the tail and are based on a unifying density-quantile model. The fundamental result in th...

S. D. Grimshaw

1989-01-01

232

Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi\\/m² s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the

W. B. Silker; V. C. Rogers

1981-01-01

233

Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi

2001-01-01

234

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON HELICOPTER TAIL SHAKE PHENOMENON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter tail shake phenomenon is still remained as a long dragged issue that adversely affected the overall performance, occupants' comfort and handling qualities of helicopter. The objective of this research is to improve basic understanding of the viscous unsteady flow phenomenon observed behind the helicopter tail part. For this, a wind tunnel test had been conducted with a rigid 14%

Iskandar Shah Ishak; Shuhaimi Mansor; Tholudin Mat Lazim

235

Efficient Algorithms for Computing Sommerfeld Integral Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommerfeld-integrals (SIs) are ubiquitous in the analysis of problems involving antennas and scatterers embedded in planar multilayered media. It is well known that the oscillating and slowly decaying nature of their integrands makes the numerical evaluation of the SI real-axis tail segment a very time consuming and computationally expensive task. Therefore, SI tails have to be specially treated. In this

Ruzica Golubovic; Athanasios G. Polimeridis; Juan R. Mosig

2012-01-01

236

The histone tails of the nucleosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible acetylation of core histone tails plays an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription, in the formation of repressive chromatin complexes, and in the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the nucleosome core particle, as well as earlier evidence, suggests that the histone tails are largely responsible for the assembly of nucleosomes into chromatin fibers

Karolin Luger; Timothy J Richmond

1998-01-01

237

CONFIGURATION AND RECONNECTION OF THE GEOMAGNETIC TAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of certain aspects of the geomagnetic tail is made using data from the Ames magnetometer on the Explorer 33 satellite. The general shape corresponds with eaxlier findings of Ness and co-workers. The tail is found regular to distances greater than 82 R. The field values for Kp _ 2-]- vary from a low of about 4 gammas to

J. D. Mihalov; D. S. Colburn; R. G. Currie; C. P. Sonett

1968-01-01

238

The QQ-Estimator And Heavy Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A common visual technique for assessing goodness of fit and estimating location and scale is theqq--plot. We apply this technique to data from a Pareto distribution and more generally to data generated bya distribution with a heavy tail. A procedure for assessing the presence of heavy tails and for estimating theparameter of regular variation is discussed which can supplement

Marie F. Kratz; Sidney I. Resnick

1995-01-01

239

21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy...

2010-04-01

240

21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy...

2009-04-01

241

Our approach to a renal transplant biopsy.  

PubMed

Kidney transplantation has become increasingly common in major health centres, making renal allograft evaluation through biopsy a common procedure. Early allograft dysfunction occurs in 30-50% of all transplants, while chronic graft failure is almost uniform at a rate of 2-4% a year. Allograft biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of graft dysfunction. Rejection, albeit the most important, is only one of many causes of allograft dysfunction. The widely accepted Banff classification has set criteria for the diagnosis of acute and chronic rejection. The major differential diagnoses are acute ischaemic injury, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (acute and chronic), infections, including pyelonephritis and polyomavirus nephropathy, chronic obstruction/reflux, hypertension, and recurrent and de novo disease. In this review, there is an outline of the Banff criteria and their implications, the various causes of graft dysfunction, and a discussion on morphological guidelines towards the various diagnoses. PMID:19850567

John, R; Herzenberg, A M

2010-01-01

242

Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy  

PubMed Central

Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 ?m FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics.

Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2013-01-01

243

Bimanual endoscopic orbital biopsy. An emerging technique.  

PubMed

Diagnostic biopsy specimens from six posterior orbital lesions have been obtained under direct endoscopic view with either a fine needle aspiration or an intracannular microbiopsy forcep. This method is comparable to earlier fine needle aspiration techniques, but has the decided advantage of providing a specimen from visually indentified abnormal tissue. In those cases where inadequate specimens are obtained by fine needle aspiration, a microforcep is used to obtain a substantial specimen. The microinvasive endoscopic biopsy technique of the Orbital Unit at Pacific Medical Center is described with an analysis of six cases. The emerging technology of fiberoptic illumination, minified color video cameras, sophisticated imaging, efficient microsurgical instruments and laser delivery methods make the potential for deep orbital endoscopic microinvasive surgery exciting. PMID:3974993

Norris, J L; Stewart, W B

1985-01-01

244

Computer assisted biopsy of breast tumors.  

PubMed

In this paper we report our preliminary results of the development of a computer assisted system for breast biopsy. The system is based on tracked ultrasound images of the breast. A three dimensional ultrasound volume is constructed from a set of tracked B-scan images acquired with a calibrated probe. The system has been designed to assist a radiologist during breast biopsy, and also as a training system for radiology residents. A semiautomatic classification algorithm was implemented to assist the user with the annotation of the tumor on an ultrasound volume. We report the development of the system prototype, tested on a physical phantom of a breast with a tumor, made of polivinil alcohol. PMID:21097108

Arambula Cosio, Fernando; Lira Berra, Eric; Hevia Montiel, Nidiyare; Garcia Segundo, Cresencio; Garduno, Edgar; Alvarado Gonzalez, Montserrat; Quispe Siccha, Rosa Ma; Reyes Ramirez, Bartolome; Hazan Lasri, Eric

2010-01-01

245

Cancer detection and biopsy classification using concurrent histopathological and metabolomic analysis of core biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolomics, the non-targeted interrogation of small molecules in a biological sample, is an ideal technology for identifying diagnostic biomarkers. Current tissue extraction protocols involve sample destruction, precluding additional uses of the tissue. This is particularly problematic for high value samples with limited availability, such as clinical tumor biopsies that require structural preservation to histologically diagnose and gauge cancer aggressiveness. To overcome this limitation and increase the amount of information obtained from patient biopsies, we developed and characterized a workflow to perform metabolomic analysis and histological evaluation on the same biopsy sample. Methods Biopsies of ten human tissues (muscle, adrenal gland, colon, lung, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, stomach, prostate, kidney) were placed directly in a methanol solution to recover metabolites, precipitate proteins, and fix tissue. Following incubation, biopsies were removed from the solution and processed for histology. Kidney and prostate cancer tumor and benign biopsies were stained with hemotoxylin and eosin and prostate biopsies were subjected to PIN-4 immunohistochemistry. The methanolic extracts were analyzed for metabolites on GC/MS and LC/MS platforms. Raw mass spectrometry data files were automatically extracted using an informatics system that includes peak identification and metabolite identification software. Results Metabolites across all major biochemical classes (amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides, cofactors, xenobiotics) were measured. The number (ranging from 260 in prostate to 340 in colon) and identity of metabolites were comparable to results obtained with the current method requiring 30 mg ground tissue. Comparing relative levels of metabolites, cancer tumor from benign kidney and prostate biopsies could be distinguished. Successful histopathological analysis of biopsies by chemical staining (hematoxylin, eosin) and antibody binding (PIN-4, in prostate) showed cellular architecture and immunoreactivity were retained. Conclusions Concurrent metabolite extraction and histological analysis of intact biopsies is amenable to the clinical workflow. Methanol fixation effectively preserves a wide range of tissues and is compatible with chemical staining and immunohistochemistry. The method offers an opportunity to augment histopathological diagnosis and tumor classification with quantitative measures of biochemicals in the same tissue sample. Since certain biochemicals have been shown to correlate with disease aggressiveness, this method should prove valuable as an adjunct to differentiate cancer aggressiveness.

2012-01-01

246

The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears gsim350'' (2.5 × 108 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 ?m and a combined mass ~3 × 105 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

2013-07-01

247

BACTEC FX system as a tool for culturing gastric biopsies and Helicobacter pylori diagnosis.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases. There are several acceptable methods to identify this microorganism. Some are invasive and some are noninvasive. This study demonstrates the use of BACTEC FX system for the growth and diagnosis of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy specimens, cut and placed in blood culture bottles, with subsequent incubation in the apparatus. Twenty-five positive and 15 negative biopsy samples tested using the quick urease technique, CUTest, were collected from 40 patients with confirmed chronic gastric inflammation. The biopsy samples were manually cut using a sterile scalpel and placed in tubes containing 5 ml of fetal bovine serum. The resulting suspensions were transferred using a syringe into anaerobic blood culture bottles. These bottles were incubated at 35 °C for a period of 7 days in the BACTEC FX system. All biopsy samples that reacted positive to the CUTest and one biopsy sample that reacted negative to the CUTest were confirmed as positive by the BACTEC FX system. In addition, there was a correlation between the positive culture and histology examination results. The use of BACTEC FX system significantly shortens the time needed for culturing, which makes the system more efficient in the identification of H. pylori. It should be emphasized that performing microbial culture testing has a significant role in monitoring antibiotic resistance, which cannot be done using other existing methods for H. pylori diagnosis. PMID:23793256

Peretz, A; On, A; Koiefman, H; Brodsky, D; Isakovich, N; Glyatman, T; Paritsky, M

2013-12-01

248

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an unusual disorder that is characterized by diffuse or scattered eosinophilic infiltration\\u000a of the digestive tract. The diagnosis is based on histology obtained by capsule, endoscopic, laparoscopic, or laparotomy biopsy.\\u000a The eosinophilic infiltration produces thickening of the small bowel wall that can be observed by using sonography. The appearance\\u000a produces the pseudokidney sign that can

S. F. Marco-Doménech; S. Gil-Sánchez; J. Jornet-Fayos; S. Ambit-Capdevila; M. Gonzalez-Añón

1998-01-01

249

Diagnostic Value of Ten Systematic TRUS-Guided Prostate Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the improvement in the rate of detection of prostate cancer using an extensive protocol involving ten transrectal biopsies. Methods: A total of 162 patients submitted to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and\\/or abnormality on digital rectal examination were studied consecutively and prospectively. Five biopsies were performed in each lobe: between the three standard biopsies

Vincent Ravery; Thierry Billebaud; Marianne Toublanc; Lilianne Boccon-Gibod; Jean-François Hermieu; Franck Moulinier; Emmanuel Blanc; Vincent Delmas; Laurent Boccon-Gibod

1999-01-01

250

Digital Imaging Improves Upright Stereotactic Core Biopsy of Mammographic Microcalcifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: This comparative study was carried out to assess the effect of using digital images compared to conventional film-screen mammography on the accuracy of core biopsy of microcalcifications using upright stereotactic equipment.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biopsy results from a consecutive series of 104 upright stereotactic 14-gauge core biopsies performed with conventional X-ray (Group A) were compared with 40 biopsies carried

J. P. L. WHITLOCK; A. J. EVANS; H. C. BURRELL; S. E. PINDER; I. O. ELLIS; R. W. BLAMEY; A. R. M. WILSON

2000-01-01

251

Tumor seeding associated with bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.  

PubMed

A 53-year-old man with small-cell lung carcinoma underwent bone marrow aspirations and biopsies for tumor staging and harvest for autologous bone marrow infusion. Fourteen months after bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, a subcutaneous lesion grew over the posterior iliac crest, and a biopsy specimen disclosed small-cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tumor seeding associated with bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. PMID:6318678

Citron, M L; Krasnow, S H; Grant, C; Cohen, M H

1984-01-01

252

Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility  

PubMed Central

Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10

Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

1973-01-01

253

Performance of skin biopsies by general practitioners.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate and appraise skin biopsies performed by general practitioners and compare their performance with that of hospital doctors. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of histology records. SETTING--University hospital. SUBJECTS--Records of 292 skin biopsy specimens obtained by general practitioners and 324 specimens obtained by general and plastic surgeons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical and pathological diagnoses and completeness of excision. RESULTS--The number of specimens received from hospital surgeons and general practitioners increased over the study period; the proportion of specimens from general practitioners rose from 17/1268 (1.3%) in 1984 to 201/2387 (8.7%) in 1990. The range of diagnoses was similar among hospital and general practitioner cases, although malignancy was commoner in hospital cases (63/324 (19%) v 14/292 (5%) in general practitioner cases; chi 2 = 28, p less than 0.00001). Completeness of excision was less common among general practitioners than hospital surgeons (150/233 (3/15 malignant) v 195/232 (57/63); chi 2 = 22, p less than 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS--The increase in minor surgery has implications for the staffing and finance of histopathology departments. General practitioners must be given proper training in performing skin biopsies, and all specimens should be sent for examination.

McWilliam, L J; Knox, F; Wilkinson, N; Oogarah, P

1991-01-01

254

False-negative results of breast core needle biopsies - retrospective analysis of 988 biopsies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm and the most common cause of death among women. The core needle biopsy is becoming a universal practice in diagnosing breast lesions suspected of malignancy. Unfortunately, breast core needle biopsies also bear the risk of having false-negative results. Material/Methods: 988 core needle breast biopsies were performed at the Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, between 01 March 2006 and 29 February 2008. Malignant lesions were diagnosed in 426/988 (43.12%) cases, atypical hyperplasia in 69/988 (6.98%), and benign lesions in 493/988 (49.90%) cases. Results: Twenty-two out of 988 biopsies (2.23%) were found to be false negative. Histopathological assessment of tissue specimens was repeated in these cases. In 14/22 (64%) cases, the previous diagnosis of a benign lesion was changed. In 8/22 (36%) cases, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed. False-negative rate was calculated at 2.2%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses resulting from a radiological mistake was estimated at 36%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses, resulting from histopathological assessment, was 64%. False-negative results caused by a radiological error comprised 1.5% of all histopathologically diagnosed cancers and atypias (sensitivity of 98.5%). There were no false-positive results in our material - the specificity of the method was 100%. Conclusions: Histopathological interpretation is a substantial cause of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy. Thus, in case of a radiological-histopathological divergence, histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens should be repeated. The main radiological causes of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy are as follows: sampling from an inappropriate site and histopathological non-homogeneity of cancer infiltration.

Boba, Marek; Koltun, Urszula; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Chmielik, Ewa; Eksner, Bartosz; Olejnik, Tomasz

2011-01-01

255

Value of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients with Previous Excisional Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla will ensure axillary dissection only for cases with lymph node metastasis and provide information about pathologic staging as accurate as the axillary dissection. It was shown that SLNB could be successfully performed regardless of the type of biopsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of SLNB after excisional biopsy. Methods One hundred patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy or guide wire-localization and operated on with SLNB between February 2007 and March 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. SLNB was performed with 10 cc of 1% methylene blue alone or both methylene blue and 1 mCi of Tc-99m nanocolloid combination. Age, tumor localization and size, length of the biopsy incision, size of the biopsy specimen, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, tumor grade, staining with methylene blue, localization, number and metastatic status of the lymph nodes stained, and success rate with a gamma probe were evaluated. Results Sentinel lymph node (SLN) could not be identified in 9 (16.9%) of patients in the methylene blue group (n=53). In the combination group (n=47), SLN could not be identified in one patient. Of 32 patients with negative SLNB, metastatic involvement was found to be present in 5 patients after axillary lymph node dissection (false negatives). The average numbers of SLNs found in the methylene blue group and combination group were 1.4 and 1.6, respectively. SLN detection and false negative rates in the methylene blue group were 83% and 15.7%, respectively. The rates for the combination group were 98% and 6.4%, respectively. None of the parameters related to patient, tumor or process were found to affect detection rates of SLN. Conclusion Only SLNB using a combination method is a safe and reliable technique for breast cancer patients diagnosed with excisional biopsy.

Coskun, Gokhan; Dogan, Lutfi; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Atalay, Can

2012-01-01

256

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sentinel node biopsy has been validated for female breast cancer patients whereas, ALND remains the standard of care for male breast cancer patients with similar tumours. We evaluated the results of SLN biopsy in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae.This study included all male breast cancer patients who underwent SLN biopsy between February 1998 and

A. Goyal; K. Horgan; M. Kissin; C. Yiangou; M. Sibbering; M. Lansdown; R. G. Newcombe; R. E. Mansel

2004-01-01

257

Aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) is a diagnostic method that has been used extensively in Sweden for a quarter of a century. The technical steps involved in this biopsy procedure are described, and the differences from large needle biopsy techniques are pointed out. An overview is given of the different pathologic conditions that present as thyroid nodules and are recognizable by

Torsten Löwhagen; Jan-Silvester Willems; Göran Lundell; Rolf Sundblad; Per-Ola Granberg

1981-01-01

258

14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. ...AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane...before the maximum vertical load is...

2010-01-01

259

14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. ...AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane...before the maximum vertical load is...

2009-01-01

260

Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.  

PubMed

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

2013-01-01

261

Comparison of trans-nasal laryngoscopic office based biopsy of laryngopharyngeal lesions with traditional operative biopsy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to compare the pathological results from office-based biopsy (OBB) and operative biopsy (ORB) of laryngopharyngeal lesions from 26 patients. Lesion location, specimen concordance, efficacy, cost savings, and patient management are discussed. OBB can provide a sample of laryngopharyngeal tissue that can be used to diagnose lesions in these sites. This study design is retrospective review and involved retrospective analysis and chart review of 26 cases of patients who had an OBB followed by and ORB of the same site; oropharyngeal or laryngopharyngeal lesion. CPT 31576 was to identify patients. Twenty six patients had both OBB and operative biopsy performed of a lesion within the oropharynx and laryngopharynx. All OBB attempts resulted in diagnostic tissue samples. Vocal fold biopsy (69 %) was most common. The most common OBB diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma or moderate-to-severe dysplasia (54 %). OBB and ORB pathological results were the same in 81 % of patients. Of the benign samples obtained by OBB, 83 % of the ORB were deemed benign. Of the non-benign samples obtained via OBB, 80 % of the ORB were deemed non-benign in the operating room samples. Office-based biopsy is a simple procedure that can be performed in an outpatient setting, avoiding an operating room and the need for general anesthesia. Comparison of results from OBB to ORB together with patient characteristics resulted in very reliable results that can help to guide further patient management. PMID:23619967

Zalvan, Craig H; Brown, Darnell J; Oiseth, Stanley J; Roark, Rick M

2013-09-01

262

Evaluation of formalin-fixed ileum as the optimum method to diagnose equine dysautonomia (grass sickness) in simulated intestinal biopsies.  

PubMed

Equine dysautonomia, or grass sickness, is a frequently fatal disease of unknown etiology, manifested as poor gastrointestinal motility and colic as a result of degenerative changes in the autonomic nervous system. Examination of ileal biopsies collected at laparotomy is currently the best antemortem diagnostic method to distinguish equine dysautonomia from colic cases, which can present with similar signs, but their value has not been previously critically evaluated. Using simulated biopsies collected postmortem from 23 cases of equine dysautonomia and 11 of colic, the sensitivity and specificity of 1-cm long, formalin-fixed ileal biopsies was 100% for the diagnosis of equine dysautonomia. There was therefore no advantage to using larger biopsies or examining jejunum either in addition to or instead of ileal biopsies. Furthermore, although cryostat sections of ileum, 1-cm long, had a sensitivity of 100%, the specificity was only 73%, meaning that 27% of cases would have been misclassified, resulting in unnecessary euthanasia. Increasing the size of the cryostat or examining jejunum in addition to ileum cryostat sections did not significantly improve the specificity. Results of the current study indicate that in diagnostic practice, 1-cm long, formalin-fixed biopsies are likely to be the most suitable for accurate diagnosis, despite the slower turnaround time compared with cryostat sections. PMID:20224086

Milne, Elspeth M; Pirie, R Scott; McGorum, Bruce C; Shaw, Darren J

2010-03-01

263

Comparative Study of Two Different TRUS–Guided Sextant Biopsy Techniques in Detecting Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)–guided sextant biopsy technique, which puts more emphasis on the apical region of the prostate where most prostate carcinomas (PCs) develop, with the standard sextant biopsy technique.Methods: A total of 280 patients with suspected PC were included in this analysis. Twelve biopsy cores were obtained from all patients.

Clemens Brössner; Stefan Madersbacher; Guenther Bayer; Armin Pycha; H. Christoph Klingler; Ulrich Maier

2000-01-01

264

Breast biopsy prediction using a case-based reasoning classifier for masses versus calcifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated how the subdivision of breast biopsy cases into masses and calcifications influences breast cancer prediction for a case-based reasoning (CBR) classifier system. Mammographers' BI-RADS (TM) descriptions of mammographic lesions were used as input to predict breast biopsy outcome. The CBR classifier compared the case to be examined to a reference collection of cases and identified similar cases. The decision variable for each case was formed as the ratio of malignant similar cases to all similar cases. The reference data collection consisted of 1433 biopsy-proven mammography cases, and was divided into 3 categories: mass cases, calcification cases, and other. Performance was evaluated using ROC analysis and Round Robin sampling, and variance was estimated using a bootstrap analysis. The best ROC area for masses was 0.92+/- 0.01. At 98% sensitivity, about 209 (51%) patients with benign mass lesions might have been spared biopsy, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The best ROC area for calcifications was only 0.64+/- 0.02. At 98% sensitivity, 50 (12%) benign calcification cases could have been spared, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The CBR system performed substantially better on the masses than on the calcifications.

Bilska-Wolak, Anna O.; Floyd, Carey E.

2002-05-01

265

Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.  

PubMed

In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services. PMID:21629992

Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

2011-10-01

266

Artificial inoculation-perspectives in tailings phytostabilization.  

PubMed

Intensive mining and processing activities worldwide resulted in the generation of huge amounts of waste (tailings), generally characterized as toxic, radioactive, and/or hazardous. The exposure potential and, hence, the risk posed by such wastes is enhanced by a general lack of vegetation. Phytostabilization has proven to be efficient in reducing this risk. However, establishing vegetation on tailing dumps may be expensive due to the intensive use of amendments and chemical fertilizers. In this article, investigations on artificial inoculation of mine tailings with bacterial strains as a means to improve the development of vegetative covers and reduce application cost by eliminating chemical fertilization are presented and discussed. The development of plants and microbial communities from tailings, as well as the impact of inoculation on metal uptake in plants, were studied. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse using two types of mine tailings (phosphogypsum and sulphidic tailings) from the Romanian Black Sea coast. Indigenous herbaceous plants were cultivated on tailings with the addition of chemical fertilizers versus bacterial inoculation. After a 6-month experimental period, excellent plant growth, which is associated with a rich microbial community, was observed in all inoculated treatments, in contrast with poor plant growth and microbiota from the chemical fertilization treatments alone. Additionally, artificial inoculation improved plant resistance to heavy metals by reducing the uptake of some toxic metals. Once a rich microbial community is established, inoculation may be discontinued. Based on these results, efficient and cost-effective phytostabilization schemes can be proposed. PMID:15224772

Petrisor, Ioana G; Dobrota, Smaranda; Komnitsas, Kostas; Lazar, Ioan; Kuperberg, J Michael; Serban, Mihai

2004-01-01

267

Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

1999-01-01

268

Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

2002-12-01

269

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

270

A review on dural tail sign  

PubMed Central

“Dural tail sign” (DTS) which is a thickening of the dura adjacent to an intracranial pathology on contrast-enhanced T1 MR Images, was first thought to be pathognomonic of meningioma, however, many subsequent studies demonstrated this sign adjacent to various intra- and extra-cranial pathologies and in spinal lesions. In this paper we outline the history, accompanying pathologies and the differentiation and probable pathophysiology of DTS. We also discuss whether we can predict tumoral involvement of the dural tail before surgery and whether the dural tail adjacent to a tumor should be resected.

Sotoudeh, Houman; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

2010-01-01

271

A review on dural tail sign.  

PubMed

"Dural tail sign" (DTS) which is a thickening of the dura adjacent to an intracranial pathology on contrast-enhanced T1 MR Images, was first thought to be pathognomonic of meningioma, however, many subsequent studies demonstrated this sign adjacent to various intra- and extra-cranial pathologies and in spinal lesions. In this paper we outline the history, accompanying pathologies and the differentiation and probable pathophysiology of DTS. We also discuss whether we can predict tumoral involvement of the dural tail before surgery and whether the dural tail adjacent to a tumor should be resected. PMID:21161034

Sotoudeh, Houman; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

2010-05-28

272

Vibrations of the earth's magnetic tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The natural vibration period of the tail (regarded as bundle of magnetic line-of-force strings) and the characteristic time of recurrence of magnetospheric substorms are of the same order, suggesting the possibility of a relation between these phenomena. A model of the tail in the form of a plasma cylinder whose free boundary is immersed in the interplanetary plasma is examined. The nature of the natural oscillations of the tail excited by variations of the solar wind pressure is studied in this model. These vibrations have a total energy of approximately 10 to the 22nd power erg, which is sufficient to generate magnetospheric substorms.

Yershkovich, A. I.; Nusinov, A. A.

1974-01-01

273

Imaging-guided Parenchymal Liver Biopsy: How We Do It  

PubMed Central

Liver biopsies are performed for both focal and nonfocal lesions (parenchymal). In our center, majority of liver biopsies are performed for parenchymal liver disease. Parenchymal liver biopsy plays a key role in the diagnosis of various diffuse liver dysfunctions. Results of the biopsy help grade the disease, facilitating prognostication, which helps in planning specific treatment strategies. Imaging guidance is gaining wide acceptance as the standard procedure. Ultrasound (US) guidance is currently considered the most cost-effective and safe way to perform parenchymal liver biopsies. Radiologists worldwide and particularly in the United States are increasingly performing this procedure. Radiologists performing biopsies generally use the cutting needle. Different needle sizes, techniques and preference for biopsy of the right or left lobe have been described. We attribute these preferences to prior training and individual radiologist's comfort level. We describe the algorithm followed at our institution for performing percutaneous US-guided parenchymal liver biopsy. While clinical societies have recommended a minimum of 40 liver biopsies as a requirement for proficiency of clinicians, specific to radiology trainees/fellows interested in pursuing a career in intervention, we feel a total of 20 liver biopsies (includes assisted and independently performed biopsies under supervision) should be adequate training.

Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R; David, Sheehan; Bermudez-Allende, Myriam; Sarwat, Hussain

2011-01-01

274

Biopsy proven and biopsy negative temporal arteritis: differences in clinical spectrum at the onset of the disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess the clinical features of biopsy proven and negative biopsy temporal arteritis at the time of diagnosis and during a three year follow up.?METHODS—Newly diagnosed cases of giant cell arteritis were included in a prospective, multicentre study. Initial clinical and biological features, season of diagnosis, and cardiovascular events occurring during the follow up were recorded. Biopsy proven and negative biopsy cases were compared. ?RESULTS—Two hundred and seven biopsy proven, and 85 negative biopsy cases were included from 1991 to 1997. Fifty eight per cent of the biopsy proven cases, compared with 39.29% of the negative biopsy cases, were diagnosed during the autumn or winter (p = 0.003). Visual problems (31.5%, v 19.1%, p = 0.031), blindness (9.7% v 2.38%, p = 0.033), jaw claudication (40.8%, v 28.243%, p = 0.044), and temporal artery palpation abnormalities (61.3% v 29.5%, p = 7.10-7) were more frequent in the biopsy proven than in the negative biopsy group. Less specific symptoms, such as headache (82.5% v 92.9%, p = 0.021), or associated polymyalgia rheumatica (40.1% v 65.9%, p = 9 × 10-5) were more prevalent in the negative biopsy cases. Biological markers of inflammation were significantly more increased in the biopsy proven group. All cases of blindness occurring after treatment belonged to the biopsy proven group.?CONCLUSION—Biopsy proven cases seem to be more severe than biopsy negative cases at the time of diagnosis and during follow up. Seasonal difference at diagnosis may suggest a different aetiological pattern.??

Duhaut, P.; Pinede, L.; Bornet, H.; Demolombe-Rague, S.; Dumontet, C.; Ninet, J.; Loire, R.; Pasquier, J.

1999-01-01

275

Sexual performance of rams sequentially exposed to short-tailed and fat-tailed ewes.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare sexual performance of pure and crossbred rams, and to evaluate whether prior exposure of rams to short-tailed females would enhance their mating ability when later exposed to fat-tailed females. Twenty-two virgin, yearling Awassi (A; n = 7), F(1) Charollais x Awassi (CA; n = 7) and F(1) Romanov x Awassi (RA; n = 8) rams were subjected to sexual performance tests on six 20-min occasions. Each ram was individually exposed to two short-tailed oestrous ewes for three 20-min occasions on three consecutive days. Following 1 day of rest, the same 3-day procedure was repeated for each ram with fat-tailed ewes. Leg kicking bout frequency increased in CA and RA rams and decreased in A rams, when they were exposed to fat-tailed compared with short-tailed ewes. No differences in anogenital sniffing were observed among rams exposed to either short-tailed or fat-tailed ewes. However, greater (p < 0.001) anogenital sniffing bouts were recorded, when rams were exposed to short-tailed females. Upon exposure to fat-tailed ewes, CA and RA rams experienced a marked increase in mounting frequency compared with a slight increase in mounting of A rams (p < 0.001). The ability of Awassi rams to raise the fat tail of Awassi ewes was greater (p < 0.001) than CA and RA rams. Mating was improved in A while declining in CA and RA, when they were exposed to fat-tailed compared with short-tailed ewes (p < 0.001). Based on the results of the current study, it seems that all yearling rams were capable of mating with short-tailed ewes, whereas only Awassi rams managed to mate with fat-tailed ewes. It appears that brief exposures of yearling crossbred rams to short-tailed ewes do not improve their mating ability when later exposed to fat-tailed ewes. PMID:18363610

Kridli, R T; Abdullah, A Y; Shaker, M Momani; Mahmoud, K Z

2008-08-01

276

Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology.  

PubMed

The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant change, and several publications address the redefinition of the cut off points between malignancy, benign, and normal. Lastly, current scientific research is presented where it is relevant to the understanding of BMB pathobiology. PMID:20309423

van der Walt, Jon

2009-01-01

277

[Surgical pulmonary biopsy in diffuse interstitial pneumopathies].  

PubMed

On the basis of 81 cases of surgical lung biopsy performed in the course of diffuse interstitial lung disease, the authors report the yield and the tolerance which they observed with this technique in comparison with data from the literature. Like other authors, they obtained an excellent histological yield, as only one case was uninterpretable in this present series. However, they emphasise the "final yield", which consists of a precise aetiological diagnosis, i.e. the exclusion of the diagnosis of diffuse interstitial fibrosis. The analysis of the tolerance of the procedure revealed a higher morbidity and mortality than those generally reported in the literature. PMID:3834573

Hallet, J F; Feintrenie, X; Martinet, Y; Borrelly, J; Lamy, P

1985-01-01

278

Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.  

PubMed

The status of the regional nodal basin remains the most important prognostic indicator of survival. The current standard of care for the management of invasive breast cancer is the complete removal of the tumor, with documentation of negative margins by either mastectomy or lumpectomy, followed by complete axillary lymph node dissection. Data suggest that complete lymph node dissection (CLND) provides better local control of the disease and may actually offer a survival advantage. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy are clearly changing this long-held paradigm and have the potential to change the standard of surgical care of the breast cancer patient. The purpose of this report is to describe the lymphatic mapping experience at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. From April 1994 to January 1999, 1,147 consecutive breast cancer patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved lymphatic mapping protocol. Lymphatic mapping was performed using Tc99m-labeled sulfur colloid and isosulfan blue dye. An SLN was defined as any blue node and/or any hot node with ex vivo radioactivity counts >/=10 times an excised non-SLN or in situ radioactivity counts >/=3 times the background counts. Lymphatic mapping was successful in identifying the SLN in 1,098 of 1,147 (95.7%) cases. In the first 186 patients, all of whom underwent CLND following SLN biopsy, one false-negative biopsy was encountered for a false-negative rate of 0.83%. The method of diagnosis (excisional versus minimally invasive) does not appear to impact on lymphatic mapping. Tumor size, however, is directly related to the probability of axillary lymph node involvement. Advances in technology and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques have heralded a new era in surgery. Lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy may actually prove to be a more accurate method of identifying metastases to the axilla by allowing a more focused pathologic examination of the axillary node(s) at highest risk for metastasis. With adequate training, this technique can be readily implemented as a valuable tool in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:11348304

Bass, Siddharth S.; Lyman, Gary H.; McCann, Christa R.; Ku, Ni Ni; Berman, Claudia; Durand, Kara; Bolano, Monica; Cox, Sarah; Salud, Christopher; Reintgen, Douglas S.; Cox, Charles E.

1999-09-01

279

Spontaneous Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in a/a ma ft/ma ft/J Flaky Tail Mice Appear Early after Birth  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in human profilaggrin gene have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and as a major predisposition factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Similarly, flaky tail (a/a ma ft/ma ft/J) mice were described as a model for IV, and shown to be predisposed to eczema. The aim of this study was to correlate the flaky tail mouse phenotype with human IV and AD, in order to dissect early molecular events leading to atopic dermatitis in mice and men, suffering from filaggrin deficiency. Thus, 5-days old flaky tail pups were analyzed histologically, expression of cytokines was measured in skin and signaling pathways were investigated by protein analysis. Human biopsies of IV and AD patients were analyzed histologically and by real time PCR assays. Our data show acanthosis and hyperproliferation in flaky tail epidermis, associated with increased IL1? and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and Th2-polarization. Consequently, NF?B and Stat pathways were activated, and IL6 mRNA levels were increased. Further, quantitative analysis of late epidermal differentiation markers revealed increased Small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a) synthesis. Th2-polarization and Sprr2a increase may result from high TSLP expression, as shown after analysis of 5-days old K14-TSLP tg mouse skin biopsies. Our findings in the flaky tail mouse correlate with data obtained from patient biopsies of AD, but not IV. We propose that proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for acanthosis in flaky tail epidermis, and together with the Th2-derived cytokines lead to morphological changes. Accordingly, the a/a ma ft/ma ft/J mouse model can be used as an appropriate model to study early AD onset associated with profilaggrin deficiency.

Kypriotou, Magdalini; Boechat, Cloe; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel

2013-01-01

280

Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

School Libraries in Canada, 2002

2002-01-01

281

Approximation of Pearson Type IV Tail Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple approximating functions for tail probabilities of the Pearson Type IV distribution are obtained by using the B sub n transformations and by truncating the continued fraction expansion. The behavior of these approximations is then investigated for v...

W. A. Woodward

1975-01-01

282

Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.

Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A; Donegan, James J

1951-01-01

283

Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included...

1981-01-01

284

Tree Growth Studies on Uranium Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species, that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation, were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared wit...

D. R. Murray M. Turcotte

1982-01-01

285

Cost of Decommissioning Uranium Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have als...

D. L. Lush C. Lendrum C. Hostovsky W. Eedy A. Ashbrook

1986-01-01

286

Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1985-07-01

287

Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

2014-02-01

288

ATS Claus tail gas cleanup at Table Rock Tail Gas Plant. [Ammonium thiosulfate  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Table Rock Processing Plant which consists of four major parts: the treating plant, the dew point control plant, a sulfur plant, and the tail gas plant. The tail gas plant uses the ammonium thiosulfate process to convert about 4 tons per day of sulfur to 60 tons per day of ATS. The brief discussion is presented under headings: the tail gas process; chemistry (chemical reaction and equipment); plant performance. 7 refs.

White, S.P.

1981-01-01

289

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a seven million event data sample of 600GeV\\/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5?, giving a fraction of 4×10-5 events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability

A. Morelos; J. Mata; P. S. Cooper; J. Engelfried; J. L. Aguilera-Servin

2005-01-01

290

Head-tail instability at Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Tevatron performance suffers from a coherent transverse instability. Experimental studies and theoretical examination allow identifying the instability as a weak head-tail, driven by the short-range wake fields in presence of the space charge. Growth rates and coherent tune shifts are measured at injection of single high-intensity proton bunches using a fast strip-line pickup. Landau damping through the octupole-generated betatron tune spread for all of unstable head-tail modes has been demonstrated.

Petr M Ivanov et al.

2003-05-27

291

Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, ?). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

2004-07-01

292

The technique of sentinel node biopsy.  

PubMed

Fifty-five consecutive patients with localized melanoma and clinically definable regional nodal basin who had undergone sentinel node biopsy were reviewed. The technique described by Morton et al was applied with the following modifications: (1) injection of a larger amount of isosulfan blue dye initially, i.e. 3 ml, on the side of the primary lesion facing the nodal group; (2) elevation of the primary site, for 5 min; (3) incision over the regional nodal group and exposure of the nodes with sharp dissection; (4) identification of either the blue-stained node(s) or adjacent colored lymphatics first and demonstration of their continuity. The sentinel node was identified in 51/55 (93%); specifically 33/36 (92%) in the axilla, 17/18 (93%) in the groin, and 1/1 in the supraclavicular area. It was positive in 12/51 (24%). Morton's technique of sentinel node biopsy is reproducible and can provide correct identification of the sentinel node in over 90% of the patients without the aid of radiolabelled materials. PMID:8654611

Karakousis, C P; Velez, A F; Spellman, J E; Scarozza, J

1996-06-01

293

Anomalous Urbach tail in GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urbach tail in crystalline GaAs and Si due to thermal vibration is evaluated in the temperature range 0-810 K. Recent experiments suggest that there is no thermally induced Urbach tail in undoped GaAs. This is most unexpected since thermally induced tails at the absorption edge having the Urbach form and widths E0(T) linear in T are observed in a wide range of crystalline and amorphous semiconductors. Clear understanding of the tail is important in device applications. In our calculations, we obtain an absorption tail having a simple exponential energy dependence (Urbach form) in GaAs at all temperatures with E0(T) proportional to T. However, due to a very weak electron-phonon interaction, the magnitude of E0(T) is unusually small, much smaller than the temperature independent, structurally induced component E0~=10 meV. As a test of the method, the tail is similarly evaluated in Si providing an E0(T) value in agreement with experiment.

Greeff, C. W.; Glyde, H. R.

1995-01-01

294

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

295

An acceleration mechanism for cometary plasma tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cometary plasma tail formation by the interaction between the solar wind plasma flow and the plasma at the head of the coma is discussed using the unipolar electric generation theory. The plasma in the 'plasma tail' is almost directly accelerated from the cometary ionopause along the sun-nucleus line where the tail current flows. For steady state solar wind conditions, the cometary 'plasma tail' velocity distribution is obtained self-consistently. The solution of a kinetic equation gives the velocity of the cometary plasma as a function of the cometary tail position. The characteristic length is 3 x 10 to the 6th km when the plasma density near the nucleus of the comet is 10 to the 6th/cu cm and the component of the interplanetary magnetic field perpendicular to the solar wind flow is 3 nT. The tailward cometary plasma is finally accelerated to the speed of the solar wind. The theory is compared with the observational plasma velocities in the tails of comet Bennett (1970II) and Comet Halley (1985).

Minami, S.; White, R. S.

1986-01-01

296

Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function.

Sencilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Osterlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.

2013-01-01

297

Field investigation of evaporation from freshwater tailings  

SciTech Connect

Safe and economical storage of tailings is now a major consideration in the operation of many mining operations. Tailings in slurried form, particularly if they have a significant clay content, can take a very long time to consolidate under the action of self-weight consolidation alone. However, if the operation is located in an area of high potential evaporation, this can be used to accelerate the rate of tailings densification. This paper presents a study of the evaporation behavior of a clayey tailings slurry deposited into an evaporation pond in the southwest of Western Australia. Over a six-month period, the rate of evaporation from the tailings surface was monitored using the Bowen Ratio method and the microlysimeter method. This was compared with the evaporation from a Class A pan located nearby. The tailings underwent very significant cracking as drying proceeded, and it was found that these cracks had a significant influence on the overall rate of evaporation once the top surface of the deposit started to desaturate. A large strain consolidation model was used to model the behavior, and the algorithm used in this model to include the effects of evaporation is shown to provide a reasonable prediction of the observed evaporation behavior.

Fujiyasu, Yoshimasa; Fahey, M.; Newson, T.

2000-06-01

298

The Sodium Tail of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-01-01

299

The Tail Movement of Bull Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Detailed observations of the tail movement of non-rotating and rotating bull spermatozoa have been carried out. For rotating sperm a helical tail wave was found with a ratio of the amplitudes of the two perpendicular components of approximately 3 to 1. For both types of cells the variation of the amplitude and the phase shift of the wave as it travels from the proximal to the distal part are reported. Model calculations indicate that the stiffness of the tail originates in the fibrous sheath, which has a Young's modulus of 3 × 107 dynes/cm2. Active contractile elements distributed continuously along the tail are found necessary to maintain the amplitude of the tail wave against damping by the fluid drag. If the longitudinal fibers are identified with the contractile elements the maximum tension to be developed by these fibers is 4 × 106 dynes/cm2. The energy dissipated by the “active” part of the tail wave is at least approximately 70 percent of the total dissipation. ImagesFigure 1

Rikmenspoel, Robert

1965-01-01

300

WATER QUALITY AND METAL TRANSPORT IN WATER-COVERED MINE TAILINGS DEPOSITS AT SULPHIDE ORE MINES - IN SITU MEASUREMENTS AND MODELLING BY DGT SAMPLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster to Mine Water 2009, presents results from studies of metals in the surface layers of a mine tailing sediment from a water covered pyrite mine tailing dam in Norway. We used the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) probe in parallell with Diffusive Equilbrium in Thin Films (DET) probe and a modified peeper to collect metals in porewater.

ODDVAR RØYSET; BIRGER BJERKENG; EIGIL IVERSEN; KARL JAN AANES

301

Geometric Evaluation of Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy results rely on physician ability to target the gland according to the biopsy schema. However, to our knowledge it is unknown how accurately the freehand, transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy cores are placed in the prostate and how the geometric distribution of biopsy cores may affect the prostate cancer detection rate. Materials and Methods To determine the geometric distribution of cores, we developed a biopsy simulation system with pelvic mock-ups and an optical tracking system. Mock-ups were biopsied in a freehand manner by 5 urologists and by our transrectal ultrasound robot, which can support and move the transrectal ultrasound probe. We compared 1) targeting errors, 2) the accuracy and precision of repeat biopsies, and 3) the estimated significant prostate cancer (0.5 cm3 or greater) detection rate using a probability based model. Results Urologists biopsied cores in clustered patterns and under sampled a significant portion of the prostate. The robot closely followed the predefined biopsy schema. The mean targeting error of the urologists and the robot was 9.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Robotic assistance significantly decreased repeat biopsy errors with improved accuracy and precision. The mean significant prostate cancer detection rate of the urologists and the robot was 36% and 43%, respectively (p <0.0001). Conclusions Systematic biopsy with freehand transrectal ultrasound guidance does not closely follow the sextant schema and may result in suboptimal sampling and cancer detection. Repeat freehand biopsy of the same target is challenging. Robotic assistance with optimized biopsy schemas can potentially improve targeting, precision and accuracy. A clinical trial is needed to confirm the additional benefits of robotic assistance.

Han, Misop; Chang, Doyoung; Kim, Chunwoo; Lee, Brian J.; Zuo, Yihe; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Petrisor, Doru; Trock, Bruce; Partin, Alan W.; Rodriguez, Ronald; Carter, H. Ballentine; Allaf, Mohamad; Kim, Jongwon; Stoianovici, Dan

2013-01-01

302

Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

Nash, J. Thomas; edited by Stillings, Lisa L.

2003-01-01

303

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 +/- 2.4, 8.8 +/- 4.0 and 10.4 +/- 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25-6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16-4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05-12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K; Hauser, Nik

2010-09-01

304

Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ? 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ? 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, platelets ? 120×103/µl and BUN ? 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB.

Torres Munoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; Gonzalez-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Davila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

2011-01-01

305

Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture  

SciTech Connect

Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

2011-12-31

306

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify

HONG LI; NEIL DYER; JANICE KELLER; TIMOTHY B. CRAWFORD

307

Thermal Imaging Reveals Significantly Smaller Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat Colonies Than Previously Estimated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data collected with thermal imaging technology, we found a major reduction in population estimates of colony size in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) from 54 million, obtained in 1957 without this technology, to 4 million in 6 major cave colonies in the southwestern United States. The 1957 census was based on human visual observations of cave emergence flights

Margrit Betke; Diane E. Hirsh; Nicholas C. Makris; Gary F. McCracken; Marianne Procopio; Nickolay I. Hristov; Shuang Tang; Angshuman Bagchi; Jonathan D. Reichard; Jason W. Horn; Stephen Crampton; Cutler J. Cleveland; Thomas H. Kunz

2008-01-01

308

Abandoned Rayrock uranium mill tailings in the Northwest Territories: Environmental conditions and radiological impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken of the environment surrounding abandoned U mill tailings at Rayrock, Northwest Territories, Canada, to examine the extent of 226Ra and U contamination. Samples of ground water, surface water, and unconsolidated geological material from the Rayrock area were collected for chemical and radiochemical analyses. Results indicated that the surface waters contained levels of 226Ra as

E. Veska; R. S. Eaton

1991-01-01

309

Mathematical simulation of contaminant distribution in and around the uranium mill tailing piles, Riverton, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Research and Development phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has set itself the goal of explaining the physico-chemical evolution of the Riverton site on the basis of the already collected field data at the site (Tokunaga and Narasimhan, 1982, Smith and Moed, 1982; White et al., 1984).

T. N. Narasimhan; T. Tokunaga; A. F. White; A. R. Smith

1983-01-01

310

Detection and tracking of low contrast human sperm tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking sperm tail movement provides important information for clinical sperm research. It is also a crucial step for sperm immobilization in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, the low visibility of the sperm tail under optical microscopy, coupled with the sperm fast motility, render sperm tail identification and tracking challenging tasks to execute. This paper presents two approaches for sperm tail

Clement Leung; Zhe Lu; Navid Esfandiari; Robert F. Casper; Yu Sun

2010-01-01

311

A safety assessment of the new Xiangyun phosphogypsum tailings pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphogypsum tailings are piled up to form a phosphogypsum tailings pond. In the design and operation stages of a tailings project, the stability of the tailings pond, the control capacity for flood, and the reliability of the drainage and safety monitoring facilities should be fully evaluated. Key contents of the safety assessment are analyzed in view of the new Xiangyun

T. Wang; Y. Zhou; Q. Lv; Yuanle Zhu; C. Jiang

2011-01-01

312

FARADAY ROTATION IN THE TAIL OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA DeHt 5  

SciTech Connect

We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 5{sup 0} x 5{sup 0} region around the planetary nebula (PN) DeHt 5. The images reveal narrow Faraday-rotation structures on the visible disk of DeHt 5, as well as two wider, tail-like, structures 'behind' DeHt 5. Though DeHt 5 is an old PN known to be interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), a tail has not previously been identified for this object. The innermost tail is {approx}3 pc long and runs away from the northeast edge of DeHt 5 in a direction roughly opposite that of the sky-projected space velocity of the white dwarf central star, WD 2218+706. We believe this tail to be the signature of ionized material ram-pressure stripped and deposited downstream during a >74,000 yr interaction between DeHt 5 and the ISM. We estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the inner tail to be -15 {+-} 5 rad m{sup -2}, and, using a realistic estimate for the line-of-sight component of the ISM magnetic field around DeHt 5, derive an electron density in the inner tail of n{sub e} = 3.6 {+-} 1.8 cm{sup -3}. Assuming the material is fully ionized, we estimate a total mass in the inner tail of 0.68 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} and predict that 0.49 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} was added during the PN-ISM interaction. The outermost tail consists of a series of three roughly circular components, which have a collective length of {approx}11.0 pc. This tail is less conspicuous than the inner tail and may be the signature of the earlier interaction between the WD 2218+706 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor and the ISM. The results for the inner and outer tails are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and may have implications for the PN missing-mass problem as well as for models which describe the impact of the deaths of intermediate-mass stars on the ISM.

Ransom, R. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, 583 Duncan Avenue West, Penticton, BC V2A 8E1 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L., E-mail: RRansom@okanagan.bc.c [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada)

2010-12-01

313

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

1997-01-01

314

SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF BABESIA ODOCOILE! AMONG WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from 581 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas and from 124 white-tailed deer from Oklahoma were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique against Babesia odocoilei. Prevalence of seropositive reactors varied from site to site in both states. Prevalence rates were statistically ranked as high, intermediate or low. Deer <12-mo-old had a significantly lower prevalence than all

K. A. Waldrup; A. A. Kocan; T. Qureshi; D. S. Davis; D. Baggett; G. G. Wagner

315

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

316

Accuracy validation for MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy.  

PubMed

We report a quantitative evaluation of the clinical accuracy of a MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been in use for over five years at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. A two-step rigid volume registration using mutual information between the pre and post needle insertion images was performed. Contour overlays of the prostate before and after registration were used to validate the registration. A total of 20 biopsies from 5 patients were evaluated. The maximum registration error was 2 mm. The mean biopsy target displacement, needle placement error, and biopsy error was 5.4 mm, 2.2 mm, and 5.1 mm respectively. The results show that the pre-planned biopsy target did dislocate during the procedure and therefore causing biopsy errors. PMID:21132060

Xu, Helen; Lasso, Andras; Vikal, Siddharth; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Whitcomb, Louis L; Fichtinger, Gabor

2010-02-23

317

Accuracy validation for MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a quantitative evaluation of the clinical accuracy of a MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been in use for over five years at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. A two-step rigid volume registration using mutual information between the pre and post needle insertion images was performed. Contour overlays of the prostate before and after registration were used to validate the registration. A total of 20 biopsies from 5 patients were evaluated. The maximum registration error was 2 mm. The mean biopsy target displacement, needle placement error, and biopsy error was 5.4 mm, 2.2 mm, and 5.1 mm respectively. The results show that the pre-planned biopsy target did dislocate during the procedure and therefore causing biopsy errors.

Xu, Helen; Lasso, Andras; Vikal, Siddharth; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

2010-03-01

318

Trends in breast biopsies for abnormalities detected at screening mammography: a population-based study in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnostic surgical breast biopsies have several disadvantages, therefore, they should be used with hesitation. We determined time trends in types of breast biopsies for the workup of abnormalities detected at screening mammography. We also examined diagnostic delays. Methods: In a Dutch breast cancer screening region 6230 women were referred for an abnormal screening mammogram between 1 January 1997 and 1 January 2011. During two year follow-up clinical data, breast imaging-, biopsy-, surgery- and pathology-reports were collected of these women. Furthermore, breast cancers diagnosed >3 months after referral (delays) were examined, this included review of mammograms and pathology specimens to determine the cause of the delays. Results: In 41.1% (1997–1998) and in 44.8% (2009–2010) of referred women imaging was sufficient for making the diagnosis (P<0.0001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology decreased from 12.7% (1997–1998) to 4.7% (2009–2010) (P<0.0001), percutaneous core-needle biopsies (CBs) increased from 8.0 to 49.1% (P<0.0001) and surgical biopsies decreased from 37.8 to 1.4% (P<0.0001). Delays in breast cancer diagnosis decreased from 6.7 to 1.8% (P=0.003). Conclusion: The use of diagnostic surgical breast biopsies has decreased substantially. They have mostly been replaced by percutaneous CBs and this replacement did not result in an increase of diagnostic delays.

van Breest Smallenburg, V; Nederend, J; Voogd, A C; Coebergh, J W W; van Beek, M; Jansen, F H; Louwman, W J; Duijm, L E M

2013-01-01

319

Chinese nomogram to predict probability of positive initial prostate biopsy: a study in Taiwan region  

PubMed Central

Several nomograms for prostate cancer detection have recently been developed. Because the incidence of prostate cancer is lower in Chinese men, nomograms based on other populations cannot be directly applied to Chinese men. We, therefore, developed a model for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy using clinical and laboratory data from a Chinese male population. Data were collected from 893 Chinese male referrals, 697 in the derivation set and 196 in the external validation set, who underwent initial prostate biopsies as individual screening. We analyzed age, prostate volume, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examinations (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) echogenicity. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals and P values. Independent predictors of a positive biopsy result included advanced age, small prostate volume, elevated total PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination, and hyperechoic or hypoechoic TRUS echogenicity. We developed a predictive nomogram for an initial positive biopsy using these variables. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 88.8%, which was greater than that of the prediction based on total PSA alone (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 74.7%). If externally validated, the predictive probability was 0.827 and the accuracy rate was 78.1%, respectively. Incorporating clinical and laboratory data into a prebiopsy nomogram improved the prediction of prostate cancer compared with predictions based solely on the individual factors.

Kuo, Shu-Chun; Hung, Shun-Hsing; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lu, Chin-Li; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Zou, Jian-Fang; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Huang, Chien-Cheng

2013-01-01

320

Chinese nomogram to predict probability of positive initial prostate biopsy: a study in Taiwan region.  

PubMed

Several nomograms for prostate cancer detection have recently been developed. Because the incidence of prostate cancer is lower in Chinese men, nomograms based on other populations cannot be directly applied to Chinese men. We, therefore, developed a model for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy using clinical and laboratory data from a Chinese male population. Data were collected from 893 Chinese male referrals, 697 in the derivation set and 196 in the external validation set, who underwent initial prostate biopsies as individual screening. We analyzed age, prostate volume, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), digital rectal examinations (DRE) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) echogenicity. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals and P values. Independent predictors of a positive biopsy result included advanced age, small prostate volume, elevated total PSA, abnormal digital rectal examination, and hyperechoic or hypoechoic TRUS echogenicity. We developed a predictive nomogram for an initial positive biopsy using these variables. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 88.8%, which was greater than that of the prediction based on total PSA alone (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 74.7%). If externally validated, the predictive probability was 0.827 and the accuracy rate was 78.1%, respectively. Incorporating clinical and laboratory data into a prebiopsy nomogram improved the prediction of prostate cancer compared with predictions based solely on the individual factors. PMID:24121978

Kuo, Shu-Chun; Hung, Shun-Hsing; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lu, Chin-Li; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Zou, Jian-Fang; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Huang, Chien-Cheng

2013-11-01

321

The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis  

PubMed Central

The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification.

Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, Andre J.

2011-01-01

322

Percutaneous Renal Biopsy in Children: A 27Year Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The introduction of automated biopsy devices and the localization of the kidney by ultrasound were aimed at optimizing efficacy and safety of the percutaneous renal biopsy procedure. We evaluated these technological advances in our renal biopsies performed in children. Methods: We sequentially used the Silverman needle (1969–1974), the TruCut needle (1974–1990), and the automated Biopty device (1990–1996). Fluoroscopy was

R. Feneberg; F. Schaefer; B. Zieger; R. Waldherr; O. Mehls; K. Schärer

1998-01-01

323

Optimizing local anesthesia during 10-core biopsy of the prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine, in a prospective, randomized study, the effect of different anesthetic techniques versus no anesthesia in a 10-core prostate biopsy. Reports thus far have shown a high variability in assessing the pain intensity of prostate biopsies and the effectiveness of anesthesia.Methods. Ultrasound-guided 10-core prostate biopsy was performed. Patients were prospectively randomized into four groups: no local anesthesia (group

M Schostak; F Christoph; M Müller; R Heicappell; G Goessl; M Staehler; K Miller

2002-01-01

324

Plasma entry into the distant tail lobes - ISEE-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ISEE-3 measurements indicate that a broad mantle-like boundary layer plasma often exists within the distant geomagnetic tail lobes at all latitudes, directly adjacent to the tail magnetopause. The presence of this boundary layer at large tail distances indicates that plasma from the magnetosheath often crosses the magnetopause locally along much of the length of the tail, and is evidence that the tail is 'open'.

Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1984-01-01

325

Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and Methods. Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. Findings. Squamous metaplastic changes on conjunctival epithelium and intense highly reflective extracellular punctiform deposits in conjunctival substantia propria were detected. Corneal epithelium was normal. Highly reflective punctiform deposits starting from anterior to mid-stroma and increasing through Descemet's membrane were evident. Corneal endothelium could not be evaluated due to intense stromal deposits. Conclusion. Confocal microscopy not only supports diagnosis in ocular argyrosis, but also demonstrates the intensity of the deposition in these patients.

Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Akalin, Taner; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

2013-01-01

326

[Pulmonary histoplasmosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy].  

PubMed

A 34-year-old Japanese man working in Mexico City since April 2004, was referred to our hospital in December 2005 because of a nodule in the left lingular bronchus, first pointed out in September 2005. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed coagulation necrosis, which contained yeast-like cells stained with fungiflora Y stain. We diagnosed pulmonary histoplasmosis (histoplasmoma type) based on the shape of the fungi and on his residential history. The nodule, resected in January, presented histological findings in concordance with the TBLB specimen. We later confirmed his serum was positive for an anti-histoplasma antibody. The pathogen was identified as Histoplasma capsulatum by PCR using lung tissue. This is apparently the first report of Histoplasmosis diagnosed by TBLB. Since imported mycosis is increasing, we should accumulate cases to make guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19994596

Kunogi, Makiko; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Akagawa, Shinobu; Nakajima, Yutsuki; Hebisawa, Akira

2009-11-01

327

Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

328

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors?  

PubMed Central

A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized.

Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

2012-01-01

329

Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

330

Optical characterization of small biopsy samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical characterization of biopsies can be used to discern between tissues when performing diffuse optical tomography of the female breast. The theory used for deriving the optical properties of such highly scattering media is based on the diffusion approximation. However, focusing the study in the regime of geometries comparable to the scattering mean free path, the diffusion approximation must be rearranged. Here we present several theoretical assumptions in this direction. In order to investigate the validity of the improved theory, experiments were made involving the transmittance of laser light through turbid phantom models. After the validation of our theoretical model, we have managed to derive the optical properties of over 50 excised breast tissue samples.

Garofalakis, Anikitos; Zacharakis, Giannis; Filippidis, George; Sanidas, Elias; Tsiftsis, Dimitris D.; Stathopoulos, Eleftherios N.; Kafousi, Maria; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Ripoll, Jorge

2003-10-01

331

Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

2012-11-01

332

Transonic Base and Boat-Tail Pressure Drag of Cylindrical Bodies with Conical Boat-Tails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Item provides a means of estimating the base and boat-tail pressure-drag coefficients of cylindrical bodies with conical boat-tailing for the Mach number range 0.9 less than or equal to 1.3. The method is purely empirical and is based on one develope...

1978-01-01

333

Growth performance and carcass quality of fattening lambs from fat-tailed and tailed sheep breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth performance and carcass traits of two fat-tailed breeds (Chaal and Zandi) and their crosses with rams of a tailed breed (Zel) were compared. After weaning, the growth and feed consumption of male and female lambs fattened for 114 days were recorded. A total of 45 male and female lambs were slaughtered and the left side of the carcasses

N. E. J. Kashan; G. H. Manafi Azar; A. Afzalzadeh; A. Salehi

2005-01-01

334

Percutaneous Liver Biopsies Guided with Ultrasonography: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background Although liver biopsy is an easy procedure for hospitalized patients and outpatients, some complications may occur. Objectives To evaluate the efficiency, complications, safety and clinicopathological utility of ultrasonographic-guided percutaneous liver biopsy in diffuse liver disease. Patients and Methods In our retrospective study, we evaluated ultrasound-assisted needle biopsies that were performed in outpatients from October 2006 to July 2010. The liver biopsies were performed following one-night fasting using the tru-cut biopsy gun (18-20 gauge) after marking the best seen and hypovascular part of the liver, distant enough from the adjacent organs. Results A total of 1018 patients were referred to our radiology department. Most of the patients had hepatitis B (60.6%). The biopsy specimens were recorded and sent to our pathology department for histopathological examination. Conclusion According to the results of our series, percutaneous liver biopsy using the tru-cut biopsy gun guided by ultrasonography can be performed safely. We resolve that routine ultrasound of the puncture site is a quick, effective and safe procedure. The complication rate is very low. The US-assisted percutaneous liver biopsy should be used for all cases.

Cakmakci, Emin; Caliskan, Kosti Can; Tabakci, Omer Naci; Tahtabasi, Mehmet; Karpat, Zeki

2013-01-01

335

Renal cell carcinoma seeding of a percutaneous biopsy tract  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 68-year-old male with extension of papillary renal cell carcinoma (Fuhrman grade III) along a percutanous biopsy tract detected at the time of partial nephrectomy. Biopsy was performed to a obtain tissue diagnosis of a complex renal cyst as the patient was unable to receive intravenous contrast for imaging due to a severe allergy. Although biopsy of indeterminate renal lesions can provide valuable diagnostic information, there are inherent risks associated with this procedure. The rare occurrence of tumour seeding should be considered when recommending percutaneous biopsy to a patient with a renal mass.

Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Rodriguez, Ronald

2013-01-01

336

Transvenous Renal Transplant Biopsy via a Transfemoral Approach.  

PubMed

Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) of kidney transplants might be prevented by an elevated risk of bleeding or limited access to the allograft. In the following, we describe our initial experience with 71 transvenous renal transplant biopsies in 53 consecutive patients with unexplained reduced graft function who were considered unsuitable candidates for PRB (4.2% of all renal transplant biopsies at our institution). Biopsies were performed via the ipsilateral femoral vein with a renal biopsy set designed for transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) of native kidneys. Positioning of the biopsy system within the transplant vein was achievable in 58 of 71 (81.7%) procedures. The specimen contained a median of 10 glomeruli (range 0-38). Tissue was considered as adequate for diagnosis in 56 of 57 (98.2%) biopsies. With respect to BANFF 50.9% of the specimen were adequate (>10 glomeruli), 47.4% marginally adequate (1-9 glomeruli) and 1.8% inadequate (no glomeruli). After implementation of real-time assessment all specimen contained glomeruli. One of the fifty-eight (1.8%) procedure-related major complications occurred (hydronephrosis requiring nephrostomy due to gross hematuria). Transfemoral renal transplant biopsy (TFRTB) is feasible and appears to be safe compared to PRB. It offers a useful new alternative for histological evaluation of graft dysfunction in selected patients with contraindications to PRB. PMID:23489636

Schmid, A; Jacobi, J; Kuefner, M A; Lell, M; Wuest, W; Mayer-Kadner, I; Benz, K; Schmid, M; Amann, K; Uder, M

2013-05-01

337

Technical note: facilitating laparoscopic liver biopsy by the use of a single-handed disposable core biopsy needle.  

PubMed

Despite the use of advanced radiological investigations, some liver lesions cannot be definitely diagnosed without a biopsy and histological examination. Laparoscopic Tru-Cut biopsy of the liver lesion is the preferred approach to achieve a good sample for histology. The mechanism of a Tru-Cut biopsy needle needs the use of both hands to load and fire the needle. This restricts the ability of the surgeon to direct the needle into the lesion utilising the laparoscopic ultrasound probe. We report a technique of laparoscopic liver biopsy using a disposable core biopsy instrument (BARD (R) disposable core biopsy needle) that can be used single-handedly. The needle can be positioned with laparoscopic graspers in order to reach posterior and superior lesions. This technique can easily be used in conjunction with laparoscopic ultrasound. PMID:23690654

Trochsler, M I; Ralph, Q; Bridgewater, F; Kanhere, H; Maddern, Guy J

2013-01-01

338

Ultrasound-guided fine-needle capillary biopsy of thyroid nodules, coupled with on-site cytologic review, improves results.  

PubMed

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy represents the most reliable test for cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, inadequate samples may occur leading to a repetition of the procedure with the consequence of patients' discomfort and poor compliance. In this paper, we present results from biopsy of thyroid nodules obtained by combining: (1) ultrasound (US) guidance, (2) no-aspiration technique, and (3) on-site review of specimens. A total of 465 nodules were biopsied in 307 patients. Solitary nodules and multinodular goiter were present in 36.8% and 63.1% of patients, respectively. After collection, each sample was smeared in duplicates, one of which was stained with hematoxylin and checked on-site by a cytopathologist. In cases of inadequate smears, biopsies were immediately repeated. All slides were then processed for final cytologic results, which were reported as benign in 427 nodules (91.8%), malignant in 12 nodules (2.5%), with follicular proliferation or suspicious for malignancy in 23 nodules (4.9%). Inadequate final cytology was reported in 3 nodules (0.6%). No statistically significant relationship was found between nodule size and adequacy of specimens. We conclude that the combination of US guidance, capillary collection with no-aspiration technique, and on-site review of slides, characterizes an advantageous method for thyroid nodule fine-needle biopsy. PMID:15186617

Ceresini, G; Corcione, L; Morganti, S; Milli, B; Bertone, L; Prampolini, R; Petrazzoli, S; Saccani, M; Ceda, G P; Valenti, G

2004-05-01

339

Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles  

SciTech Connect

A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

1984-03-01

340

THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

2013-07-10

341

Polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in the blood and biopsy fat specimens of a selected population of British Columbia (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty?five blood and biopsy fat samples were collected from donors with and without a Down's Syndrome child, and analyzed for 29 selected polychlorinated biphenyl isomers. Differences in polychlorinated biphenyl isomer levels in blood and adipose tissue of donors with or without a Down's Syndrome child were not statistically significant. Most polychlorinated biphenyl Isomers observed in blood were also detected in

J. Mes; L. Marchand; K. Karpinski

1989-01-01

342

Collection Mapping and Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

Murray, William; And Others

1985-01-01

343

Core needle biopsy versus fine needle aspiration biopsy: are there similar sampling and diagnostic issues?  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that in experienced hands fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is highly safe and effective for the evaluation of patients who have palpable breast lesions. In most cases, FNAB leads to an appropriate clinical or surgical management. FNAB can also be effectively used in evaluation of cystic lesions under ultrasound guidance. Other nonpalpable lesions can benefit from image-directed core needle biopsy (CNB). Overall, cost should influence the decision to use FNAB or CNB. FNAB may be the only affordable procedure in developing countries. Breast cancer affects significant numbers of women worldwide. Attempts should be made to take all the measures necessary to consider optimal approaches to breast health care for everyone regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or social status. PMID:16308086

Masood, Shahla

2005-12-01

344

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.

2013-06-01

345

Abandoned Rayrock uranium mill tailings in the Northwest Territories: environmental conditions and radiological impact.  

PubMed

Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken of the environment surrounding abandoned U mill tailings at Rayrock, Northwest Territories, Canada, to examine the extent of 226Ra and U contamination. Samples of ground water, surface water, and unconsolidated geological material from the Rayrock area were collected for chemical and radiochemical analyses. Results indicated that the surface waters contained levels of 226Ra as high as 20 Bq L-1, 210Pb as high as 1.1 Bq L-1, and ground water U as high as 2800 micrograms L-1. Lower levels of 226Ra, 210Pb, and U, 3.6 Bq L-1, 0.5 Bq L-1, and 4 micrograms L-1, respectively, were found in a small lake adjacent to the tailings area. Analysis of tailings and soil in the immediate vicinity indicates that the radionuclides and U are mobilized and can move within the tailings. Some of the mobilized radionuclides will be bound by the surrounding peat. The remainder may move to Lake Alpha in ground water. Surface water flow also transports some contaminants both in the water of Alpha Creek and by washing tailings into Lake Alpha. The potential annual external and internal dose equivalents to a hypothetical resident were calculated based on exposure from the abandoned U mill tailings, drinking water, and fish caught in the lakes in the vicinity of the tailings. While Alpha Creek and Lake Alpha water showed evidence of contamination, the rest of the water system and the fish were at natural background levels of radioactivity. PMID:1995512

Veska, E; Eaton, R S

1991-03-01

346

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a seven million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5?, giving a fraction of 4×10-5 events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K+??+ ? ?¯ decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P. S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J. L.

2005-11-01

347

Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the density of states (DOS) in monolayer and bilayer graphene in the presence of a random potential that breaks sublattice symmetries. While a uniform symmetry-breaking potential (SBP) opens a uniform gap, a random SBP also creates tails in the DOS. The latter can close the gap again, preventing the system from becoming an insulator. However, for a sufficiently large gap the tails contain localized states with nonzero DOS. These localized states allow the system to conduct at nonzero temperature via variable-range hopping. This result is in agreement with recent experimental observations in graphane by Elias et al (2009 Science 323 610).

Dóra, B.; Ziegler, K.

2009-09-01

348

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

2005-01-01

349

Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

2009-08-01

350

Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

2012-02-01

351

Repeat Prostate Biopsy Strategies after Initial Negative Biopsy: Meta-Regression Comparing Cancer Detection of Transperineal, Transrectal Saturation and MRI Guided Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is no consensus on how to investigate men with negative transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-B) but ongoing suspicion of cancer. Three strategies used are transperineal (TP-B), transrectal saturation (TS-B) and MRI-guided biopsy (MRI-B). We compared cancer yields of these strategies. Methods Papers were identified by search of Pubmed, Embase and Ovid Medline. Included studies investigated biopsy diagnostic yield in men with at least one negative TRUS-B and ongoing suspicion of prostate cancer. Data including age, PSA, number of previous biopsy episodes, number of cores at re-biopsy, cancer yield, and Gleason score of detected cancers were extracted. Meta-regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Results Forty-six studies were included; 12 of TS-B, 14 of TP-B, and 20 of MRI-B, representing 4,657 patients. Mean patient age, PSA and number of previous biopsy episodes were similar between the strategies. The mean number of biopsy cores obtained by TP-B and TS-B were greater than MRI-B. Cancer detection rates were 30·0%, 36·8%, and 37·6% for TS-B, TP-B, and MRI-B respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed that MRI-B had significantly higher cancer detection than TS-B. There were no significant differences however between MRI-B and TP-B, or TP-B and TS-B. In a sensitivity analysis incorporating number of previous biopsy episodes (36 studies) the difference between MRI-B and TP-B was not maintained resulting in no significant difference in cancer detection between the groups. There were no significant differences in median Gleason scores detected comparing the three strategies. Conclusions In the re-biopsy setting, it is unclear which strategy offers the highest cancer detection rate. MRI-B may potentially detect more prostate cancers than other modalities and can achieve this with fewer biopsy cores. However, well–designed prospective studies with standardised outcome measures are needed to accurately compare modalities and define an optimum re-biopsy approach.

Nelson, Adam W.; Harvey, Rebecca C.; Parker, Richard A.; Kastner, Christof; Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.

2013-01-01

352

Prostatic biopsy after irradiation therapy for prostatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

To determine the prognostic significance of a routine needle biopsy of the prostate performed six to thirty-six months after the completion of definitive radiotherapy, biopsy results were analyzed in 146 patients who had no evidence of disease at the time of biopsy and who received no other therapy before proved recurrence of the tumor. Patients were followed up a mean of 3.9 years after radioactive gold seed implantation and external beam irradiation. The total dose was 8,000 rad. Among 146 patients, 56 (38%) had one or more positive biopsy results within this time interval. The positive biopsy rate correlated with the clinical stage ranging from 17 per cent in Stage B1N to 59 per cent in Stage C1. The risk of developing local recurrence or distant metastases at any given time after irradiation therapy was markedly greater in those patients with a positive biopsy result (p less than 0.0005). Prostatic biopsy is an accurate means of measuring the success of radiotherapy. A positive postirradiation biopsy result carries grave prognostic implications for the patient and indicates that the treatment has failed.

Scardino, P.T.; Wheeler, T.M.

1985-02-01

353

Operative pancreatic biopsy: a survey of current practice.  

PubMed Central

The attitudes of surgeons working in Great Britain and Ireland towards pancreatic biopsy and the use of other preoperative investigations in cases of pancreatic disease are examined on the basis of replies to a postal questionnaire. The value, accuracy, and complications of pancreatic biopsy are discussed with reference to the surgical literature.

Reuben, A.

1978-01-01

354

Prostate Needle Biopsy: 12 vs. 18 Cores – Is It Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare the histological results of a prostate needle biopsy scheme of 12 and 18 cores used in 372 consecutive patients submitted to an early stage diagnosis programme for prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: From February 2002 to July 2003 a transperineal TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsy was performed in 372 patients aged

Pietro Pepe; Francesco Aragona

2005-01-01

355

Transbronchial Cryobiopsy: A New Tool for Lung Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specimens from transbronchial lung biopsies lack sufficient quality due to crush artifact and are generally too small for diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases. Flexible cryoprobes have been shown to be useful in therapeutic bronchoscopy. We introduce a novel technique for obtaining lung biopsies bronchoscopically, using a flexible cryoprobe. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show the feasibility

Alexander Babiak; Jürgen Hetzel; Ganesh Krishna; Peter Fritz; Peter Moeller; Tahsin Balli; Martin Hetzel

2009-01-01

356

Liver biopsy and prognosis in acute liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver biopsy was performed in 38 patients with fulminant hepatitis and coma and repeated in 22. Stereological estimation of hepatocyte volume was correlated with levels of clotting factors.Early liver biopsy allowed prognosis in 55% of the cases. All patients with a hepatocyte volume of 10% recovered consciousness (n = 9) or at least showed evidence of marked liver regeneration (n

J. Scotto; P. Opolon; J. Étévé; D. Vergoz; M. Thomas; J. Caroli

1973-01-01

357

Histologic diagnostic rate of cardiac sarcoidosis: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background An early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is important, particularly when considering the need for administering corticosteroid therapy. However, no reports are available on the success rate of diagnosis on the basis of biopsy findings in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. This study investigated the diagnostic success rate of histologic evaluation of endomyocardial biopsy specimens in patients with this disease. Methods

Akihisa Uemura; Shin-ichiro Morimoto; Shinya Hiramitsu; Yasuchika Kato; Teruo Ito; Hitoshi Hishida

1999-01-01

358

My approach to the interpretation of endometrial biopsies and curettings  

PubMed Central

A major proportion of the workload in many histopathology laboratories is accounted for by endometrial biopsies, either curettage specimens or outpatient biopsy specimens. The increasing use of pipelle and other methods of biopsy not necessitating general anaesthesia has resulted in greater numbers of specimens with scant tissue, resulting in problems in assessing adequacy and in interpreting artefactual changes, some of which appear more common with outpatient biopsies. In this review, the criteria for adequacy and common artefacts in endometrial biopsies, as well as the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in general, are discussed, concentrating on areas that cause problems for pathologists. An adequate clinical history, including knowledge of the age, menstrual history and menopausal status, and information on the use of exogenous hormones and tamoxifen, is necessary for the pathologist to critically evaluate endometrial biopsies. Topics such as endometritis, endometrial polyps, changes that are induced by hormones and tamoxifen within the endometrium, endometrial metaplasias and hyperplasias, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, histological types of endometrial carcinoma and grading of endometrial carcinomas are discussed with regard to endometrial biopsy specimens rather than hysterectomy specimens. The value of ancillary techniques, especially immunohistochemistry, is discussed where appropriate.

McCluggage, W G

2006-01-01

359

An improved technique for tail-cuff blood pressure measurements with dark-tailed mice.  

PubMed

Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to stop pulsed flow. Success in obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements in light-tailed strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) has been excellent. However, in our and others' experience, mice having highly pigmented tails (e.g., 129S6/SvEvTac) have yielded less consistent measurements. We report here that simple modifications to the channel containing the pulse detection sensor can greatly improve the pulse detection of dark-tailed mice. The first modification--lining the sensor channel with four layers of clear plastic wrap--increased the frequency of successful blood pressure measurements of 129S6/SvEvTac mice twofold and reduced variability by one-third. The second modification--lining the sides of the channel with reflective foil--also improved the success rate with dark-tailed mice. Mean blood pressures were unaffected by these modifications, which enhance detection of the pulse wave and likely will be helpful in diverse applications in which blood pressure is measured in rodent strains with pigmented tails. PMID:16138782

Hagaman, John R; John, Simon; Xu, Lonquan; Smithies, Oliver; Maeda, Nobuyo

2005-09-01

360

A new method of kidney biopsy using low dose CT-guidance with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun  

PubMed Central

Background To explore a new method of kidney biopsy with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose computed tomography (CT)-guidance and evaluate its accuracy, safety, and efficacy. Methods Sixty patients underwent renal biopsy under CT-guidance. They were randomly divided into two groups: group I, low dose CT-guided (120 kV and 25 or 50 mAs) and group II, standard dose CT-guided (120 kV and 250 mAs). For group I, the coaxial trocar was accurately placed adjacent to the renal capsule of the lower pole, the needle core was removed, and samples were obtained with a bard biopsy gun. For group II, the coaxial trocar was not used. Total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen, mean operation time, mean scanning time, and mean radiation dose were noted. Dose-length product (DLP) was used to calculate the radiation doses. After 24 hours of the biopsy, ultrasound was repeated to identify any subcapsular hematoma. Results Success rate of biopsy in group I was 100% while using low dose CT-guidance along with coaxial trocar renal. There was no statistic differences bewteen group I and II in the total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen and mean time of operation and CT scanning. The average DLP of group I was lower as compared to the value of group II (p <0.05). Conclusions Kidney biopsy using coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose CT was an accurate, simple and safe method for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. It can be used for repeat and multiple biopsies, particularly suitable for obese and renal atrophy patients in whom the kidneys are difficult to image.

2013-01-01

361

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

2012-04-10

362

CT-directed robotic biopsy testbed: motivation and concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a demonstration platform, we are developing a robotic biopsy testbed incorporating a mobile CT scanner, a small needle driver robot, and an optical localizer. This testbed will be used to compare robotically assisted biopsy to the current manual technique, and allow us to investigate software architectures for integrating multiple medical devices. This is a collaboration between engineers and physicians from three universities and a commercial vendor. In this paper we describe the CT-directed biopsy technique, review some other biopsy systems including passive and semi- autonomous devices, describe our testbed components, and present our software architecture. This testbed is a first step in developing the image-guided, robotically assisted, physician directed, biopsy systems of the future.

Cleary, Kevin R.; Stoianovici, Dan S.; Glossop, Neil D.; Gary, Kevin A.; Onda, Sumiyo; Cody, Richard; Lindisch, David; Stanimir, Alexandru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Patriciu, Alexandru; Watson, Vance; Levy, Elliot

2001-05-01

363

Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination  

SciTech Connect

The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

1984-08-01

364

Geochemical and microbial effects on the mobilization of arsenic in mine tailing soils.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination has become a serious environmental problem in many countries. We have performed batch-type leaching experiments on mine tailing soils collected from three abandoned mine areas in South Korea with the objective of evaluating the effect of indigenous bacterial activity on As mobilization. The analysis of physicochemical properties and mineralogical compositions of the samples indicated that the secondary minerals or phases formed as a result of the oxidation or alteration of primary minerals were associated with the labile and bioleachable fractions of As. Compared to simulated abiotic processes using sterilization, the indigenous bacteria activated using a carbon source were able to enhance the dissolution of As under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The bacterial dissolution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) was found to occur simultaneously with the dissolution of As, suggesting that the main bacterial mechanism was via the dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III), Mn(IV), and As(V). An anaerobic environment was more favorable for the prominent dissolution of As in the tailing soils. These results indicate that the mobilization of As can be enhanced in the oxygen-depleted part of the tailing dump, particularly with the infiltration of organic substrates. The difference in the degree of As lixiviation between the three tailing soils was found to be related to the bioavailability of As as well as the original biomass in the tailing soils. PMID:19412738

Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Soon-Oh

2010-02-01

365

Jay's Collectibles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

2011-01-01

366

Collective invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that many new production techniques have been developed by a process called 'collective invention'. When firms collectively invent, they make available to their competitors the results of new plant designs so that their competitors can incorporate extensions of those designs into new facilities they build. The paper analyses the implications of this behavior for the rate and

Robert C. Allen

1983-01-01

367

Collective Bargaining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter discusses litigation touching on collective bargaining issues. The chapter is organized to follow the collective bargaining process, from cases dealing with union organizing to cases involving arbitration. Issues covered also include determination of bargaining units, scope of bargaining, union security, and unfair labor practices in…

Zirkel, Perry A.

368

Effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

Riley, Donald R

1954-01-01

369

Rotary powered device for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy yields excellent specimens quickly and efficiently.  

PubMed

Recently, a new FDA-cleared battery powered bone marrow biopsy system was developed to allow operators access to the bone marrow space quickly and efficiently. A pre-clinical evaluation of the device (OnControl, Vidacare Corporation, San Antonio, TX, USA) on anesthetized pigs was conducted, in addition to a clinical evaluation in hematology clinic patients requiring a bone marrow biopsy. Twenty-six samples were collected from the swine model. No cellular artifact or thermal damage was reported in any of the samples obtained. For the clinical evaluation of the device, 16 patients were recruited. Mean time from needle contact with skin to needle removal was 38.5 +/- 13.94 seconds. No complications were reported. In this study, the manual and powered samples were equivalent in specimen quality. In the patients evaluated, the device was safe, easy to use and the mean procedural time was significantly faster than previously reported with a manual technique. PMID:20404008

Swords, Ronan T; Kelly, Kevin R; Cohen, Stephen C; Miller, Larry J; Philbeck, Thomas E; Hacker, Sander O; Spadaccini, Cathy J; Giles, Francis J; Brenner, Andrew J

2010-06-01

370

A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable, low coherence interferometry (LCI) based instrument for fine-needle aspiration biopsy guidance is presented. The instrument consists of a fiber-based low coherence interferometer, a data acquisition, processing and display unit, and a probe. The probe, consisting of a 250 ?m diameter single-mode optical fiber inserted within the bore of a fine needle, is used to illuminate tissue and collect light from tissue at the tip of the needle. Light returning out of the probe is detected by the LCI system, which is capable of measuring depth-resolved information (reflectivity, spectra, birefringence) with a spatial resolution of 10 ?m over a depth range of approximately 1.4 mm. The LCI based instrument can be used to guide the fine needle during biopsy procedures to potentially diagnose neoplasms, infections, inflammations, or infiltrations. The design and performance of the instrument, as well as preliminary measurements on excised breast tissue specimens, are presented in detail.

Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Bouma, Brett E.; Pitman, Martha B.; Goldberg, Brian; Bressner, Jason; Tearney, Guillermo J.

2005-06-01

371

Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures. The advantages include: minimal specimen handling; smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 {mu}m or greater); micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens; low cost; disposable; fabrication process which renders sterile parts; and ease of use. The cutter is a cheese-grater style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

1999-11-16

372

Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

373

Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia) and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface) and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman's triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT) scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas.

Kundu, Zile Singh

2014-01-01

374

Cost comparison between ultrasound-guided 14-g large core breast biopsy and open surgical biopsy: An analysis for Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine the budget impact of ultrasound-guided 14-g large core breast biopsy (US-guided LCBB) by comparing the costs of US-guided LCBB and open surgical biopsy (OSB); to calculate the cost savings attributable to US-guided LCBB; and to assess the frequency with which US-guided LCBB obviates the need for an OSB.

R. Gruber; E. Walter; T. H. Helbich

2010-01-01

375

Experiments on a tail-wheel shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O

1954-01-01

376

Investigations Relating to Fat-Tail Sheep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The only Fat-tail type of sheep known to be present in the U.S. is the Karakul. In 1979 a small number of Karakul sheep were obtained and brought to the experimental flock maintained at San Angelo, Texas. The animals were obtained from range flocks in New...

M. Shelton R. Lewis T. Willingham G. C. Smith J. W. Savell

1986-01-01

377

Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

1984-01-01

378

Factors Influencing Radon Attenuation by Tailing Covers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m exp 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers presen...

V. C. Rogers W. B. Silker

1981-01-01

379

VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2008-01-18

380

Tail-Wagging Event in Comet Austin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the morning of 21 May 1990, a sequence of images of Comet Austin was obtained in the light of H2O+. The filter was centered at 602.5 nm with FWHM of 5.0 nm. At least two waves were followed out through the main ion tail structure. During the course of ...

D. A. Klinglesmith M. B. Niedner R. J. Oliversen D. Westpfahl

1990-01-01

381

Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

382

The mine tailing accident in Aznalcollar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive amounts of acidic waters and mud (pH?3) containing toxic metals such as zinc, lead, arsenic, copper, antimony, cobalt, thallium, bismuth, cadmium, silver, mercury and selenium were released in the surroundings of Doñana Park as a consequence of the mine tailings spill accident in Aznalcollar (SW Spain). This introductory paper describes the main characteristics of Doñana Park, the mine activities

Joan O Grimalt; Miguel Ferrer; Enrique Macpherson

1999-01-01

383

The Mechanical Properties of Rat Tail Tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of wet rat tail tendon has been examined with respect to the parameters strain, rate of strain- ing, and temperature. It is found that this mechanical behavior is reproducible after resting tile tendon for a few minutes after each extension so long as the strain does not exceed about 4 per cent. If this strain

BERNARD J. RIGBY; OHN D. SPIKES; HENRY EYRING

1959-01-01

384

Constraining Dark Halo Potentials with Tidal Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive and extended dark halos can inhibit the formation of long tidal tails in galaxy collisions. We examine this effect using an extensive survey of simulations with different dark halo potentials to constrain halo properties of interacting galaxies. These constraints are compared to other observational limits and theoretical predictions of halo structure. The dark halos predicted by $\\\\Omega=1$ cosmological models

J. Dubinski; L. Hernquist; J. C. Mihos

1998-01-01

385

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

386

Radiological hazards of uranium mill tailings piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines reasons for the radiological health problems associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The increases of radioactivity in the general environment attributable to uranium mill tailings are small but never ending. Sources of radiation - mainly particulate matter and radon gas - are discussed. Management of the piles seems to provide the only viable

G. A. Watford; J. A. Jr. Wethington

1981-01-01

387

Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

2009-12-01

388

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  

PubMed

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

2009-06-01

389

Will the spectrum of lesions prompting a "B3" breast core biopsy increase the benign biopsy rate?  

PubMed Central

Aim: To audit the benign surgical biopsies in women screened, assessed, and referred by the Leeds/Wakefield Breast Screening Unit for the year 1999–2000 with a view to determining any association with a preoperative B3 core biopsy categorisation. Methods: The results of all preoperative diagnostic procedures in all patients who underwent surgical excision for a lesion proving benign in the year 1999–2000 were reviewed. Cases were categorised according to whether the preoperative fine needle aspirate cytology (FNAC) or core biopsy had been equivocal or of uncertain malignant potential (C3/B3), inadequate or unrepresentative (C1/B1), or benign (C2/B2). In those cases with a C3/B3 FNAC or core biopsy result, reasons for the uncertainty were determined by examination of the report and, where necessary, slides. In cases with C1/B1 or C2/B2 investigations and in those without a preoperative procedure, the reasons for surgical referral were determined from the screening records. Case records of all patients with a B3 core biopsy categorisation who subsequently proved to have malignancy were also reviewed. Results: Thirty six women had benign surgical biopsies in the 1999–2000 screening year. In 13 of the 36 patients, referral for diagnostic biopsy rested on radiological and/or pathological suspicion of radial scar. The core biopsy category was B3 in all but one, which was in the B1 category. In a further 10 patients, referral was based primarily on a pathological B3 categorisation. The reasons for this were as follows: papillary lesion (two), fibroepithelial lesion (two), atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation (two), stromal mucin (two), atypical lobular hyperplasia (one), and an unusual vascular lesion (one). Two cases with a C3 on FNAC also derived from papillary lesions. In the remaining nine patients, the radiological features were sufficiently suspicious to prompt referral in the presence of either inadequate/unrepresentative (C1/B1) or benign (B2) preoperative pathological findings. Two women had no preoperative needle biopsy. Conclusions: In 22 of 36 benign biopsies, the initial core biopsy categorisation was B3. According to the current system of core biopsy categorisation, a diversity of lesions must be designated as of “uncertain malignant potential” (B3) because the technique provides insufficient tissue for full histological assessment. The use of this category may increase the number of benign biopsies if all such cases are referred for surgery. An increase in the benign biopsy rate may be averted if larger amounts of tissue can be obtained using newer vacuum assisted techniques such as the Mammotome.

Carder, P J; Liston, J C

2003-01-01

390

Hydrologic Considerations for Rock RIPRAP Protection of Uranium Tailings Impoundments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting an in-depth study of the application of rock riprap for the long-term protection of uranium tailings impoundments. Decommissioned tailings sites at Grand Junction and Slickrock, Colorado were selected to review t...

W. H. Walters R. L. Skaggs

1984-01-01

391

Radiological Impact of Uranium Tailings and Alternatives for Their Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uncontrolled tailings piles are mobile sources of fugitive dust that may produce a practically uncleanable adjacent environment. A practical procedure for managing solid tailings is addition of surface moisture, mechanical and gravitational separation of ...

M. H. Momeni W. E. Kisieleski S. Tyler A. Zielen Y. Yuan

1979-01-01

392

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

393

Tail Approximation for Credit Risk Portfolios With Heavy-Tailed Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a portfolio credit risk model in the spirit of CreditMetrics (15). The multivariate normally distributed underlying risk factors in that model are replaced by more general multivariate elliptical factors with heavy-tailed marginals, intro- ducing tail-dependence. We consider a full-scale version of the model, i.e. we incor- porate not only the default risk, but also rating migrations, credit spread

Krassimir Kostadinov

394

Waiting-time tail probabilities in queues with long-tail service-time distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the standard GI\\/G\\/1 queue with unlimited waiting room and the first-in first-outservice discipline. We investigate the steady-state waiting-time tail probabilities P(W > x) whenthe service-time distribution has a long-tail distribution, i.e., when the service-time distributionfails to have a finite moment generating function. We have developed algorithms for computingthe waiting-time distribution by Laplace transform inversion when the Laplace transforms

Joseph Abate; Gagan L. Choudhury; Ward Whitt

1994-01-01

395

Micrometeorite Collecting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

1974-01-01

396

Therapeutic impact of percutaneous spinal biopsy in spinal infection  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic impact of percutaneous spinal biopsy in patients with suspected spinal infection. Design and patients: A review of the case notes and imaging features of 36 patients who underwent percutaneous spinal biopsy was performed. From this group 20 patients with a prebiopsy diagnosis of spinal osteomyelitis were identified. Management before biopsy was noted including the use of antimicrobial therapy. The results of the histology and microbiology were noted along with the subsequent diagnosis and management. Results: Eight of the 20 patients (40%) had received antibiotics before the biopsy. An organism was isolated in 8/20 cases (40%). Of the eight patients on antibiotics, two grew an organism (25%), including one case of candida in a patient receiving flucloxacillin. Out of 12 patients not on antibiotics there were six cases where an organism was isolated (50%). The result of the biopsy led to a change in management in seven of the 20 patients (35%). Conclusions: Many clinicians are treating spinal osteomyelitis empirically with antibiotics before biopsy, but this reduces the chance of isolating an organism and determining antibiotic sensitivity. Despite this biopsy led to a change in management in 35% of cases.

Rankine, J; Barron, D; Robinson, P; Millner, P; Dickson, R

2004-01-01

397

Current Concepts in the Biopsy of Musculoskeletal Tumors  

PubMed Central

In the management of bone and soft tissue tumors, accurate diagnosis, using a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histological data, is critical to optimize outcome. On occasion, diagnosis can be made by careful history, physical examination, and images alone. However, the ultimate diagnosis usually depends on histologic analysis by an experienced pathologist. Biopsy is a very important and complex surgery in the staging process. It must be done carefully, so as not to adversely affect the outcome. Technical considerations include proper location and orientation of the biopsy incision and meticulous hemostasis. It is necessary to obtain tissue for a histological diagnosis without spreading the tumor and so compromise the treatment. Furthermore, the surgeon does not open compartmental barriers, anatomic planes, joint space, and tissue area around neurovascular bundles. Nevertheless, avoid producing a hematoma. Biopsy should be carefully planned according to the site and definitive surgery and should be performed by an orthopedic surgeon with an experience in musculoskeletal oncology who will perform the definitive surgery. Improperly done, it can complicate patient care and sometimes even eliminate treatment options. Different biopsy techniques are suitable: fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, and incisional biopsy. The choice of biopsy depends on the size, the location of the lesion, and the experience of the pathologist.

Traina, Francesco; Calamelli, Carlotta; Faldini, Cesare

2013-01-01

398

Wound-healing complications following biopsy of the irradiated breast.  

PubMed

A retrospective review evaluated results of 38 posttreatment biopsies (with resulting benign pathologic findings) that were performed on 32 irradiated breasts or axillae in 31 of 232 patients who underwent conservation treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Postbiopsy wound-healing complications developed in eight (30%) of 27 patients who were undergoing open biopsies but in none of 11 who underwent only needle biopsies. Wound-healing complications occurred in two of five patients who underwent incisional skin biopsy, three of five who underwent mammographic needle-localized excisional biopsy, and three of 17 who underwent other types of open biopsies. Frequency of wound-healing complications following open biopsy was not related to patient age, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, or use of chemotherapy. Wound-healing complications were related to breast size, developing in four (67%) of six patients with large breasts (brassiere cup size D or DD) as compared with that in only four (19%) of 21 patients with smaller breasts. Significant worsening of cosmetic breast retraction was frequently associated with wound-healing complications, especially wounds that took more than 1 month to heal. PMID:1550480

Pezner, R D; Lorant, J A; Terz, J; Ben-Ezra, J; Odom-Maryon, T; Luk, K H

1992-03-01

399

Retroperitoneal hemorrhage associated with bone marrow trephine biopsy  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 19 Final Diagnosis: Hyperleukocytosis • thrombocytosis Symptoms: Hyperleukocytosis • retroperitoneal hemorrhage • thrombocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bone marrow trephine biopsy Specialty: Hematology • Radiology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Bone marrow (BM) trephine biopsy is generally a safe procedure, but adverse events such as retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) may occur. We report 3 cases of this complication. Case Report: A 19-year-old male with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy underwent BM trephine biopsy to confirm relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two hours later, he developed severe hypotension and a CT scan revealed a massive RPH, and was treated conservatively. The RPH recurred 2 weeks after chemotherapy and was successfully treated with gel foam embolization. A 55-year-old male with coagulopathy underwent BM trephine biopsy for hyperleukocytosis and thrombocytosis. He developed a large RPH preceded by left lumbar dermatome sensory neuropathy. He was treated conservatively. A 56-year-old overweight woman on aspirin underwent BM trephine biopsy for polycythemia. Twelve hours later she developed severe abdominal pain with hypotension. A CT scan showed a massive RPH and secondary hemothorax. She was treated conservatively and the RPH resolved after several months. Conclusions: We and others showed that myeloproliferative neoplasm, quantitative or qualitative platelet abnormalities, aspirin, coagulopathy, and obesity are associated with development of RPH following BM trephine biopsy. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial. Correction of coagulopathy and cessation of anti-platelet treatment prior to biopsy can prevent this serious complication.

Wan Jamaludin, Wan Fariza; Mohamed Mukari, Shahizon Azura; Abdul Wahid, S. Fadilah

2013-01-01

400

Spoon Collective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spoon Collective houses descriptive information, discussion archives, paper archives, and links to Websites for three dozen listservs related to the discussion of philosophy, sociology, political science, and literary theory. Some of the topics for the lists include Postcolonialism, Poststructuralism, Feminism, Marxism, and Cultural Studies. Thirteen of the lists are dedicated to the work of influential thinkers, including Jean Baudrillard, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger. All content at the Spoon Collective can be searched aggregately.

401

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ?24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy.

Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nahrig, Jorg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Grone, Jorn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jorg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grutzmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

2007-01-01

402

Better Visualization of Transbronchial Biopsy Using CT Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF) provides the capability for continuous CT imaging and has been increasingly used in interventional procedures. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of CTF in the monitoring of transbronchial biopsy procedures.Methods: We evaluated nine patients in whom yield of 'conventional' transbronchial biopsies had failed. CTF was performed on a Somatom Plus 4 Power scanner (CARE Vision CT, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using 120 kV, 50 mA at a frame rate of eight images per second on a matrix of 256 x 256. Image reconstruction was based on a partial scan with an acquisition time of 0.5 sec. The maximal time without interruption was 79 sec; after stopping for a few seconds a new period of 79 sec was available. The number of biopsies, procedure times, applied dose, and histologic results were documented.Results: With CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy, the yield of the biopsies was improved. In seven patients biopsy yielded bronchial cancer; in one patient histopathologic examination showed tuberculosis. Only in one patient did CTF-guided transbronchial biopsy fail. The mean number of biopsies was four in each patient. Mean fluoroscopy time was 165 {+-} 92 sec (range 111-272 sec) and mean procedure time was 800 {+-} 302 sec (range 480-1081 sec). The applied dose ranged between 500 and 1224 mSv; the mean applied dose was 743 {+-} 414 mSv. There were no fatal complications.Conclusion: Computed tomography fluoroscopy appears to facilitate visualization of transbronchial biopsy procedures, with the drawback of increased radiation exposure. To compare the 'conventional' method versus CTF a randomized prospective study is necessary.

Kickuth, Ralph; Kirchner, Johannes; Laufer, Ulf [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Sanner, Bernd; Haske, Michael [Department of Medicine, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany); Liermann, Dieter [Department of Radiology, Marienhospital Herne, University of Bochum, Hoelkeskampring 40, D-44625 Herne (Germany)

2000-09-15

403

Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

Gurel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: kamilgurel@hotmail.com; Karabay, Oguz [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Turkey); Gurel, Safiye [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Hildebolt, Charles [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

2008-01-15

404

Improved Tail-Current Representation in the Rice Field Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rice Field Model (RFM) represents the magnetic field of the steady-state open magnetosphere. In order to improve the mapping of field lines in the near Earth region, the simple Harris-sheet field representing the cross-tail current is replaced near the Earth by a more flexible tail current model developed by Hilmer and Voigt In the far-tail region the tail current

S. Naehr; F. R. Toffoletto

2001-01-01

405

Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.  

PubMed

In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

2012-01-12

406

Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques.Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereasBacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the

Christine L. Miller; Edward R. Landa; David M. Updegraff

1987-01-01

407

True vestigeal tail with lumbosacral meningomyelocoel: a rare case report.  

PubMed

A human tail is a rare congenital anomaly with a prominent lesion from the lumbosacro-coccygeal region. It is usually classified either as a true tail or as a pseudo-tail. All the lumbosacro-coccygeal protrusions without the evidence of mesenchymal tissue are classified as pseudo-tail. The association of this rare vestigial entity along with meningomyelocele is rarer still. PMID:20868247

Akhil, Prakash; Ashutosh, Niranjan; Fais, Fiages; Shashank, Mishra; Sanjay, Pandey; Singhal, B M; Attri, P C; Arvind, Gupta

2010-10-01

408

Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ˜1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ˜10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 ?m size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (?-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni ?-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ˜1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ˜3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom

2012-11-01

409

Water-quality data for Orwell reservoir and the Otter Tail River near Fergus Falls, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality data were collected in Minnesota at five sites on Orwell Reservoir and two sites on the Otter Tail River, at the inflow and outflow points of the reservoir. The data, collected from April 1985 to July 1986, consist mainly of streamflow and nutrient concentrations at the river sites and nutrient concentrations, alkalinity, Secchi-disk transparency, phytoplankton counts, chlorophyll concentrations and profiles of specific conductance, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen at the reservoir sites. Additional data collected at the outflow site include alkalinity and concentrations of major ions and organic carbon. (USGS)

Have, M. R.; Tornes, L. H.

1987-01-01

410

The precision of three enamel biopsy methods for fluoride determination.  

PubMed

3 different enamel biopsy methods were tested on 2 maxillary permanent incisors on each of 90 schoolchildren. In methods A and B the round biopsy field was bordered by copalite varnish, while method C utilized a scotch tape border. The biopsy itself resulted from etching the enamel surface with 2N perchloric acid for 7 sec for method A, and 14 sec for methods B and C. Flouride was measured with the fluoride activity electrode. The doubled etching time caused only a 30 to 40% increase of enamel removal. Method C showed the best reproducibility. PMID:1225873

Spörri, S; Belser, U; Mühlemann, H R

1975-10-01

411

Limitations of a Contemporary Prostate Biopsy: The Blind March Forward  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to reduce morbidity, focal targeted therapies and active surveillance have become increasingly popular treatment choices for localized prostate cancer. However, these modalities rely heavily on accurate and reliable tumor localization information provided by a prostate biopsy. Evidence that our contemporary biopsy techniques can do little more than detect some prostate cancers is notably lacking. What is meant by the accuracy and reliability of a prostate biopsy and why they are such important concepts to focal therapy and active surveillance are discussed.

Wei, John T.

2010-01-01

412

Fulminant sepsis after liver biopsy: A long forgotten complication?  

PubMed Central

We report on a 74-year-old patient with recurrent cholangitis and a large juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. Despite drainage of the common bile duct by an endoscopically placed stent, the elevated liver enzymes normalized only partially. To rule out other possible causes of liver injury, a percutaneous liver biopsy was done. After the liver biopsy the patient developed fulminant septic shock and died within 24 h. We discuss the possible causes of the septic shock following percutaneous liver biopsy in our patient and give a concise overview of the literature.

Claudi, Corinna; Henschel, Martin; Vogel, Jurgen; Schepke, Michael; Biecker, Erwin

2013-01-01

413

[Significance of needle biopsy for surgical dermatologic intervention].  

PubMed

Out of 890 fine needle aspiration biopsies performed at the Fachklinik Hornheide (195 in 1984, 277 in 1985, and 418 in the first half of 1986), we present 8 typical cases in order to demonstrate that needle biopsy is a valuable morphological technique, which allows a quick and reliable diagnosis of tumors. Moreover, it hardly affects the patient, does not destroy the prospective operation field, allows difficult bioptic approaches, and promotes the histological epicrisis. Needle biopsy is also useful in therapy control and follow-up examinations of tumors. PMID:1963247

von Gizycki-Nienhaus, B

1990-10-01

414

Automated Analysis of PIN-4 Stained Prostate Needle Biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate Needle biopsies are stained with the PIN-4 marker cocktail to help the pathologist distinguish between HGPIN and adenocarcinoma. The correct interpretation of multiple IHC markers can be challenging. Therefore we propose the use of computer aided diagnosis algorithms for the identification and classification of glands in a whole slide image of prostate needle biopsy. The paper presents the different issues related to the automated analysis of prostate needle biopsies and the approach taken by BioImagene in its first generation algorithms.

Sabata, Bikash; Babenko, Boris; Monroe, Robert; Srinivas, Chukka

415

Breast Biopsy: A Study of Cost-effectiveness  

PubMed Central

The entry of third party payors into the field of health care has brought about increasing awareness of cost-effectiveness. Since breast biopsy is among the most commonly performed operations and open to criticism, the purpose of this report is to provide data relative to cost-effectiveness of breast biopsies at the University of New Mexico and to compare such data with 1) cost-effectiveness of mammographic screening for breast cancer, and 2) cost-effectiveness of judicious use of mammography in patients with breast complaints. From 1972 through 1978, 1064 patients were seen because of complaints relative to the breasts and 516 breast biopsies were done. Seventy patients were found to have cancer (14% of the breast biopsies). Using the October 1978 through March 1979 cost schedules for hospital and professional fees, the average cost of a breast biopsy was $1,216.00 for general anesthesia, $751.00 for assisted local anesthesia, and $520.00 for local anesthesia. The major differences lay in 1) anesthesia and operating room average charges of $618.00 for general anesthesia, $451.00 for assisted local anesthesia, and $260.00 for local anesthesia; 2) room charge of $174.00 for general anesthesia; and 3) laboratory and x-ray charges of $256.00 for general anesthesia, $120.00 for assisted local anesthesia, and $91.00 for local anesthesia. In 1978 64% of breast biopsies were done under local anesthesia as opposed to 1972 when 22% were done under local anesthesia. For the 516 breast biopsies, 47% were done under local anesthesia, 4% under assisted local anesthesia and 49% under general anesthesia. The calculated overall cost of the 516 breast biopsies was $448,794.00 or $6411.00 per cancer. Comparing our data to those of Lewis at our 1978-79 cost schedules and assuming our anesthetic mix in his patients, his cost per cancer identified was $3973.00 in patients with breast complaints. His cost figure is considerably lower than ours because of a higher yield of cancer (41%). Making the same assumptions for cost and anesthetic mix, the cost per biopsy proved cancer diagnosed in mammographic screening for breast cancer is $11,175.00 (Feig), and $24,482 (Lewis). Thus, 1) use of local anesthesia rather than general anesthesia reduces cost of breast biopsies by $694.00 per breast biopsy, 2) greater precision in selection of patients for breast biopsies is mandatory to reduce cost of diagnosis of cancer, 3) present state of the surgical art is more cost-effective than is screening for breast cancer.

Doberneck, Raymond C.

1980-01-01

416

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481 Section...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is...

2009-01-01

417

14 CFR 25.481 - Tail-down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-down landing conditions. 25.481 Section...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. (a) In the tail-down attitude, the airplane is...

2010-01-01

418

Environmental desulphurization of four Canadian mine tailings using froth flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental desulphurization is an attractive alternative for management of acid generating tailings. This process placed at the end of the primary process treatment circuit will reduce a large amount of the problematic tailings by concentrating the sulphide fraction. To produce desulphurized tailings, non-selective froth flotation is the most adapted method. The desulphurization level is fixed by the sulphide content of

M Benzaazoua; B Bussière; M Kongolo; J McLaughlin; P Marion

2000-01-01

419

Long term fate of uranium tailings in mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common passive controls for uranium tailings include constructing thick earthen covers, protected by rock, over the waste. Earthen covers effectively limit dust and radon emissions and gamma radiation and, in conjunction with the rock covers, help stabilizing the tailings to prevent dispersion of the tailings through erosion or intrusion. In some cases, piles may be moved to safer locations (e.g.

Broder J. Merkel

420

The Action of Waving Cylindrical Tails in Propelling Microscopic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of the tail of a spermatozoon is discussed from the hydrodynamical point of view. The tail is assumed to be a flexible cylinder which is distorted by waves of lateral displacement propagated along its length. The resulting stress and motion in the surrounding fluid is analyzed mathematically. Waves propagated backwards along the tail give rise to a forward

Geoffrey Taylor

1952-01-01

421

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

422

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available

1994-09-01

423

Estimation of first and second order parameters in heavy tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any distribution in the positive axis can be used as the associated model of severity for individual claims. However, if we consider heavy tailed distributions, the large claims have great influence for the total claim amount. One parameter that is used to have some insight of the weight of the tail is the well- known tail index, ?, which plays

M. I. Fraga Alves

424

Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments.

Guilherme Lu??s Menegassi Leoni; Márcio de Souza Soares Almeida; Horst Monken Fernandes

2004-01-01

425

Processes for extracting radium from uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for the extraction of radium from uranium mill tailings solids including the steps of contacting the tailings with a liquid leaching agent, leaching the tailings therewith and subsequently separating the leachate liquid and the leached solids. The improvement described here is wherein the leaching agent comprises: (a) a complexing agent in an amount of from

I. Nirdosh; M. H. Baird; S. V. Muthuswami

1987-01-01

426

Decommissioning of Uranium mill tailings ponds at WISMUT (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 577 ha of Uranium mill tailings ponds containing approx. 154 Mio. m3 of mill tailings were left as part of the legacy of the uranium mining and milling in Eastern Germany. The decommissioning of these tailings ponds belongs to the most challenging tasks of the entire Wismut remediation project. The remediation activities started in 1990 with defence measures against

Albrecht Neudert; Ulf Barnekow

427

Experimental verification of a simplified vee-tail theory and analysis of available data on complete models with vee tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis has been made of available data on vee tail surfaces. Previously published theoretical studies of vee tails have been extended to include the control effectiveness and control forces in addition to the stability. Tests of two isolated tail surfaces with various amounts of dihedral provided a check of the theory. Methods for designing vee tails were also developed and are given in the present paper.

Purser, Paul E; Campbell, John P

1945-01-01

428

Carnival Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Come to the carnival" is a common refrain in New Orleans during the month of February, and this intoxicating collection from Tulane University pays homage to this wonderful cultural tradition. The collection includes over 1,500 float designs from the "Golden Age" of carnival by notable designers such as Jennie Wilde, B.A. Wikstrom, and Charles Briton. Support for the project comes from the late Charles L. "Pie" Dufour who left funds to continue the preservation of these rare and unique ephemeral materials. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they may wish to start with fanciful designs like the 1870 "Twelfth Night Revelers" float or the 1891 "Atlanteans" design. Also, visitors can select the work of a particular float designer or krewe of note. Also, visitors can search the entire collection by keyword.

2012-02-24

429

Blood Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

1999-01-01

430

Structures and Interaction Analyses of Integrin ?M?2 Cytoplasmic Tails*  

PubMed Central

Integrins are heterodimeric (? and ? subunits) signal transducer proteins involved in cell adhesions and migrations. The cytosolic tails of integrins are essential for transmitting bidirectional signaling and also implicated in maintaining the resting states of the receptors. In addition, cytosolic tails of integrins often undergo post-translation modifications like phosphorylation. However, the consequences of phosphorylation on the structures and interactions are not clear. The leukocyte-specific integrin ?M?2 is essential for myeloid cell adhesion, phagocytosis, and degranulation. In this work, we determined solution structures of the myristoylated cytosolic tail of ?M and a Ser phosphorylated variant in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the interactions between non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail were investigated by NMR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The three-dimensional structures of the 24-residue cytosolic tail of ?M or phosphorylated ?M are characterized by an N-terminal amphipathic helix and a loop at the C terminus. The residues at the loop are involved in packing interactions with the hydrophobic face of the helix. 15N-1H heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified residues of ?M and ?2 tails that may be involved in the formation of a tail-tail heterocomplex. We further examined interactions between myristoylated ?2 tail in dodecylphosphocholine micelles with dansylated ?M tail peptides by FRET. These studies revealed enhanced interactions between ?M or phosphorylated ?M tails with ?2 tail with Kd values ?5.2 ± 0.6 and ?4.4 ± 0.7 ?m, respectively. Docked structures of tail-tail complexes delineated that the ?M/?2 interface at the cytosolic region could be sustained by a network of polar interactions, ionic interactions, and/or hydrogen bonds.

Chua, Geok-Lin; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Amalraj, Monalisa; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

2011-01-01

431

Gastric Cancer-Specific Protein Profile Identified Using Endoscopic Biopsy Samples via MALDI Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

To date, proteomic analyses on gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples have been performed using surgical specimens only, which are obtained after a diagnosis is made. To determine if a proteomic signature obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples could be found to assist with diagnosis, frozen endoscopic biopsy samples collected from 63 gastric cancer patients and 43 healthy volunteers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. A statistical classification model was developed to distinguish tumor from normal tissues using half the samples and validated with the other half. A protein profile was discovered consisting of 73 signals that could classify 32 cancer and 22 normal samples in the validation set with high predictive values (positive and negative predictive values for cancer, 96.8% and 91.3%; sensitivity, 93.8%; specificity, 95.5%). Signals overexpressed in tumors were identified as ?-defensin-1, ?-defensin-2, calgranulin A, and calgranulin B. A protein profile was also found to distinguish pathologic stage Ia (pT1N0M0) samples (n = 10) from more advanced stage (Ib or higher) tumors (n = 48). Thus, protein profiles obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples may be useful in assisting with the diagnosis of gastric cancer and, possibly, in identifying early stage disease.

Kim, Hark Kyun; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kim, Hee Sung; Oshima, Akira; Chertov, Oleg; Colantonio, Simona; Fisher, Robert J.; Allen, Jamie L.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Green, Jeffrey E.

2012-01-01

432

Intrinsic gene expression subsets of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis are stable in serial skin biopsies  

PubMed Central

Skin biopsy gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray from 13 dSSc patients enrolled in an open label study of rituximab, 9 dSSc patients not treated with rituximab, and 9 healthy controls. These data recapitulate the patient ‘intrinsic’ gene expression subsets described previously including proliferation, inflammatory, and normal-like groups. Serial skin biopsies showed consistent and non-progressing gene expression over time, and importantly, the patients in the inflammatory subset do not move to the fibroproliferative subset, and vice versa. We were unable to detect significant differences in gene expression before and after rituximab treatment, consistent with an apparent lack of clinical response. Serial biopsies from each patient stayed within the same gene expression subset regardless of treatment regimen or the time point at which they were taken. Collectively, these data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of SSc and demonstrate that the intrinsic subsets are an inherent, reproducible and stable feature of the disease that is independent of disease duration. Moreover, these data have fundamental importance for the future development of personalized therapy for SSc; drugs targeting inflammation are likely to benefit those patients with an inflammatory signature, whereas drugs targeting fibrosis are likely to benefit those with a fibroproliferative signature.

Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Lemaire, Raphael; Francis, Ian; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Lafyatis, Robert; Whitfield, Michael L.

2012-01-01

433

Validation of Statistical Predictive Models Meant to Select Melanoma Patients for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction To identify melanoma patients at sufficiently low risk of nodal metastases who could avoid SLN biopsy (SLNB). Several statistical models have been proposed based upon patient/tumor characteristics, including logistic regression, classification trees, random forests and support vector machines. We sought to validate recently published models meant to predict sentinel node status. Methods We queried our comprehensive, prospectively-collected melanoma database for consecutive melanoma patients undergoing SLNB. Prediction values were estimated based upon 4 published models, calculating the same reported metrics: negative predictive value (NPV), rate of negative predictions (RNP), and false negative rate (FNR). Results Logistic regression performed comparably with our data when considering NPV (89.4% vs. 93.6%); however the model’s specificity was not high enough to significantly reduce the rate of biopsies (SLN reduction rate of 2.9%). When applied to our data, the classification tree produced NPV and reduction in biopsies rates that were lower 87.7% vs. 94.1% and 29.8% vs. 14.3%, respectively. Two published models could not be applied to our data due to model complexity and the use of proprietary software. Conclusions Published models meant to reduce the SLNB rate among patients with melanoma either underperformed when applied to our larger dataset, or could not be validated. Differences in selection criteria and histopathologic interpretation likely resulted in underperformance. Development of statistical predictive models must be created in a clinically applicable manner to allow for both validation and ultimately clinical utility.

Sabel, Michael S.; Rice, John D.; Griffith, Kent A.; Lowe, Lori; Wong, Sandra L.; Chang, Alfred E.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.

2013-01-01

434

Acute urinary retention after transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeUrinary retention occurs in 5%–36% of patients with prostate cancer after implantation of radioactive seeds for brachytherapy. We used transperineal biopsy as a model to determine the influence of needle trauma on urinary retention.

Steven J Buskirk; David M Pinkstaff; Steven P Petrou; Michael J Wehle; Gregory A Broderick; Paul R Young; Stephen D Weigand; Peter C O'Brien; Todd C Igel

2004-01-01

435

Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's  

MedlinePLUS

... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - ... for example, in the nerve cells of a salivary gland below the floor of the mouth, called the ...

436

Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis: An Autopsy and Liver Biopsy Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytomegalovirus hepatitis was studied in 13 patients; 11 had died during disseminated cytomegalovirus infection and two had liver biopsies for suspected hepatitis. Histologically, inclusions were present in liver cells of all three lobular zones and less ...

A. J. Strano D. E. Henson P. M. Grimley

1974-01-01

437

The effect of biting tails and having tails bitten in pigs.  

PubMed

Tail-biting is a behavioral abnormality which compromises the welfare of pigs. The goal of this study was to characterize the tail-biting phenotype using behavior and measures of heart-rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) in pigs. Thirty pigs were categorized as tail-biters (n=10), tail-bite victims (n=10), and control pigs (n=10) based on the frequency of tail-biting behavior that they performed or received at the farm. The animals' behavioral responses were registered at the experimental facilities for 10 min during test sessions whereas physiological responses were registered for 10 min prior to (basal) and during sessions when subjected to a novel object test (NOT) and to a novel arena test (NAT). Phenotypes differed in most behaviors during the two tests and in the NOT their physiological responses suggested different regulation of vagal tone. Biters had a reduction from baseline values to values during testing for the root mean square of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD) and the high-frequency band (HF) compared to victims, whose RMSSD and HF increased from baseline to test values. In the low-frequency band (LF), an increase was shown in biters and controls while a decrease in victims. LF was found to be strongly positively correlated with HF and RMSSD in biters. During baseline, victims tended to have lower HF and significantly higher power of the low-frequency component divided by power of the high-frequency band (LF:HF ratio) compared to biters and controls. The activity of the autonomic nervous system, especially the suppression of parasympathetic tone, indicated that both victims and biters may have a dysfunctional autonomic regulation which may indicate psychological disturbance. We provide the first documentation of phenotypic differences between pigs that have performed tail-biting, have been victimized, or have not been involved in tail biting using HRV data. PMID:22579933

Zupan, Manja; Janczak, Andrew M; Framstad, Tore; Zanella, Adroaldo J

2012-07-16

438

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D. P.; Barr, D. J.; Bochsler, P. N.; Hall, S. M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T. R.; Samuel, M. D.

2008-01-01

439

PERCUTANEOUS RENAL BIOPSY: OUTPATIENT OBSERVATION WITHOUT HOSPITALIZATION IS SAFE  

PubMed Central

Backgroundy Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is a safe and valuable procedure in the diagnosis of renal disease. The optimal duration of observation after a PRB has not been established, and patients are frequently hospitalized for overnight observation. We evaluated prospectively the safety of an outpatient PRB protocol at our institution. Methods During a 20-month period 100 patients underwent PRB using a standardized outpatient protocol. The biopsy was performed by 8 am by Nephrology Fellows under direct faculty supervision. All biopsies were done under real-time ultrasound with a 16-gauge spring-loaded biopsy gun, and followed immediately by color Doppler ultrasound to exclude active bleeding. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored frequently. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured pre-biopsy, and 4, and 8 hours post-biopsy. If there were no complications, the patients were discharged 9 to 10 hours after the procedure. Results The patient demographics were as follow: 55% African Americans; 60% female; 17% diabetic; 65% hypertensive; mean BMI 29.8±7 (range, 17 to 51). The depth of the kidney from the skin was 6.8±2.3 cm (range, 3 to 13.5 cm). 53 patients required only 1 biopsy pass and 38 needed 2 passes, 5 needed 3 passes and 4 needed 4 passes, with 12.7±9.7 glomeruli obtained per patient. No major complications were encountered. A small perinephric hematoma (< 2×2 cm) was observed post-biopsy in 13 patients (13%). There was no need for vascular intervention or transfusion in any patient. Four patients (4%) were hospitalized for overnight observation due to a decrease in their hematocrit (> 4 from baseline), but none required a transfusion or intervention. No patient required subsequent hospitalization due to late biopsy-related complications. Conclusions Outpatient, real-time, ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is safe and effective, and minimizes the need for post-biopsy hospitalization. Outpatient PRB can result in significant cost savings without exposing the patients to increased risk of complications.