Sample records for tail biopsy collection

  1. Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Wild; Terry R. Spraker; Christina J. Sigurdson; Katherine I. O'Rourke; Michael W. Miller

    The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of

  2. Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tissue sampling ... biopsy is called a percutaneous biopsy. It removes tissue using a hollow tube called a syringe. The needle is passed several times through the tissue being examined. The surgeon uses the needle to ...

  3. Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

  4. Biopsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than needles typically used to draw blood. A core needle, also called an automatic, spring-loaded needle, ... withdraw fluid or clusters of cells. In a core needle biopsy , the automated mechanism is activated, moving ...

  5. Emergent Data-Networks from Long-Tail Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Hedstrom, M.; Myers, J. D.; Plale, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of scientific data coming from individuals and small research group activities, known as long-tail data, with the existing resources elucidates useful scientific knowledge. In general, long-tail data are irreplaceable, expensive to reproduce, infrequently reused, follow no predefined data model, and they are often bounded in different information systems. The contextual relationships across the many attributes among such data in a data collection are herewith defined as data-network. These relationships have the potential to provide deep insights for the scientific challenges that require multidisciplinary interaction by identifying a new data object in the broader context of other data objects, and characterizing its spatial and temporal dependencies with others. Despite the advancement that has been achieved in various geoscience information models, it is not always straightforward to identify and characterize the contextual relationships among long-tail data because information models focus on profiling data attributes more than exploring data tie-ins. To address this need, we have designed the Long Tail Data Networks (LTDN) engine, which depends on a context-based approach to analyze the data attributes, predict data contextual relationships, and publish these relationships as a RDF graph. The engine groups data using their geographic location in spatial collections, and applies binary logic predicates to analyze the spatial, temporal, and variable attributes associated with data entities of each spatial collection to infer their relationships. Here we present the design of the LTDN engine and demonstrate its application for predicting the latent connectivity among long-tail data collections. To demonstrate the capabilities of the engine, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that supports long-tail data curation and preservation, and show how relationships among datasets can be extracted. Results of this work demonstrates the capabilities of LTDN engine to predict the latent connectivity among long-tail geoscience data across their domain boundaries, as well as temporal and spatial windows to establish dynamic Web-based data-networks in the Semantic Web context.

  6. Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUROUIL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins SOPHIE QUÉROUIL 1,2,* , LUÍS sex ratio has to be inferred indirectly. We used molecular sexing to determine the gender of 340, and common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, collected around the Azores and Madeira. Sex ratio was globally

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sex bias in biopsy samples collected from free-ranging dolphins Sophie Quérouil 2009 /Published online: 7 July 2009 # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract Biological samples of free developed to obtain samples from free-ranging cetaceans. The most commonly used techniques are skin swabbing

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Bruce V; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Gidlewski, Thomas; McLane, James; Allen, Robert W; McIsaac, Alex A; Mitchell, Gordon B; Keane, Delwyn P; Spraker, Terry R; Balachandran, Aru

    2012-09-01

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy sample testing was determined in white-tailed deer from 4 CWD-infected captive herds. Specifically, the current study compared the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in postmortem rectal mucosa biopsy samples to the CWD status of each deer as determined by immunodiagnostic evaluations of the brainstem at the obex, the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, and the palatine tonsil. The effects of age, sex, genotype, and disease progression were also evaluated. Diagnostic sensitivity on rectal biopsy samples for CWD in white-tailed deer ranged from 63% to 100%; the pooled estimate of sensitivity was 68% with 95% confidence limits (95% CLs) of 49% and 82%. However, diagnostic sensitivity was dependent on genotype at prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 96 and on disease progression as assessed by obex grade. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76% (95% CLs: 49%, 91%) for 96GG deer but only 42% (95% CLs: 13%, 79%) for 96GS deer. Furthermore, diagnostic sensitivity was only 36% for deer in the earliest stage of disease (obex grade 0) but was 100% for deer in the last 2 stages of preclinical disease (obex grades 3 and 4). The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds. PMID:22914819

  9. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

  10. Tail-vein collection of blood: (mouse) Mice will be either manually or mechanically restraint for blood collection. The tip of tail will be

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    -orbital venous plexus to collect blood. If the blood collection is to be repeated, the alternate side/eye of the needle is adjacent to the last rib. The position on the needle that is adjacent to the tip of the nose

  11. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

  12. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ...

  13. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissue remains in the needle. More than one needle stick may be needed to get a large enough sample. An open biopsy involves making a small cut in the skin and ... of biopsy, the tissue is sent to a laboratory for examination.

  14. Repeat Renal Biopsy in Lupus Nephritis: A Change in Histological Pattern Is Common

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxin Lu; Lai-Shan Tam; Fernand Mac-Moune Lai; Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan; Paul Cheung-Lung Choi; Edmund Kwok-Ming Li; Kai-Ming Chow; Philip Kam-Tao Li; Cheuk-Chun Szeto

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of longitudinal change in sequential renal biopsies of lupus nephritis (LN) patient remains elusive. Methods: Clinical and pathological documents of 156 LN patients with repeat renal biopsies (412 times) were collected from a database. Results: The percent of transformation of the biopsy class from reference biopsies to repeat biopsies was 75%. For the reference biopsies that showed

  15. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... following: Fine needle aspiration Hollow needle (called a core needle) Vacuum-powered device Both a hollow needle ...

  16. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - breast - stereotactic; Core needle breast biopsy - stereotactic; Stereotactic breast biopsy ... following: Fine needle aspiration Hollow needle (called a core needle) Vacuum-powered device Both a needle and ...

  17. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delwyn Keane; Daniel Barr; Rebecca Osborn; Julie Langenberg; Katherine O'Rourke; David Schneider; Philip Bochsler

    The examination of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been described in sheep, elk, and small numbers of mule and white-tailed deer. Previous sample numbers have been too small to validate examination of this type of tissue as a viable antemortem diagnostic test. In this study, we examined RAMALT collected postmor-

  18. Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg?¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg?¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg?¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles. PMID:24870933

  19. Standards for prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review A variety techniques have emerged for optimization of prostate biopsy. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the most recent developments regarding the optimal systematic biopsy and sampling labeling along with multiparametric MRI and MR targeted biopsies. Recent findings The use of 10–12-core extended-sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates compared to traditional sextant sampling and reduces the likelihood that patients will require a repeat biopsy, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12 cores, the increase in diagnostic yield becomes marginal. However, limitations of this technique include undersampling, over-sampling, and the need for repetitive biopsy. MRI and MR-targeted biopsies have demonstrated superiority over systematic biopsies for the detection of clinically significant disease and representation of disease burden, while deploying fewer cores and may have applications in men undergoing initial or repeat biopsy and those with low risk cancer on or considering active surveillance. Summary A 12-core systematic biopsy that incorporates apical and far-lateral cores in the template distribution allows maximal cancer detection, avoidance of a repeat biopsy, while minimizing the detection of insignificant prostate cancers. MRI guided prostate biopsy has an evolving role in both initial and repeat prostate biopsy strategies, as well as active surveillance, potentially improving sampling efficiency, increasing detection of clinically significant cancers, and reducing detection of insignificant cancers. PMID:24451092

  20. Utilization Trends and Positive Biopsy Rates for Prostate Biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009–2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009 to 2011 there was no significant difference in specimen vials per biopsy across sites of service. Increased cancer detection rate correlated significantly with increased number of specimens examined. Segregation of prostate biopsy cores into 10 to 12 unique specimen vials has been widely adopted by urologists across sites of service. PMID:24659910

  1. Transvitreal retinochoroidal biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Scherfig; Jan Ulrik Prause; Ove Aksel Jensen

    1989-01-01

    Biopsies from retina and\\/or choroid were performed through a transvitreal approach in 14 patients during the 2-year period 1984–1986. A 20-gauge fine needle was used. The transvitreal approach was chosen because exact location of the biopsy could be documented by video recording and\\/or by photography. The needle was guided either by a stereotactic micromanipulator or by hand. Immediately after biopsy

  2. Development of biopsy gun for aspiration and drug injection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Guy; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2015-04-01

    Tumor samples are required for pathological examinations, and different instruments are generally used to obtain samples of different types of tumors. Among the many methods available for obtaining tumor tissues, gun biopsy is widely used because it is much simpler than incisional biopsy and can collect many more samples than aspiration biopsy. However, conventional biopsy guns cannot simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration, bleeding prevention, and marker injection. In this study, we developed a biopsy gun that can simultaneously perform biopsy aspiration and sample collection, in addition to injecting a styptic agent and marker to prevent bleeding and contamination in the biopsy track. We then used a prototype to evaluate the feasibility of the developed device. The collectable sample size was also assessed. Performance of the biopsy aspiration feature was also evaluated, including the maximum aspiration viscosity. Finally, we tested the maximum amount of drug that can be injected. We found that the biopsy gun developed here is an alternative tool for biopsy collection with improved procedure safety and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24990254

  3. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis , and mycobacteria infection Osteitis fibrosa Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Rickets ... Bone fracture Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Damage to surrounding ... Infection near the biopsy area Some people with bone disorders ...

  4. Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Zheng, Yi-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Triple assessment is a standard method for assessment of breast diseases, which includes clinical evaluation, radiographic assessment and pathological assessment. Biopsy for breast disease is the gold standard for pathological assessment, including incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy and bite biopsy. With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual transition from traditional open surgery to biopsy. This review summarizes the current situation and development of breast biopsy technology to provide an insight into the latest details such as the safety and reliability as the basis for selection of the most appropriate techniques for specific settings. PMID:25083451

  5. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

  6. Animal Tails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

  7. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  8. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the blood vessels may be sealed with an electric current, laser, or chemical. ... Avoid blowing your nose after the biopsy. Gently squeeze the nostrils ... vessels may be sealed with an electric current or packing.

  9. Biopsy catheter (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examination, a heart biopsy can be performed. A catheter is carefully threaded into an artery or vein to gain access into the heart. A bioptome (catheter with jaws in its tip) is then introduced. ...

  10. Lung biopsy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A needle lung biopsy is performed when there is an abnormal condition that is near the surface of the lung, in the tissues surrounding the lungs, or on the chest wall. The test can be performed to obtain a ...

  11. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale Cysts of the lung Pulmonary hypertension ...

  12. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  13. Color optical biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam

    2014-02-01

    Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

  14. Safety of Tailings Dams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

  15. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  16. Performing diagnostic skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Godsell, G

    1998-03-01

    The Scope of Professional Practice states that nurses may respond to the needs of patients by expanding their practice. Performing skin biopsies for cancer diagnosis is one such area. The provision of appropriate education, training and updating is essential. Clear guidelines for practice are required for all such procedures. PMID:9534558

  17. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed. PMID:25041600

  18. Diagnostic Value of Biopsy Techniques in Lumbar Spondylodiscitis: Percutaneous Needle Biopsy and Open Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Han, In Ho; Choi, Byung Kwan; Cha, Seung Heon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of the open biopsy technique and the percutaneous biopsy techniques in lumbar spondylodiscitis. Methods Between January 2004 and December 2009, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 57 patients with infectious lumbar spondylodiscitis. The etiologic diagnosis of the infectious spondylodiscitis was obtained by two methods. Of 57 cases, twenty-seven patients underwent open biopsy and thirty patients underwent percutaneous needle biopsy including computed tomography (CT) - guided and fluoroscopy-guided needle aspiration. All biopsies were performed by experienced two neurosurgeons and one interventional radiologist. Results Of the 57 cases radiologically consistent with spinal infection, 29 (50.9%) biopsy specimens resulted in positive cultures and 28 (49.1%) returned negative cultures. According to the type of biopsy techniques, the culture-positive rate was higher (p=0.005) in the open biopsy group than the percutaneous needle biopsy group. 19 (70.4%) of 27 biopsy specimens were positive in the open biopsy group, and 10 (33.3%) of 30 biopsy specimens were positive in the percutaneous needle biopsy group. Furthermore, the open biopsy showed higher positive culture rate than the percutaneous needle biopsy in cases with administration of empirical antibiotics although there was no statistically significant (p=0.137). Conclusions Open biopsy should be considered for administration of organism-specific antibiotics for the successful treatment when percutaneous needle yield negative result. Furthermore, empirical antibiotics should be delayed until results of cultures unless the patient is severely septic, critically ill, neutropenic or neurologically compromised.

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding after cold biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vu, C K; Korman, M G; Bejer, I; Davis, S

    1998-07-01

    Cold biopsy of the gastric mucosa is useful in many gastroduodenal disorders. Antral biopsies are done with increasing frequency to confirm Helicobacter pylori infection and to determine the type and content of gastritis. Gastrointestinal bleeding after gastric cold biopsy is rare. We report two patients who developed melena after cold biopsy of the gastric antrum. Repeat gastroscopies excluded lesions other than the biopsied sites as the source of bleeding. Colonoscopies in both cases did not reveal any evidence of lower GI bleed. Relevant medications include amlodipine, in case 1, and brufen, which was used in case 2 but discontinued before biopsy. Literature review has shown the rarity of clinically significant hemorrhage resulting from gastric cold biopsy. Nevertheless, all patients undergoing gastroscopy should be informed of this potential complication. PMID:9672346

  20. Breast Lump Biopsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of a breast lump biopsy. It also reviews the anatomy of the breast, symptoms, diagnosis, and what the procedure involves. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  1. Transbronchial lung biopsy and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Browning, Robert F; Parrish, Scott; Turner, J Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Li, Zhigang; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Mini-interventional procedures are used in the everyday clinical practice by pulmonary physicians and radiologists. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy forceps are the tools mostly used. During these procedures pneumothorax can occur and immediate treatment is necessary. In our current work, we will focus on minimal invasive techniques for biopsy and pneumothorax treatment. PMID:25337401

  2. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also called a pathologist) will look at the biopsy sample under a microscope and then give the information to your doctor, who will review the results with you and your parents. In an emergency, the results of a biopsy can be available quickly. Otherwise, they're usually ...

  3. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection...description of the lungs or visualized portion...obtain a portion of a lung, the evidence...1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall...

  4. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection...description of the lungs or visualized portion...obtain a portion of a lung, the evidence...1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall...

  5. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection...description of the lungs or visualized portion...obtain a portion of a lung, the evidence...1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall...

  6. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection...description of the lungs or visualized portion...obtain a portion of a lung, the evidence...1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall...

  7. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection...description of the lungs or visualized portion...obtain a portion of a lung, the evidence...1980, an autopsy or biopsy report shall...

  8. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagaria, Sanjay P.; Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are critical for surgical expertise with SN biopsy. PMID:20512942

  9. Testicular biopsy helping assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Erdei, E; Magyar, E; Lellei, I; Rózsahegyi, J; Laki, A; Rusz, A; Papp, G

    1999-01-01

    Authors have performed testis biopsy on 21 male patients according to the predesigned protocol. The biopsy has been carried out from scrotal excision, with the exposure of both testis with microsurgical method. The results have been evaluated according to the spermogram groups. Correlation of FSH values and histological appearance of both testis was analyzed. Their method and experiences have been evaluated the effectiveness of assisted reproduction. PMID:10935137

  10. [Renal biopsy: procedures, contraindications, complications].

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Carmen; Nochy, Dominique; Bariety, Jean

    2009-07-01

    Renal biopsy plays a central role in the investigational approach of the nephrologist. The technique has significantly improved over the past two decades as a result of the introduction of ultrasonography and automated-gun biopsy devices. Percutaneous renal biopsy has become a relatively safe procedure with life-threatening complications occurring in less than 0.1% of biopsies in recent reports. However, percutaneous kidney biopsy is not without risk. Overt complications occurring in up to 13% of the cases, and 6 to 7% of complications were considered major, needing for an intervention such as transfusion of blood product or invasive procedure (radiographic or surgical). Major complications were apparent in more than 90% of patients by 24 hours. In situations in which the potential benefit of obtaining renal histology outweighs the risks of the procedure, transjugular kidney biopsy or surgical biopsy offers an attractive alternative. At present, we have no definite predictive indicators of postbiopsy bleeding complication, with the exception of age, gender, advanced renal insufficiency and the baseline partial thromboplastin time. Bleeding time is not significantly predictive and has been reported to have substantial limitations as a screening test. The use of the PFA-100 may replace the bleeding time and is now considered as a more valuable screening test for prebiopsy identification and management of patients with impaired haemostasis. Four groups of patients benefit from the findings of renal biopsy: those with a nephrotic syndrome, those with a renal disease in a context of systemic disorder, those with acute renal failure and those with a renal transplant. Some patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria, hematuria and chronic renal failure may also benefit from the procedure. PMID:19345174

  11. Open lung biopsy as an outpatient procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J Blewett; W. Frederick Bennett; John D Miller; John D Urschel

    2001-01-01

    Background. Lung biopsies are frequently needed to diagnose diffuse interstitial lung diseases. Both limited thoracotomy (open lung biopsy) and thoracoscopy can be used for lung biopsies, but both procedures have traditionally required hospital admission. We report a series of patients that underwent outpatient open lung biopsy to show the safety and effectiveness of this practice.Methods. We reviewed records of ambulatory,

  12. CT-guided Lung Biopsy: Factors Influencing Diagnostic Yield and Complication Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M Anderson; J Murchison; D Patel

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine factors influencing diagnostic yield in computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of lung lesions.MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five consecutive CT-guided lung biopsies were performed in 182 patients between August 1995 and September 2000 and either fine-needle aspirate samples for cytology or core biopsy samples for histology were collected. Procedures were divided into a diagnostic group (true-positive and

  13. Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

  14. Temporal artery biopsy size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Kaptanis, Sarantos; Perera, Joanne K; Halkias, Constantine; Caton, Nadine; Alarcon, Lida; Vig, Stella

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether positive temporal artery biopsies had a greater sample length than negative biopsies in temporal arteritis. It has been suggested that biopsy length should be at least 1 cm to improve diagnostic accuracy. A retrospective review of 149 patients who had 151 temporal artery biopsies was conducted. Twenty biopsies were positive (13.3%), 124 negative (82.1%) and seven samples were insufficient (4.6%). There was no clinically significant difference in the mean biopsy size between positive (0.7 cm) and negative samples (0.65 cm) (t-test: p =?.43 NS). Ninety-four patients fulfilled all three ACR criteria prior to biopsy (62.3%) and four patients (2.6%) changed ACR score from 2 to 3 after biopsy. Treatment should not be delayed in anticipation of the biopsy or withheld in the case of a negative biopsy if the patient's symptoms improve. PMID:24347135

  15. Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

  16. An approach to duodenal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Serra, S; Jani, P A

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis. PMID:16679353

  17. A composite urine biomarker reflects interstitial inflammation in lupus nephritis kidney biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolan Zhang; Haikady N Nagaraja; Tibor Nadasdy; Huijuan Song; Alison McKinley; Jason Prosek; Swapna Kamadana; Brad H Rovin

    2012-01-01

    The initial treatment of lupus nephritis is usually based on a renal biopsy. Subsequent disease flares, however, are often treated without the benefit of kidney pathology because repeat biopsies are infrequent. A noninvasive, real-time method to assess renal pathology would be useful to adjust treatment and improve outcome. To develop such a method we collected urine samples at or close

  18. Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word count (exc. Figures / tables): 4210 Key Words: Interventional Radiology, Simulation, Virtual Reality

  19. Blood Chemistry of Free-Ranging and Captive White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Melanie Love

    2012-07-16

    Blood samples were collected from 602 white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) between October 2008 – October 2009, from 15 different counties throughout Texas. White-tailed deer were evaluated for serum biochemical parameters (total...

  20. Floods from tailings dam failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

    2008-01-01

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

  1. Obtaining research biopsies during pediatric colonoscopy: Safety and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Mait-Kaufman, Jennifer; Kahn, Stacie; Tomer, Gitit

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety profile of acquiring additional intestinal biopsies for research purposes in children undergoing a medically indicated colonoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective review of 122 pediatric patients who underwent colonoscopy over a 9 mo time period was completed. 38/122 participants consented to a research study in which 4 additional biopsies were obtained, in addition to routine biopsies. The outcomes after colonoscopy were measured in the research participants, and compared to 84 control participants who did not consent for the study. Groups were compared with regard to number of biopsies obtained, underlying diagnosis, and both serious and minor adverse outcomes. Data was collected including: age, gender, race, indication, diagnosis, number of biopsies obtained per case and post procedure adverse events. Medical records were reviewed and a questionnaire was completed by each of the ten gastroenterologists who performed procedures during the study. Physicians were asked about individual patient outcomes to ensure that all adverse events, such as perforation, excessive bleeding, infection, and minor gastrointestinal outcomes, were captured and included. RESULTS: The research group had more biopsies obtained (mean = 13.58 ± 4.21) compared to controls (mean = 9.33 ± 4.40), P ? 0.0001, however there was no difference in adverse events. Serious outcomes, defined as perforation, bleeding and infection, did not occur, in either group. As such, the relationship between serious adverse events and number of biopsies obtained was not determined. Minor gastrointestinal outcomes, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or vomiting, were reported in 21 patients (8 research participants and 13 control participants) however the incidence of minor gastrointestinal outcomes between the two groups did not vary significantly, P = 0.45. Additionally, the mean number of biopsies obtained in patients who had a minor outcome (mean = 12.1 ± 0.77), compared to those with no adverse outcome (mean = 10.34 ± 0.5), revealed no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.12), suggesting that number of biopsies is not associated with incidence of minor adverse events. CONCLUSION: Patients participating in research requiring acquisition of additional biopsies for research purposes alone, are not at an increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:26140101

  2. Imaging biopsy composition at ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Douglas R; Martin, James A; Thedens, Daniel R; Klocke, Noelle F; Roberts, Nathaniel H; Goetz, Jessica E; Amendola, Annunziato

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early-stage osteoarthritis (OA) includes glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and collagen disruption that cannot be seen on morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T1? MRI is a measurement that probes the low-frequency rate of exchange between protons of free water and those from water associated with macromolecules in the cartilage’s extracellular matrix. While it has been hypothesized that increased water mobility resulting from early osteoarthritic changes cause elevated T1? MRI values, there remain several unknown mechanisms influencing T1? measurements in cartilage. The purpose of this work was to relate histological and biochemical metrics directly measured from osteochondral biopsies and fluid specimens with quantitative MRI-detected changes of in vivo cartilage composition. Patients and methods Six young patients were enrolled an average of 41 days after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Femoral trochlear groove osteochondral biopsies, serum, and synovial fluid were harvested during ACL reconstruction to complement a presurgery quantitative MRI study (T1?, T2, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage [dGEMRIC] relaxation times). A high-resolution MRI scan of the excised osteochondral biopsy was also collected. Analyses of in vivo T1? images were compared with ex vivo T1? imaging, GAG assays and histological GAG distribution in the osteochondral biopsies, and direct measures of bone and cartilage turnover markers and “OA marker” 3B3 in serum and synovial fluid samples. Conclusion T1? relaxation times in patients with a torn ACL were elevated from normal, indicating changes consistent with general fluid effusion after blunt joint trauma. Increased chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) production of chondroprotective lubricin may relate to cartilage surface disruption by blunt trauma and CPC amplification of joint inflammation. Disparity between ex vivo and matched in vivo MRI of trochlear cartilage suggests MRI signal differences that may be related to the synovial fluid environment. T1? is emerging as a promising MRI biomarker to relate noninvasive measures of whole-joint condition and cartilage composition to direct measures of cartilage changes in the acute phase of joint injuries. PMID:24855396

  3. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable ... Click on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is ...

  4. Kinesin: the tail unfolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Cross; Jonathan Scholey

    1999-01-01

    The cargo-binding tail of the motor protein kinesin acts as a regulator of kinesin-driven vesicle transport. In the absence of bound cargo, the kinesin tail interacts with the motor domains and inhibits their activity. Cargo binding blocks this interaction and relieves the inhibition.

  5. Reported tailings dam failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

  6. Liver biopsy methods for pediatric oncology patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredric A. Hoffer

    2000-01-01

    Background. Liver biopsy is a high-risk procedure in oncology patients, and optimal methods for children have not been established.¶Objective. To assess the effectiveness and safety of two methods of performing liver biopsy in pediatric oncology patients.¶Materials and methods. Between May 1997 and July 1999, 51 liver biopsies (22 percutaneous and 29 transjugular) were performed. The 22 percutaneous\\u000a biopsies (13 focal

  7. Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications. PMID:24436527

  8. Original article Biopsied preblastoderm honeybee embryos develop

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Biopsied preblastoderm honeybee embryos develop into normal honeybee queens honeybee (Apis mellifera) embryos (8.5-9.0 h) were biopsied by extract- ing a small amount of ooplasm from stored in liquid nitrogen. © Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris biopsy / honeybee embryo / nuclear

  9. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

  10. Pathologic comparison of video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy with traditional open lung biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsutaka Kadokura; Thomas V. Colby; Jeffrey L. Myers; Mark S. Allen; Claude Deschamps; Victor F. Trastek; Peter C. Pairolero

    1995-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy is an alternative to traditional open lung biopsy for diagnosis in patients with pleuropulmonary diseases. Between January 7, 1991, and August 3, 1993, 71 consecutive patients had video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy and 42 patients had traditional open lung biopsy. A specific histologic diagnosis that correlated with the clinical findings was sought in each case

  11. Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Community Search Search » Sign In Remember Me Forgot your password? Haven't registered yet? more Calendar 10/16/2015 » 10/18/2015 2015 AOCD Fall Meeting 3/30/2016 » 4/3/2016 2016 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting 3/29/2017 » 4/2/ ...

  12. Excisional biopsy of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Becker, Daniel G; Long, William B; Masterson, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently encountered neoplasm in the US is skin cancer. More than 600,000 new cases of malignant skin tumors are diagnosed in the US each year. One standard method of treatment of skin tumors is excisional biopsy. There are seven technical considerations involved in the excisional biopsy of skin tumors: (1) aseptic technique, (2) examination and demarcation of skin lesion, (3) skin biomechanical properties, (4) anesthesia, (5) excisional biopsy, (6) wound closure, and (7) postoperative care. The physician must use aseptic techniques and wear a cap, mask, and powder-free gloves. Hair is a source of wound contamination, and removal of hair prevents it from becoming entangled in suture and the wound during closure. Because surgical electric clippers cut hair close to the skin surface without nicking the skin, we now use only electric clippers to remove hair. The physician's visualization of the wound can be enhanced by magnification (2.5x) loupes. The physician's plan for excisional biopsy is dictated by the suspected pathology of the skin lesion. The ultimate appearance and function of a scar after closure of excisional biopsy can be predicted by the static and dynamic skin tensions on the surrounding skin. Infiltration anesthesia is preferred over regional nerve block because it does not interfere with the muscle movement that causes dynamic tensions, which elongate the configuration of the defect. Most skin lesions are amenable to a circular excision. In these instances, it is worthwhile to use circular-shaped excisions. The reusable metal trephines have been replaced by disposable trephines that have ribbed plastic handles attached to 316 stainless steel circular cutting blades. Wound closure is accomplished in the same direction as the long axis of the elliptical defect by first approximating the midportion of the defect with a 4-0 synthetic CAPROSYN* monofila-ment absorbable suture attached to the swage of the laser-drilled, compound-curved reverse cutting edge needle. Additional interrupted dermal (subcuticular) sutures are placed in each wound quadrant to approximate further the divided edges of the dermis. Compound-curved reverse cutting edge needles have been specifically designed for dermal closure. Reinforced Steri-Strips are then applied transversly across the incision to facilitate further skin edge approximation. Rigorous follow-up examination is essential for any patient with a history of a skin cancer to detect recurrence and prevent further actinic damage. The use of wide diameter trephine biopsy instruments are still not widely used by physicians because most physicians do not have the technical skills to approximate the defect with dermal sutures. Consequently, this need for a rapid dermal skin closure technique that can be used by a primary care physician must be devised before the trephine excisional biopsy technique is widely used by the primary care physician. This goal can be achieved by developing a disposable stapler for subcuticular closure of the skin. PMID:15301664

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Majithia, Raj; Diehl, David L.; Baron, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    Liver biopsy remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis and management of liver disorders. Results of liver biopsy can often drive therapeutic decision-making. Unfortunately, studies have shown conventional biopsy techniques to carry significant sampling variability that can potentially impact patient care. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is gaining traction as an alternative method of biopsy. For parenchymal disease, it can decrease sampling variability. It offers a more targeted approach for focal lesions. Its diagnostic yield and limited adverse event profile make it a promising approach for liver biopsy. PMID:26020041

  14. Prostate Biopsy for the Interventional Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Amalou, Hayet; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Yan, Pingkun; Kruecker, Jochen; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are usually performed by urologists in the office setting using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The current standard of care involves obtaining 10–14 cores from different anatomical sections. These biopsies are usually not directed into a specific lesion as most prostate cancers are not visible on TRUS. Color-Doppler, ultrasound contrast agents, elastography, MRI, and MRI/ultrasound fusion are proposed as imaging methods to guide prostate biopsies. Prostate MRI and fusion biopsy create opportunities for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to play an increasingly important role in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, targeted biopsy, surveillance and focal therapy of the prostate cancer patient. PMID:24581731

  15. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  16. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:7982 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    E-print Network

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    2008-01-01

    J Vet Diagn Invest 20:79­82 (2008) Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate blood and skin samples from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer of 165 serum samples. Skin biopsy immunohis- tochemistry (IHC) was performed on samples from 406 deer

  17. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  18. Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Jung, Sang-Ok; Cho, Min-Ji; Kang, Da-Hyun; Chung, Chae-Uk; Park, Dong-Il; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from mesothelial surfaces of the pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, tunica vaginalis, or pericardium. Typically, pleural fluid cytology or closed pleural biopsy, surgical intervention (video thoracoscopic biopsy or open thoracotomy) is conducted to obtain pleural tissue specimens. However, endobronchial lesions are rarely seen and cases diagnosed from bronchoscopic biopsy are also rarely reported. We reported the case of a 77-year-old male who was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma on bronchoscopic biopsy from obstructing masses of the endobronchial lesion. PMID:26175790

  19. Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Jung, Sang-Ok; Cho, Min-Ji; Kang, Da-Hyun; Chung, Chae-Uk; Park, Dong-Il; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from mesothelial surfaces of the pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, tunica vaginalis, or pericardium. Typically, pleural fluid cytology or closed pleural biopsy, surgical intervention (video thoracoscopic biopsy or open thoracotomy) is conducted to obtain pleural tissue specimens. However, endobronchial lesions are rarely seen and cases diagnosed from bronchoscopic biopsy are also rarely reported. We reported the case of a 77-year-old male who was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma on bronchoscopic biopsy from obstructing masses of the endobronchial lesion.

  20. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  1. Biopsy sampling of breast lesions: comparison of core needle- and vacuum-assisted breast biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maribel D. Lacambra; Christopher C. Lam; Paulo Mendoza; Siu Ki Chan; Alex M. Yu; Julia Y. S. Tsang; Puay Hoon Tan; Gary M. Tse

    Needle biopsy is now the initial investigation of choice for the pre-operative diagnosis of breast lesions. This includes\\u000a core needle biopsy (CNB) and vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) with or without radiologic assistance. The performance indices of\\u000a both of these biopsy techniques were evaluated. In a large cohort of patients with breast lesions including 464 cases (285\\u000a CNB and 179 VAB), with

  2. [Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thévenon, A; Rouaix, N; Vallée, L

    2013-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415 children by a retrospective study of 419 biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87 children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15 structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57 dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19 mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16 cases. In 184 patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise orientation in 45% of patients, leading to a genetic hypothesis. PMID:23993361

  3. Happy Tailings to You

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students prepare a sample of "mine tailings", then separate out desirable materials using whatever method they choose, and quantify the results. They will discover that sometimes it's hard to separate desirable minerals from undesirable ones, especially if they look alike or the crystals are of similar sizes. Students learn that old, worked-out mines contain some desirable minerals (in small quantities) mixed in with unwanted minerals, but that doesn't stop some people from trying to squeeze out the last drop. Once considered tailings (or trash), the mix may now be profitable for mining. Desirable minerals can be separated physically and chemically.

  4. [Stereotaxic mammary core biopsy. II. Complementarity or competition with surgical biopsy].

    PubMed

    Thiesse, P; Guérin, N; Treilleux, I; Brémond, A

    1996-01-01

    In breast disease, the only resemblance between needle core biopsy and fine needle aspiration cytology is the mammographic guide to puncture. On selected cases, the efficacy of needle core and surgical biopsy is similar. Inclusion of core breast biopsy in the diagnostic tools requires a repeated pluridisciplinary concentration. PMID:8991203

  5. Efficacy of video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy: an historical comparison with open lung biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F M Carnochan; W S Walker; E W Cameron

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsies were compared with historical controls undergoing open lung biopsy to determine the diagnostic accuracy, effect on length of postoperative stay, and cost effectiveness of the new thoracoscopic technique. METHODS--The first 25 video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsies performed in the Edinburgh Thoracic Unit were compared with 25 historical controls for complications, diagnostic accuracy, and length of

  6. Percutaneous lung biopsies: a survey of UK practice based on 5444 biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M RICHARDSON; K S POINTON; A R MANHIRE; J T MACFARLANE

    Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies are commonly performed for the investigation of lung masses. We describe current practice and complication rates in the UK. A postal questionnaire was sent to all centres in the British Thoracic Society directory. 157 replies (61% response rate) were received, providing data on 5444 biopsies. Mean number of biopsies performed per annum was 30.5 per centre;

  7. Histopathological screening for prostate carcinoma: is a benign biopsy a negative biopsy?

    PubMed

    Sailer, Verena; Kristiansen, Glen

    2014-08-01

    In case of clinical suspicion of a prostate malignancy, a prostate biopsy is the most widely used approach to confirm prostate cancer. Unfortunately, exclusion of prostate cancer is not feasible by means of biopsy and also the negative rate remains consistently high. Here, we review the information the surgical pathologist can still gain from a prostate biopsy in absence of overt carcinoma. PMID:25046199

  8. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  9. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping - i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  10. Diagnostic thoracoscopic lung biopsy: an outpatient experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C Chang; John Yee; Mark B Orringer; Mark D Iannettoni

    2002-01-01

    BackgroundTissue diagnosis of either interstitial lung disease or indeterminate pulmonary nodules can be obtained by either limited thoracotomy or thoracoscopic lung biopsy. Both procedures traditionally have required hospital admission. We report a series of patients undergoing outpatient thoracoscopic lung biopsy to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this practice.

  11. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Diagnostic laparoscopic biopsy for intraabdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yasuo; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in the incidental detection of intraabdominal tumors. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT)- and ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy, while minimally invasive, often provides specimens that are insufficient for histological evaluation. Moreover, it can be difficult to perform because the location and size of the tumor. In such cases, laparoscopic biopsy is useful because it is less invasive than laparotomy, but more reliable than imaging-guided biopsy, to obtain a sufficient specimen, regardless of the location and size of the tumor. We report a series of seven patients who underwent laparoscopic biopsy of intraabdominal tumors of unknown origin. There were no cases of conversion to laparotomy and all patients were able to resume oral intake on postoperative day 1. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Thus, laparoscopic biopsy for a tumor of unknown origin is useful and minimally invasive. PMID:25212568

  13. Dolphin Skeleton - Tail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-14

    The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

  14. Molecular genetic dissection of mouse unconventional myosin-VA: tail region mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J D; Mermall, V; Strobel, M C; Russell, L B; Mooseker, M S; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A

    1998-01-01

    We used an RT-PCR-based sequencing approach to identify the mutations responsible for 17 viable dilute alleles, a mouse-coat-color locus encoding unconventional myosin-VA. Ten of the mutations mapped to the MyoVA tail and are reported here. These mutations represent the first extensive collection of tail mutations reported for any unconventional mammalian myosin. They identify sequences important for tail function and identify domains potentially involved in cargo binding and/or proper folding of the MyoVA tail. Our results also provide support for the notion that different myosin tail isoforms produced by alternative splicing encode important cell-type-specific functions. PMID:9560409

  15. In vivo tissue sampling of embryonic resorption sites using ultrasound guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Drews, B; Roellig, K; Menzies, B R; Goeritz, F; Hildebrandt, T B

    2011-09-01

    In the polytocous European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) more than 23% of all successful implantations undergo embryonic resorption. The objective of the study was to establish a minimally invasive ultrasound guided biopsy technique to collect embryonic resorption tissue in vivo. The sampled material was genetically analysed to determine paternity and the sex of the embryo. Female hares were either mated or artificially inseminated and pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound on day six post ovulation. Subsequent embryonic development was ultrasonographically monitored on a regular basis to detect embryos undergoing resorption. Cell material of the resorption site was collected under ultrasonographic control via transabdominal biopsy of the placenta or aspiration of resorption fluid. To avoid breathing movements during the biopsy, the animals were intubated and a short apnoea was evoked by assisted ventilation. The presence of embryonic cells in the biopsy material was confirmed by microsatellite analysis in 11 of the fluid samples (n = 28) and six of the placental samples (n = 8). The lower success rate in the fluid samples was attributed to the abundance of maternal cells which was confirmed by the analysis of fluid sample smears. Male sex of the embryos undergoing resorption was detected by SRY analysis for ten of the fluid samples and for one of the placental samples. The two biopsy techniques did not have any negative impact on the prenatal development of the healthy siblings nor did it influence the future breeding performance of the females that were biopsied. PMID:21601265

  16. [Ultrasound guided vacuum-assisted biopsy for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Asano, Yuka; Morisaki, Tamami; Aomatsu, Naoki; Yoshii, Mami; Nakamura, Masanori; Kawajiri, Hidemi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Osawa, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Tetsuro; Wakasa, Kenichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2011-11-01

    Tailor-made treatment for lymphoma has been proposed, based on the information on prognostic on predictors or on molecular targets. This recent evolutions necessitated the collection of sufficient tissue samples for their preoperative evaluation. Since needle biopsy or needle aspiration cytology may not provide enough tissue for histo-pathologic diagnosis, incisional and excisional biopsies are commonly performed. In this study, we applied a handheld vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) system, as an alternative to the conventional incisional and excisional biopsies, to evaluate its feasibility in the biopsy -based diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. The subjects were nine patients with clinically suspected malignant lymphoma. All of them were correctly diagnosed with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%, and lymphoma sub-types could be defined according to the New WHO classification. There was no complication associated with the procedure. Lymph node biopsy for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma using this minimally invasive VAB technique allows a simple and safe collection of sufficient samples with good-quality, and promises to contribute to a precise molecular-based diagnosis. PMID:22202435

  17. A comparison of the needle biopsy post mortem with the conventional autopsy.

    PubMed

    Foroudi, F; Cheung, K; Duflou, J

    1995-01-01

    Tru-cut biopsy post mortems were compared with the standard full autopsy at a large city mortuary. Subjects consisted of coronial cases excluding suspicious deaths, obvious trauma cases and children under the age of 14 yrs. The following comparisons were made: the ability to collect tissue from each of the organs; any abnormalities detected on histology; correlation of the Tru-cut biopsy results with the results of the conventional post mortem; and determination of cause of death with both techniques. Twenty-one cases were examined by both techniques. Tissue collection by biopsy varied from 100% for liver to 9.5% for kidney with heart, lung and brain giving intermediate results. The cause of death was determined in 9 cases (43%) by biopsy and in 20 cases (95%) by conventional post mortem; the cause of death was not ascertainable in 1 case. In 8 of the 9 cases (89%) where death could be determined by biopsy the cause of death was consistent with the findings of the full autopsy. The cause of death at needle biopsy examination was incorrect in 1 case (11%) compared to the findings of the standard post mortem. Clearly the needle post mortem is inferior to the conventional autopsy in determining the cause of death. PMID:7603760

  18. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with ...

  19. Cryopreservation of biopsied cleavage stage human embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J Stachecki; Jacques Cohen; Santiago Munné

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to develop a method to optimize cryopreservation of biopsied multi-celled human embryos. Human day 3 embryos that were donated to research, along with those found to be chromosomally abnormal after blastomere biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hyridization (FISH), were cryopreserved using a slow-freezing protocol in either standard embryo cryopreservation solution [embryo transfer freezing medium (ETFM), a conventional sodium-based

  20. Detrusor Biopsy as a Potential Clinical Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Mastropietro; W. Geary; E. Fuller; J. T. Benson

    2001-01-01

    :   Previous published work suggests that electron microscopic findings in bladder biopsies correlate with urodynamic diagnoses\\u000a of bladder dysfunction in geriatric patients. Our goal was to determine the reproducibility of this previous work and to evaluate\\u000a the use of detrusor biopsy as a clinical tool in the diagnosis and management in a urogynecology referral population. All\\u000a patients underwent an initial

  1. Hepatitis C Transmission after Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferhi, Karim; Rouprêt, Morgan; Mozer, Pierre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Haertig, Alain; de La Taille, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is a current and well-codified procedure; antibiotic prophylaxis and rectal enema limit the risk of infection. To date, there has been no reported viral transmission between patients due to a contaminated ultrasound probe. In this study, we report the case of a patient who contracted the hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer. PMID:23533934

  2. The development of the nurse biopsy role.

    PubMed

    Godsell, Gillian Anne

    Research shows that nurse surgery posts strengthen continuity of care and allow collaboration with other health professionals to ensure patients receive appropriate and timely care. The consistent and integrated approach provided with the nurse biopsy role fills gaps in service provision and avoids duplication of services. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the UK and at Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham they see approximately 160 suspected cases each week. Before the introduction of the nurse biopsy role there was an 8-week wait for a biopsy by the doctor and a further 8-week wait for the removal of the tumour. Now, a patient with a suspected skin cancer can have a biopsy on the first visit to the clinic, reducing the wait from 8 weeks to 0 weeks. This reduction in waiting time facilitates improved mortality and morbidity from the skin cancer. It took 3 years to develop the nurse biopsy role in Nottingham and another 2 years to provide the service that is currently available. The nurse-led biopsy service is now being adopted nationwide, as recommended by the All Parliamentary Group on Skin (2003). The dermatology department at Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham also runs an annual course to teach the surgery skills required to primary- and secondary-care nurses. PMID:16116366

  3. Stereotactically guided breast biopsy: a review.

    PubMed

    Ames, Victoria; Britton, Peter D

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this review are to compare and contrast the available stereotactic equipment, and to describe the variety of needle types used and their affect on pathological results and subsequent patient management. Initial stereotactic devices were "added-on" to analogue mammography units and have been replaced by prone or ducubitus equipment using digital image acquisition. Biopsies use either 14-G core biopsy (CB) needles or vacuum-assisted biopsies (VAB). Vacuum-assisted biopsy systems consistently out-perform 14-G CB with reduced need for diagnostic or multi-treatment surgery. The false-negative rate is 8% for 14-G CB compared with 0.7% for VAB. There is a risk of underestimating the disease present for lesions of uncertain malignant potential (Cat B3) and suspicious of malignancy (Cat B4) results with 25% of patients with a B3 biopsy found to have cancer at subsequent surgery and 66% of those with a B4 biopsy. A CB diagnosis of in situ malignancy is upgraded to invasive disease at surgery in 15-36% of patients undergoing CB and of the order of 10% with VAB. A high degree of diagnostic accuracy and hence safe patient care can only be achieved by meticulous attention to technique and multi-disciplinary cooperation. PMID:22347945

  4. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  5. Biopsy follow-up in patients with isolated atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) in prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Leone, Luca; Lacetera, Vito; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cantoro, Ubaldo; Conti, Alessandro; Sbrollini, Giulia; Quaresima, Luigi; Mariani, Luciana; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Galosi, Andrea Benedetto

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer (PCA) was evaluated in 155 patients with isolated Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation (ASAP) found on initial prostate biopsy, after a medium-term follow-up (40 months) with at least one re-biopsy. Clinical and histological data were analysed. Cancer was detected in 81 of 155 (52.3%). The cancer detection rate was 71.6%, 91.3%, 97.5%, 100% at the 1st re-biopsy, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rebiopsy respectively. At the uni- and multivariate analyses, prostate volume (? 30 cc), transition zone volume (? 10 cc), small core length at the initial biopsy (? 10 mm) and few number of cores at initial biopsy (? 8) are predictive of cancer. Furthermore, tumour characteristics on the whole surgical specimens was assessed in 30 men: 13 of 30 (43 %) had clinically relevant cancer (volume > 0.5 ml or/and Gleason score ? 7, or pT3). Most of relevant cancers were detected in the distal apex, anterior gland and midline. These anatomical sites could be under-sampled at the initial biopsy using the transrectal approach. Our data suggest that follow-up biopsy is recommended in all cases of isolated ASAP detected after biopsy using endfire transrectal probe. The re-biopsy strategy should increase the number of cores (or a saturation biopsy), focusing on area of ASAP in the initial biopsy, but also including the under-sampled areas (anterior gland, distal apex and midline) to detect clinically relevant cancers. PMID:25641465

  6. Videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottavio Rena; Caterina Casadio; Francesco Leo; Roberto Giobbe; Roberto Cianci; Sergio Baldi; Marco Rapellino; Giuliano Maggi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) require lung biopsy for the diagnosis in more than 30% of patients. Open lung biopsy (OLB) was generally considered the most reliable method of biopsy and tissue diagnosis. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and safety of the videothoracoscopic lung biopsy (VTLB) in the diagnosis of ILD. Methods: During the last 5 years, 58 patients

  7. Reliability of receptor assessment on core needle biopsy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seferina, S C; Nap, M; van den Berkmortel, F; Wals, J; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2013-04-01

    We compared the breast core needle biopsy and the resection specimen with respect to estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status to identify predictors for discordant findings. We retrospectively collected data from 526 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. ER, PR and HER2 status had been assessed in both the core needle biopsy and resection specimen. The assessment of ER by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in core needle biopsy was false negative in 26.5% and false positive in 6.8% of patients. For the PR status the false negative and false positive results of core needle biopsy were 29.6% and 10.3%, respectively. The results of the HER2 status, as determined by IHC and silver in situ hybridization (SISH), were false negative in 5.4% and false positive in 50.0%. We need to be aware of the problem of false negative and false positive test results in ER, PR and HER2 assessment in core needle biopsy and the potential impact on adjuvant systemic treatment. With current techniques, we recommend using the resection specimen to measure these receptors in patients without neoadjuvant treatment. A better alternative might be the use of tissue microarray, combining both core needle biopsy and resection specimen. PMID:23269610

  8. Optimizing Prostate Biopsy Techniques hat is the optimal biopsy strategy for detecting

    E-print Network

    Serfling, Robert

    Optimizing Prostate Biopsy Techniques W hat is the optimal biopsy strategy for detecting clinically important prostate carcinoma? I am not sure we are any closer in 2007 than we were in 1989 when the 6-core. The 3 variables of tumor volume, tumor location and prostate gland size alter the likelihood of cancer

  9. Epithelial misplacement after biopsy of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Dirschmid, K; Kiesler, J; Mathis, G; Beller, S; Stoss, F; Schobel, B

    1993-12-01

    The question has been raised as to whether the removal of biopsy material from colorectal adenomas can lead to misplacement of tumour fragments into the deeper layers of the bowel wall. We carried out an analysis of histological sections obtained from 21 patients in whom, between 2 and 21 days before removal of their adenoma, forceps biopsy (n = 18), or polypectomy (n = 3) had been performed. The initial histological picture a few days after biopsy is of an ulcer covered by a suppurative exudate and abundant mucus-containing small, free-lying groups of tumour cells. After an average of 7 days, we found misplacement of these groups of cells into the submucosa where, during the course of reparative processes, they became embedded within a capillary-rich granulation tissue. Subsequently, fibrosis of the submucosa develops with persistent mucus pools. Our results thus show that removal of biopsy material from adenomas can result in misplacement of tumour particles into the submucosa. These changes were observed in flat or broad-based tumours, and epithelial misplacement appears to be detectable within only a short period after biopsy. For the differential diagnosis, it is important to distinguish these changes from invasive carcinoma. PMID:8238733

  10. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-01-01

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington

  11. Heavy Tails Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas and Extremal

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    that µ(B) = 0 (Resnick, 2007). Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas and Extremal Dependence MMR2011 Densities of Copulas and Extremal Dependence Haijun Li (Joint work with Peiling Wu) Department of Mathematics Washington State University MMR2011, Beijing Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas and Extremal

  12. Best way to perform a punch biopsy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Gutiérrez Mendoza, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Nail punch biopsy is used to obtain a tissue sample for the diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases. The best results will be possible if the surgeon is familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the nail apparatus. A punch biopsy can be used in all regions of the nail apparatus in the presence or absence of nail plate. When the procedure is performed with a careful handling of the anatomic site and specimen, in most cases a successful diagnosis can be achieved. PMID:25828717

  13. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  14. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Autopsy and Open-Lung Biopsy Tissues by Nested PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH F. TALKINGTON; W. LANIER THACKER; DAVID W. KELLER; JØRGEN S. JENSEN

    1998-01-01

    A nested PCR specific for the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 gene was used to diagnose mycoplasma infection in two cohort patients with severe pneumonia within 24 h of tissue receipt. A postmortem diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection was obtained for the first patient, who died without the collection of appropriate paired samples for serodiagnosis. An open-lung biopsy obtained from the second

  15. In vivo tissue sampling of embryonic resorption sites using ultrasound guided biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Schroeder; B. Drews; K. Roellig; B. R. Menzies; F. Goeritz; T. B. Hildebrandt

    2011-01-01

    In the polytocous European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) more than 23% of all successful implantations undergo embryonic resorption. The objective of the study was to establish a minimally invasive ultrasound guided biopsy technique to collect embryonic resorption tissue in vivo. The sampled material was genetically analysed to determine paternity and the sex of the embryo. Female hares were either mated

  16. Sedoanalgesia With Midazolam and Fentanyl Citrate Controls Probe Pain During Prostate Biopsy by Transrectal Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Fábio Hissachi; Chambó, Renato Caretta; Agostinho, Aparecido Donizeti; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the pain intensity of patients administered midazolam and fentanyl citrate before undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This was a study in patients with different indications for prostate biopsy in whom 5 mg of midazolam and 50 µg of fentanyl citrate was administered intravenously 3 minutes before the procedure. After biopsy, pain was assessed by use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) in three stages: VAS 1, during probe introduction; VAS 2, during needle penetration into prostate tissue; and VAS 3, in the weeks following the exam. Pain intensity at these different times was tested with stratification by age, race, education, prostate volume, rebiopsy, and anxiety before biopsy. Pain was ranked according to the following scores: 0 (no pain), 1-3 (mild pain), 4-7 (moderate pain), and 8-10 (severe pain). Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon two-tailed tests with a significance of 5%. Results Pain intensity was not influenced by any risk factors. The mean VAS 1 score was 1.95±1.98, the mean VAS 2 score was 2.73±2.55, and the mean VAS 3 score was 0.3±0.9, showing greater pain at the time of needle penetration than in other situations (VAS 2>VAS 1>VAS 3, p=0.0013, p=0.0001, respectively). Seventy-five percent of patients reported a VAS pain scale of less than 3.1 or mild pain. Conclusions Intravenous sedation and analgesia with midazolam and fentanyl citrate is a good method for reducing pain caused by prostate biopsy, even during probe insertion. PMID:24578806

  17. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the spine: results of 430 biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Casadei, Roberto; Alberghini, Marco; Malaguti, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Durante, Stefano; Mercuri, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Biopsies of lesions in the spine are often challenging procedures with significant risk of complications. CT-guided needle biopsies could lower these risks but uncertainties still exist about the diagnostic accuracy. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided needle biopsies for bone lesions of the spine. We retrieved the results of 430 core needle biopsies carried out over the past fifteen years at the authors’ institute and examined the results obtained. Of the 430 biopsies performed, in 401 cases the right diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (93.3% accuracy rate). Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, inflammatory, and systemic pathologies. There were only 9 complications (5 transient paresis, 4 haematomas that resolved spontaneously) that had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on the patient’s outcome. In conclusion we can assert that this technique is reliable and safe and should be considered the gold standard in biopsies of the spine. PMID:18463900

  18. Diagnostic value and limitations of orbital biopsy in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kalina, P H; Lie, J T; Campbell, R J; Garrity, J A

    1992-01-01

    Patients with Wegener's granulomatosis may present with ophthalmic involvement in either the classic or limited forms. Although the overall clinical picture and serologic testing for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) are important, biopsy is often necessary for a definitive diagnosis. Accurate interpretation of these orbital biopsies is essential. The authors reviewed the histopathologic features of 13 orbital biopsies in patients with well-documented Wegener's granulomatosis. The classic triad of vasculitis, tissue necrosis, and granulomatous inflammation was seen in 7 of 13 biopsies (54%). Vasculitis in combination with other microscopic findings was seen in 4 of 13 (31%) biopsies. Giant cells were seldom seen. Two biopsies showed only perivascular infiltrates. Based on this study, it appears that a spectrum of histopathologic features can be seen in orbital biopsies in Wegener's granulomatosis. This study underscores the importance of clinical correlation, the application of the ANCA test, and comparison with extraorbital biopsies, if available, when interpreting orbital biopsies in the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:1741123

  19. For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more about what’s happening. Women who have had breast lumps, suspicious mammograms, and breast biopsies helped write this. They have gone through ... your health care team. We also have a Breast Cancer Dictionary that many women and their doctors ... Last Medical Review: 07/21/2014 Last Revised: 07/21/2014 ...

  20. Performance feedback in a spine biopsy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Cleary, Kevin R.

    1998-06-01

    A surgical simulator for needle biopsy of the spine is being developed in the Radiology Department at Georgetown University Medical Center to assist in learning the procedure as well as to maximize accuracy and efficiency. Spine biopsies are often done under computed tomography (CT) guidance and while this technique is effective, it can be time consuming since the biopsy needle must be advanced slowly and its position checked several times to ensure vital organs are not damaged. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback tot eh surgeon as well as the design engineers. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback to the surgeon as well as the design engineers. Performance measures are also important to determine transfer of simulator training skills to actual surgical skills. The simulation protocol is in advanced development, and the steps include selecting the best CT slice for viewing the lesion, choosing the skin entry point, and advancing the needle to the biopsy location. Our methods for developing the system include the following: 1) A task analysis, which produces a detailed list of tasks needed to complete a goal, their order, and time to completion, 2) A function allocation assessment, which identifies critical task components with the goal of relieving the human workload by a reallocation of system functions, and 3) A simulator evaluation through subjective ratings and objective human performance measures.

  1. Motile Sperm in Human Testis Biopsy Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM W. JOW; JOPH STECKEL; PETER N. SCHLEGEL; MARGRET S. MAGID

    We prospectively studied 62 consecutive infertile men who underwent 100 intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material obtained simultaneously with permanently fixed specimens. Wet preps were performed by placing a small sam- pIe of fresh testicular tissue on a slide, adding a drop of Ringer's lactate, and compressing the specimen under a glass coverslip. Among these 100 wet

  2. Clinical role of the renal transplant biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Taheri; Nina Tolkoff-Rubin; Robert B. Colvin; Winfred W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy is the definitive procedure by which essential diagnostic and prognostic information on acute and chronic renal allograft dysfunction is obtained. The diagnostic value of the information so obtained has endured for over three decades and has proven crucially important in shaping strategies for therapeutic intervention. This Review provides a broad outline of the utility of performing

  3. Biopsy of Brainstem Gliomas Using Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Torres-Corzo, Jaime Gerardo; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Jose; Castillo-Rueda, Juan Lucino; Falcon-Escobedo, Reynaldo; Cervantes, Dominic; Rodriguez-Della Vecchia, Roberto; Vinas-Rios, Juan Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Objectives?To describe our experience and the results obtained in performing transventricular brainstem biopsy with the use of flexible neuroendoscops. Methods?We identified patients who underwent a neuroendoscopic procedure with brainstem lesion biopsy to obtain histopathologic diagnosis and to treat obstructive hydrocephalus. All patients had follow-up examinations at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 postsurgery and then annually. Results?Seven patients had a transventricular biopsy of the brainstem performed. Of those, five were pediatric patients. The median age was 10 years (range: 3-26 years). Five of them were female and two male. Four patients presented with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. The main clinical presentations were intracranial hypertension syndrome in four patients, motor neuron disease in four patients, two with decreased state of alertness, two with gait ataxia, and one with Parinaud syndrome. The types of tumors found in the histopathology and their location were one ventral (pons) and one aqueductal anaplastic astrocytoma, two ventral, one aqueductal, and one attached to the floor of the fourth ventricle pilocytic astrocytoma and one ventral low-grade astrocytoma. The route taken to approach the ventral tumors was made through premammillary fenestration. The tumors of the aqueduct and floor of the fourth ventricle were approached transaqueductally. Conclusion?The use of flexible endoscops for biopsy of ventral, dorsal (tectum lamina quadrigemina), and diffuse brainstem tumors is a useful, effective, and safe procedure that also allows to treat obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to the tumors. PMID:25798800

  4. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Mine Tailings Amended with Organic Carbon for Passive Treatment of Pore Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. J. Lindsay; Kathryn D. Wakeman; Owen F. Rowe; Barry M. Grail; Carol J. Ptacek; David W. Blowes; D. Barrie Johnson

    2011-01-01

    A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate organic carbon amendment of mine tailings as a technique for pore water and drainage treatment. Six test cells were constructed by amending sulfide- and carbonate- rich tailings with varied mixtures of peat, spent-brewing grain and municipal biosolids. Samples were collected for microbial, geochemical and mineralogical analysis approximately three years after commencing this experiment.

  5. Metal Recovery and Inorganic Eco-Materials from Tailings by Leaching-Sintering Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Lihua; Li Wenchao; Volodymyr Shatokha; Liu Ming; Wang Huan; Bi Songmei; Bi Yubao

    2008-01-01

    Integrated tailings utilization of metallic ore is an overall situation associated with additional resourse storage, cleaning exploitation of mine, and environmental concerns. The purpose of the present work is to study and develop several corresponding recycling routes for tailings in accordance with chemical component and paragenesis state of minerals. Four typical gangues are collected from Chinese western dominant mine, discharged

  6. Distribution of the Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata) in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleen M. Richter; Eric M. Schauber

    2006-01-01

    Knowing the geographic distribution of any species is an important first step toward understanding its ecology. Long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata) are secretive and diffi- cult to detect, so little is known about their distribution in Illinois. To fill this gap in the knowledge, we solicited information from museum curators about the sites where long-tailed weasel specimens were collected in Illinois

  7. GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE,

    E-print Network

    GASTROINTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER: EFFECTS OF FIRE, REPRODUCTION) and mule deer (O. hemionus) using similar burned and unburned habitat. Deer were collected from study areas and enlargement factor of papillae surface of white-tailed deer and mule deer were greater in burned than unburned

  8. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

  9. MRI–ultrasound fusion for guidance of targeted prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Leonard; Young, Shelena; Natarajan, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer (CaP) may be detected on MRI. Fusion of MRI with ultrasound allows urologists to progress from blind, systematic biopsies to biopsies, which are mapped, targeted and tracked. We herein review the current status of prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion. Recent findings Three methods of fusing MRI for targeted biopsy have been recently described: MRI–ultrasound fusion, MRI–MRI fusion (‘in-bore’ biopsy) and cognitive fusion. Supportive data are emerging for the fusion devices, two of which received US Food and Drug Administration approval in the past 5 years: Artemis (Eigen, USA) and Urostation (Koelis, France). Working with the Artemis device in more than 600 individuals, we found that targeted biopsies are two to three times more sensitive for detection of CaP than nontargeted systematic biopsies; nearly 40% of men with Gleason score of at least 7 CaP are diagnosed only by targeted biopsy; nearly 100% of men with highly suspicious MRI lesions are diagnosed with CaP; ability to return to a prior biopsy site is highly accurate (within 1.2 ± 1.1 mm); and targeted and systematic biopsies are twice as accurate as systematic biopsies alone in predicting whole-organ disease. Summary In the future, MRI–ultrasound fusion for lesion targeting is likely to result in fewer and more accurate prostate biopsies than the present use of systematic biopsies with ultrasound guidance alone. PMID:23138468

  10. Feasibility of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and its applications in superficial cervical lesion biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Xu, Hai-Miao; Li, Ming-Kui; Chen, Li-Yu; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and value of clinical application of fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy via ultrasound-guided thyroid nodule and enlarged cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration cytological and histological biopsies and surgical treatments were performed on 982 patients with thyroid nodule and 1435 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. A comparative study of the histological and cytological examination results and post-surgical etiology results was subsequently conducted. Among the 982 thyroid nodule patients, the acquisition rates were 89.8% (882/982) for fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy and 96.2% (945/982) for cytological biopsy, while among the 1435 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes, the acquisition rate for fine-needle aspiration cytological biopsy was slightly higher than that for histological biopsy, with values of 95.7% (1374/1435) and 91.4% (1312/1435), respectively. For the thyroid nodule patients, when the acquired histological and cytological biopsy results were compared with the post-surgical etiology results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the histological results were 98.5%, 100%, and 98.9%, respectively, whereas those of the cytological results were 86.8%, 82.9%, and 85.6%, respectively; the differences between the 2 biopsy methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). For the patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes, when the acquired histological and cytological biopsy results were compared with the post-surgical etiology results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the histological results were 96.3%, 99.8%, and 97.6%, respectively, whereas the those of the cytological results were 76.8%, 92.1%, and 82.2%, respectively; again, the differences between the 2 methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Fine-needle aspiration histological biopsy is a reliable and highly accurate examination method. It is simple and feasible, thus facilitating the discrimination of malignant and benign thyroid nodules and enlarged cervical lymph nodes and playing an important role in the establishment of reasonable clinical therapeutic regimens. PMID:25197391

  11. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  12. A simplified metabolism cage and tail cup for young rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Frape; J. Wilkinson; L. G. Chubb

    1970-01-01

    SUMMARY A description is given of an inexpensive metabolism cage, in which powdered diets can be fed without measurable loss. Coprophagy is completely eliminated in rats fitted with a new design of tail cup, and in this way total collections of faeces and urine are readily achieved. Cups of a similar design have been fitted both to young male and

  13. Theileriosis in a White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Fawn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Yabsley; Tracie C. Quick; Susan E. Little

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn was collected in Missouri (USA) and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy and histologic examination revealed severe Amblyomma americanum infestation, pronounced icterus, and marked hemosiderin deposition in the liver and spleen. Whole blood evaluation revealed a normocytic normochro- mic anemia and a piroplasm parasitemia of ap- proximately 70%. The piroplasm was identified as Theileria cervi

  14. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

  15. Protocol biopsy of donor kidney in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zadrazil, Josef; Krejeí, Karel; Bachleda, Petr; Al-Jabry, Sadek

    2004-01-01

    This review article defines the term marginal (suboptimal) donor of organs and there is a summary of current opinions on the importance of protocol biopsies of kidneys performed in these donors during graft collection. Bioptic examination of kidneys in marginal donors provides information that cannot be obtained in any other way. Most authors engaged in this problem hold the view that evaluation of the extent of involution changes and the decision about the appropriateness of the organ for transplantation cannot be based only on the age criteria and there should always be a biopsy performed in suboptimal donors. Histological examination enables an objective evaluation of a pre-existing morphological lesion; especially the extent of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and vascular damage that may limit the functional level and vitality of the graft. As marginal are usually considered kidneys with more than 20% of glomerulosclerosis, kidneys with interstitial fibrosis affecting more than 25% of cortex or kidneys with a finding of arteriosclerotic changes causing more than 25% obliteration of the vascular lumen. It has to be considered, during a transplantation of a marginal kidney, that a long-term survival of the graft will be significantly decreased. But because the number of patients waiting for transplantation is increasing faster than the number of transplants performed, there are possibilities mentioned briefly in this article advising how to optimally use these marginal kidneys as well. PMID:15884428

  16. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5yrs). PMID:25960275

  17. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876.1075 Section...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1075 Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a)...

  2. 18 Sharp-tailed Grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Johnsgard

    2008-01-01

    Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

  3. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Gurel; Oguz Karabay; Safiye Gurel; Charles Hildebolt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed

  4. Tail bud determination in the vertebrate embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail S. Tucker; Jonathan M. W. Slack

    1995-01-01

    Background: Although as humans we lose our tails in the second month of embryonic development, a persistent tail is a prominent structural feature of most adult vertebrates. Indeed, the post-anal tail is part of the definition of a chordate. The internal organization of the developing tail — with neural tube, notochord and paired somites — is the same as that

  5. Achromatized endomicroscope objective for optical biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kyrish, Matthew; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, researchers and clinicians lack achromatized endomicroscope objectives that are as narrow as biopsy needles. We present a proof-of-concept prototype that validates the optical design of an NA0.4 objective. The objective, built with plastic lenses, has a 0.9 mm clear aperture and is achromatized from 452 nm to 623 nm. The objective’s measured Strehl ratio is 0.74 ± 0.05 across a 250 ?m FOV. We perform optical sectioning via structured illumination through the objective while capturing fluorescence images of breast carcinoma cells stained with proflavine and cresyl violet. This technology has the potential to improve optical biopsies and provide the next step forward in cancer diagnostics. PMID:23412009

  6. Initial experience with the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent D Matthews; Gary B Williams

    1999-01-01

    Background: Advanced breast biopsy instrumentation is a recently designed alternative to large-core stereotactic and open needle localized breast biopsies. This minimally invasive technique uses digital stereotactic imaging to perform excisional biopsies of suspicious, nonpalpable mammographic lesions. The role of the ABBI system in the management of breast cancer has not yet been defined.Methods: A retrospective review to evaluate the safety,

  7. Does lung biopsy help patients with interstitial lung disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rizwan A Qureshi; Tanveer A Ahmed; Antony D Grayson; Ajaib S Soorae; M. John Drakeley; Richard D Page

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The decision to perform lung biopsy in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is based on the probability that this examination will yield a specific diagnosis, leading to a change in treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the diagnostic yield of lung biopsy for ILD. Methods: One hundred patients underwent lung biopsy

  8. Interpretation of tissue artifacts in transbronchial lung biopsy specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne M. Kendall; Anthony A. Gal

    2003-01-01

    Proper interpretation of transbronchial biopsies is critical for appropriate patient management. Artifacts in lung tissue acquired during the biopsy procedure or subsequent processing may mimic “true” disease and potentially lead to incorrect diagnoses. In this study the interpretation of various artifacts in transbronchial biopsies will be correlated with the level of pathologist training and experience. Minced 1 to 2 mm

  9. Endomyocardial biopsy in diagnosis of myocardial diseases.

    PubMed

    Benedek, I; Hintea, T

    1999-01-01

    In the past years, diagnosis of myocardial diseases became less difficult. A major contribution in this direction has the recent development of diagnosis methods. One of the most recent diagnosis procedures is the endomyocardial biopsy, which manages directly through the histologic examination to establish a clear diagnosis in myocardial diseases. This method provides faithful morphological data about the pathological changes in the myocardium. The aim of our study was to underline the importance of endomyocardial biopsy in an accurate diagnosis of different cardiomyopathies. In the period of 12 years (1986-1998), in the Cardiovascular Department of the First Medical Clinic Târgu-Mure?, Romania, were admitted 137 patients suffering from different cardiomyopathies. We performed a number of more than 100 endomyocardial biopsies on 25 of them, obtaining in each case 3 to 5 samples of endomyocardial tissue from the right ventricle. In all cases the Cordis bioptome was introduced in the right ventricle via femoralis vein. The complications were minor: ventricular extrasystoles. In all cases, we succeeded to obtain enough tissue for the histopathological examination, from different areas of RV. Histologic examination showed in all cases characteristic aspects of different cardiomyopathies. helping to clarify the diagnosis. After performing Endomyocardial Biopsy, we record an important increase of dilated cardiomyopathy percentage of diagnosis, from 40% to 72%. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, we observed a good correlation between hemodynamical data (Ejection Fraction, Left Ventricle End-Diastolic Pressure, etc.) and the index of myocardial damage, especially the degree of interstitial fibrosis. Using this method it is possible to distinguish different types of cardiomyopathies, such as: primary dilated cardiomyopathy, eosinophilic cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Because the complications of this procedure are insignificant, and because of its important benefit for an accurate diagnosis, we recommend to apply this method for different cardiomyopathies. PMID:15532299

  10. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon van der Walt

    2009-01-01

    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal\\u000a selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external\\u000a quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry\\u000a and aspirate morphology are discussed where

  11. The Breast Biopsy Paradigm Shifts Once Again

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin J. Silverstein; Howard Silberman

    1999-01-01

    When we first began our surgical training over 30 years ago, there were few brave souls challenging the current dogma of the day and of the preceding 50 years: the one-stage procedure for breast cancer. You remember the one-stage procedure. A woman with a palpable mass (there were essentially no mammographic cancers or wire-directed biopsies at that time) was admitted

  12. Colonic Lymphangiomatosis Resolved after Excisional Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Gyu Won; Cho, Hye Jae

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of the lymphatic system that involves a benign proliferation of the lymphatics, with no established treatment method. Multiple colonic lymphangioma, or colonic lymphangiomatosis, is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis that was detected during a colonoscopic examination conducted as part of a general health check-up. The lesion completely resolved after excisional biopsy. PMID:25674533

  13. The character of the suspended and dissolved phases in the water cover of the flooded mine tailings at Stekenjokk, northern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henning Holmström; Johan Ljungberg; Björn Öhlander

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the suspended and dissolved phases of the pond water, material collected from sediment traps, and surficial sediments\\/tailings from the flooded tailings pond at Stekenjokk have been performed. The aim was to characterise the material, to study the seasonal variations and to quantify possible resuspension of the tailings in the pond. The element concentrations in the pond at Stekenjokk

  14. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

  15. Prospective study of the usefulness of sural nerve biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, C; Howard, R; Kinsella, N; Lucas, S; McColl, I; Saldanha, G; Hall, S; Hughes, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to determine the usefulness of sural nerve biopsy in neurological practice.?METHODS—The first prospective study of sural nerve biopsy in 50 consecutive patients was undertaken. The investigating neurologist declared the prebiopsy diagnosis and management plan and after 3 months an independent neurologist evaluated the contribution of the biopsy to diagnosis and management. An independent audit officer sought information from the patient about the adverse effects and value of the biopsy after 6 weeks and 6months.?RESULTS—In seven cases the nerve biopsy changed the diagnosis, in 35 cases the biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis, and in eight cases the biopsy was non-contributory. The biopsy either changed or was helpful in guiding patient management in 60%, especially those with demyelinating neuropathy and multiple mononeuropathy. Seven patients reported having had infection and 10 reported increased pain at the biopsy site 6 months later.?CONCLUSION—In a consecutive series of 50 cases, sural nerve biopsy altered the diagnosis in 14%, affected management in 60%, and caused persistent increased pain at the biopsy site in 33%.?? PMID:10990501

  16. Accuracy analysis in MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, Andras; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Singh, Anurag K.; Pinto, Peter A.; Coleman, Jonathan; Grubb, Robert L.; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Menard, Cynthia; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess retrospectively the clinical accuracy of an magnetic resonance imaging-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been used in the US National Cancer Institute for over 6 years. Methods Series of 2D transverse volumetric MR image slices of the prostate both pre (high-resolution T2-weighted)-and post (low-resolution)-needle insertions were used to evaluate biopsy accuracy. A three-stage registration algorithm consisting of an initial two-step rigid registration followed by a B-spline deformable alignment was developed to capture prostate motion during biopsy. The target displacement (distance between planned and actual biopsy target), needle placement error (distance from planned biopsy target to needle trajectory), and biopsy error (distance from actual biopsy target to needle trajectory) were calculated as accuracy assessment. Results A total of 90 biopsies from 24 patients were studied. The registrations were validated by checking prostate contour alignment using image overlay, and the results were accurate to within 2 mm. The mean target displacement, needle placement error, and clinical biopsy error were 5.2, 2.5, and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusion The biopsy error reported suggests that quantitative imaging techniques for prostate registration and motion compensation may improve prostate biopsy targeting accuracy. PMID:23532560

  17. Obliteration of symptomatic Schatzki rings with jumbo biopsy forceps (with video).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A; Sullivan, M F; Bonder, A; Allison, H V; Bonis, P A; Guelrud, M

    2014-01-01

    A Schatzki ring is a submucosal, fibrotic thickening located at the gastroesophageal junction. Endoscopic treatment traditionally involves disruption of the ring. Many approaches have been described including bougies, balloons, biopsies, and diathermic monopolar incision. While all of these approaches are effective in the short-term, recurrence is common. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of complete excision of the ring using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. Our main outcome measurements were the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of complete obliteration of Schatzki rings using jumbo cold biopsy forceps. We designed an observational study using a standard protocol for patient management and data collection using a university hospital as our setting. We followed 10 patients with dysphagia due to a Schatzki's ring, six of whom had previously undergone bougienage or balloon dilation. Five patients were on maintenance therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and one with an H2 blocker. Complete endoscopic obliteration of the Schatzki rings with a cold jumbo biopsy forceps was achieved in all 10 patients requiring a mean of 9.8 biopsies (range 8-12). Omeprazole (20?mg twice daily) was prescribed after the procedure. All 10 patients demonstrated improvement in dysphagia after treatment, which persisted during a mean follow-up time of 379 days (range 63-496 days). There were no serious complications. The limitations of our study include lack of a control group, a small sample size, and being a single-institution study. We concluded that complete Schatzki ring obliteration with jumbo cold biopsy forceps is a safe, feasible, and effective endoscopic treatment. PMID:24552567

  18. Design of a Small Animal Biopsy Robot

    PubMed Central

    Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M. Cenk

    2009-01-01

    Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion. PMID:19163987

  19. Endobronchial biopsies on aspirin and prasugrel.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Kebbe, Jad

    2015-06-01

    Patients are generally required to stop antiplatelet therapy prior to elective invasive procedures. Some patients receive dual antiplatelet therapy for recent vascular procedures such as drug-eluting coronary stenting, and early discontinuation of antiplatelet agents could lead to a significant risk of stent thrombosis. Most bronchoscopic procedures are performed on patients using Aspirin but not on those using Clopidogrel or Prasugrel. In this report, we describe a unique case of a patient with a recent placement of drug-eluting stents, who required endobronchial biopsies for evaluation of lung cancer recurrence. The procedure was performed successfully and safely with no complications. PMID:25697386

  20. Microcomputer use in an oral biopsy service.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K V; Jones, D L

    1986-04-01

    The need for rapid and accurate retrieval of the data generated by an oral biopsy service and the adjacent medical center was met with the purchase and programming of a microcomputer and hard disk drive. The planning phase involved an assessment of the needs of the department, creation of an ideal form to be displayed on the video screen that can be easily used to enter the information, selection of coding systems, and selection of compatible hardware and software. Customized in-house programming using a commercially available database management system has created an entry form and menu-driven information retrieval system tailored to the needs of the department. PMID:3458147

  1. Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Khatun, M; Sørensen, P; Ingvartsen, K L; Bjerring, M; Røntved, C M

    2013-10-01

    A minimally invasive biopsy technique was evaluated for udder tissue collection in dairy cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Meanwhile, the effect of taking repeated liver and udder biopsies on the systemic and local acute phase response (APR) of the dairy cows was investigated during the disease. The cows were divided into a biopsy group (B) (n = 16) and a no-biopsy group (NB) (n = 16) and were sampled in the acute disease stage and in the recovery stage. The cows' pre-disease period served as a control period for establishing baseline values for the investigated parameters. A total of 32 Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with 20 to 40 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli in one front quarter at 0 hour. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 h, and udder biopsies were collected at 24 and 192 h post E. coli inoculation (PI) using a minimally invasive biopsy technique. Effects of combined biopsying were investigated by recording production traits, clinical response, and measuring inflammatory milk and blood parameters: E. coli, somatic cell count, milk amyloid A (MAA) levels, white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte numbers and serum amyloid A levels at several time points. E. coli inoculation changed all production parameters and the clinical and inflammatory response in all cows except one that was not infected. Combined biopsying had no constant or transient effect on the daily feed intake, the clinical responsiveness or the blood parameters, but affected the daily milk yield and some milk parameters transiently, that is, the presence of blood in milk, increased E. coli counts and MAA levels during the acute disease stage. Combined biopsying had no effect on the parameters in the recovery stage apart from the presence of blood in the milk. In conclusion, although, a minimally invasive biopsy technique was used, tissue damages could not be avoided when biopsying and they transiently affected the inflammatory parameters in the mammary gland. Nevertheless, we believe combined biopsying of liver and udder is as an acceptable approach to study the systemic and local APR in dairy cows during E. coli mastitis, if the timing of biopsying and other types of sampling is planned accordingly. PMID:23867091

  2. Documenting the location of prostate biopsies with image fusion

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Locklin, Julia; Pang, Yuxi; Bernardo, Marcelino; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a system that documents the location of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies by fusing them to MRI scans obtained prior to biopsy, as the actual location of prostate biopsies is rarely known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty patients (median age 61) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 3T endorectal coil MRI prior to biopsy. 3D TRUS images were obtained just prior to standard TRUS-guided 12-core sextant biopsies wherein an electromagnetic positioning device was attached to the needle guide and TRUS probe in order to track the position of each needle pass. The 3D-TRUS image documenting the location of each biopsy was fused electronically to the T2-weighted MRI. Each biopsy needle track was marked on the TRUS images and these were then transposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified pathologically as positive or negative for cancer and the Gleason score was determined. RESULTS The location of all (n = 605) needle biopsy tracks was successfully documented on the T2-weighted (T2W) MRI. Among 50 patients, 20 had 56 positive cores. At the sites of biopsy, T2W signal was considered ‘positive’ for cancer (i.e. low in signal intensity) in 34 of 56 sites. CONCLUSION It is feasible to document the location of TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on pre-procedure MRI by fusing the pre-procedure TRUS to an endorectal coil MRI using electromagnetic needle tracking. This procedure may be useful in documenting the location of prior biopsies, improving quality control and thereby avoiding under-sampling of the prostate as well as directing subsequent biopsies to regions of the prostate not previously sampled. PMID:20590543

  3. Geometric Evaluation of Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Misop; Chang, Doyoung; Kim, Chunwoo; Lee, Brian J.; Zuo, Yihe; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Petrisor, Doru; Trock, Bruce; Partin, Alan W.; Rodriguez, Ronald; Carter, H. Ballentine; Allaf, Mohamad; Kim, Jongwon; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy results rely on physician ability to target the gland according to the biopsy schema. However, to our knowledge it is unknown how accurately the freehand, transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy cores are placed in the prostate and how the geometric distribution of biopsy cores may affect the prostate cancer detection rate. Materials and Methods To determine the geometric distribution of cores, we developed a biopsy simulation system with pelvic mock-ups and an optical tracking system. Mock-ups were biopsied in a freehand manner by 5 urologists and by our transrectal ultrasound robot, which can support and move the transrectal ultrasound probe. We compared 1) targeting errors, 2) the accuracy and precision of repeat biopsies, and 3) the estimated significant prostate cancer (0.5 cm3 or greater) detection rate using a probability based model. Results Urologists biopsied cores in clustered patterns and under sampled a significant portion of the prostate. The robot closely followed the predefined biopsy schema. The mean targeting error of the urologists and the robot was 9.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Robotic assistance significantly decreased repeat biopsy errors with improved accuracy and precision. The mean significant prostate cancer detection rate of the urologists and the robot was 36% and 43%, respectively (p <0.0001). Conclusions Systematic biopsy with freehand transrectal ultrasound guidance does not closely follow the sextant schema and may result in suboptimal sampling and cancer detection. Repeat freehand biopsy of the same target is challenging. Robotic assistance with optimized biopsy schemas can potentially improve targeting, precision and accuracy. A clinical trial is needed to confirm the additional benefits of robotic assistance. PMID:23088974

  4. Documenting the location of prostate biopsies with image fusion.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Baris; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Locklin, Julia; Pang, Yuxi; Bernardo, Marcelino; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a system that documents the location of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies by fusing them to MRI scans obtained prior to biopsy, as the actual location of prostate biopsies is rarely known. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty patients (median age 61) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 3T endorectal coil MRI prior to biopsy. 3D TRUS images were obtained just prior to standard TRUS-guided 12-core sextant biopsies wherein an electromagnetic positioning device was attached to the needle guide and TRUS probe in order to track the position of each needle pass. The 3D-TRUS image documenting the location of each biopsy was fused electronically to the T2-weighted MRI. Each biopsy needle track was marked on the TRUS images and these were then transposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified pathologically as positive or negative for cancer and the Gleason score was determined. RESULTS The location of all (n= 605) needle biopsy tracks was successfully documented on the T2-weighted (T2W) MRI. Among 50 patients, 20 had 56 positive cores. At the sites of biopsy, T2W signal was considered 'positive' for cancer (i.e. low in signal intensity) in 34 of 56 sites. CONCLUSION It is feasible to document the location of TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on pre-procedure MRI by fusing the pre-procedure TRUS to an endorectal coil MRI using electromagnetic needle tracking. This procedure may be useful in documenting the location of prior biopsies, improving quality control and thereby avoiding under-sampling of the prostate as well as directing subsequent biopsies to regions of the prostate not previously sampled. PMID:20590543

  5. Biopsy sampling of breast lesions: comparison of core needle- and vacuum-assisted breast biopsies.

    PubMed

    Lacambra, Maribel D; Lam, Christopher C; Mendoza, Paulo; Chan, Siu Ki; Yu, Alex M; Tsang, Julia Y S; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tse, Gary M

    2012-04-01

    Needle biopsy is now the initial investigation of choice for the pre-operative diagnosis of breast lesions. This includes core needle biopsy (CNB) and vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) with or without radiologic assistance. The performance indices of both of these biopsy techniques were evaluated. In a large cohort of patients with breast lesions including 464 cases (285 CNB and 179 VAB), with confirmed outcomes, the diagnostic accuracy was compared using parameters including quantitation of the sampling based on the total number of cores taken, cores containing breast parenchyma, and cores with lesion; and non-epithelial changes including necrosis and calcification. CNB showed a 99% PPV, 94% NPV, 96% sensitivity, and 99% specificity, whereas VAB demonstrated a 100% PPV, 100% NPV, 100% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. The correct diagnosis in CNB was proportional to the number of cores extracted, whereas accuracy of VAB was independent of the total number of cores taken. There was a positive correlation between the presence of calcification and malignancy in CNB, but not detected under VAB. CNB and VAB were equally efficient in palpable lesions, in detecting necrosis, and calcification. Large calcification was found to be associated with malignancy in both CNB and VAB. In non-palpable lesions, VAB was more effective in the detection of calcification. The diagnostic accuracy of VAB appeared to be independent of number of cores sampled, whereas CNB required a minimum of 3-4 cores to achieve high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:21698409

  6. Stereotactic biopsy of brain stem lesions.

    PubMed

    Boviatsis, E J; Voumvourakis, K; Goutas, N; Kazdaglis, K; Kittas, C; Kelekis, D A

    2001-12-01

    The successful therapy of space-occupying lesions of the brain stem, depends on precise histological diagnosis. Although the clinical management and contemporary imaging techniques (computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are now able to reveal and approach the diagnosis in these cases, only the combination of these two with the use of contemporary stereotactic systems, is able to secure the precise histological diagnosis for the patient with a good degree of safety. This study presents the first five patients in Greece with space-occupying lesions of the brain stem, in whom a stereotactic biopsy was carried out. All patients were subjected to CT-guided stereotactic biopsy, via the frontal approach in 4 patients with lesions in the superior pons and the mesencephalon and in one patient via the transcerebellar approach, for a lesion in the lateral surface of the pons. Precise histological diagnosis was possible and on the basis of a reliable choice of histological criteria the appropriate therapeutic approach was chosen, thus avoiding the old "empirical" treatment. PMID:11830783

  7. Liquid biopsies in patients with diffuse glioma.

    PubMed

    Best, Myron G; Sol, Nik; Zijl, Sebastiaan; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Wesseling, Pieter; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse gliomas are the most common malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system. Like other neoplasms, these gliomas release molecular information into the circulation. Tumor-derived biomarkers include proteins, nucleic acids, and tumor-derived extracellular vesicles that accumulate in plasma, serum, blood platelets, urine and/or cerebrospinal fluid. Recently, also circulating tumor cells have been identified in the blood of glioma patients. Circulating molecules, vesicles, platelets, and cells may be useful as easily accessible diagnostic, prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers to guide patient management. Thereby, this approach may help to circumvent problems related to tumor heterogeneity and sampling error at the time of diagnosis. Also, liquid biopsies may allow for serial monitoring of treatment responses and of changes in the molecular characteristics of gliomas over time. In this review, we summarize the literature on blood-based biomarkers and their potential value for improving the management of patients with a diffuse glioma. Incorporation of the study of circulating molecular biomarkers in clinical trials is essential for further assessment of the potential of liquid biopsies in this context. PMID:25720744

  8. Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    property µ(tB) = t- µ(B), B, bounded away from 0, where > 0 is known as the tail index. Haijun Li A tail approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Haijun Li (Joint work with Peiling Wu) Department of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal

  9. Estimating Tails of Probability Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Smith

    1987-01-01

    We study the asymptotic properties of estimators of the tail of a distribution based on the excesses over a threshold. A key idea is the use of Pickands' generalised Pareto distribution and its fitting, in most cases, by the method of maximum likelihood. The results cover all three limiting types of extreme value theory. We propose a new estimator for

  10. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  11. Mercury-Redstone Tail Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    In this 1959 photograph, technicians prepare tail sections for Mercury-Redstone vehicles in Building 4706 at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone, the Mercury-Redstone launched the first two marned U.S. missions.

  12. The ionospheres and plasma tails of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge about cometary plasma (type I) tails and ionospheres. Observational statistics for type I tails are examined along with spectroscopic observations of plasma tails, identified ion species in such tails, and the morphology of cometary plasma tails and ionospheres. Evidence for a strong interaction between comets and the solar wind is evaluated on the basis of observations of plasma-tail orientations, large accelerations of tail structures, and correlations between disturbances in type I tails and solar-wind or geomagnetic disturbances. The use of comets as solar-wind probes is discussed, the nature of comet-solar-wind interactions is investigated, and ionization sources for cometary gases are considered. Hydrodynamic models of comet-solar-wind interaction are summarized, and the structure and ion chemistry of cometary ionospheres are studied. Observations suggesting that significant magnetic fields are associated with comets are briefly reviewed and interpreted.

  13. Accuracy validation for MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helen; Lasso, Andras; Vikal, Siddharth; Guion, Peter; Krieger, Axel; Kaushal, Aradhana; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-02-01

    We report a quantitative evaluation of the clinical accuracy of a MRI-guided robotic prostate biopsy system that has been in use for over five years at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. A two-step rigid volume registration using mutual information between the pre and post needle insertion images was performed. Contour overlays of the prostate before and after registration were used to validate the registration. A total of 20 biopsies from 5 patients were evaluated. The maximum registration error was 2 mm. The mean biopsy target displacement, needle placement error, and biopsy error was 5.4 mm, 2.2 mm, and 5.1 mm respectively. The results show that the pre-planned biopsy target did dislocate during the procedure and therefore causing biopsy errors.

  14. A low background Raman probe for optical biopsy of brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Hutchings, Joanne; Gray, William; Day, John C.

    2014-03-01

    Removal of intrinsic brain tumours is a delicate process, where a high degree of specificity is required to remove all of the tumour tissue without damaging healthy brain. The accuracy of this process can be greatly enhanced by intraoperative guidance. Optical biopsies using Raman spectroscopy are a minimally invasive and lower cost alternative to current guidance methods. A miniature Raman probe for performing optical biopsies of human brain tissue is presented. The probe allows sampling inside a conventional stereotactic brain biopsy system: a needle of length 200mm and inner diameter of 1.8mm. The probe achieves a very low fluorescent background whilst maintaining good collection of Raman signal by employing a miniature stand-off Raman design. To illustrate this, the probe is compared with a Raman probe that uses a pair of optical fibres for collection. The miniature stand-off Raman probe is shown to collect a comparable number of Raman scattered photons, but the fluorescence caused by silica fibres in a Raman needle probe is reduced by a factor of two for Raman shifts under 500 cm-1, and by 30% at 600-700 cm-1. In addition, this design contains only medically approved materials at the distal end. The probe's suitability for use on tissue is demonstrated by discriminating between different types of porcine brain tissue.

  15. Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction–defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive–when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

  16. Isolation and cytokine analysis of lamina propria lymphocytes from mucosal biopsies of the human colon.

    PubMed

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Malter, Lisa B; Chen, Lea Ann; Wolff, Martin J; Robertson, Ian; Rifkin, Daniel B; Poles, Michael; Cho, Ilseug; Loke, P'ng

    2015-06-01

    Much of our understanding of gut-microbial interactions has come from mouse models. Intestinal immunity is complex and a combination of host genetics and environmental factors play a significant role in regulating intestinal immunity. Due to this complexity, no mouse model to date gives a complete and accurate representation of human intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. However, intestinal tissue from patients undergoing bowel resection reflects a condition of severe disease that has failed treatment; hence a more dynamic perspective of varying inflammatory states in IBD could be obtained through the analyses of pinch biopsy material. Here we describe our protocol for analyzing mucosal pinch biopsies collected predominantly during colonoscopies. We have optimized flow cytometry panels to analyze up to 8 cytokines produced by CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as for characterizing nuclear proteins and transcription factors such as Ki67 and Foxp3. Furthermore, we have optimized approaches to analyze the production of cytokines, including TGF-beta from direct ex vivo cultures of pinch biopsies and LPMCs isolated from biopsies. These approaches are part of our workflow to try and understand the role of the gut microbiota in complex and dynamic human intestinal diseases. PMID:25769417

  17. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hoffer; Kenneth Gow; Patricia M. Flynn; Andrew Davidoff

    2001-01-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select\\u000a patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary\\u000a aspergillosis. Twenty-two were

  18. Fallibility of transthoracic needle biopsy of anterior mediastinal masses.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, L. A.; Dobson, J. R.; Bierman, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Percutaneous transthoracic core needle biopsy has been advocated as a highly accurate technique for the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal masses. A patient is described with a large anterior mediastinal mass in whom the diagnosis of mediastinal carcinoid tumour was made by transthoracic core needle biopsy. At definitive surgical resection the tumour proved to be a B cell lymphoma. This case illustrates one of the important limitations of needle biopsy with its potential for sampling error. Images PMID:7491564

  19. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  20. CT-guided transthoracic biopsy: histopathologic results and complication rates

    PubMed Central

    Akta?, Aykut Recep; Gözlek, Emel; Y?lmaz, Ömer; Kayan, Mustafa; Ünlü, Nisa; Demirta?, Hakan; De?irmenci, Bumin; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and complications of transthoracic CT-guided biopsy techniques. METHODS A total of 94 CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic biopsy procedures performed in 85 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Core biopsy technique was used in 87 procedures and transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy was used in seven procedures. RESULTS Diagnostic results were achieved in 79 of 94 biopsy procedures. Pathology results were malignant in 54 patients, suspicious for malignancy in three patients, benign in five patients, and benign nonspecific in 17 patients. Specific diagnoses were obtained in 59 patients (62.8%) using core biopsy, but no specific diagnosis could be reached with transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Complications included pneumothorax in 27 patients (28.7%) and parenchymal hemorrhage during and after the procedure in eight patients (8.5%). CONCLUSIONS CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy is a highly accurate procedure for histopathological diagnosis of thoracic masses. In addition, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy has an acceptably low complication rate and it reduces the need for more invasive surgical procedures. PMID:25430528

  1. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Gurel; Oguz Karabay; Safiye Gurel; Charles Hildebolt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in\\u000a ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation\\u000a before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either

  2. Endoparasites of Northern Sharp-Tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus phasianellus, as Related to Age and Position on the Lek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD J. S. TSUJI

    The only indication of endoparasites found in male sharp-tailed grouse collected during the breeding season from the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada, were nematode eggs of an unknown species. Nematode egg loads of male sharp-tailed grouse that occupied central territories on leks (mating areas) were not significantly different from those o f birds in peripheral territories, nor

  3. Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2012-04-01

    We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer. PMID:22493138

  4. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  5. Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

  6. Organochlorine levels in subcutaneous blubber biopsies of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins ( Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letizia Marsili; Silvano Focardi

    1996-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were determined in subcutaneous blubber of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea. From 1990 to 1993, 68 fin whale and 89 dolphin blubber biopsies were analysed. The whales were sampled while passing through the Ligurian Sea, whereas the dolphins were collected in different areas of the Mediterranean:

  7. The potential acid-producing capacity and factors controlling oxidation tailings in the Guryong mine, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Hi-Soo

    2008-02-01

    A detailed characterization of the site is crucial to designing an efficient method of managing the risks associated with tailings from abandoned mines. Therefore, samples collected from various depths within tailings in Guryong mine, Korea, were analyzed for their chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics. All samples of the Guryong tailings had acid-generating potential. However, in the oxidation zone, the net acid generation (NAG) was low (30 kg H2SO4 t-1) although the acid neutralization potential (ANP) was less than zero. The ANP values in the unoxidation zone were higher (> -56.0 kg CaCO3 t-1) than in the other zones. As a result, the amount of alkali ions that are needed to neutralize the acid needs to be considered. In this experiment G3, G4 and G6 drill cores containing fine tailings particles near the unoxidation zone were observed to contain calcite (CaCO3) with acid-neutralizing capacity. A low pH (2-4) in the oxidation zone of the tailings changed to a neutral pH in the unoxidation zone of the tailings. These results suggest that the acid-neutralizing capacity of the tailings was controlled by particle and mineral composition of tailings.

  8. Mineral\\/water interactions in tailings from a tungsten mine, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Petrunic; T. A. Al

    2005-01-01

    The pore-water geochemistry and mineralogy of tailings derived from a granitic tungsten deposit were characterized by collecting pore-water samples at discrete depth intervals throughout the tailings for the analysis of major and minor element concentrations. Mineralogical samples from the oxidation zone were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM\\/EDS), electron microprobe (EMP) combined

  9. Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

    2014-05-01

    The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

  10. Evaluation of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in serum and skin biopsies of cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FI Hill; MP Reichel; RJ McCoy; DJ Tisdall

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of two commercial bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect virus in serum and skin biopsies.METHODS: Thirty cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV were identified using routine diagnostic laboratory testing. Additional ear-notch skin biopsies and blood samples were collected from these animals to confirm the diagnosis, and from 246

  11. Histomorphologic Features of Biopsy Sites Following Excisional and Core Needle Biopsies of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Frazier, Shellaine; Schanzmeyer, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Mammographic studies have documented a number of architectural changes occurring around breast biopsy sites. These changes are well described in the radiological literature, but similar studies do not appear to be present in the pathology literature. We reviewed 100 consecutive mastectomy specimens from women who had undergone prior core needle or excisional biopsies. Multiple sections of the needle tract or excisional biopsy site were reviewed and morphologic findings reported. Hemorrhage, fat necrosis, granulation tissue, necrosis of fibrous tissue, and epithelium along with fibrosis and foreign body type giant cells were common features. Less frequent were areas of synovial metaplasia, atypical spindle cells, atypical duct-like structures, single atypical cells, squamous metaplasia, proliferations of abnormal blood vessels, and hemosiderin deposition. The misinterpretation of atypical spindle cells, single atypical cells, atypical duct-like structures and squamous metaplasia could result in the false-positive diagnosis of residual malignancy. Careful attention to the reactive nature of these changes aids in their distinction from carcinoma. PMID:25929243

  12. What Makes a Tidal Tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

  13. Development and evaluation of a spine biopsy simulator.

    PubMed

    Lathan, C; Cleary, K; Greco, R

    1998-01-01

    A spine biopsy simulator is being developed to 1) train surgeons on the current method for CT-directed needle biopsy and 2) provide a testbed for developing new image-guided and robot-assist methodologies. A task analysis and function allocation assessment provide the needed information for the first stage of the simulator development and evaluation. PMID:10180577

  14. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  15. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation Michael Baumanna,c

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma cancer hypothesis. The current clinical standard is to perform prostate biopsies under 2D transrectalProstate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation Michael Baumanna,c , Pierre Mozerb , Vincent

  16. The utility of open lung biopsy following lung transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Weill; David C McGiffin; George L Zorn; C. Bruce Alexander; Lesley J Early; James K Kirklin; K. Randall Young

    2000-01-01

    Background: Most pulmonary complications associated with lung transplantation have non-specific clinical characteristics. Furthermore, common diagnostic modalities, including bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBB), often do not render a definitive diagnosis. In this study, we reviewed our experience with open lung biopsy (OLB) following lung transplantation, specifically regarding its ability to safely provide clinically relevant information that affects therapeutic decisions.

  17. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  18. Current indications for renal biopsy: A questionnaire-based survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Fuiano; Giuseppe Mazza; Nicola Comi; Alfredo Caglioti; Luca De Nicola; Carmela Iodice; Michele Andreucci; Vittorio E. Andreucci

    2000-01-01

    Indications for renal biopsy are still ill defined. We recently sent a detailed questionnaire to 360 nephrologists in different areas of the world with the aim of providing information on this critical issue by evaluating the replies. The questionnaire was organized in four sections that included questions on renal biopsy indications in patients with normal renal function, renal insufficiency, and

  19. Muscularis mucosae layer detection in colon biopsy images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Yamin Ahmad; Azlinah Mohamed; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Manual screening of colon cancer biopsy tissue under microscope is difficult and time consuming. With the help of a computerized system, the diagnosis time can be shortened. In this paper, we proposed a method of detecting the layer of muscularis mucosae in the colon biopsy tissue image. By using RGB color information, we analyzed 65 images and preserved a specific

  20. Biopsy-negative malignant esophageal stricture: diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas O. Faigel; Clifford Deveney; Daniel Phillips; M. Brian Fennerty

    1998-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of the esophagus has been used primarily in staging biopsy-proven cancers. Its use as a primary diagnostic modality for esophageal malignancy has not been previously described. We report our recent experience in four patients with dysphagia and endoscopic biopsies negative for malignancy, including one patient with clinical and manometric features suggestive of achalasia. In all cases, EUS

  1. Application of sentinel node biopsy to gastric cancer surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Hiratsuka; Isao Miyashiro; Osamu Ishikawa; Hiroshi Furukawa; Kazuyoshi Motomura; Hiroaki Ohigashi; Masao Kameyama; Yo Sasaki; Toshiyuki Kabuto; Shingo Ishiguro; Shingi Imaoka; Hiroki Koyama

    2001-01-01

    Background. Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has been tried in the management of a variety of cancers with the hope that it would eliminate many unnecessary lymph node dissections, resulting in less morbidity. This important technique, however, has not been tried in gastric cancer surgery. The feasibility of SN biopsy and its accuracy in predicting the lymph node status in patients

  2. Repeat Prostate Biopsy Strategies after Initial Negative Biopsy: Meta-Regression Comparing Cancer Detection of Transperineal, Transrectal Saturation and MRI Guided Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Adam W.; Harvey, Rebecca C.; Parker, Richard A.; Kastner, Christof; Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is no consensus on how to investigate men with negative transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-B) but ongoing suspicion of cancer. Three strategies used are transperineal (TP-B), transrectal saturation (TS-B) and MRI-guided biopsy (MRI-B). We compared cancer yields of these strategies. Methods Papers were identified by search of Pubmed, Embase and Ovid Medline. Included studies investigated biopsy diagnostic yield in men with at least one negative TRUS-B and ongoing suspicion of prostate cancer. Data including age, PSA, number of previous biopsy episodes, number of cores at re-biopsy, cancer yield, and Gleason score of detected cancers were extracted. Meta-regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Results Forty-six studies were included; 12 of TS-B, 14 of TP-B, and 20 of MRI-B, representing 4,657 patients. Mean patient age, PSA and number of previous biopsy episodes were similar between the strategies. The mean number of biopsy cores obtained by TP-B and TS-B were greater than MRI-B. Cancer detection rates were 30·0%, 36·8%, and 37·6% for TS-B, TP-B, and MRI-B respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed that MRI-B had significantly higher cancer detection than TS-B. There were no significant differences however between MRI-B and TP-B, or TP-B and TS-B. In a sensitivity analysis incorporating number of previous biopsy episodes (36 studies) the difference between MRI-B and TP-B was not maintained resulting in no significant difference in cancer detection between the groups. There were no significant differences in median Gleason scores detected comparing the three strategies. Conclusions In the re-biopsy setting, it is unclear which strategy offers the highest cancer detection rate. MRI-B may potentially detect more prostate cancers than other modalities and can achieve this with fewer biopsy cores. However, well–designed prospective studies with standardised outcome measures are needed to accurately compare modalities and define an optimum re-biopsy approach. PMID:23460864

  3. CT-directed robotic biopsy testbed: motivation and concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin R.; Stoianovici, Dan S.; Glossop, Neil D.; Gary, Kevin A.; Onda, Sumiyo; Cody, Richard; Lindisch, David; Stanimir, Alexandru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Patriciu, Alexandru; Watson, Vance; Levy, Elliot

    2001-05-01

    As a demonstration platform, we are developing a robotic biopsy testbed incorporating a mobile CT scanner, a small needle driver robot, and an optical localizer. This testbed will be used to compare robotically assisted biopsy to the current manual technique, and allow us to investigate software architectures for integrating multiple medical devices. This is a collaboration between engineers and physicians from three universities and a commercial vendor. In this paper we describe the CT-directed biopsy technique, review some other biopsy systems including passive and semi- autonomous devices, describe our testbed components, and present our software architecture. This testbed is a first step in developing the image-guided, robotically assisted, physician directed, biopsy systems of the future.

  4. A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Bouma, Brett E.; Pitman, Martha B.; Goldberg, Brian; Bressner, Jason; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2005-06-01

    A portable, low coherence interferometry (LCI) based instrument for fine-needle aspiration biopsy guidance is presented. The instrument consists of a fiber-based low coherence interferometer, a data acquisition, processing and display unit, and a probe. The probe, consisting of a 250?m diameter single-mode optical fiber inserted within the bore of a fine needle, is used to illuminate tissue and collect light from tissue at the tip of the needle. Light returning out of the probe is detected by the LCI system, which is capable of measuring depth-resolved information (reflectivity, spectra, birefringence) with a spatial resolution of 10?m over a depth range of approximately 1.4mm. The LCI based instrument can be used to guide the fine needle during biopsy procedures to potentially diagnose neoplasms, infections, inflammations, or infiltrations. The design and performance of the instrument, as well as preliminary measurements on excised breast tissue specimens, are presented in detail.

  5. Role of early repeated renal biopsies in lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zickert, A; Sundelin, B; Svenungsson, E; Gunnarsson, I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A renal biopsy is generally recommended for diagnosis and is necessary for classification of lupus nephritis (LN), but second biopsies after immunosuppressive therapy are seldom a routine procedure. We investigated how repeat biopsies contribute to the evaluation of treatment response and long-term outcome in LN. Methods Sixty-seven patients with active LN were included. Renal biopsies were performed at diagnosis and after standard induction immunosuppressive therapy in all patients (median 8?months), regardless of clinical outcome. Biopsies were evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification. Clinical response was defined as complete (CR), partial (PR) or non-response (NR) according to recent definitions. Histological response (HR) was defined as Class I, II or III/IV-C on repeat biopsies. Long-term renal outcome was determined in 55 patients after a median of 10?years. Results CR was demonstrated in 25%, PR in 27% and NR in 48% of patients. HR was shown in 42% and histopathological non-response (HNR) in 58% of patients. Twenty-nine per cent of CR and 61% of patients with PR had active lesions on repeat biopsies, that is, were HNR. Poor long-term renal outcome was associated with high chronicity index at repeated biopsies, but not with clinical or histological response. Conclusions Despite apparent clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy, repeated biopsies revealed persisting active nephritis in almost half of the patients, thus providing additional information to clinical response criteria. Repeated renal biopsies may be a tool to improve the evaluation of treatment response in LN. PMID:25379188

  6. Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    of Copulas Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University lih@math.wsu.edu University of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12 is a multivariate regularly varying distribution (MRV) with intensity measure µ, i.e., lim t P(X tB) P(X1 > t) = µ(B

  7. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: early results in 953 patients with negative sentinel node biopsy and no axillary dissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Veronesi; Viviana Galimberti; Luigi Mariani; Giovanna Gatti; Giovanni Paganelli; Giuseppe Viale; Stefano Zurrida; Paolo Veronesi; Mattia Intra; Roberto Gennari; Anna Rita Vento; Alberto Luini; Marco Tullii; Guillermo Bassani; Nicole Rotmensz

    2005-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy in patients with breast carcinoma accurately predicts the axillary nodal status. However, in some 6% of patients with negative sentinel nodes the remaining axillary nodes harbour metastases. Our purpose was to observe a large number of patients who did not undergo an axillary dissection after a negative sentinel node biopsy for the appearance of overt axillary metastases.

  8. Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

    2008-07-01

    Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

  9. Impact of multiple biopsy cores on predicting final tumor volume in prostate cancer detected by a single microscopic focus of cancer on biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Guzzo; Manish Vira; Wei-Ting Hwang; Anthony D’amico; John Tomaszewski; Richard Whittington; Alan J. Wein; Keith Vanarsdalen; S. Bruce Malkowicz

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo compare the impact that the number of biopsy cores have on final pathologic findings when minimal disease is detected at biopsy. Discordance has been noted between transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy results and tumor volume even when minimal amounts of tumor are found on biopsy.

  10. Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    at confidence level p (TCE, Expected Shortfall, Tail VaR, Conditional VaR), defined by TCEp(X) := E(X | X > Va, Tail VaR, Conditional VaR), defined by TCEp(X) := E(X | X > VaRp(X)). TCE is also known as Average VaR: TCEp(X) = 1 1-p 1 p VaR(X)d. Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ

  11. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  12. Ketamine hydrochloride as sole anesthetic for open liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Abu Khalaf, A; Takrouri, M; Toukan, A; Abu Khalaf, M; Amr, S

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated the use of ketamine as sole anesthetic agent for open liver biopsy, with particular reference to its effect on liver function and hepatotoxicity and its effect on cardiovascular stability and respiration. From 386 patients who underwent liver biopsy at Jordan University Hospital, 12 had open liver biopsy because of contra-indications for closed needle biopsy. The surgical procedure consisted of a small right paramedian incision allowing inspection of the liver surface and a wedge and needle biopsy. Ketamine HCl was used in a dose of 2 mg/kg I.V. with supplemental doses as necessary. No significant fluctuations in cardio-respiratory vital signs were observed. Muscle rigidity and respiratory tagging movements necessitated addition of a muscle relaxant and artificial ventilation in three patients. Six patients reported dreams, two of which were described as nightmares. There was no liver function decompensation, or significant bilirubin or transaminase elevations in the week following the biopsy. Ketamine is a safe anesthetic to use for open liver biopsy in patients with underlying liver disease, although poor muscle relaxation and nightmares may be significant side effects. PMID:3211082

  13. Is liver biopsy necessary in the management of alcoholic hepatitis?

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Ashwin D; Collins, Peter L; McCune, C Anne

    2013-11-28

    Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is characterised by deep jaundice in patients with a history of heavy alcohol use, which can progress to liver failure. A clinical diagnosis of AAH can be challenging to make in patients without a clear alcohol history or in the presence of risk factors for other causes of acute liver failure. Other causes of acute on chronic liver failure such as sepsis or variceal haemorrhage should be considered. Liver biopsy remains the only reliable method to make an accurate diagnosis. However, there is controversy surrounding the use of liver biopsy in patients with AAH because of the risks of performing a percutaneous biopsy and limitations in access to transjugular biopsy. We review the existing literature and find there are few studies directly comparing clinical and histological diagnosis of AAH. In the small number of studies that have been conducted the correlation between a clinical and histological diagnosis of AAH is poor. Due to this lack of agreement together with difficulties in accessing transjugular liver biopsy outside tertiary referral centres and research institutions, we cannot advocate universal biopsy for AAH but there remains a definite role for liver biopsy where there is clinical diagnostic doubt or dual pathology. It also adds value in a clinical trial context to ensure a homogeneous trial population and to further our understanding of the disease pathology. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether non-invasive markers can be used to accurately diagnose AAH. PMID:24307775

  14. Current Concepts in the Biopsy of Musculoskeletal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Francesco; Calamelli, Carlotta; Faldini, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    In the management of bone and soft tissue tumors, accurate diagnosis, using a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histological data, is critical to optimize outcome. On occasion, diagnosis can be made by careful history, physical examination, and images alone. However, the ultimate diagnosis usually depends on histologic analysis by an experienced pathologist. Biopsy is a very important and complex surgery in the staging process. It must be done carefully, so as not to adversely affect the outcome. Technical considerations include proper location and orientation of the biopsy incision and meticulous hemostasis. It is necessary to obtain tissue for a histological diagnosis without spreading the tumor and so compromise the treatment. Furthermore, the surgeon does not open compartmental barriers, anatomic planes, joint space, and tissue area around neurovascular bundles. Nevertheless, avoid producing a hematoma. Biopsy should be carefully planned according to the site and definitive surgery and should be performed by an orthopedic surgeon with an experience in musculoskeletal oncology who will perform the definitive surgery. Improperly done, it can complicate patient care and sometimes even eliminate treatment options. Different biopsy techniques are suitable: fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy, and incisional biopsy. The choice of biopsy depends on the size, the location of the lesion, and the experience of the pathologist. PMID:23844403

  15. Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Brachemi, Soumeya; Bollée, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Renal biopsy (RB) is useful for diagnosis and therapy guidance of renal diseases but incurs a risk of bleeding complications of variable severity, from transitory haematuria or asymptomatic hematoma to life-threatening hemorrhage. Several risk factors for complications after RB have been identified, including high blood pressure, age, decreased renal function, obesity, anemia, low platelet count and hemostasis disorders. These should be carefully assessed and, whenever possible, corrected before the procedure. The incidence of serious complications has become low with the use of automated biopsy devices and ultrasound guidance, which is currently the “gold standard” procedure for percutaneous RB. An outpatient biopsy may be considered in a carefully selected population with no risk factor for bleeding. However, controversies persist on the duration of observation after biopsy, especially for native kidney biopsy. Transjugular RB and laparoscopic RB represent reliable alternatives to conventional percutaneous biopsy in patients at high risk of bleeding, although some factors limit their use. This aim of this review is to summarize the issues of complications after RB, assessment of hemorrhagic risk factors, optimal biopsy procedure and strategies aimed to minimize the risk of bleeding. PMID:25374824

  16. Endoscopic biopsy of brain tumors: Does the technique matter?

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Nasim, Khurram; Chelghoum, Abdelaziz; Parwez, Aslam; Salaheddin, Waleed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic biopsy of brain tumors is an important part of the armamentarium of management of intra- and periventricular tumors that is generally considered an acceptable and, in some situations, a preferred method for tissue sampling. The diagnostic yield of the procedure has been variably reported. Technical aspects of the procedure should undoubtedly reflect on its success rate and accuracy. Such impact on diagnostic yield of endoscopic brain biopsy is infrequently discussed in the literature. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications on endoscopic brain biopsy. These reports were analyzed regarding the various technical aspects. Results: In the 43 publications analyzed, lenscopes were exclusively used in 22 reports and a tissue diagnosis was possible in 362 out of 387 endoscopic biopsies with a diagnostic yield of 93.54%. Only fiberscopes were used in 8 reports and a tissue diagnosis was possible in 100 out of 132 endoscopic biopsies with a diagnostic yield of 75.76%. The diagnostic yield in the mixed and unspecified groups was 88.95 and 88.04%, respectively. Very few details on the histopathological methods and tumor molecular genetics could be found. Conclusion: Endoscopic biopsy of brain tumors has a higher diagnostic yield when lenscopes are used. Neuronavigation seems to add to the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure. Studies detailing molecular genetic features of biopsied tumors are necessary in the future. PMID:25506504

  17. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: kamilgurel@hotmail.com; Karabay, Oguz [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Turkey); Gurel, Safiye [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Izzet Baysal School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Hildebolt, Charles [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

  18. Navigational Bronchoscopy with Biopsy versus CT-guided Biopsy for the Diagnosis of a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A Cost-Consequences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Christopher R.; Madtes, David K.; Fan, Vincent S.; Gorden, Jed A.; Veenstra, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) are frequent and can be malignant. Both CT-guided biopsy and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) with biopsy can be used to diagnose a SPN. A non-diagnostic CT-guided or ENB biopsy is often followed by VATS biopsy. The relative costs and consequences of these strategies are not known. Methods A decision tree was created with values from the literature to evaluate the clinical consequences and societal costs of a CT-guided biopsy strategy versus an ENB biopsy strategy for the diagnosis of a SPN. The serial use of ENB after non-diagnostic CT-guided biopsy and CT-guided biopsy after non-diagnostic ENB biopsy were tested as alternate strategies. Results In a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients, use of the ENB biopsy strategy on average results in 13.4 fewer pneumothoraces, 5.9 fewer chest tubes, 0.9 fewer significant hemorrhage episodes and 0.6 fewer respiratory failure episodes than a CT-guided biopsy strategy. ENB biopsy increases average costs by $3719 per case and increases video assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) rates by an absolute 20%. The sequential diagnostic strategy that combines CT-guided biopsy after non-diagnostic ENB biopsy and vice-versa decreases the rate of VATS procedures to 3%. A sequential approach starting with ENB decreases average per case cost relative to CT-guided biopsy followed by VATS, if needed, by $507; and a sequential approach starting with CT-guided biopsy decreases the cost relative to CT-guided biopsy followed by VATS, if needed, by $979. Conclusions An ENB with biopsy strategy is associated with decreased pneumothorax rate but increased costs and increased use of VATS. Combining CT-guided biopsy and ENB with biopsy serially can decrease costs and complications. PMID:23207529

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings through the Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; da Silva, Juliana; Zocche, Jairo José; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Boufleur, Liana Appel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2010-11-01

    Coal mining is an activity with a high potential for environmental pollution. Coal has been described as the most significant pollutant of all the fossil fuels, containing a heterogeneous mixture. Many elements present in coal byproducts as well as coal tailings are rich in potentially toxic and genotoxic metals, which ultimately lead to profound changes in cells, tissues, populations, and ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the mineral coal tailings using the land snail Helix aspersa. Animals were divided in three groups, clustered in plexiglass cages: control (animals fed with organic lettuce), coal tailings (animals living in a layer of pyrite tailings and fed with organic lettuce), and mine lettuce (animals fed with lettuce grown in an area located in a deposit of coal tailings). The hemolymph was collected at different exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 1 month) for comet assay analyses. Results showed that the animals of the coal tailings and mine lettuce groups presented higher levels of DNA damage in relation to the control group at all exposure times, but with a peak of DNA damage in 48 h and 96 h. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa has proven to be a sensitive instrument for a better risk assessment of environmental pollution. PMID:20372882

  20. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

  1. Benign Papilloma on Core Biopsy Requires Surgical Excision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Rohini Skandarajah; Lee Field; Arlene Yuen Larn Mou; Malcolm Buchanan; Jill Evans; Stewart Hart; Gregory Bruce Mann

    2008-01-01

    Background  When a papillary lesion is identified on core biopsy of an impalpable breast lesion, standard practice involves excisional\\u000a biopsy. Recent literature has questioned the need for surgical excision in patients with benign core biopsy and radiological\\u000a concordance. Our aim was to assess whether surgical excision is required by targeting this concordant group in a large screen-detected\\u000a population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective review

  2. Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Amit; Mansel, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy were first reported in 1977 by Cabanas for penile cancer. Since that time, the technique has become rapidly assimilated into clinical practice. The sentinel node concept has been validated in cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. However, follow-up data of patients from randomised trials is needed to establish the clinical significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy before accepting the procedure as a standard of care. This technique has the potential to be utilised in all solid tumours like colon, gastric, oesophageal, lung, gynaecologic, and head and neck cancer. This paper reviews the current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid tumours. PMID:15107132

  3. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  4. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nährig, Jörg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Gröne, Jörn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jörg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grützmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ?24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy. PMID:17522509

  5. MRI-Targeted Biopsies versus Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Localized Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Alexandre; Aoun, Fouad; Lemort, Marc; Kwizera, Félix; Paesmans, Marianne; Van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To compare, in the same cohort of men, the detection of clinically significant disease in standard (STD) cores versus multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) targeted (TAR) cores. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 129 biopsy naïve men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. These patients underwent prebiopsy mpMRI with STD systematic biopsies and TAR biopsies when lesions were found. The agreement between the TAR and the STD protocols was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results. Cancer detection rate of MRI-targeted biopsy was 62.7%. TAR protocol demonstrated higher detection rate of clinically significant disease compared to STD protocol. The proportion of cores positive for clinically significant cancer in TAR cores was 28.9% versus 9.8% for STD cores (P < 0.001). The proportion of men with clinically significant cancer and the proportion of men with Gleason score 7 were higher with the TAR protocol than with the STD protocol (P = 0.003; P = 0.0008, resp.). Conclusion. mpMRI improved clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate compared to STD protocol alone with less tissue sampling and higher Gleason score. Further development in imaging as well as multicentre studies using the START recommendation is needed to elucidate the role of mpMRI targeted biopsy in the management of prostate cancer. PMID:25692142

  6. Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-02-01

    Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

  7. A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement

    E-print Network

    A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E}@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs

  8. Reduced-bias estimator of the Conditional Tail Expectation of heavy-tailed distributions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reduced-bias estimator of the Conditional Tail Expectation of heavy-tailed distributions El hadji in the literature. In this paper, we focus on the estimation of the Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE). Its. In this framework, we propose a reduced-bias estimator of the CTE. We illustrate the efficiency of our approach

  9. Tail asymptotics for the supercritical GaltonWatson process in the heavy-tailed case 1

    E-print Network

    Korshunov, Dmitry

    Tail asymptotics for the supercritical Galton­Watson process in the heavy-tailed case 1 Denis and University of Munich Abstract As well known, for a supercritical Galton­Watson process Zn whose off- spring: supercritical Galton­Watson process, martingale limit, large deviations, heavy-tailed distribution

  10. Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

  11. Calciphylaxis in a dialysis patient diagnosed by muscle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Stavros, Kara; Motiwala, Rajeev; Zhou, Lan; Sejdiu, Fatmir; Shin, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare condition seen mostly in patients with chronic renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism who develop painful skin lesions and myopathy secondary to extensive small vessel calcification, which leads to tissue ischemia. It is typically diagnosed by a biopsy of prominent skin lesions. Here, we report a 49-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on chronic peritoneal dialysis who presented with weakness, myalgias, and necrotic skin lesions. Multiple skin biopsies were nondiagnostic because of severe extensive necrosis, and the diagnosis of systemic calciphylaxis was eventually made by a muscle biopsy. This case demonstrates the significant muscle involvement in calciphylaxis and highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion for patients with risk factors for calciphylaxis, even when skin biopsy does not confirm it. PMID:24534833

  12. Study Questions Accuracy of Many Breast Cancer Biopsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are not the same as invasive cancer." Robert Smith, senior director of cancer screening for the American ... one opinion about the interpretation of my biopsy?" Smith said. "That would not be unreasonable to ask ...

  13. Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Arjun; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Ahallal, Youness; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Prapotnich, Dominique; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer has eluded clinicians for decades. With our current understanding of prostate cancer, urologists should devise and confidently present the available treatment options – active surveillance/radical treatment/focal therapy to these patients. The diagnostic modalities used for prostate cancer have the dual problem of false negativity and overdiagnosis. Various modifications in the prostate biopsy techniques have increased the accuracy of cancer detection, but we are still far from an ideal diagnostic technique. Transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate is an exhaustive biopsy technique that has been improvised over the past decade, and has shown superior results to other available modalities. We have carried out a PubMed search on the available experiences on this diagnostic modality, and along with our own experiences, we present a brief review on transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy of the prostate. PMID:25421717

  14. The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Sun Sung; Sung-Wook Seo; Min-Soo Shon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal\\u000a lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There\\u000a were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s\\u000a exact

  15. Ventriculoscope Tract Recurrence after Endoscopic Biopsy of Pineal Germinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Haw; Paul Steinbok

    2001-01-01

    Recurrence along an endoscope tract has been described after endoscopic biopsy and resection of malignant tumors arising in multiple organ systems. We describe a case of tract recurrence following the ventriculoscopic biopsy of a central nervous system tumor. A retrospective review of the patient’s clinical course, radiology and pathology was undertaken to formulate a case report. A 14-year-old boy was

  16. The role of omental biopsy in endometrial cancer staging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Abu Freij; Nikolaos Burbos; D. Mukhopadhyay; R. Lonsdale; S. Crocker; J. J. Nieto

    2009-01-01

    Omental biopsy is not part of FIGO staging for endometrial cancer. The few studies that have looked into this matter have\\u000a had conflicting results. This is the largest study in terms of the number of cases studying the incidence of omental involvement\\u000a in endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. A retrospective study assessing 248 cases of endometrial cancer with\\u000a omental biopsy

  17. Biopsy techniques for soft tissue and bowel sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Rebecca; Kane, John M

    2015-04-01

    There is overlap in the clinical presentation of benign soft tissue tumors and soft tissue sarcomas. A preoperative sarcoma diagnosis would allow for consideration for neoadjuvant therapy, including preoperative radiation, as well as optimal surgical treatment planning, and patient counseling. Image guided core needle biopsy is a low morbidity, cost-effective, highly accurate approach for obtaining a definitive pathologic diagnosis. Any biopsy approach should minimize the potential for tumor seeding of otherwise uninvolved anatomic structures. PMID:25663366

  18. Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michael J. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Montgomery, Mark [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States); Reiter, Charles G. [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Culp, William C., E-mail: wculpjr@mac.co [Texas A and M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)

    2008-07-15

    While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

  19. Serial culturing of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra M. de Jong; Marianne A. J. A. van Sterkenburg; Johanna A. Kempenaar; Joop H. Dijkman; Maria Ponec

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In the present study we describe the establishment of serial cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies\\u000a obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The cell cultures were initiated from small amounts of material (2 mm forceps biopsies)\\u000a using either explants or epithelial cell suspensions in combination with a feeder-layer technique. The rate of cell proliferation\\u000a and the number of passages

  20. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung II; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

  1. Emergency right hepatectomy after laparoscopic tru-cut liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Nicolás; León, Felipe; Martínez, Jorge; Jarufe, Nicolás; Guerra, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is a common procedure usually required for final pathologic diagnosis of different liver diseases. Morbidity following tru-cut biopsy is uncommon, with bleeding complications generally self-limited. Few cases of major hemorrhage after liver biopsies have been reported, but to our knowledge, no cases of emergency hepatectomy following a tru-cut liver biopsy have been reported previously. Presentation of case We report the case of a 38 years-old woman who presented with an intrahepatic arterial bleeding after a tru-cut liver biopsy under direct laparoscopic visualization, initially controlled by ligation of the right hepatic artery and temporary liver packing. On tenth postoperative day, she developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery, evolving with massive bleeding that was not amenable to control by endovascular therapy. Therefore, an emergency right hepatectomy had to be performed in order to stop the bleeding. The patient achieved hemodynamic stabilization, but developed a biliary fistula from the liver surface, refractory to non-operative treatment. In consequence, a Roux-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed at third month, with no further complications. Discussion Bleeding following tru-cut biopsy is a rare event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an emergency hepatectomy due to hemorrhage following liver biopsy. Risks and complications of liver biopsy are revised. Conclusion Care must be taken when performing this kind of procedures and a high level of suspicion regarding this complication should be taken in count when clinical/hemodynamic deterioration occurs after these procedures. PMID:25618399

  2. Is Intestinal Biopsy Always Needed for Diagnosis of Celiac Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Scoglio; Giuseppe Di Pasquale; Giuseppe Pagano; Maria Cristina Lucanto; Giuseppe Magazzù; Concetta Sferlazzas

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Intestinal biopsy is required for a diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of transglutaminase antibodies (TGA) in comparison and in association with that of antiemdomysial antibodies (AEA), calculating the post-test odds of having the disease, to verify whether some patients might avoid undergoing intestinal biopsy for a diagnosis of CD.METHODS:A total

  3. Barbed micro-spikes for micro-scale biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Sangwon; Lim, Jung-Min; Paik, Seung-Joon; Lee, Ahra; Koo, Kyo-in; Park, Sunkil; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Byoung-Doo; Seo, Jong Mo; Kim, Kyung-ah; Chung, Hum; Song, Si Young; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil

    2005-06-01

    Single-crystal silicon planar micro-spikes with protruding barbs are developed for micro-scale biopsy and the feasibility of using the micro-spike as a micro-scale biopsy tool is evaluated for the first time. The fabrication process utilizes a deep silicon etch to define the micro-spike outline, resulting in protruding barbs of various shapes. Shanks of the fabricated micro-spikes are 3 mm long, 100 µm thick and 250 µm wide. Barbs protruding from micro-spike shanks facilitate the biopsy procedure by tearing off and retaining samples from target tissues. Micro-spikes with barbs successfully extracted tissue samples from the small intestines of the anesthetized pig, whereas micro-spikes without barbs failed to obtain a biopsy sample. Parylene coating can be applied to improve the biocompatibility of the micro-spike without deteriorating the biopsy function of the micro-spike. In addition, to show that the biopsy with the micro-spike can be applied to tissue analysis, samples obtained by micro-spikes were examined using immunofluorescent staining. Nuclei and F-actin of cells which are extracted by the micro-spike from a transwell were clearly visualized by immunofluorescent staining.

  4. Effects of Tail on Spinning Aircraft Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Yamada; Takao Horichi; Yoshiaki Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on aircraft spin phenomena was conducted at the low speed wind tunnel of Nagoya University with its exit test section inclined vertically. The model used in this experiment consists of three parts: a main wing, a fuselage, and a tail. Due to the stability effect of the tail, rotation of the model is decreased at low angles of

  5. Selective Tail Call Elimination Yasuhiko Minamide

    E-print Network

    Minamide, Yasuhiko

    a trampoline. To reduce the overhead of trampolining while preserving stack space asymptotically we propose of successive tail calls generated by the execution of an expression, and trampolines are introduced only when, proper tail calls can be implemented with a technique called a trampoline. However, the trampoline

  6. Tail and pelvis pathologies of ankylosaurian dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria M. Arbour; Philip J. Currie

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosaurid dinosaurs had modified distal caudal vertebrae (the handle) and large terminal caudal osteoderms (the knob), which together form the tail club. The tail club may have been used as a weapon. Ankylosaur pelvic and caudal elements were surveyed for evidence of healing wounds that may indicate traumatic injury, and which could support clubbing behaviour. No pathologies were found in

  7. Heavy Tails 2 dim Mult Reg Var

    E-print Network

    Resnick, Sidney

    Boston University data; 4161 file sizes (F) and download times (L) noted and transmission rates (R. · The components are each univariate heavy tailed. Big issue: How to model the dependence? · The tail indices ('s asymptotic the- ory). ­ Parametric will fail goodness of fit with large data sets. ­ Semi

  8. VARIATION IN THE SHARP-TAILED SPARROWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVE N. G. HOWELL; DAVID A. SIBLEY

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic

  9. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring options for reducing the genetic propensity to tail bite. If these various approaches to reduce tail biting are implemented we propose that the need for tail docking will be reduced. PMID:25130712

  10. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  11. The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears >=350" (2.5x10^8 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 micrometer and a combined mass ~3x10^5 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  12. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de; Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Lammer, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Biederer, Juergen [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  13. Breast hormonal receptors test should be repeated on excisional biopsy after negative core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Thaer; Zakharia, Yousef; Tan, Wei; Kulkarni, Swati; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Shanxiang; Wilding, Gregory E; Edge, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic decision-making for women diagnosed with breast cancer requires accurate determination of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). Decisions about adjuvant therapy are often based on the immunohistochemical (IHC) profile of the core needle biopsy sample (CNB) because the staining is not repeated on the final excisional biopsy (EB). The purpose of this study was to assess the concordance of breast cancer IHC receptor assays on CNB and EB. We identified 176 patients with matching breast CNB and EB that had available ER and PR. While the CNBs were processed and stained in different laboratories, the EB were processed and stained in our institution. The following antibodies were used 1D5, 6F11 and SP1 for ER, and PgR636, 16 and 1E2 for PR, from Dako, Leica and Ventana respectively. Correlation of scores of CNBs with matching EB was analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Sensitivity, specificity, overall agreement and the kappa statistic were used to measure the concordance between CNB and EB. For CNB, there were 141 (80.1%) cases positive for ER and 118 (67%) cases positive for PR. For EB, there were 143 (81.3%) cases positive for ER and 130 (73.9%) cases positive for PR. Overall agreement for ER and PR was seen in 93% (95% CI = 0.88, 0.96) and 90% (95% CI = 0.84, 0.94) respectively. Overall, ER- CNB/ER+ EB was seen in seven (4%) cases and PR- CNB/PR+ EB in 15 (8.5%) cases. ER+ CNB/ER- EB was seen in five (2.8%) cases and PR+ CNB/PR- EB in three (1.7%) cases. To avoid erroneous omission of life-saving endocrine therapy ER and PR should be repeated on the EB for patients whose CNB has negative hormonal receptors. PMID:21306471

  14. Tonsillar Biopsy Test for Chronic Wasting Disease: Two Sampling Approaches in Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krysten L. Schuler; Jonathan A. Jenks; Christopher S. DePerno; Margaret A. Wild

    Preclinical antemortem testing of deer (Odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting dis- ease (CWD) can be important for determining prevalence rates and removing infected individ- uals from wild populations. Because samples with high numbers of tonsillar follicles are like- ly to provide earlier detection of CWD than samples with fewer follicles, the method of ob- taining follicular samples may be critical

  15. Toward Robotic Needle Steering in Lung Biopsy: A Tendon-Actuated Approach

    E-print Network

    Webster III, Robert James

    Toward Robotic Needle Steering in Lung Biopsy: A Tendon-Actuated Approach Louis B. Kratchman is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT

  16. A randomized, controlled trial comparing thoracoscopy and limited thoracotomy for lung biopsy in interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Miller; John D Urschel; Gerard Cox; Jemi Olak; James Edward M Young; John Michael Kay; Ellen McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Background. Lung biopsies are frequently needed to diagnose diffuse interstitial lung diseases. A prospective randomized, controlled trial comparing limited thoracotomy (open lung biopsy) and thoracoscopy for lung biopsy was done.Methods. Ambulatory patients with a clinical diagnosis of diffuse interstitial lung disease were randomized to thoracoscopy or limited thoracotomy. Data on postoperative pain, narcotic requirements, operating room time, adequacy of biopsy,

  17. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

  18. Collecting Rocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This basic guide provides information about starting and maintaining a rock collection. Topics include starting a collection, identifying specimens, where and how to collect, and how to house and document a collection.

  19. Role of penile biopsy in the diagnosis of penile dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M; Brady, M; Tenant-Flowers, M; Taylor, C

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the utility of penile biopsy in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics, its acceptability and the range of penile dermatoses diagnosed histologically. A retrospective case-notes review of 401 cases attending a dedicated penile dermatoses clinic from 1 June 2001 to 30 November 2007 was carried out. In 115/401 (28.7%) of cases a biopsy was invoked to resolve ambiguities of diagnosis. In 60/401 (15%) of those cases differential diagnosis was resolved, in 26/401 (6.5%) clinically suspected diagnoses were confirmed and in 22/401 (5.5%) clinically unsuspected diagnoses were identified. In 7/401 (1.7%) of cases the biopsy was also the treatment. Targeted penile biopsy has an important role in the diagnosis of penile dermatoses, particularly where there is clinical uncertainty. As a diagnostic tool in GU medicine departments it should be readily available even if not for routine use. There were indications that circumcision may reduce the incidence of penile dermatoses. There was also some indication of a possible ethnic factor in the relative incidences of penile lichen sclerosus and lichen planus in biopsied patients. PMID:20498111

  20. Ultrasound guided synovial biopsy using portal and forceps

    PubMed Central

    Koski, J; Helle, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe a new method for taking a synovial biopsy specimen under ultrasound guidance using portal and forceps. Methods: Percutaneous ultrasound guided biopsy was performed for 37 patients with mono- or polyarthritis as outpatients. A portal to a planned area was built using a needle, guiding wire, and dilators, through which forceps could be inserted and samples taken. Biopsy samples were taken from small and large joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. Results: Representative synovial tissue in adequate amounts for histopathological evaluation was obtained in 33/37 cases—a success rate of 89%. The biopsy procedures were well tolerated, but one complication of skin infection was encountered. Conclusion: The new method of synovium biopsy under ultrasound guidance using sheath introducer set and flexible forceps can be performed on most joints and even bursae and tendon sheaths. The method gives sufficient samples for clinical work in most cases, but further work is needed before accepting this promising technique for scientific purposes. PMID:15550535

  1. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schnapauff@charite.de; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail: tim.marnitz@charite.de; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.freyhardt@charite.de; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: Federico.collettini@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hartwig@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: korinna.joehrens@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kroencke@charite.de; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)] [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  2. CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of spinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Peh, WCG

    2006-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of spine lesions is important for its successful management. Imaging–guided percutaneous biopsy is gaining increasing acceptance as a means for obtaining tissue for diagnosis. Most biopsies can be rapidly performed under local anaesthesia, with little patient discomfort and improved safety. Spinal anatomy is, however, complex with many adjacent vital structures. Good knowledge of anatomy and precise needling technique is, therefore, important. Today, biopsy of spinal lesions is best performed under computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Indications for imaging-guided biopsy include confirming metastasis in a patient with a known primary tumour, determining the nature of a solitary bone lesion, excluding malignancy in vertebral body compression, and investigating for infection. Among the various issues to be considered are site of lesion, location of adjacent vital structures, approach, and type and size of needle. Complications are rare, particularly when a meticulous technique is applied. In summary, CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and an effective technique for the evaluation of spinal lesions and useful in planning therapy. PMID:21614239

  3. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  4. The evolving practice pattern of the breast surgeon with disappearance of open biopsy for nonpalpable lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor J Zannis; Kristina M Aliano

    1998-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in technology have prompted growth in the surgeon’s armamentarium for breast biopsy. For nonpalpable, mammographically detected lesions, the options include stereotactic needle\\/wire localization and open biopsy (SNL\\/OBx), stereotactic needle core biopsy (SNCB), and directional, vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB; Mammotome).Methods: A review of 372 patients with 424 breast lesions biopsied by the same surgeon between January 1993 and August

  5. Value of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Using Magnetic Resonance–Ultrasound Fusion in Men with Prior Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Chang, Edward; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional biopsy fails to detect the presence of some prostate cancers (PCas). Men with a prior negative biopsy but persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pose a diagnostic dilemma, as some harbor elusive cancer. Objective To determine whether use of magnetic resonance–ultrasound (MR-US) fusion biopsy results in improved detection of PCa compared to repeat conventional biopsy. Design, setting, and participants In a consecutive-case series, 105 subjects with prior negative biopsy and elevated PSA values underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fusion biopsy in an outpatient setting. Intervention Suspicious areas on multiparametric MRI were delineated and graded by a radiologist; MR–US fusion biopsy was performed by a urologist using the Artemis device; targeted and systematic biopsies were obtained regardless of MRI result. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Detection rates of all PCa and clinically significant PCa (Gleason ?3 + 4 or Gleason 6 with maximal cancer core length ?4 mm) were determined. The yield of targeted biopsy was compared to systematic biopsy. The ability of an MRI grading system to predict clinically significant cancer was investigated. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of significant cancer on biopsy. Results and limitations Fusion biopsy revealed PCa in 36 of 105 men (34%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25–45). Seventy-two percent of men with PCa had clinically significant disease; 21 of 23 men (91%) with PCa on targeted biopsy had significant cancer compared to 15 of 28 (54%) with systematic biopsy. Degree of suspicion on MRI was the most powerful predictor of significant cancer on multivariate analysis. Twelve of 14 (86%) subjects with a highly suspicious MRI target were diagnosed with clinically significant cancer. Conclusions MR-US fusion biopsy provides improved detection of PCa in men with prior negative biopsies and elevated PSA values. Most cancers found were clinically significant. PMID:23523537

  6. Breast lesions with ultrasound imaging-histologic discordance at 16-gauge core needle biopsy: Can re-biopsy with 10-gauge vacuum-assisted system get definitive diagnosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Lai Li; Zhi Li Wang; Li Su; Xiao Jun Liu; Jie Tang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if re-biopsy with 10-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) could get definitive diagnosis for breast lesions with ultrasound (US) imaging-histologic discordance at 16-gauge core needle biopsy (CNB).From January 2007 to June 2008, a consecutive biopsy was performed on 1069 lesions with US-guided 16-gauge CNB. A total of 28 lesions were considered to be US

  7. The red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa) in North America.

    PubMed

    Upton, S J; McKown, R D

    1992-01-01

    Oral inoculation of prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, in Kansas, USA, resulted in formation of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. Five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other Buteo spp. in Kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. These results are the first to verify that red-tailed hawks are natural definitive host in North America for F. microti. PMID:1548806

  8. A PLAGUE EPIZOOTIC IN THE WHITE-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LEUCURUS) OF MEETEETSE, WYOMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya R. Ubico; Kathleen A. Fagerstone; Robert G. McLean

    Surveillance for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted near Meeteetse, Wyoming (USA) from 24 May to 14 june 1985. Ten species of fleas were collected from white- tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. Five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. The progression of this plague epizootic appeared

  9. Activity and reproduction of the black-tailed jackrabbit in the Coastal Cordgrass Prairie of Texas

    E-print Network

    Haug, Joseph Carroll

    1969-01-01

    of the variations in daily and seasonal activity pat- terms, and to determine reproductive patterns in the black-tailed jackrabbit (~Le us californicus merriami) 1 in the Coastal Bend area of Texas. Data were collected from June li)66 through August of 1...

  10. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesis from tailings by ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    synthesis [8], microemulsion [9], chemical co-precipitation [10], oxidation of Fe (OH)2 by H2O2 [11], R and collected. An appropriate amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the filtrate so that all ironFe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesis from tailings by ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation Shen

  11. SEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN FLEA COMMUNITIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS OF NORTHWESTERN MEXICO

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    of mortality in prairie dog populations. In Mexico, plague has never been reported in prairie dogs despiteSEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN FLEA COMMUNITIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS OF NORTHWESTERN were collected from prairie dogs trapped in 7 plots (160 x 160 m) in 3 colonies of northwestern Mexico

  12. Parasites of the black-tailed jackrabbit in north central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Brittain, P C; Voth, D R

    1975-04-01

    Forty-four black-tailed jackrabbits, Lepus californicus melanotis Mearns, 1890, were collected near Denver from August, 1972, through July, 1973, and amined for parasites. Recovered parasites and their infection rates were: Eimeria sp. 100%, Cittotaenia sp.27%, coenuri of Multiceps sp. 57%, Cediopsylla inaequalis 14%, Hoplopsyllus affinis 9%, Haemodipsus setoni 2%, Dermacentor andersoni 14%, and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris 25%. PMID:1142561

  13. Resistance of Indonesian thin tail sheep against Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Roberts; E. Estuningsih; S. Widjayanti; E. Wiedosari; S. Partoutomo; T. W. Spithill

    1997-01-01

    High resistance of Indonesian thin tail (ITT) sheep against Fasciola gigantica has been confirmed. Naive ITT sheep had only 17% of the number of mature parasites collected from control St. Croix sheep. In contrast, the level of resistance of ITT sheep against F. hepatica was the same as that of the low resistance Merino breed after both primary and secondary

  14. A Christmas "E-Tail"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

  15. Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from Wild White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Confirms Their Role as Natural Reservoir Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MITCHELL LOCKHART; WILLIAM R. DAVIDSON; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; JACQUELINE E. DAWSON; ELIZABETH W. HOWERTH

    1997-01-01

    Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular,

  16. Evaluating dermal myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on small, unmyelinated fibers in the skin, little research has investigated dermal myelinated fibers in comparison. Glabrous, non-hairy skin contains mechanoreceptors that afford a vantage point for observation of myelinated fibers that have previously been seen only with invasively obtained nerve biopsies. This review discusses current morphometric and molecular expression data of normative and pathogenic glabrous skin obtained by various processing and analysis methods for cutaneous myelinated fibers. Recent publications have shed light on the role of glabrous skin biopsy in identifying signs of peripheral neuropathy and as a potential biomarker of distal myelin and mechanoreceptor integrity. The clinical relevance of a better understanding of the role of dermal myelinated nerve terminations in peripheral neuropathy will be addressed in light of recent publications in the growing field of skin biopsy. PMID:23192899

  17. Multiparametric MRI-Targeted TRUS Prostate Biopsies Using Visual Registration

    PubMed Central

    Puech, Philippe; Ouzzane, Adil; Gaillard, Vianney; Betrouni, Nacim; Renard, Benoit; Villers, Arnauld; Lemaitre, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prebiopsy multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), followed by transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-G) target biopsies (TB) of the prostate is a key combination for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (CSPCa), to avoid prostate cancer (PCa) overtreatment. Several techniques are available for guiding TB to the suspicious mp-MRI targets, but the simplest, cheapest, and easiest to learn is “cognitive,” with visual registration of MRI and TRUS data. This review details the successive steps of the method (target detection, mp-MRI reporting, intermodality fusion, TRUS guidance to target, sampling simulation, sampling, TRUS session reporting, and quality insurance), how to optimize each, and the global indications of mp-MRI-targeted biopsies. We discuss the diagnostic yield of visually-registered TB in comparison with conventional biopsy, and TB performed using other registration methods. PMID:25525605

  18. Role of Percutaneous Needle Biopsy for Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Caoili, Elaine M.; Davenport, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The role of percutaneous renal mass biopsy has expanded considerably in the past 10 years. The incidence of incidentally detected small (< 4 cm) solid renal masses is on the rise, and despite a commensurate increase in nephron-sparing treatment, the mortality rate from renal cell carcinoma remains the same. Earlier detection and treatment have not had dramatic effects on population outcome, implying that not all small renal masses will grow to be life-limiting. Indeed, many small solid renal masses are benign, and among those that are malignant, not all share the same malignant behavior. Percutaneous biopsy provides a minimally invasive method for discriminating benign from malignant renal masses, and portends the potential for stratifying malignant risk. With recent improvements in image-guided equipment and technique, percutaneous renal mass biopsy can be performed safely and effectively, with a low complication rate (< 5%) and a high diagnostic yield (> 90%). PMID:24596436

  19. Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy.

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, M. J.; Giometti, C. S.; Manaligod, J. R.; Swisher, C.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Medical Coll.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Children's Memorial Hospital

    1997-05-01

    Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat biopsies at ages 2 and 4, which showed many atrophic type 1 muscle fibers containing central nuclei and severe type 2 fiber deficiency compatible with centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of muscle showed decreases of type II myosin light chains 2 and 3, suggestive of histochemical type I fiber deficiency. The progressive nature of morphological changes in one of our patients cannot be explained by maturational arrest. Repeat biopsies in cases of CFTD with rapid clinical deterioration may very well show CNM.

  20. Specimens from Biopsies of Colorectal Polyps Often Harbor Additional Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The utility of examining specimens from colorectal biopsies of polyps for nonneoplastic diseases is currently unknown. Our objectives were to characterize such additional diagnoses that could be rendered. Methods. We retrospectively and prospectively reviewed specimens from endoscopic biopsies of colorectal polyps obtained during routine screening or surveillance. Results. 17 of 168 specimens (10.1%) contained additional diagnoses, including schistosomiasis, eosinophilic colitis, intestinal spirochetosis, melanosis coli, and other entities. These findings were easily overlooked because they often affected mucosa that was spared by the polyps or were often evident only at high magnification. Schistosomiasis, eosinophilic colitis, and intestinal spirochetosis were clinically occult. Conclusions. Specimens from biopsies of colorectal polyps often harbor other diagnoses, in addition to polyps, and can be simultaneously screened for polyps and examined for nonneoplastic diseases. Detection of other diagnoses in addition to polyps requires awareness, examination at high magnification, and examination of areas spared by the polyps. PMID:24455417

  1. Cerebral air embolism following transbronchial lung biopsy during flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Matthew; Crosbie, Philip A.J.; Bright-Thomas, Rowland; Alaloul, Mohamed; Booton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    During a diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy an 84 year old patient suffered a sudden reduction in conscious level following a transbronchial lung biopsy. A subsequent computed tomography brain scan confirmed cerebral air emboli. The patient survived following a period of supportive treatment in the critical care unit. Transbronchial lung biopsy may cause disruption of vessels walls within the lung parenchyma. Increased airway pressure, caused by the patient exhaling against a bronchoscope wedged within a segmental bronchi, may subsequently force air bubbles through the vessel wall defects. This may explain the occurrence of air emboli. This is a rare report of air embolism complicating transbronchial lung biopsy and all bronchoscopists should aware of this potentially fatal complication.

  2. Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, D A; Ruegg, P L

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking. PMID:12416802

  3. Emergency lung biopsy: friend or foe of the immunosuppressed child?

    PubMed

    Doolin, E J; Luck, S R; Sherman, J O; Raffensperger, J G

    1986-06-01

    An acute pneumonic process in an immunosuppressed child poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. These patients tolerate infection poorly. An open lung biopsy may provide prompt diagnosis. Nevertheless, a beneficial change in therapy that results in survival does not necessarily follow. Fifty-six immunosuppressed children with acute respiratory symptoms and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates underwent lung biopsy from 1974 to 1985. The most common underlying diagnosis was acute lymphocytic leukemia (60%). A specific etiology was determined in 46 (82%). Operative morbidity in 52% included prolonged intubation, recurrent pneumothorax, and hemorrhage. Overall, mortality was 34%. Those patients with solid tumor and those who required postoperative ventilation had a statistically significant higher mortality than all others. We defined biopsy "patient benefit" as follows: (1) the biopsy yielded an etiology for which a change of treatment was required; and (2) the child survived this acute illness. Despite the successful diagnostic results of this procedure, only 13 (23%) of the patients derived clinical benefit. Even though a specific infectious etiology was diagnosed in 39 (69%) patients only ten (18%) of these improved and survived after an appropriate change in therapy. Eight of these had Pneumocystis carinii. One survivor benefited from the treatment of documented radiation pneumonitis. Another was successfully treated for graft v host reaction but this diagnosis also was made by skin biopsy. One half of the biopsies were performed very early in the course of the illness, specifically to exclude Pneumocystis carinii of which we saw a peak incidence in 1978 to 1979.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3487631

  4. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  5. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    SciTech Connect

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  6. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. PMID:26138983

  7. Physical space and long-tail markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  8. An exceptional minute tumour incidentally found in a renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buob, David; Copin, Marie-Christine; Perez, Thierry; Hachulla, Eric; Hazzan, Marc; Leroy, Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Pathological analysis of renal biopsies performed to investigate a nephrological disease may exceptionally reveal incidental tumours, in addition to expected glomerular, tubulointerstitial or vascular pathology. We present the first case to date of a minute angiomyolipoma (AML), found incidentally in a renal biopsy specimen, performed in the assessment of proteinuria. AML is an uncommon kidney tumour, composed of a variable proportion of adipose tissue, spindle and epithelioid smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for a definitive diagnosis, showing a specific perivascular epithelioid differentiation. The diagnosis of renal AML justifies the search for tuberous sclerosis-associated tumours. PMID:21324975

  9. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in 268 nonpalpable lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tonegutti; V. Girardi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  We evaluated the reliability of stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsies (VAB) from our personal experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Between January 2003 and December 2005, 268 patients underwent VAB with an 11-gauge probe at our institution. Inclusion criteria\\u000a were nonpalpable lesions, undetectable by ultrasound and suspected at mammography (microcalcifications, circumscribed mass,\\u000a architectural distortion), for which cytology and\\/or core biopsy could not provide a

  10. Ectoparasites of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn E. Kietzmann

    During the summers of 1982 and 1983, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys lu- dovicianus) were examined for parasites. Those collected and their respective prevalence in- cluded Linognathoides cynomyis (46.3%), Opisocrostis hirsutus (53.7%), Opisocrostis tu- berculatus cynomuris (2.4%), Androlaelaps fah- renholzi (12.2%), Ixodes scuiptus (2.4%) and Dermacentor andersoni (4.9%). The collection data indicated that L. cynomyis, 0. hirsutus and A. fahrenholzi were

  11. Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer

    E-print Network

    Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

  12. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  13. Activity and reproduction of the black-tailed jackrabbit in the Coastal Cordgrass Prairie of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Haug, Joseph Carroll

    1969-01-01

    of' ommrttee ember ~HA ID p t t ember) NAY 1$6$ ABSTRACT Activity and reproduction of the black-tailed jackrabbit in the Coastal Cordgz ass Prairie of Texas. (May lcI6&3) Joseph C. Haug, B. S. , St. I~orbert College; Directed by Dr. James G... of the variations in daily and seasonal activity pat- terms, and to determine reproductive patterns in the black-tailed jackrabbit (~Le us californicus merriami) 1 in the Coastal Bend area of Texas. Data were collected from June li)66 through August of 1...

  14. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Thoracic Vertebral Biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFF S. SILBER; RICK J. PLACIDE; MAX W. COHEN; R. JOHN NARANJA; EDWARD J. VRESILOVIC

    Although video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been used as a diagnostic procedure for evaluating diseases of the chest cavity and pleura, its role in spinal disorders is still being defined. Within the past few years, important diag- nostic and therapeutic applications pertaining to the spine have been recognized. When a computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy is not diagnostic for a

  15. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: diagnosis by liver biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Qizilbash, A. H.; Castelli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of liver obtained by needle biopsy from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In one patient the nodularity was apparent on gross examination of the specimen. Portal hypertension was present in the other patient. The cause and pathogenesis of the disorder are poorly understood. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7388707

  16. Radioguided Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Mariani; Luciano Moresco; Giuseppe Viale; Giuseppe Villa; Marcello Bagnasco; Giuseppe Canavese; John Buscombe; H. William Strauss; Giovanni Paganelli

    The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery relates to the fact that the tumor drains in a logical way through the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Therefore, the first lymph node met (the sentinel node) will most likely be the first to be affected by metastasis, and a negative sentinel node makes it

  17. Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Chang Chen; Peng-Wei Hsu; Tai-Wei Erich Wu; Shih-Tseng Lee; Chen-Nen Chang; Kuo-chen Wei; Chih-Cheng Chuang; Chieh-Tsai Wu; Tai-Ngar Lui; Yung-Hsin Hsu; Tzu-Kang Lin; Sai-Cheung Lee; Yin-Cheng Huang

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveStereotactic biopsy is a widely used surgical technique for the histological diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Potential risks of this procedure, such as hemorrhage, seizure, and infection have been established, and different risk factors have been characterized. However, these risks have been addressed by only few studies conducted in Asian countries.

  18. A SURGICAL CONFOCAL MICROLAPAROSCOPE FOR REAL-TIME OPTICAL BIOPSIES

    E-print Network

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    A SURGICAL CONFOCAL MICROLAPAROSCOPE FOR REAL-TIME OPTICAL BIOPSIES by Anthony Amir Tanbakuchi Copyright c Anthony Amir Tanbakuchi 2009 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the COLLEGE OF OPTICAL of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Anthony Amir Tanbakuchi

  19. Biopsy Needle Detection in Transrectal Ultrasound Alper Ayvacia

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than-positive detection rate. Keywords: Needle detection, Interventional Guidance, Prostate, Transrectal Ultrasound, Fusion, Prior knowledge. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer affects one in six men in the western world

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy progress in surgical treatment of cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schulze; A. Bembenek; P. M. Schlag

    2004-01-01

    Background Forty-three years after the first description of the sentinel lymph node technique in malignant tumours of the parotid by Gould, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNLB) has become a precious tool in the treatment of solid tumours. Methods In the following review we give a synopsis of the fundamentals of the sentinel lymph node concept and then proceed to an

  1. Thyroid Hormone Autoantibodies Elicited by Diagnostic Fine Needle Biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALVATORE BENVENGA; LUIGI BARTOLONE; STEFANO SQUADRITO; FRANCESCO TRIMARCHI

    Based on the knowledge that diagnostic fine needle biopsy of the thyroid (FNAB) results in a prompt increase in circulating thyroglob- ulin (Tg), we evaluated whether Tg is indeed the postulated antigen for circulating antibodies against thyroid hormones (THAb). Prelim- inarily, we verified that FNAB causes the release into the blood- stream of iodinated, heterologous, and thus potentially immunogenic, molecules

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Mark E.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans Letizia Abstract The aim of the present study was to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in free. A ®ngerprint of 14 PAHs was obtained for both species. In whales, the median value of total PAHs was 1970 ppb

  3. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solange Pendas; Emilia Dauway; Rosemary Giuliano; NiNi Ku; Charles E. Cox; Douglas S. Reintgen

    2000-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is an effective and accurate method of evaluating the regional lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. The SLN is the first node that receives lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor. Patients with micrometastatic disease, previously undetected by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, are now being detected with the new technology of SLN biopsy,

  4. Haptic Communication to Support Biopsy Procedures Learning in Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Haptic Communication to Support Biopsy Procedures Learning in Virtual Environments Amine Chellali haptic sensitivity and fine motor skills development because of the limited real-time visual feedback collaborative haptic training paradigm is introduced to support human haptic interaction in a virtual

  5. Haematoma caused by bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarigianni, Maria; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Chissan, Sofia; Klonizakis, Filippos; Vetsiou, Evaggelia; Anastasiadou, Kyriaki I.; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elissavet; Klonizakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy (BMATB) associated haematoma in an 85-years old male without any predisposing risk factors. Six days after BMATB, he suffered from a massive thigh and buttock haematoma and a fall in haematocrit. It is important to know that BMATB can have complications aiding early recognition and therapy. PMID:22593816

  6. Cerebral salt wasting after pituitary exploration and biopsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Andrews, B T; Fitzgerald, P A; Tyrell, J B; Wilson, C B

    1986-04-01

    We report a case of hyponatremia associated with volume depletion after pituitary exploration and biopsy. The presence of clinical dehydration precluded diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The absence of a hypoadrenal state and the patient's response to volume reexpansion were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cerebral salt wasting. PMID:3703220

  7. Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Danon; C. S. Giometti; J. R. Manaligod; C. Swisher

    1997-01-01

    Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat

  8. High-resolution light microscopy for interpretation of renal biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto O. Hoffmann

    1995-01-01

    Routine transmission electron microscopy is recommended for all renal biopsies. However, most of the diagnostic lesions in renal pathology are 0.2 µm or larger, and are therefore visible by light microscopy. These lesions are difficult to evaluate in paraffin sections due to problems inherent in the method itself. Full utilization of the resolving power of the light microscope or high-resolution

  9. A virtual reality simulator for ultrasound-guided biopsy training.

    PubMed

    Dong Ni; Wing Yin Chan; Jing Qin; Yim-Pan Chui; Ingrid Qu; Ho, S S M; Pheng-Ann Heng

    2011-01-01

    A VR-based training system for practicing biopsies simulates ultrasound imagery by stitching multiple ultrasound volumes on the basis of a 3D scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. In addition, a six-degree-of-freedom force model delivers a realistic haptic rendering of needle insertion. PMID:24808027

  10. Electromyography (EMG) Accuracy Compared to Muscle Biopsy in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Rabie; Joseph Jossiphov; Yoram Nevo

    2007-01-01

    Reports show wide variability of electromyography (EMG) in detecting pediatric neuromuscular disorders. The study's aim was to determine EMG\\/nerve conduction study accuracy compared to muscle biopsy and final clinical diagnosis, and sensitivity for myopathic motor unit potential detection in childhood. Of 550 EMG\\/nerve conduction studies performed by the same examiner from a pediatric neuromuscular service, 27 children (ages 6 days

  11. Skin and conjunctival biopsies in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Martin; J. G. Leroy; J. Libert; M. van Eygen; N. Logghe

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of infantile neuro-axonal dystrophy (INAD) in a 5-year-old patient was confirmed by the ultrastructural study of neuromuscular, skin and conjunctival biopsy specimens. Abnormal networks of smooth membranous, lamellar and tubular profiles were found in presynaptic terminals and in conjunctival and dermal axons.

  12. Visceral leshmaniasis diagnosed on duodenal biopsy in a child.

    PubMed

    Boukthir, S; Mejri, A; M'rad, S; Barsaoui, S

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is usually easy to recognize when clinical presentation is complete: splenomegaly, fever and palor associated to pancytopenia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypergamma globulinemia. Bone marrow smears, culture and serology confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of an infant in whom clinical and biological findings are suggestive of leishmaniasis and the diagnosis confirmed only by duodenal biopsy. PMID:14618961

  13. Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in solid malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Goyal; Robert E Mansel

    2004-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy were first reported in 1977 by Cabanas for penile cancer. Since that time, the technique has become rapidly assimilated into clinical practice. The sentinel node concept has been validated in cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. However, follow-up data of patients from randomised trials is needed to establish the clinical significance of sentinel lymph

  14. Quality Checking and Mining Nephrology Biopsy Data Milos Radovanovi

    E-print Network

    Radovanovich, Milos

    Quality Checking and Mining Nephrology Biopsy Data Milos Radovanovi Dept. of Mathematics Department of Nephrology University Hospital Charité Berlin, Germany danilo.schmidt@charite.de Gabriela Sad Novi Sad, Serbia mira@dmi.uns.ac.rs Carl Hinrichs Department of Nephrology University Hospital

  15. Repuncturing the Renal Biopsy: Strategies for Molecular Diagnosis in Nephrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHIAS KRETZLER; CLEMENS D. COHEN; PETER DORAN; ANNA HENGER; STEPHEN MADDEN; ELISABETH F. GRONE; PETER J. NELSON; DETLEF SCHLONDORFF; HERMANN-JOSEF GRONE

    2002-01-01

    As has been exemplified by recent progress in the classification of cancer, future approaches to enhance the clin- ical diagnostic power of tissue biopsies may be based on gene expression profiles. A series of strategies to translate these approaches to the diagnosis of renal disease is here proposed. The theoretical and technical problems resulting from the small amount of starting

  16. Segmentation of prostate biopsy needles in transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krefting, Dagmar; Haupt, Barbara; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Miller, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Tissue extraction at different locations (biopsy) is the gold-standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer. These biopsies are commonly guided by transrectal ultrasound imaging (TRUS). Exact location of the extracted tissue within the gland is desired for more specific diagnosis and provides better therapy planning. While the orientation and the position of the needle within clinical TRUS image are limited, the appearing length and visibility of the needle varies strongly. Marker lines are present and tissue inhomogeneities and deflection artefacts may appear. Simple intensity, gradient oder edge-detecting based segmentation methods fail. Therefore a multivariate statistical classificator is implemented. The independent feature model is built by supervised learning using a set of manually segmented needles. The feature space is spanned by common binary object features as size and eccentricity as well as imaging-system dependent features like distance and orientation relative to the marker line. The object extraction is done by multi-step binarization of the region of interest. The ROI is automatically determined at the beginning of the segmentation and marker lines are removed from the images. The segmentation itself is realized by scale-invariant classification using maximum likelihood estimation and Mahalanobis distance as discriminator. The technique presented here could be successfully applied in 94% of 1835 TRUS images from 30 tissue extractions. It provides a robust method for biopsy needle localization in clinical prostate biopsy TRUS images.

  17. Nerve biopsy findings in two cases of Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Kocen; R. H. M. King; P. K. Thomas; L. F. Haas

    1973-01-01

    Nerve biopsy findings are recorded for two previously reported patients with Tangier disease (hereditary high density lipoprotein deficiency). Both cases showed unusual clinical manifestations in comparison with other reported cases. The neurological disorder, symptoms from which began in the third decade, gave rise to a lower motor neuron deficit of unique distribution, which was accompanied by progressive sensory impairment limited

  18. Thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G; Woyke, S; Schreiber, K; Kohlberg, W; Freed, S Z

    1984-05-01

    The authors summarize the current status of thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate and evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this method of diagnosis. Historical developments, indications, technique, contraindications, complications, cytology of aspirates, diagnostic efficacy of aspirates, and grading of prostatic carcinomas are discussed. PMID:6203204

  19. Responsible Collecting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, examines how to responsibly collect and keep specimens. The article discusses the reasons why collecting specimens is important and the behaviors and attitudes that define responsible collecting for both scientists and students.

  20. Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dinesh V; Tupkari, Jagdish V

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton’s one-step method). Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt. PMID:21731263

  1. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to be easily adapted to any other neutral cometary sodium tail observations available.

  2. The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ki-Sun; Shon, Min-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni’s correction when necessary. Overall diagnostic yield was 90.6% for all 309 lesions (bone 91.6% vs. soft tissue 89.3%, p?=?0.5125). The diagnostic accuracy of the 185 core needle biopsies, which were confirmed by definitive surgical biopsies, was 84.3% (bone 88.9% vs. soft tissue 79.1%, p?=?0.0669). The yields of homogenous bone tumours (96.8%) were not significantly higher than those of bone tumours with a heterogenic architecture (86.4%, p?=?0.0794). The difference between accuracies for homogenous bone tumours (89.1%) and heterogenous bone tumours (85.0%) was not significant (p?=?0.6930). However, for soft tissue tumours, homogenous tumours had a significantly higher diagnostic yield than heterogenous tumours (97.5% vs. 81.4%, p?=?0.0036). Diagnostic accuracy for homogenous tumours was also significantly higher than that for heterogenous soft tissue tumours (94.4% vs. 60.6%, p?biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions is a safe and effective procedure if it is performed selectively in soft tissue tumours with homogenous architectures. PMID:19655141

  3. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. Methods We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured ?2H, ?13C and ?15N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring ?2H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of ?2H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of ?2H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. Conclusions In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26044272

  4. NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

  5. Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

  6. Diagnostic value of transbronchial, thoracoscopic, and open lung biopsy in immunocompetent children with chronic interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leland L. Fan; Claudia A. Kozinetz; Henry A. Wojtczak; Barbara A. Chatfield; Alan H. Cohen; Steven S. Rothenberg

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of transbronchial biopsy (TBB), video-assisted thoracoscopy (VAT), and open lung biopsy (OLB) in immunocompetent children with chronic, diffuse infiltrates; to identify factors that may predict diagnosis in children requiring biopsy; to determine whether age, number of biopsies, or type of procedure are associated with diagnostic yield in children undergoing transthoracic biopsy; and to compare

  7. Analysis of HLA-G expression in serum and biopsy samples of kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Poláková, K; Bandžuchová, H; Žilinská, Z; Chre?ová, S; Kuba, D; Russ, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed HLA-G expression in serum and graft biopsies of renal transplant patients to find out whether there is any relationship between HLA-G and renal graft acceptance. The transplant patients were divided into two groups: those without any rejection episode (n=32) and those with acute rejection (n=33). Patient sera were collected 1 day before and at various intervals after transplantation. Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in serum was determined using ELISA. In time-course experiment we found that in all patients (with and without rejection) the pre-transplantation level of sHLA-G declined in the early post-transplant period (1-2 weeks). In sera collected over 1-12 months after transplantation, a substantial increase of sHLA-G was detected in patients without rejection while no change or additional decline was observed in recipients with graft rejection. In sera collected after more than 1 year post-transplantation, sHLA-G levels increased in both groups of patients (with or without graft rejection). The time-course of serum sHLA-G antigens in patients with graft rejection was in good correlation with the course of total HLA-G mRNA determined in graft biopsy samples isolated from patients with acute rejection. We further demonstrated that serum sHLA-G values were significantly higher in patients without graft rejection than with rejection (P=0.0058). This observation supports the assumption that the increase of serum sHLA-G may contribute to allograft acceptance. PMID:25468563

  8. X-ray Tail in NGC 7619

    E-print Network

    Dong-Woo Kim; Eunhyeuk Kim; Giuseppina Fabbiano; Ginevra Trinchieri

    2008-09-25

    We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the SW direction; moreover, we identify for the first time a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (NE) side of the galaxy. The density, temperature and pressure jump at the NE discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to the surrounding hot gas. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the Iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (< 1/2 solar), indicating that the gas in the tail is originated from the galaxy. The possible origin of the head-tail structure is either on-going ram-pressure stripping or sloshing. The morphology of the structure is more in line with a ram pressure stripping phenomenon, while the position of NGC 7619 at the center of the Pegasus I group, and its dominance, would prefer sloshing.

  9. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  10. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  11. Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA?ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy. PMID:20459232

  12. Skin biopsies in DC vaccines for stage III-IV melanoma patients: role of neutrophils?

    PubMed

    Laporte, M; Trakatelli, M; Vereecken, P; Blocklet, D; Lespagnard, M; Petein, M; Goldman, M; Velu, T; Heenen, M

    2007-12-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are used for the induction of anti-tumor T cell reaction in melanoma patients. DC are generated in vitro, pulsed with antigen and matured prior to injection. They are supposed to migrate to lymph nodes and to present the processed antigen to naive T cells allowing activation of tumor-specific lymphocytes. It has been suggested that intradermal injection allows a superior migration to the lymph node. Eight HLA-A2 positive patients with stage III or IV melanomas expressing NA 17 antigen were collected. They were included in a pilot trial of vaccination in which they received IL3/INFb DC presenting the NA17 A2 antigen. In each patient, a skin biopsy was performed at the injection site, 24 h after inoculation. The striking features of the biopsies were the presence of a perivascular CD3+/CD8+ T cell infiltrate with a slight population of CD4+ cells and the presence of a massive neutrophilic infiltrate associated with the injected DC still present, realizing a suppurative granuloma. The persistence of DC 24 h after the injection suggests that migration in the lymph node is not necessary for the induction of the immune response. The skin itself could be the location of a reaction starting with a massive recruitment of neutrophils. PMID:17934742

  13. Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Ermilov, Sergey A; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA/ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy. PMID:20459232

  14. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  15. Male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. In the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. In order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from March to July 2010. The male purring rate increased during periods of male-male agonism when compared to times without intrasexual agonism, and the purring rate was positively correlated with male dominance rank. However, the purring rate was not significantly higher during winning agonistic interactions when compared with losing encounters. My results indicate that the male ring-tailed lemur purr is used most frequently as an agonistic vocalization in male-male encounters, in addition to being used less frequently in other social contexts, including during tail-waving at females, resting, scent-marking, feeding and copulation. Dominant males have higher purring rates across social situations, suggesting that the purring rate may be driven by intrinsic male qualities rather than functioning as a meaningful signal in each disparate social context. Male purring in intrasexual agonistic encounters can be added to previously described social contexts for ring-tailed lemur purring. PMID:25139722

  16. Evaluation of gastric biopsies for neoplasia: differences between Japanese and Western pathologists.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, G Y; Shimizu, M; Correa, P; Riddell, R H; Kato, Y; Lewin, K J; Yamabe, H; Sheahan, D G; Lewin, D; Sipponen, P; Kubilis, P S; Watanabe, H

    1999-05-01

    Cited variations in the evaluation of gastric endoscopic biopsies for neoplasms between pathologists in Japan and those in the United States and Europe (the West) may have stemmed from several causes. The five-tiered group classification of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC) for interpretation of biopsies is not used in the West. Some differences may also exist in the morphologic criteria to reach a diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma. The goals of this study were to test the Western and Japanese classifications of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma and to assess the differences between four Japanese and seven Western pathologists. One hundred biopsies, 20 from each of the five categories of the JRSGC scheme as determined by one observer, were collected. The Japanese observers used the JRSGC system, expressed in Roman numerals, whereas Western pathologists used a five- or six-tiered scheme expressed in diagnostic terms. Pairwise agreement was evaluated using k statistics within both groups. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was accepted as the opinion of the majority. The sensitivity and specificity of each reviewer for a certain diagnosis were also assessed. The intragroup agreements were moderate for both the Japanese (mean k = 0.663) and the Westerners (mean k = 0.652). The pairwise agreements between Japanese and Western observers were low (mean k = 0.542). Overall, the sensitivity was low for all Japanese observers for the diagnosis of dysplasia (38.7% vs 92.5%), and the sensitivity for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was high in both groups but higher among the Japanese observers (93.9% and 85.2%, respectively). Overall, the Japanese-Western interobserver agreement was moderate. The JRSCG scheme did not translate into higher interobserver agreement among Japanese observers. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was high for both groups, but the specificity was low among the Japanese. The cause seemed to be centered around the diagnosis of dysplasia in the Western system, which was a lesion frequently interpreted as carcinoma in Japan because of the different definitions of carcinoma in each system. Such a discrepancy might be important because it may explain some of the differences in the prevalence and prognosis of early gastric cancer between Japan and the West. An international effort is needed to harmonize morphologic criteria and analyze whether therapeutic consequences may stem from such discrepancies. PMID:10328081

  17. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rozengurt, Enrique [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rey, Osvaldo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)]. E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  18. Sunward Electric Current In The Geomagnetic Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelevich, P.; Ershkovich, A.; Tsyganenko, N.

    Analysis of Geotail magnetic data enables us to reveal the antisunward electric cur- rent flowing along the tail axis. Distributions of the magnetic field and electric current density (along with their dependencies on the tilt angle of the Earth's dipole and com- ponents of the interplanetary magnetic field) have been derived directly from Geotail data, without any ad hoc assumptions. Analysis of the electric current density distri- bution shows that, in addition to currents associated with the geomagnetic tail flaring, there is a current (tentatively identified as the Hall current) flowing antisunward along the tail axis. The total strength of this current is of the order of 1 MA. It closes through the midnight sector of the auroral zone resulting in field-aligned currents in the region of the Harang discontinuity.

  19. Evolution of "Rhabditidae" and the Male Tail

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, David H. A.

    2000-01-01

    Evolution of diverse male tail epidermal features of representative species in the family Rhabditidae (Nematoda:Rhabditida) was mapped by parsimony on a molecular phylogeny inferred with nearly complete DNA sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Although the molecular phylogeny is consistent with some previously proposed relationships, there are also some major differences, suggesting a revision of rhabditid taxonomy is required. To reconstruct male tail evolution, character states and homologies were determined with the aid of developmental profiling at the level of single cells. Because the model genetic system Caenorhabditis elegans is a member of Rhabditidae and allows the genetic and developmental mechanisms of morphogenesis to be elucidated, candidate genes and pathways can be proposed for several of the reconstructed evolutionary changes in male tail morphology. PMID:19270972

  20. Computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of small apical and peripheral upper-lobe lung masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gatenby, R.A.; Mulhern, C.B.; Broder, G.J.; Moldofsky, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    After undergoing unsuccessful bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic biopsy attempts, 15 patients with small, peripheral upper-lobe and apical lung masses underwent computed-tomographic-guided biopsy. Malignant tissue was obtained in all cases. No complications resulted.

  1. Prostate Biopsy Using Transrectal Ultrasonography; The Optimal Number of Cores Regarding Cancer Detection Rate and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Velayati, Meysam; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate is the most common modality used to diagnose prostate cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal number of cores at prostate biopsy, which have the most diagnostic value with least adverse effects. Patients and Materials: Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy was performed in 180 patients suspicious for prostate cancer due to either abnormal rectal examination or elevated PSA. The patients were divided randomly into three groups of six-core, twelve-core and eighteen-core biopsies. The detection rate of prostate cancer in each group with the rate of post biopsy urinary infection and prostatitis were compared. Results: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 8 (13.3%), 21 (35%) and 24 (40%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Urinary tract infection and prostatitis occurred in 17 (28.3%), 23 (38.3%) and 35 (58.3%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Considering the detection rate of prostate cancer, there was a significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.006) and 12-core biopsies detected more cases of prostate cancer, but there was no significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.572). Considering the infection rate, there was no significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.254), but there was a significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.028) and infectious complications occurred more frequently in 18-core biopsy group. Conclusions: The best balance between detection rate of prostate cancer and infectious complications of biopsies achieved in twelve-core biopsy protocol. Twelve-core biopsy enhances the rate of prostate cancer detection with minimum adverse effects.

  2. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  3. Modeling river flows with heavy tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul L.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    1998-09-01

    Recent advances in time series analysis provide alternative models for river flows in which the innovations have heavy tails, so that some of the moments do not exist. The probability of large fluctuations is much larger than for standard models. We survey some recent theoretical developments for heavy tail time series models and illustrate their practical application to river flow data from the Salt River near Roosevelt, Arizona. We also include some simple diagnostics that the practitioner can use to identify when the methods of this paper may be useful.

  4. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  5. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  6. Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R

    1954-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

  7. Laparoscopic anatomy of caprine abdomen and laparoscopic liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kassem, M M; el-Gendy, S A A; Abdel-Wahed, R E; el-Kammar, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out on apparently healthy adult non pregnant female Baladi goats to provide normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen and to assess feasibility of laparoscopy for liver biopsy. Following preparation of animals, equipment and instruments, the primary port and laparoscope was placed on the umbilicus and 360° scan was performed for orientation and exploration of the abdominal cavity. Secondary ports were placed under direct laparoscopic observation to allow insertion of accessory instruments for tissue grasping, coagulation and severing. The obtained results cleared that ventral laparoscopic approach and tilting and rotating the animal during laparoscopic procedures provided better exposure of internal abdomen. Laparoscopy provided a comprehensive description of cranial and caudal abdominal regions. Laparoscopic liver biopsy required two secondary ports; one assisting port inserted in right subcostal area and one operating port inserted subxiphoid. The procedure was safe, practical and easily performed. PMID:20553700

  8. Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

  9. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  10. Atrial fibrillation and pneumothorax after transthoracic needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander; Southern, Iain; Nicol, Edward

    2012-01-01

    An obese 65-year-old male smoker with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed an iatrogenic pneumothorax with pulmonary haemorrhage during an elective transthoracic needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Successful re-inflation was achieved with a chest drain which was then removed before transfer to the medical ward. He later developed persistent atrial fibrillation with breathlessness and haemoptysis. He was treated empirically for a pulmonary embolus, which was subsequently ruled out with CT pulmonary angiogram. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated recurrence of his pneumothorax and a chest drain was re-inserted. His atrial fibrillation was erroneously managed as supraventricular tachycardia, which was resistant to vagal manoeuvres and adenosine but later responded to intravenous amiodarone before a further relapse. Upon successful management of the pneumothorax, his atrial fibrillation terminated. This case highlighted the persistent and serious nature of complications posttransthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:22665868

  11. MAPPING OF TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND PROSTATE BIOPSIES : QUALITY CONTROL AND LEARNING CURVE ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Material and Methods: 32 patients underwent a series of 12 prostate biopsies under local anaesthesiaMAPPING OF TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND PROSTATE BIOPSIES : QUALITY CONTROL AND LEARNING CURVE ASSESSMENT dexterity over the course of time (first 16 patients: median score = 7/10 and cumulated median biopsy length

  12. Evaluation of cultural techniques for isolating Campylobacter pyloridis from endoscopic biopsies of gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C S Goodwin; E D Blincow; J R Warren; T E Waters; C R Sanderson; L Easton

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and three gastroscopic biopsies from 80 patients were cultured for Campylobacter pyloridis and studied histologically. Active chronic gastritis, as shown by the presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, was diagnosed in 51 biopsies and C pyloridis was found in 47. Sixteen gastric biopsies showed normal histology (no inflammation); C pyloridis was detected in only one of these, and a second

  13. Transjugular renal biopsy in a case of nephrotic syndrome with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, N; Someshwar, V; Roy, D; Anandh, U

    2013-03-01

    Renal biopsy in patients with nephrotic syndrome helps to establish the pathological diagnosis and subsequent treatment. In certain circumstances, biopsies are difficult to obtain because of the risk of bleeding. We report a case where renal biopsy was obtained through the transjugular route in a patient who had nephrotic syndrome with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:23716925

  14. Transjugular renal biopsy in a case of nephrotic syndrome with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, N.; Someshwar, V.; Roy, D.; Anandh, U.

    2013-01-01

    Renal biopsy in patients with nephrotic syndrome helps to establish the pathological diagnosis and subsequent treatment. In certain circumstances, biopsies are difficult to obtain because of the risk of bleeding. We report a case where renal biopsy was obtained through the transjugular route in a patient who had nephrotic syndrome with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:23716925

  15. Rapid observation of unfixed, unstained human skin biopsy specimens with confocal microscopy and visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry R. Masters; David J. Aziz; Arthur F. Gmitro; James H. Kerr; Terence C. O'Grady; Leon Goldman

    1997-01-01

    The use of reflected light confocal microscopy is proposed to rapidly observe unfixed, unstained biopsy specimens of human skin. Reflected light laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to compare a freshly excised, unfixed, unstained biopsy specimen, and in vivo human skin. Optical sections from the ex vivo biopsy specimen of human skin and in vivo human skin were converted to

  16. Systematic 5 Region Prostate Biopsy is Superior to Sextant Method for Diagnosing Carcinoma of the Prostate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Andrew Eskew; Ricky L. Bare; David L. McCullough

    1997-01-01

    PurposeThe number of patients undergoing prostate biopsy has dramatically increased due to prostate specific antigen screening. The low specificity of this screening tool requires prostate biopsy for diagnosis of prostate cancer. The sextant biopsy technique has been used widely with success in diagnosing carcinoma of the prostate. However, concern has arisen that the original sextant method may not include an

  17. Safety and tissue yield for percutaneous native kidney biopsy according to practitioner and ultrasound technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although percutaneous renal biopsy remains an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases, in recent times the traditional procedure of nephrologists has been performed by non-nephrologists rather than nephrologists at many institutions. The present study assessed the safety and adequacy of tissue yield during percutaneous renal biopsy according to practitioners and techniques based on ultrasound. Methods This study included 658 native renal biopsies performed from 2005 to 2010 at a single centre. The biopsies were performed by nephrologists or expert ultrasound radiologists using the ultrasound-marked blind or real-time ultrasound-guided techniques. Results A total of 271 ultrasound-marked blind biopsies were performed by nephrologists, 170 real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies were performed by nephrologists, and 217 real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies were performed by radiologists during the study period. No differences in post-biopsy complications such as haematoma, need for transfusion and intervention, gross haematuria, pain, or infection were observed among groups. Glomerular numbers of renal specimens from biopsies performed by nephrologists without reference to any technique were higher than those obtained from real-time ultrasound-guided biopsies performed by expert ultrasound radiologists. Conclusions Percutaneous renal biopsy performed by nephrologists was not inferior to that performed by expert ultrasound radiologists as related to specimen yield and post-biopsy complications. PMID:24957046

  18. Biopsied Jaw Lesions in Kuwait: A Six-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of jaw lesions in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Biopsy records and microscopic sections of all jaw biopsies seen in the Department of Histopathology at Amiri Hospital, Kuwait, during the period January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed. The biopsies were divided into three major groups: developmental\\/inflammatory\\/reactive lesions (group

  19. Predictors of renal outcome in diffuse proliferative lupus nephropathy: data from repeat renal biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Woo Yoo; Mi-Kyung Kim; Hyun Soon Lee

    glomerular activity; interstitial volume density; renal prognosis; repeat renal biopsy Background. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephropathy (DPLN ) is the most frequent and severe form of renal disease in patients with systemic lupus erythaematosus. Histological parameters at the initial biopsy of patients Introduction with DPLN that would predict the progression of renal pathology or function at the second biopsy are not

  20. Measurements of cortical interstitium in biopsies from human kidney grafts: how representative and how reproducible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Ringer Ellingsen; Jens Randel Nyengaard; Ruth Østerby; Kaj Anker Jørgensen; Steffen Ellebæk Petersen; Niels Marcussen

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate how well a biopsy from one region of a human renal allograft represented biopsies from other regions regarding the renal interstitial tissue assessed by stereology. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate the reproducibility of the measurements. Methods. Punch biopsies (3 mm) from six regions in each kidney were obtained from seven explanted

  1. [Experience in teaching a biopsy-section course in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Krylov, Yu V; Malashenko, S V; Lesnichaya, O V; Krylov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the improvement of teaching a biopsy-section course (BSC). The authors have analyzed the most frequent errors in the interaction of clinicians with a pathology service and summed up the experience of the Pathological Anatomy Department in practical work and teaching the BSC. The differentiated approach to teaching the BSC to resident students of different specialties is proposed. PMID:26027398

  2. Evaluation of alveolitis by studies of lung biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Haslam

    1990-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies of lung biopsies from patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and those having fibrosing\\u000a alveolitis associated with scleroderma show that numerous T-cells occur in the alveolar walls and septa of all patients with\\u000a these diseases, implying that cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are involved in the pathogenesis. However, B-lymphocytes,\\u000a mainly within lymphoid follicles, are also present and, in the CFA group,

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Goyal; Robert E. Mansel

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the current standard of care for nodal staging in early-stage breast cancer patients\\u000a who are clinically nodenegative. Data from three randomised controlled trials conclusively demonstrates that SLNB is associated\\u000a with less arm morbidity and better quality of life than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Large observational studies\\u000a have shown that SLNB is associated with

  4. Morphometric Evaluation of Duodenal Biopsies in Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian G Cummins; Basile G Alexander; Adrian Chung; Edward Teo; Josh A Woenig; John B J Field; Fiona M Thompson; Ian C Roberts-Thomson

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:The Marsh classification is a semiquantitative method for the diagnosis and monitoring of changes in duodenal biopsies in celiac disease. We have explored the possibility that quantitative changes in villous area and crypt length (morphometry) may provide better information on changes in duodenal morphology, particularly after the introduction of a gluten-free diet.METHODS:We measured villous height, apical and basal villous widths,

  5. Progress Toward Optical Biopsy: Bringing the Microscope to the Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Newton; Samuel V. Kemp; Pallav L. Shah; Daniel Elson; Ara Darzi; Kiyoshi Shibuya; Stephen Mulgrew; Guang-Zhong Yang

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of many lung diseases currently requires bronchoscopic or surgical histopathological tissue biopsy. This\\u000a creates risks for patients and entails processing costs and delays in diagnosis. However, several mainly probe-based biophotonic\\u000a techniques that can image solitary lesions and diffuse lung diseases are fuelling a paradigm shift toward real-time in vivo\\u000a diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses near-infrared light in

  6. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  7. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

    2009-06-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

  8. Liquid biopsies in lung cancer: the new ambrosia of researchers.

    PubMed

    Rolfo, Christian; Castiglia, Marta; Hong, David; Alessandro, Riccardo; Mertens, Inge; Baggerman, Geert; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Passiglia, Francesco; Carreca, Anna P; Taverna, Simona; Vento, Renza; Peeters, Marc; Russo, Antonio; Pauwels, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades the approach to cancer patient management has been deeply revolutionized. We are moving from a "one-fits-all" strategy to the "personalized medicine" based on the molecular characterization of the tumor. In this new era it is becoming more and more clear that the monitoring of the disease is fundamental for the success of the treatment, thus there is the need of new biomarker discovery. More precisely in the last years the scientific community has started to use the term "liquid biopsy". A liquid biopsy is a liquid biomarker that can be easily isolated from many body fluids (blood, saliva, urine, ascites, pleural effusion, etc.) and, as well as a tissue biopsy, a representative of the tissue from which it is spread. In this review we will focus our attention on circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, exosomes and secretomes with the aim to underlie their usefulness and potential application in a clinical setting for lung cancer patient management. PMID:25444714

  9. Image Registration for Targeted MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Wells, William M.; Kikinis, Ron; Tempany, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate image registration methodology for automated re-identification of tumor-suspicious foci from pre-procedural MR exams during MR-guided transperineal prostate core biopsy. Materials and Methods A hierarchical approach for automated registration between planning and intra-procedural T2-weighted prostate MRI was developed and evaluated on the images acquired during 10 consecutive MR-guided biopsies. Registration accuracy was quantified at image-based landmarks and by evaluating spatial overlap for the manually segmented prostate and sub-structures. Registration reliability was evaluated by simulating initial mis-registration and analyzing the convergence behavior. Registration precision was characterized at the planned biopsy targets. Results The total computation time was compatible with a clinical setting, being at most 2 minutes. Deformable registration led to a significant improvement in spatial overlap of the prostate and peripheral zone contours compared to both rigid and affine registration. Average in-slice landmark registration error was 1.3±0.5 mm. Experiments simulating initial mis-registration resulted in an estimated average capture range of 6 mm and an average in-slice registration precision of ±0.3 mm. Conclusion Our registration approach requires minimum user interaction and is compatible with the time constraints of our interventional clinical workflow. The initial evaluation shows acceptable accuracy, reliability and consistency of the method. PMID:22645031

  10. CT fluoroscopy-guided robotically-assisted lung biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Fichtinger, Gabor; Taylor, Russell H.; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Lung biopsy is a common interventional radiology procedure. One of the difficulties in performing the lung biopsy is that lesions move with respiration. This paper presents a new robotically assisted lung biopsy system for CT fluoroscopy that can automatically compensate for the respiratory motion during the intervention. The system consists of a needle placement robot to hold the needle on the CT scan plane, a radiolucent Z-frame for registration of the CT and robot coordinate systems, and a frame grabber to obtain the CT fluoroscopy image in real-time. The CT fluoroscopy images are used to noninvasively track the motion of a pulmonary lesion in real-time. The position of the lesion in the images is automatically determined by the image processing software and the motion of the robot is controlled to compensate for the lesion motion. The system was validated under CT fluoroscopy using a respiratory motion simulator. A swine study was also done to show the feasibility of the technique in a respiring animal.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  12. Application of a New Guiding System in Percutaneous Biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Petsas, Theodore, E-mail: Petsas@med.upatras.gr; Tsota, Irene; Kalogeropoulou, Christina P. [University Hospital of Patras, Department of Radiology (Greece); Liatsikos, Evangelos N. [University Hospital of Patras, Department of Urology (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    We herein describe the application of a new guiding system designed for percutaneous biopsies. The guiding system set is composed of a 0.41 mm (27G) stainless steel guide stylet and a 22G Chiba needle. Following the initial insertion of the Chiba needle, the stylet is advanced via the needle toward the lesion. The stylet serves either as a guide for the Chiba needle or as an exchange wire for the introduction of larger or cutting biopsy needles. The stylet can also be curved prior to its insertion to facilitate access to lesions which require needle redirection. The technique was applied to 117 cases (54 thoracic, 31 abdominal, 21 pelvic, and 11 vertebral lesions.) The main advantage of the stylet is its small diameter, rendering it atraumatic and permitting multiple punctures for the successful final targeting of the lesion. With this guiding set we achieved targeting of difficult lesions. Furthermore, larger needles were more easily introduced in locations that posed technical difficulties. No major complications were observed. The complication rate was comparable to that of the conventional biopsy technique. The technique using the guide stylet was easily performed and could be applied to almost all organs.

  13. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound and novel navigation biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Chenna, Praveen; Chen, Alexander C

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral pulmonary lesions are an increasingly common finding in clinical practice. While many nodules are followed with radiographic surveillance, some may require biopsy. Conventional bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsy has traditionally performed poorly for small, peripheral lesions, and transthoracic needle aspiration with computed tomographic (CT) guidance has been favored as the diagnostic test of choice. Despite the high diagnostic yield of transthoracic needle aspiration, procedural complications such as pneumothorax continue to be problematic. New technology has been developed to improve the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy for peripheral lesions over conventional methods, while maintaining the favorable safety profile of a bronchoscopic approach. Virtual bronchoscopy and electromagnetic navigation are CT-based image guidance systems that create virtual bronchoscopic representations of the tracheobronchial tree to assist the bronchoscopist in locating peripheral lesions. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound utilizes real-time ultrasound to confirm the location of peripheral lesions before biopsy. This article summarizes the technical platforms, procedures, and clinical evidence for these emerging technologies. PMID:25463156

  14. MRI-guided prostate biopsy detects clinically significant cancer: analysis of a cohort of 100 patients after previous negative TRUS biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Roethke; A. G. Anastasiadis; M. Lichy; M. Werner; P. Wagner; S. Kruck; Claus D. Claussen; A. Stenzl; H. P. Schlemmer; D. Schilling

    Purpose  To investigate the positive biopsy rate of MRI-guided biopsy (MR-GB) in a routine clinical setting, identify factors predictive\\u000a for positive biopsy findings and to report about the clinical significance of the diagnosed tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients with at least one negative trans-rectal-ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB), persistently elevated or rising serum\\u000a prostate specific antigen (PSA) and at least one lesion suspicious for PCa on

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Frame-based, Frameless and Intraoperative MRI Guided Brain Biopsy Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Yeung, Cecil; Radmanesh, Alireza; Wiemann, Robert; Black, Peter M.; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) guided brain biopsy provides a real time visual feedback of the lesion that is sampled during surgery. The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic yield and safety profiles of ioMRI needle brain biopsy with two traditional brain biopsy methods: frame-based and frameless stereotactic brain biopsies. Methods A retrospective analysis from 288 consecutive needle brain biopsies in 277 patients undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy with any of the three biopsy methods at Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2000 to 2008 was performed. Variables such as age, sex, history of radiation and previous surgery, pathology results, complications and postoperative stays were analyzed. Results Over the course of eight years, 288 brain biopsies were performed. 253 (87.8%) biopsies yielded positive diagnostic tissue. Young age (<40 years), history of brain radiation or surgery were significant negative predictors for a positive biopsy diagnostic yield. Excluding patients with prior radiation or surgeries, no significant difference in diagnostic yield was detected among the three groups, with frame-based, frameless and ioMRI guided needle biopsies yield 96.9%, 91.8% and 89.9% positive diagnostic yield, respectively. 19 biopsies (6.6%) were complicated by serious adverse events. The ioMRI-guided brain biopsy was associated with less serious adverse events and the shortest postoperative hospital stay. Conclusions Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ioMRI guided brain needle biopsy have comparable diagnostic yield for patients with no prior treatments (either radiation or surgery). IoMRI guided brain biopsy is associated with fewer serious adverse events and shorter hospital stay. PMID:25088233

  16. How to Interpret Thyroid Biopsy Results: A Three-Year Retrospective Interventional Radiology Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, Jason D., E-mail: j-oppenheimer@md.northwestern.edu; Kasuganti, Deepa; Nayar, Ritu; Chrisman, Howard B.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Nemcek, Albert A.; Ryu, Robert K., E-mail: rryu@nmff.or [Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Results of thyroid biopsy determine whether thyroid nodule resection is appropriate and the extent of thyroid surgery. At our institution we use 20/22-gauge core biopsy (CBx) in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to decrease the number of passes and improve adequacy. Occasionally, both ultrasound (US)-guided FNA and CBx yield unsatisfactory specimens. To justify clinical recommendations for these unsatisfactory thyroid biopsies, we compare rates of malignancy at surgical resection for unsatisfactory biopsy results against definitive biopsy results. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 1979 patients who had a total of 2677 FNA and 663 CBx performed by experienced interventional radiologists under US guidance from 2003 to 2006 at a tertiary-care academic center. In 451 patients who had surgery following biopsy, Fisher's exact test was used to compare surgical malignancy rates between unsatisfactory and malignant biopsy cohorts as well as between unsatisfactory and benign biopsy cohorts. We defined statistical significance at P = 0.05. We reported an overall unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy rate of 3.7% (100/2677). A statistically significant higher rate of surgically proven malignancies was found in malignant biopsy patients compared to unsatisfactory biopsy patients (P = 0.0001). The incidence of surgically proven malignancy in unsatisfactory biopsy patients was not significantly different from that in benign biopsy patients (P = 0.8625). In conclusion, an extremely low incidence of malignancy was associated with both benign and unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy results. The difference in incidence between these two groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, patients with unsatisfactory biopsy specimens can be reassured and counseled accordingly.

  17. The Mechanical Properties of Rat Tail Tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BERNARD J. RIGBY; OHN D. SPIKES; HENRY EYRING

    1959-01-01

    The load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of wet rat tail tendon has been examined with respect to the parameters strain, rate of strain- ing, and temperature. It is found that this mechanical behavior is reproducible after resting tile tendon for a few minutes after each extension so long as the strain does not exceed about 4 per cent. If this strain

  18. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

  19. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  20. Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

  1. TAIL-MOUNTED RADIO TRANSMITTERS FOR WATERFOWL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-FRANCOIS GIROUX; DAVID V. BELL; STEVE PERCIVAL; RON W. SUMMERS

    We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that

  2. Tales and Tails and Stuff and Nonsense

    E-print Network

    Philip Pearle

    1998-05-17

    In an informal way I review collapse models and my part in constructing them, and I recall some encounters with Abner Shimony. In particular, I address the question of the nature of spacetime reality in collapse models, stimulated by Abner's criticism of the "tail" possessed by statevectors in such models.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling with Heavy Tailed Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.; Chan, Wai

    2004-01-01

    Data in social and behavioral sciences typically possess heavy tails. Structural equation modeling is commonly used in analyzing interrelations among variables of such data. Classical methods for structural equation modeling fit a proposed model to the sample covariance matrix, which can lead to very inefficient parameter estimates. By fitting a…

  4. 5?Tailed Octanucleotide Primers for Cycle Sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Loakes; F. Hill; D. M. Brown; S. Ball; M. A. Reeve; P. S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Recently we reported the use of octamer primers tailed with 5-nitroindole for use as primers in cycle sequencing reactions. Here we report the successful use of some other universal base analogues to improve the effectiveness of an octamer sequencing primer. These analogues are 5-nitroindazole, 3-nitropyrrole and benzimidazole.

  5. Fins, limbs, and tails: outgrowths and axial

    E-print Network

    Cohn, Martin

    .g., sharks). Vertebrate fins and limbs have diversified repeatedly around conserved anatomical themesFins, limbs, and tails: outgrowths and axial patterning in vertebrate evolution Michael I. Coates1* and Martin J. Cohn2 Summary Current phylogenies show that paired fins and limbs are unique to jawed verte

  6. Black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys Zudovicianus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Farrar; Karin L. Coleman; David S. Lynch

    The policy of relocating the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus, is becoming more popular than outright extermination. However, the effects of the relocation process on the behavior of these animals is not known. We hypothesized that relocated prairie dogs would not show behavioral differences relative to non- relocated prairie dogs. We recorded response distances to a human intruder in three

  7. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-print Network

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

  8. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its

  9. 14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  10. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus is disclosed for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical

  11. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  12. Realtime TRUS/MRI Fusion Targeted-Biopsy for Prostate Cancer: A Clinical Demonstration of Increased Positive Biopsy Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Glossop, Neil; Choyke, Peter; Turkbey, Baris; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Kruecker, Jochen

    In this paper, a system for fusion of realtime transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) with pre-acquired 3D images of the prostate is presented with a clinical demonstration on a cohort of 101 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer. Electromagnetically tracked biopsy guides for endocavity ultrasound transducers were calibrated and used to fuse MRI-based suspicious lesion locations with ultrasound image coordinates. The prostate shape is segmented from MRI in a semi-automated fashion via a model-based approach, and intraoperative image registration is performed between MR and ultrasound image space to superimpose target fiducials markers on the ultrasound image. In order to align both modalities, a surface model is automatically extracted from 2D swept TRUS images using a partial active shape model, utilizing image features and prior statistics. An automatic prostate motion compensation algorithm can be triggered as needed. The results were used to display live TRUS images fused with spatially corresponding realtime multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of the MR image volume. In this study, all patients were scanned with 3T MRI and TRUS for biopsy. Clinical results show significant improvement of target visualization and of positive detection rates during TRUS-guided biopsies. It also demonstrates the feasibility of realtime MR/TRUS image fusion for out-of-gantry procedures.

  13. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS FOR THE SUM OF TWO HEAVY-TAILED DEPENDENT RISKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Asmussen; Dominik Kortschak

    2005-01-01

    Let X1, X2 denote positive exchangable heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution function F. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X1 + X2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F and the underlying dependence structure of X1 and X2, we survey explicit asymptotic results

  14. Pleural controversies: image guided biopsy vs. thoracoscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Giles; de Fonseka, Duneesha

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed pleural effusions present an increasing diagnostic burden upon healthcare providers internationally. The investigation of pleural effusions often requires the acquisition of tissue for histological analysis and diagnosis. Historically there were two options for tissue biopsy: a ‘gold standard’ surgical biopsy or a “blind” closed pleural biopsy. Over the last decade however, image-guided Tru-cut biopsies and local anaesthetic thoracoscopic (local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) biopsies have become more widespread. Image-guided techniques acquire samples under ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) guidance whereas LAT involves the direct visualisation and biopsy of the pleura with pleuroscopy. Both techniques have been shown to be superior to ‘blind’ closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of pleural or metastatic malignancy. However, closed biopsy remains a viable method of investigation in areas of high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Beyond this, each investigative technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Image-guided biopsy is less invasive, usually carried out as an outpatient procedure, and enables tissue biopsy in frail patients and those with pleural thickening but no pleural fluid. Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) provides diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in one procedure. Large volume thoracentesis, multiple pleural biopsies and talc poudrage can be carried out in a single procedure. The overall diagnostic yield is similar for both techniques, although there are no large-scale direct comparisons. Both techniques share low complication rates.

  15. Accuracy evaluation of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions.

  16. One Hundred Thirteen Consecutive Transgastric Liver Biopsies for Hepatic Parenchymal Diseases: A Single-institution Study.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Yukihiro; Mneimneh, Wadad S; Sey, Michael; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; DeWitt, John M; Saxena, Romil

    2015-07-01

    The transgastric approach is a novel method for obtaining liver biopsies in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endosonography. Avoidance of vascular puncture and ability to acquire tissue in patients with obesity or ascites offers a practice niche for this technique. Although several series have reported on specimen adequacy, biopsy core length, and number of portal tracts, none has addressed the diagnostic challenges presented by the fragmented nature of these specimens. We systematically evaluated 113 transgastric liver biopsies obtained for diagnosis of parenchymal liver disease by 3 needle types and compared them with 100 percutaneous and 100 transjugular liver biopsies, respectively. Parameters recorded were number of tissue cores, sizes of longest and shortest cores, numbers of complete and incomplete portal tracts, morphologic characteristics, and adequacy of specimen for diagnosis and staging. In contrast to percutaneous and transjugular liver biopsies, transgastric biopsies often contained >10 tissue fragments and smaller tissue cores. In addition, 2 of the 3 types of transgastric needles obtained less numbers of complete portal tracts. Transjugular biopsies were also smaller and contained less number of complete portal tracts than percutaneous specimens but, unlike transgastric biopsies, only rarely contained >10 tissue fragments. Specimen adequacy for diagnosis and staging was 80%, 100%, and 98% for transgastric, percutaneous, and transjugular biopsies, respectively. Difference in specimen adequacy is related to tissue fragmentation of transgastric liver biopsies rather than biopsy core length or numbers of complete portal tracts. Tissue fragmentation is particularly challenging for staging chronic liver disease. PMID:25970688

  17. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  18. One-Tailed F-Tests in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Banas, John

    2002-01-01

    Documents the recent use of one-tailed F-tests in communication journals, and examines the arguments both for and against their use. Examines the use of these tests within the broader unresolved controversy surrounding the use of one-tailed tests. Recommends that future researchers should most often avoid one-tailed Fs, and generally exercise…

  19. Driven inelastic Maxwell models with high energy tails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Ernst; R. Brito

    2002-01-01

    The solutions of the homogeneous nonlinear Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models, when driven by different types of thermostats, show, in general, overpopulated high energy tails of the form ~exp(-ac), with power law tails and Gaussian tails as border line cases. The results are compared with those for inelastic hard spheres, and a comprehensive picture of the long time behavior

  20. TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer

  1. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION PION RIDGE TAILINGS FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    ) and the State of Colorado. The Radiation Control Program of CDPHE is currently reviewing the tailings cell plans Corporation Prepared By: 44 Union Boulevard, Suite 600 Lakewood, Colorado 80228 U.S. Environmental Protection, Tailings Cells and Evaporation Ponds, Piñon Ridge Mill by Energy Fuels Attachment 2 Uranium Mill Tailings

  2. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  3. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  4. Effects of copper mine tailings disposal on littoral meiofaunal assemblages in the Atacama region of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Correa, Juan A

    2005-02-01

    The effects of the disposal of copper mine tailings on the littoral meiofaunal assemblages of the Chañaral area of northern Chile were studied. Of the metals data collected, only in the case of copper was there a clear association with the tailings distribution in both the seawater and porewater samples, and it is assumed that the tailings on the beaches was the source of copper in the adjacent seawater. When compared to the reference sites, the meiofaunal assemblages at the impacted sites had significantly lower densities and taxa diversities; at the northern sites only the densities were lower. Otoplanid turbellarians were identified as characteristic of those beaches impacted by tailings. The combination of porewater copper and the amount of tailings present were identified as mostly responsible for the observed structure of the meiofaunal assemblages. It was also established that the variation in natural sediment grain size from beach to beach was not a significant factor in the observed differences in the meiofaunal assemblages. The two groups of meiofauna that proved to be most sensitive to the effects of tailings dumping were the foraminiferans and the harpacticoid copepods. PMID:15325133

  5. CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF COLUMBIAN SHARP-TAILED GROUSE IN WASHINGTON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Schroeder; W. Hays; A. Murphy; D. John Pierce

    ABSTRACT Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) were historically found in shrub steppe, meadow steppe, steppe, and deciduous shrub communities throughout much of eastern Washington. The current range, consisting of8 relatively small, isolated, populations, is less than 3% of historic range. Information collected since 1954 indicates 58% of 107 known,lek complexes,are currently vacant. Many of the vacant lek complexes,(53%) are

  6. Seasonal thyroidal activity and reproductive characteristics of Iranian fat-tailed rams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Zamiri; H. R. Khodaei

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study seasonal variations of thyroidal activity, serum testosterone concentration and seminal characteristics of two breeds of Iranian fat-tailed sheep. Eight 3 to 4-year-old rams of Ghezel and Mehraban breeds (4 rams\\/breed) were randomly selected from a flock of fertile rams. Semen was collected by using an artificial vagina, and blood samples were obtained via jugular

  7. COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AS HOSTS FOR BORRELIA SPP. IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeomhee Mun; John M. Parker; Marshall White

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds

  8. Contemporary pathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancers missed by 6-and 12-core biopsy and diagnosed with a 21-core biopsy protocol.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biopsy; Prostate cancer; Diagnosis Yield. Conflict of interest statement: none. inserm-00864576,version11 Contemporary pathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancers missed by 6 of the Prostate Cancer (PCa) missed by 6 and 12-core biopsy protocols by using a reference 21-core scheme

  9. Predicting the Gleason sum of a patient with a prostate biopsy core Gleason ?7 and a prostate biopsy core Gleason ?8

    PubMed Central

    Heimrath, Olivier P.; Kos, Zuzana; Belanger, Eric C.; Cagiannos, Ilias; Morash, Chris; Gerridzen, Ronald G.; Lavallée, Luke T.; Preston, Mark A.; Witiuk, Kelsey; Breau, Rodney H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We review a subset of men who had discordant prostate biopsy sums and were treated with radical prostatectomy. Methods: Consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy at The Ottawa Hospital between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed. Those with at least 1 prostate biopsy core of Gleason sum ?8 and at least 1 prostate biopsy core of Gleason sum ?7 cancer were included. Results: Of the 764 radical prostatectomies, 661 (87%) were eligible for the study and 35 (5%) met inclusion criteria. Of these, only 16 (46%) had prostatectomy Gleason sum of ?8. When the highest biopsy core was Gleason sum 8 (n = 24), only 7 (29%) had a prostatectomy Gleason sum ?8. When the highest biopsy core was Gleason 9 (n = 11), 9 (82%) had a prostatectomy Gleason sum ?8 (relative risk [RR] 2.8; p = 0.004). Patients with clinical T3 tumours were at higher risk of Gleason sum ?8 compared to cT1 patients (RR 3.7; p = 0.008). Patient age (p = 0.89), preoperative prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.34), prostate volume (p = 0.86), number of biopsy cores (p = 0.18), and proportion of biopsy cores with cancer (p = 0.96) were not strongly associated with risk of prostatectomy Gleason sum ?8. Conclusion: These data should be considered when assigning patients into prognostic risk categories based on prostate biopsy information. Further study to verify our findings using larger samples is warranted. PMID:25132892

  10. Use of Ultrasound and Cystoscopically Guided Pancreatic Allograft Biopsies and Transabdominal Renal Allograft Biopsies: Safety and Efficacy in Kidney-Pancreas Transplant Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian S. Kuhr; Connie L. Davis; Darlene Barr; John P. McVicar; James D. Perkins; Carlos E. Bachi; Charles E. Alpers; Christopher L. Marsh

    1995-01-01

    The use of allograft biopsies to guide treatment after solid organ transplantation is a valuable tool in the detection and treatment of rejection. Prior development and use of the cystoscopically guided pancreatic allograft biopsy have allowed for more accurate and timely diagnosis of pancreatic allograft dysfunction, possibly contributing to our 1-year pancreas graft, renal allograft and patient survival rates of

  11. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung cancer patients with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are primary candidates for EGFR-targeted therapy. Reliable analyses of such mutations have previously been possible only in tumour tissue. Here, we demonstrate that mutations can be detected in plasma samples with allele-specific PCR assays. Methods Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence of mutations in exons 18–21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas® EGFR Tissue Test and cobas® EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). Results Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue was 179/196 (91%) (kappa value: 0.621). Conclusion Mutational analysis of the EGFR gene in plasma samples is feasible with allele-specific PCR assays and represents a non-invasive supplement to biopsy analysis. Trial registration M-20080012 from March 10, 2008 and reported to ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815971. PMID:24773774

  12. Continuation of immunosuppressive treatment may be necessary in IgA nephropathy patients with remission of proteinuria: Evaluation by repeat renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mian-Na; Yao, Cui-Wei; Xu, Bi-Hua; Xu, Yong-Zhi; Liu, Wei Jing; Feng, Yong-Min; Tao, Jing-Li; Liu, Hua-Feng

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of an individualized, low-dose multi-drug immunosuppressive regimen for the treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). A preliminary investigation of the course of IgAN following immunosuppressive treatment was conducted based on repeat renal biopsies. Clinical and pathological data of 17 patients with IgAN who received repeat renal biopsies were analyzed retrospectively. In addition to basic treatment, 16 patients regularly received an individualized low-dose immunosuppressive regimen according to their clinical manifestations and pathological patterns following the first biopsy. Clinical parameters, including 24-h urinary protein excretion and levels of serum albumin, uric acid and total cholesterol were collected. Glomerular deposits of IgA and C3, as well as the activity and chronicity indexes of renal lesions were evaluated by semi-quantitative methods. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the patients decreased significantly from the first biopsy (2.53±2.17 g/day) to the repeated biopsy (0.26±0.55 g/day) (P<0.001). Deposits of IgA and C3 in the glomerulus were persistent, but were reduced in quantity at the second biopsy. Although active renal lesions were observed in the majority of patients, the activity index decreased significantly from 3.18±1.33 prior to therapy to 2.47±0.80 following therapy (P<0.05), while the chronicity index did not change significantly (2.59±2.00 versus 2.76±1.89, respectively). The individualized, low-dose multi-drug immunosuppressive regimen used in the present study significantly minimized proteinuria, stabilized renal function and alleviated histological lesions in patients with IgAN without causing overt adverse effects during the short-term follow-up. In addition to proteinuria, renal pathological changes should be appraised when considering the withdrawal of immunosuppressants from IgAN treatment. PMID:24520244

  13. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  14. [A case of angiotropic lymphoma diagnosed by adrenal biopsy].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, M; Sato, K; Michikawa, M; Uchihara, T; Tsukagoshi, H

    1992-07-01

    We reported the first case of angiotropic lymphoma diagnosed by adrenal biopsy in Japan. Immunohistochemical study and southern blot hybridization analysis proved it to be B-lymphocyte origin. A 61-year-old man with history of mild hypertension and diabetes mellitus was admitted to our department because of recurrent minor stroke. On admission, general physical findings were normal. Laboratory investigations showed an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and increased serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level. The serial computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain showed multifocal abnormal density lesions in bilateral hemispheres. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated multiple lesions of increased signal intensity in the brainstem and bilateral hemispheres. A subsequent CT scan of the abdomen revealed swelling of bilateral adrenal glands. Adrenal biopsy was performed. Biopsy samples showed the intravascular proliferation of malignant lymphoma cells, non-Hodgkin, diffuse large cell type. These cells had the immunophenotype of a B cell lymphoma (reactive with the antileukocyte common antigen, anti-MB-1, anti-MB-2 and anti-MX-pan B, and unreactive with the anti-MT-1, anti-UCHL, anti-Ki, anti-kappa, anti-lambda and antifactor-VIII). Southern blot hybridization analysis showed monoclonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, which strongly suggested a B-lymphocyte origin. Thus, a diagnosis of angiotropic lymphoma was made. As soon as chemotherapy was begun, the patient fell into deep coma. A repeat CT scan of the brain was normal. His clinical status gradually deteriorated, and he died 18 months after his initial symptom. Autopsy, which was limited to the body, revealed characteristic systemic intravascular stagnation of lymphoma cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1291169

  15. The kangaroo's tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Dawson, Terence J; Kram, Rodger; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2014-07-01

    When moving slowly, kangaroos plant their tail on the ground in sequence with their front and hind legs. To determine the tail's role in this 'pentapedal' gait, we measured the forces the tail exerts on the ground and calculated the mechanical power it generates. We found that the tail is responsible for as much propulsive force as the front and hind legs combined. It also generates almost exclusively positive mechanical power, performing as much mass-specific mechanical work as does a human leg during walking at the same speed. Kangaroos use their muscular tail to support, propel and power their pentapedal gait just like a leg. PMID:24990111

  16. The kangaroo's tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Shawn M.; Dawson, Terence J.; Kram, Rodger; Donelan, J. Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    When moving slowly, kangaroos plant their tail on the ground in sequence with their front and hind legs. To determine the tail's role in this ‘pentapedal’ gait, we measured the forces the tail exerts on the ground and calculated the mechanical power it generates. We found that the tail is responsible for as much propulsive force as the front and hind legs combined. It also generates almost exclusively positive mechanical power, performing as much mass-specific mechanical work as does a human leg during walking at the same speed. Kangaroos use their muscular tail to support, propel and power their pentapedal gait just like a leg. PMID:24990111

  17. Collection understanding

    E-print Network

    Chang, Michelle T.

    2004-09-30

    slideshows and variably gridded thumbnails are elaborated below. The Online Picasso Project [Mallen 2004] (a collection of Picasso?s life and works, consisting of approximately 7,000 images, from 1881-1973) was used as the image test collection. 28... research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  18. Immunocytochemical demonstration of peroxisomal enzymes in human kidney biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Litwin; A. Völkl; J. Müller-Höcker; H. D. Fahimi

    1987-01-01

    Summary  Peroxisomes are particularly abundant in the proximal tubules of the mammalian kidney. We describe the immunocytochemical\\u000a localization of catalase and three peroxisomal lipid ?-oxidation enzymes: acyl-CoA oxidase, bifunctional protein (enoyl-CoA\\u000a hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, in human renal biopsies fixed with glutaraldehyde\\u000a and embedded in Epon. For light microscopy of semithin sections, satisfactory immunostaining required removal of the resin

  19. Advanced characterization of microscopic kidney biopsies utilizing image analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Goudas, Theodosios; Doukas, Charalampos; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation and identification of salient regions in Kidney biopsy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy. This paper presents a tool for the automatic or manual segmentation of such regions along with methodology for their characterization in terms of the exhibited pathology. The proposed implementation is based on custom code written in Java and the utilization of open source tools (i.e. RapidMiner, ImageJ). The corresponding implementation details along with the initial evaluation of the proposed integrated system are also presented in the paper. PMID:23366906

  20. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of superficial masses in children.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, L. P.; Russell, L. A.; Howard, P. H.; Teplitz, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an underused diagnostic procedure in children, particularly in the evaluation of superficial masses. A total of 54 FNABs of superficial masses were performed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. Adequate material for diagnosis was obtained in 50 attempts. The cytologic diagnosis increased clinical understanding and provided a guide for treatment in 46 of the 50 cases. The cytologic diagnosis was confirmed in 15 of 19 patients who underwent an operation. Surgical intervention was obviated in 31 patients. There was one false-positive diagnosis of cancer. We describe the role of FNAB in children and its technique, accuracy, and diagnostic problems. Images PMID:1877227

  1. Prostate biopsy sampling causes hematogenous dissemination of epithelial cellular material.

    PubMed

    Ladjevardi, Sam; Auer, Gert; Castro, Juan; Ericsson, Christer; Zetterberg, Anders; Häggman, Michael; Wiksell, Hans; Jorulf, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    The extent of epithelial cellular material (ECM) occurring in venous blood samples after diagnostic core needle biopsy (CNB) was studied in 23 patients with CNB diagnosed prostate cancer without provable metastases and 15 patients without cancer. The data show a significant increase of ECM in the peripheral blood sampled 20 seconds or 30 minutes after the last of 10 CNB procedures compared to the number of ECM detectable in the blood samples taken before the performance of CNB. The data indicate that diagnostic CNB of prostate cancer causes an extensive tissue trauma with a potential risk of cancer cell dissemination. PMID:24591766

  2. Possible Vector Dissemination by Swift Foxes following a Plague Epizootic in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Northwestern Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brady K. McGee; Matthew J. Butler; Danny B. Pence; James L. Alexander; Janet B. Nissen

    To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by ac- quiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and sero- logic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes

  3. Goodbye Pareto Principle, Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Brynjolfsson; Yu Hu; Duncan Simester

    2011-01-01

    Many markets have historically been dominated by a small number of best-selling products. The Pareto principle, also known as the 80\\/20 rule, describes this common pattern of sales concentration. However, information technology in general and Internet markets in particular have the potential to substantially increase the collective share of niche products, thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of

  4. ANTIBODY PREVALENCE OF EIGHT RUMINANT INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA MULE AND BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno B. Chomel; Marius L. Carniciu; Rickie W. Kasten; Paolo M. Castelli; Thierry M. Work; David A. Jessup

    We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for

  5. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  6. The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Alan; Sansom, Ivan J; Gagnier, Pierre-Yves; Cespedes, Ricardo; Janvier, Philippe

    2007-02-22

    The tail of the earliest known articulated fully skeletonized vertebrate, the arandaspid Sacabambaspis from the Ordovician of Bolivia, is redescribed on the basis of further preparation of the only specimen in which it is most extensively preserved. The first, but soon discarded, reconstruction, which assumed the presence of a long horizontal notochordal lobe separating equal sized dorsal and ventral fin webs, appears to have considerable merit. Although the ventral web is significantly smaller than the dorsal one, the presence of a very long notochordal lobe bearing a small terminal web is confirmed. The discrepancy in the size of the ventral and dorsal webs rather suggests that the tail was hypocercal, a condition that would better accord with the caudal morphology of the living agnathans and the other jawless stem gnathostomes. PMID:17443969

  7. Screening of Plant Species for Phytoremediation of Uranium, Thorium, Barium, Nickel, Strontium and Lead Contaminated Soils from a Uranium Mill Tailings Repository in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-yue Li; Nan Hu; De-xin Ding; Ji-fang Zheng; Yu-long Liu; Yong-dong Wang; Xiao-qin Nie

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species\\u000a collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for\\u000a a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 ?g), thorium (103 ?g)

  8. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  9. RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. DEGRAw; N. C. CLAMPITT

    Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)

  10. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  11. Clinical and pathologic tumor characteristics of prostate cancer as a function of the number of biopsy cores: a retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy K Naughton; Deborah S Smith; Peter A Humphrey; William J Catalona; David W Keetch

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. Many men with negative prostate biopsies and persistently elevated serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) values will have cancer detected on a repeated biopsy. An important issue is whether the cancer would have been detected on the initial biopsy had more biopsy samples been obtained. The objective of our study was to retrospectively characterize the clinical and pathologic tumor features

  12. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  13. A High Precision Method for Quantitative Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species in Frozen Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Mikael; Gustafsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. Materials and Methods Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K) using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP•) with known spin concentration. Results The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k?=?1). The spin concentration of samples stored at ?80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. Conclusion The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time. PMID:24603936

  14. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  15. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  16. Giant retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma: Is preoperative biopsy always mandatory?

    PubMed Central

    Al Skaini, Mohammad Saad; Haroon, Hesham; Sardar, Ali; Bazeed, Mohammad; Al Zain, Abbas; Al Shahrani, Mushabab; El Hakeem, Howaida; Al Shraim, Mubarak; Al Amri, Abdul Rahman M.; Ezzedien Rabie, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Schwannoma is the term given to tumours arising from Schwann cells of any nerve sheath. It may arise in the retroperitoneum, where it can attain enormous sizes and cause considerable diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. A variety of incapacitating symptoms may arise, depending on its size alone and the related contagious organs. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 71-year-old female, who was incapacitated by a giant abdominal mass, associated with weight loss, immobility, general weakness and constipation. Radiologically, the presence of a huge pelviabdominal tumour was confirmed. A preoperative tissue diagnosis was entertained but omitted, and we resorted to direct surgical excision instead. During surgery, significant bleeding from the surrounding lumbar vessels was encountered, but it was controlled and the tumour was excised intact. Histopathologically, it showed the histologic features of ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION In the patient presented here, who was rendered immobile by the tumour, total excision or at least debulking seemed appropriate, regardless of any biopsy result. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma and its variant “ancient schwannoma” should be considered when a huge pelviabdominal tumour is encountered. Although CT guided biopsy may be helpful in reaching a preoperative diagnosis, this might not change the decision for the need of total tumour excision or at least debulking, in the presence of incapacitating symptoms. With large tumours, the possibility of perioperative exanginating haemorrhage should be remembered and the necessary precautions activated. PMID:25553529

  17. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  18. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-09-16

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot's accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  19. Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in prostate needle biopsy tissue

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P A

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major public health problem throughout the developed world. For patients with clinically localised prostate cancer, the diagnosis is typically established by histopathological examination of prostate needle biopsy samples. Major and minor criteria are used to establish the diagnosis, based on the microscopic appearance of slides stained using haematoxylin and eosin. Major criteria include an infiltrative glandular growth pattern, an absence of basal cells and nuclear atypia in the form of nucleomegaly and nucleolomegaly. In difficult cases, basal cell absence may be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains for high?molecular?weight cytokeratins (marked with antibody 34?E12) or p63, which are basal cell markers. Minor criteria include intraluminal wispy blue mucin, pink amorphous secretions, mitotic figures, intraluminal crystalloids, adjacent high?grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, amphophilic cytoplasm and nuclear hyperchromasia. Another useful diagnostic marker detectable by immunohistochemistry is ??methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), an enzyme selectively expressed in neoplastic glandular epithelium. Cocktails of antibodies directed against basal cell markers and AMACR are particularly useful in evaluating small foci of atypical glands, and in substantiating a diagnosis of a minimal adenocarcinoma. Reporting of adenocarcinoma in needle biopsy specimens should always include the Gleason grade and measures of tumour extent in the needle core tissue. Measures of tumour extent are (1) number of cores positive for cancer in the number of cores examined, (2) percentage of needle core tissue affected by carcinoma and (3) linear millimetres of carcinoma present. PMID:17213347

  20. Regulation of NAMPT in Human Gingival Fibroblasts and Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Damanaki, Anna; Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Götz, Werner; Winter, Jochen; Wahl, Gerhard; Jäger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Adipokines, such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), are molecules, which are produced in adipose tissue. Recent studies suggest that NAMPT might also be produced in the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, which also includes the gingiva. The aim of this study was to examine if and under what conditions NAMPT is produced in gingival fibroblasts and biopsies from healthy and inflamed gingiva. Gingival fibroblasts produced constitutively NAMPT, and this synthesis was significantly increased by interleukin-1? and the oral bacteria P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Inhibition of the MEK1/2 and NF?B pathways abrogated the stimulatory effects of F. nucleatum on NAMPT. Furthermore, the expression and protein levels of NAMPT were significantly enhanced in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory infectious disease of the periodontium, as compared to gingiva from periodontally healthy individuals. In summary, the present study provides original evidence that gingival fibroblasts produce NAMPT and that this synthesis is increased under inflammatory and infectious conditions. Local synthesis of NAMPT in the inflamed gingiva may contribute to the enhanced gingival and serum levels of NAMPT, as observed in periodontitis patients. Moreover, local production of NAMPT by gingival fibroblasts may represent a possible mechanism whereby periodontitis may impact on systemic diseases. PMID:24707118

  1. Is Visual Registration Equivalent to Semiautomated Registration in Prostate Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Hong, Cheng William; Pinto, Peter A.; Williams, Molly; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Yan, Pingkun; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic resonance iimaging- (MRI-) ultrasound (US) guided biopsy, suspicious lesions are identified on MRI, registered on US, and targeted during biopsy. The registration can be performed either by a human operator (visual registration) or by fusion software. Previous studies showed that software registration is fairly accurate in locating suspicious lesions and helps to improve the cancer detection rate. Here, the performance of visual registration was examined for ability to locate suspicious lesions defined on MRI. This study consists of 45 patients. Two operators with differing levels of experience (<1 and 18 years) performed visual registration. The overall spatial difference by the two operators in 72 measurements was 10.6?±?6.0?mm. Each operator showed a spatial difference of 9.4?±?5.1?mm (experienced; 39 lesions) and 12.1?±?6.6?mm (inexperienced; 33 lesions), respectively. In a head-to-head comparison of the same 16 lesions from 12 patients, the spatial differences were 9.7?mm?±?4.9?mm (experienced) and 13.4?mm?±?7.4?mm (inexperienced). There were significant differences between the two operators (unpaired, P value?=?0.042; paired, P value?=?0.044). The substantial differences by the two operators suggest that visual registration could improperly and inaccurately target many tumors, thereby potentially leading to missed diagnosis or false characterization on pathology. PMID:25821799

  2. Role of nail biopsy as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chander; Chaturvedi, Uma K; Reddy, Belum Siva Nagi

    2012-01-01

    Nail biopsy (NB) is an investigation that is not routinely resorted to by most of the dermatologists. The commonly cited reasons are the complexity of the procedure, risk of scarring and the reluctance of the patient. However, in cases with isolated nail psoriasis, isolated nail lichen planus, onychomycosis not confirmed on direct microscopy and culture, or longitudinal melanonychia, the treating dermatologist is left with no choice but to resort to this procedure. Nail as a unit, is capable of projecting only a limited number of clinical manifestations. This is responsible for the more or less similar clinical presentation of many different nail disorders. Hence, a practical knowledge of the indications, appropriate patient selection, procedural details and histopathological interpretation of a NB is a must-have for any practicing dermatologist. The risk of scarring is none to minimal if appropriate type of biopsy is performed, not to mention the wealth of histopathological data that can be retrieved from the nail unit. This article aims to explore the various practical do's and don'ts for the NB and tells us what to expect from of the procedure. PMID:22565428

  3. [Clinical experience with a handheld vacuum-assisted biopsy system (VACORA® )for mammary lesions].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Mao; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Ishihara, Sae; Asano, Yuka; Sakimura, Chie; Kurata, Kento; Tauchi, Yukie; Morisaki, Tamami; Noda, Satoru; Kawajiri, Hidemi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness and safety of a handheld vacuum-assisted biopsy system (VACORA®) in 253 lesions suspected to be malignant. Biopsy samples were successfully obtained from 252 lesions, and no complications occurred that required other treatments during or after the biopsy. The definitive diagnosis rate using VACORA / ®was 89.3% (226/253). For 27 lesions, biopsy using Mammotome®or open biopsy was performed because a diagnosis could not be made with the VACORA® system, despite a category 4 result on ultrasonography. The lesions that were diagnosed as benign using the VACORA® system did not manifest malignant features during the observation period (1-36 months). We considered the VACORA® biopsy system as an effective technique that has both convenience and high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25731364

  4. Should a Sentinel Node Biopsy Be Performed in Patients with High-Risk Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Westover, M. Brandon; Winer, Eric P.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2011-01-01

    A negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy spares many breast cancer patients the complications associated with lymph node irradiation or additional surgery. However, patients at high risk for nodal involvement based on clinical characteristics may remain at unacceptably high risk of axillary disease even after a negative SLN biopsy result. A Bayesian nomogram was designed to combine the probability of axillary disease prior to nodal biopsy with customized test characteristics for an SLN biopsy and provides the probability of axillary disease despite a negative SLN biopsy. Users may individualize the sensitivity of an SLN biopsy based on factors known to modify the sensitivity of the procedure. This tool may be useful in identifying patients who should have expanded upfront exploration of the axilla or comprehensive axillary irradiation. PMID:22295240

  5. Calretinin immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Hirschprung disease in rectal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cinel, Leyla; Ceyran, Bahar; Güçlüer, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the usability of calretinin staining in the diagnosis and exclusion of HD in 36 rectal biopsies. Through immunohistochemical examination, in of a total of 21 pediatric patients in whom ganglion cells were detected in first rectal biopsies and in re-biopsies, ganglion cells were seen through nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. In the lamina propria and superficial submucosa, staining of nerve fibers was detected in a granular pattern in varying intensities. Out of a total of 5 biopsies (including one re-biopsy) of non-HD patients, where ganglion cells could not be seen, the nerve fibers were all stained. On the other hand, in 10 HD patients, diagnosed by a colon pull through operation, calretinin staining was not detected in any area of the rectal biopsies except for the mast cells. We conclude that calretinin immunostaining for the diagnosis of HD is an easy and reliable method for use in daily practice. PMID:25442014

  6. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  7. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. PMID:24681363

  8. Ultrasound-assisted percutaneous liver biopsy performed by a physician assistant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Gunneson; K. V. Narayanan Menon; Russell H. Wiesner; Judith A. Daniels; J. Eileen Hay; Michael R. Charlton; David J. Brandhagen; Charles B. Rosen; Michael K. Porayko

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Percutaneous liver biopsy is an essential diagnostic tool utilized in the management of patients with liver disease. This procedure is generally performed by a physician and has a small but well-defined complication rate. We report on the complication rate and efficiency of ultrasound-assisted percutaneous liver biopsy performed by an experienced physician assistant.METHODS:One thousand eighty-six consecutive outpatient liver biopsies (847 hepatic

  9. Technique of mandibular salivary gland biopsy in river otters (Lutra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Tocidlowski, M E; Harms, C A; Sumner, P W; Stoskopf, M K

    1999-06-01

    A Franklin-Silverman biopsy needle was used to obtain 2-5- x 1-2-mm mandibular salivary gland tissue samples percutaneously from nine North American river otters (Lutra canadensis). The samples were suitable for fluorescent antibody or polymerase chain reaction rabies testing. Ninety-two percent (11/12) of the biopsy procedures yielded histologically confirmed salivary gland tissue, and the remaining biopsy yielded adipose tissue. No complications were noted after 5-21 days. PMID:10484141

  10. Isolation of Serpulina pilosicoli from Rectal Biopsy Specimens Showing Evidence of Intestinal Spirochetosis

    PubMed Central

    Trivett-Moore, Nicolle L.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Law, Carmella L. H.; Trott, Darren J.; Hampson, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS) was found in 22 of 41 (53.7%) rectal biopsy specimens from homosexual men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Serpulina pilosicoli was cultured from 11 of the IS-positive biopsy specimens (50%) and from 2 specimens (10.5%) in which spirochetes were not observed. The association between seeing spirochetes in biopsy specimens and isolating S. pilosicoli was statistically significant, clearly indicating that this spirochete is the agent of IS. PMID:9431961

  11. Lycopodium spores in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T C; Jürgensen, G W; Christensen, E

    1998-04-01

    Lycopodium clavatum (LC) spores were found in two cases in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate. The source turned out to be the coating of the condoms used for protection of the ultrasound probe. To minimize confusion in analyzing the biopsies and to avoid granulomas of the prostate, LC spore-free condoms are available and are recommended for the biopsy procedure. PMID:9606792

  12. Emergent Embolization of Arterial Bleeding after Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, Aaron M., E-mail: aaron.fischman@mountsinai.org [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Epelboym, Yan, E-mail: yan.epelboym@mssm.edu [Mount Sinai School of Medicine (United States); Siegelbaum, Robert H., E-mail: rhsiegelbaum@gmail.com; Weintraub, Joshua L., E-mail: joshua.weintraub@mountsinai.org; Kim, Edward, E-mail: Edward.kim@mountsinai.org; Nowakowski, Francis S., E-mail: scott.nowakowski@mountsinai.org; Lookstein, Robert A., E-mail: Robert.lookstein@mountsinai.org [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum-assisted core breast biopsy has become important in evaluating patients with suspicious breast lesions. It has proven to be a relatively safe procedure that in rare cases can result in vascular complications. These are the first reported cases of transcatheter embolization of uncontrolled breast hemorrhage after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. With increased use of biopsy and larger-gauge devices, breast imaging groups may consider embolotherapy as a safe alternative for treatment of hemorrhage in a select group of patients.

  13. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and sentinel lymph node biopsy in staging primary cutaneous melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Havenga; D. C. P Cobben; W. J. G Oyen; S Nienhuijs; H. J Hoekstra; T. J. M Ruers; Th Wobbes

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We report the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in relation to SLN biopsy in staging primary cutaneous melanoma.Methods: Fifty-five patients with primary cutaneous melanoma >1.0 mm. Breslow thickness and no palpable regional lymph nodes underwent a FDG-PET scan before SLN biopsy.Results: SLN's were retrieved in 53 patients. Melanoma metastases were found in

  14. Videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases: a 5-year surgical experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachid Zegdi; Jacques Azorin; Bruno Tremblay; Marie Dominique Destable; Paul S Lajos; Dominique Valeyre

    1998-01-01

    Background. To establish an accurate diagnosis of diffuse infiltrative lung disease, a surgical lung biopsy may be required. We report our experience with videothoracoscopic lung biopsy over a period of 5 years.Methods. From March 1992 through December 1996, videothoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed in 64 patients (17 were women [26.5%]; age, 50.5 ± 13 years) with a diagnosis of diffuse

  15. Total Cost Comparison of 2 Biopsy Methods for Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balazs I. Bodai; Beth Boyd; Lurlene Brown; Harold Wadley; Victor J. Zannis; Martin Holzman

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To identify, quantify, and compare total facility costs for 2 breast biopsy methods: vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) and needle-wire-localized open surgical biopsy (OSB). Study Design: A time-and-motion study was done to iden- tify unit resources used in both procedures. Costs were imputed from published literature to value resources. A com- parison of the total (fixed and variable) costs of the

  16. Suction-modified needle biopsy technique for the human soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Joshua A.; Yu, Alvin; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Haddad, Fadia H.; Baker, Michael J.; Fox, John C.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The needle biopsy technique for the soleus muscle is of particular interest because of its unique fiber type distribution, contractile properties, and sensitivity to unloading. Unlike other commonly biopsied muscles, the soleus is not fully superficial and is in close proximity to neurovascular structures resulting in a more challenging biopsy. Because of this, a standardized protocol for performing needle biopsies on the human soleus muscle that is safe, reliable, and repeatable is presented. METHODS Ultrasonography was used on an initial set of 12 subjects to determine the optimal biopsy zone thereby guiding the location of the incision site. Forty-five subjects were recruited and attended two separate biopsy sessions. Each biopsy session incorporated 3 passes of the biopsy needle proximal, posterior, and distal using suction from a portable vacuum source producing 3 separate muscle specimens. RESULTS Eighty-four soleus muscle biopsy procedures were successfully conducted yielding 252 total samples without complication. Ultrasonography was used to confirm biopsy needle infiltration of the soleus muscle. Average sample weight obtained per pass was 61.5 ± 15.7 mg. Histochemistry and molecular analyses demonstrated a considerably higher amount of slow type I MHC in comparison to the vastus lateralis providing verification for the successful sampling of the soleus muscle. DISCUSSION The procedure presented consists of a detailed protocol to accurately and consistently obtain muscle biopsy samples from the human soleus muscle. We have demonstrated that the human soleus biopsy is a safe, reliable and repeatable procedure providing ample tissue for multiple types of analyses. PMID:24261060

  17. Tail asymptotics for the sum of two heavy-tailed dependent risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjörg Albrecher; Søren Asmussen; Dominik Kortschak

    2006-01-01

    Let X\\u000a 1\\u000a , X\\u000a 2 denote positive heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution functions F\\u000a 1 and F\\u000a 2, respectively. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X\\u000a 1\\u000a +X\\u000a 2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F\\u000a 1\\u000a , F\\u000a 2 and the

  18. Collection understanding 

    E-print Network

    Chang, Michelle T.

    2004-09-30

    research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  19. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  20. A molecular image-directed, 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system for the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imageguided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% +/- 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients.

  1. Normal adrenal glands in small cell lung carcinoma: CT-guided biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.

    1983-05-01

    Twenty-four small cell lung carcinoma patients with morphologically normal adrenal glands by computed tomographic (CT) criteria underwent percutaneous thin-needle biopsy of their adrenal glands. Of 43 glands biopsied, 29 had adequate cellular material for interpretation. Five (17%) of the 29 glands were positive for metastases; the rest had negative biopsies. This series indicates an approximate 17% false-negative diagnosis rate by CT when staging the adrenal glands in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. It also demonstrates the utility of percutaneous needle biopsy as an investigational tool to further evaluate normal-sized adrenal glands in the oncologic patient.

  2. The use of endoscopic biopsy in evaluation of polypoid lesions of the colon.

    PubMed Central

    Barwick, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    Use of flexible endoscopes affords biopsy sampling of polypoid lesions of the colon, especially within the rectum and sigmoid colon by flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopes. Histologic examination of colonic biopsies usually allows division of polyps into neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories. There are significant limitations to such biopsies, however, due to sampling error and inability to reach deep submucosal cores of polyps where malignant invasion may occur. When properly aware of its limitations, the endoscopist will find the endoscopic biopsy a valuable aid in planning the therapeutic approach to a polypoid lesion of the colon. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:3962341

  3. How to choose needles and probes for ultrasonographically guided percutaneous breast biopsy: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2012-07-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to choosing needles and probes for ultrasonographically guided (US-guided) percutaneous breast biopsy under various circumstances. The accuracy of US-guided percutaneous breast biopsy depends upon both the method chosen and lesion characteristics. Target accuracy and proper procedures are essential for predicting the yield regardless of the method chosen. Considering accuracy and cost, vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) should be offered only to appropriately selected patients. In particular, VAB should be the first choice for US-guided percutaneous breast biopsy of non-mass-like lesions. PMID:22322427

  4. The safety and quality of endobronchial biopsy in children under five years old

    PubMed Central

    Saglani, S; Payne, D; Nicholson, A; Scallan, M; Haxby, E; Bush, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the airway pathology of wheezing disorders in infants and preschool children, partly owing to the difficulty of undertaking invasive studies in this age group. The safety of endobronchial biopsy and the quality of biopsies obtained were reviewed in infants and preschool children. Methods: Case notes of children under five years of age who underwent bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy were reviewed. The safety of the procedure was compared in a control group matched for weight and age, undergoing bronchoscopy without endobronchial biopsy. A consultant histopathologist assessed biopsy quality. Results: 33 patients (mean age 31 months, range 4 to 59) underwent bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy, and were matched with 33 controls (mean age 28 months, range 3 to 52). There was no significant difference between groups in the number, type, or severity of complications occurring during or after the procedure. Biopsies from 30 of the 33 subjects could be assessed. Reticular basement membrane was identified in all 30; inflammation could be assessed in 26; areas of smooth muscle were present in 23. Conclusions: In a group of preschool children undergoing bronchoscopy under general anaesthetic, performance of endobronchial biopsy carried no extra risk. The quality of biopsies obtained was usually sufficient to allow an assessment of remodelling and inflammation. PMID:14645972

  5. Primary osteosarcoma of the clavicle and the perils of bone biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cundy, William J; Carter, Christopher; Dhatrak, Deepak; Clayer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of delayed diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the medial clavicle in a young man. He presented following a pathological fracture with a falsely reassuring core and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The initial biopsy was suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst and was therefore treated conservatively without further follow-up. The rapid increase in size over the next 8?months triggered a repeat presentation and subsequent repeat biopsy. The open biopsy confirmed high-grade osteosarcoma and the patient underwent claviculectomy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25911358

  6. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media: a study of middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear surgery. All biopsies were examined by means of peptide nucleic acid-fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH), and if possible culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16s rDNA and sequencing. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used. Skin biopsies from 23 of the patients served as controls. PNA-FISH showed morphological signs of biofilms in 15 out of 35 (43 %) middle ear biopsies. In the control skin biopsies, there were signs of biofilms in eight out of 23 biopsies (30 %), probably representing skin flora. PCR and 16s sequencing detected bacteria in seven out of 20 (35 %) usable middle ear biopsies, and in two out of ten (20 %) usable control samples. There was no association between biofilm findings and PCR and 16s sequencing. Staphylococci were the most common bacteria in bacterial culture. We found evidence of bacterial biofilms in 43 % of middle ear biopsies from patients COM. The findings may indicate that biofilms are a part of the pathogenesis in recurrent episodes of ear discharge in COM, but further investigations are necessary. PMID:24477340

  7. Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same muscle.

    PubMed

    Van Thienen, Ruud; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Deldicque, Louise; Hespel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Needle biopsies are being extensively used in clinical trials addressing muscular adaptation to exercise and diet. Still, the potential artifacts due to biopsy sampling are often overlooked. Healthy volunteers (n = 9) underwent two biopsies through a single skin incision in a pretest. Two days later (posttest) another biopsy was taken 3 cm proximally and 3 cm distally to the pretest incision. Muscle oxygenation status (tissue oxygenation index [TOI]) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Biopsy samples were analyzed for 40 key markers (mRNA and protein contents) of myocellular O2 sensing, inflammation, cell proliferation, mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis and breakdown, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. In the pretest, all measurements were identical between proximal and distal biopsies. However, compared with the pretest, TOI in the posttest was reduced in the proximal (-10%, P < 0.05), but not in the distal area. Conversely, most inflammatory markers were upregulated at the distal (100-500%, P < 0.05), but not at the proximal site. Overall, 29 of the 40 markers measured, equally distributed over all pathways studied, were either up- or downregulated by 50-500% (P < 0.05). In addition, 19 markers yielded conflicting results between the proximal and distal measurements (P < 0.05). This study clearly documents that prior muscle biopsies can cause major disturbances in myocellular signaling pathways in needle biopsies specimens sampled 48 h later. In addition, different biopsy sites within identical experimental conditions yielded conflicting results. PMID:24819751

  8. Spoon Collective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Spoon Collective houses descriptive information, discussion archives, paper archives, and links to Websites for three dozen listservs related to the discussion of philosophy, sociology, political science, and literary theory. Some of the topics for the lists include Postcolonialism, Poststructuralism, Feminism, Marxism, and Cultural Studies. Thirteen of the lists are dedicated to the work of influential thinkers, including Jean Baudrillard, Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger. All content at the Spoon Collective can be searched aggregately.

  9. Hydrogeology and effects of tailings basins on the hydrology of Sands Plain, Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrogeological study of Sands Plain, a sandy outwash area in the north-central part of Michigan 's Upper Peninsula, was conducted during 1979-82. Parts of the area are being considered as possible sites for construction and operation of iron mining tailings basins. Gribben Basin, an existing tailings basin in the western part of Sands Plains, covers 2.5 square miles; hypothetical tailings basins may cover as much as 11 square miles. Glacial deposits are the area 's principal aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow is from the outwash area toward Lake Superior. Before reaching Lake Superior, however, most ground water is discharged in a series of nearly parallel streams. Ground water accounts for 95 percent of the discharge of these streams. Precipitation collected at two sites had average pH values of 4.0. Dissolved solids concentrations in water from wells ranged from 41 to 246 milligrams per liter; in water from streams, they ranged from 82 to 143 milligrams per liter. Calcium and bicarbonate were the principal dissolved ions. A two-dimensional digital model of ground-water flow was used to simulate ground-water levels and runoff. The predictive computer simulations indicate that construction and operation of Gribben tailings basin, located in the western part of the study area, decreased ground-water flow to Goose Lake Outlet by 0.9 to 1.6 cubic feet per second. Construction and operation of four hypothetical tailings basins covering a total of 11 square miles is estimated to reduce ground-water flow to the area 's streams by 7 to 18 cubic feet per second depending on the hydraulic properties of material comprising the basin boundaries. Leakage from all of the basins is estimated to range from 0.7 to 7 cubic feet per second. (USGS)

  10. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailings systems. Progress report, September 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F W

    1980-10-10

    The initial 13 months of this program have been devoted to staffing, development of a radiochemistry capability, development of a mill tailings reclamation study, studies on hydraulic properties of soils, initiation of plant uptake studies, preparation for metabolic studies with deer and antelope, and sample collections. Through the addition of new personnel and equipment, we are rapidly developing analytical capabilities for /sup 238/U, /sup 230/Th, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in matrices such as soil, water, plant material, and animal tissues. A 4 acre study site was developed in cooperation with the Pathfinder Mines Corp. at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine in Wyoming. The study site is designed for investigations on the influence of various kinds and thicknesses of mill tailings soil covers on the integrity of reclaimed tailings and inherent radionuclides. Studies on the hydraulic properties of various soil materials were conducted and data analysis is in progress. Plots and procedures for conducting plant uptake studies on uranium and progeny were established and long-term investigations have been initiated. A colony of tame mule deer and pronghorn antelope has been developed for studies on the uptake and retention of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po. Numerous collections of soil, vegetation and water from the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine environs were conducted and radiochemical assay is in progress.

  11. Star Clusters in the Tidal Tails of Interacting Galaxies: Cluster Populations Across a Variety of Tail Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, B.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Kepley, A. A.; Lee, K. H.; Charlton, J. C.; Knierman, K.; Bastian, N.; Chandar, R.; Durrell, P. R.; Elmegreen, D.; English, J.; Gallagher, S. C.; Gronwall, C.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hunsberger, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Maybhate, A.; Palma, C.; Trancho, G.; Vacca, W. D.

    2011-04-01

    We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W-band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, H I content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al., we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with M V < -8.5 and V - I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to M V = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of "beads on a string" star formation morphology in V - I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes ?-2 to -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and interiors of interacting systems. We find that the tail regions with the largest number of observable clusters are relatively young (lsim250 Myr old) and bright (V <~ 24 mag arcsec-2), probably attributed to the strong bursts of star formation in interacting systems soon after periapse. Otherwise, we find no statistical difference between cluster-rich and cluster-poor tails in terms of many observable characteristics, though this analysis suffers from complex, unresolved gas dynamics and projection effects.

  12. La crosse virus encephalitis preceding neurosarcoidosis diagnosed by brain biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Harper, Amy

    2011-04-01

    Childhood neurosarcoidosis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. La Crosse virus is one of the most common causes of encephalitis in North America. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who had La Crosse virus encephalitis and subsequently developed imaging and pathologic findings suggestive of neurosarcoidosis. He presented with acute onset of transient aphasia 4 months after an episode of encephalitis; serology results at the time of aphasia were positive for La Crosse virus. Brain MRI revealed diffuse subcortical nodular lesions. His serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated, and brain biopsy revealed noncaseating granuloma. It is interesting to note that he has had no recurrence of aphasia; repeat MRI showed significant improvement of nodular lesions without therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of La Crosse virus encephalitis associated with neurosarcoid findings. PMID:21402636

  13. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  14. Identification of Helicobacter pylori in skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Pruden, Samuel; Nelson, Christine; Fohn, Laurel; Vidal, Claudia I; Hurley, M Yadira

    2012-06-01

    A 23-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-year history of a pruritic eruption. On examination, pink urticarial papules associated with hyperpigmented reticulated patches were noted on his neck, back, and upper chest. Histopathology revealed vacuolar interface dermatitis and numerous gram-negative rods within a dilated hair follicle. The organisms were reactive with anti-Helicobacter pylori immunohistochemisty. The histologic findings and clinical presentation support the diagnosis of prurigo pigmentosa. Additional testing demonstrated a positive urease breath test and serum H. pylori IgG antibodies. The patient was referred to gastroenterology and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After treatment, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed chronic gastritis without evidence of H. pylori infection and his skin showed reticulated hyperpigmented patches without evidence of active inflammatory papules. Although previous reports have associated prurigo pigmentosa to H. Pylori gastritis, this is the first report of H. pylori organisms identified in a skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa. PMID:22197863

  15. Immunoglobulin production by coeliac biopsies in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G M; Shires, S; Howdle, P D; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    The production of immunoglobulins by jejunal mucosa during organ culture has been studied. In 18 untreated coeliac patients the amounts of IgA, secretory IgA and IgM in the culture medium were higher than in those from 17 normal controls. The results in 15 treated coeliac patients did not differ from the control subjects. Mucosal biopsies from patients with serum IgA deficiency produced very little IgA, but large amounts of IgG and IgM. The addition of neither Frazer's gluten fraction III, nor alpha-gliadin to the culture system stimulated any additional increased secretion of immunoglobulins from the untreated coeliac patients. Production of IgA and IgM by the small bowel mucosa continues during organ culture, but that of IgG appears insignificant. PMID:3781327

  16. Novel uses of skin biopsy punches in dermatosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hurkudli, Deepak S; Sarvajnamurthy, Sacchidanand; Suryanarayan, Shwetha; Chugh, Vishal S

    2015-01-01

    The skin punch or surgical punch is an instrument which is used almost exclusively by dermatologists. It is a circular hollow blade attached to a pencil-like handle ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 mm. It is available as a disposable, reusable, and automated instrument. The punch can be used as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in dermatology. We have used punch as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic tool in our dermatosurgery practice in our hospital. Various original research articles, text book publications, and review articles were studied and compiled. Techniques used by various authors and our own experiences with punch have been described. This article aims at providing the novel usefulness of skin biopsy punch in dermatology as the basic punch surgery is quick and easy to learn. Complications such as bleeding and infection are minimal. PMID:25814706

  17. Pericardial Biopsy Revealed Gastric Signet-Ring Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yu; Iwata, Yoshifumi; Sangen, Ryusho; Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Takagi, Shou; Sakamoto, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with a large pericardial effusion. The patient was admitted because of anorexia and general malaise. Chest X-ray revealed an increased cardiothoracic ratio and a small amount of bilateral pleural effusion. Two-dimensional ultrasonographic echocardiography showed pericardial effusions with atrial and right ventricular early diastolic collapse, establishing the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade. Signet-ring cell cancer with pericardial involvement was diagnosed by subxiphoid pericardiostomy. The clear fluid was removed through pericardial drainage. The signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach was revealed by gastric fiberscope examination after pericardial biopsy proved malignancy. Virchow lymph node metastasis was also found. We diagnosed the patient with gastric cancer stage IV and suggested him the best supportive therapy. He died of cardiac arrest 1 month after best supportive care. PMID:25960729

  18. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare from a hepatic biopsy].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Aroldo; Mederos, Lilian; Capó, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    A 64 years-old patient, who was a farmer suffering from chronic fever for two years, loss of weight and acute asthenia, was studied. He was admitted to "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute where the studies were conducted and revealed a globular sedimentation rate of 116 mm in 2 hours, and anemia of 9,8g% hemoglobin. The laparoscopic study indicated hepatic granulomatosis that was confirmed by hepatic biopsy in which a sample was taken from the liver to be microbiologically and cytologically examined. By microbiological methods, a non-pigmented slowly-growing strain was isolated, which was classified by conventional diagnostic techniques for the non-tuberculous mycobacteria classification and the alternative diagnosing technique known as bidimensional thin layer chromatography to confirm the previous classification and set the mycolic acid patterns. The isolated strain belonged to group III of Rynyon and was identified as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. PMID:15849945

  19. The Value of Skin Biopsy in Dermatological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The frequency of diseases of the skin and the ease with which they can be seen has resulted in the evolution of a highly complicated classification and nomenclature. In patients with disorders of the internal organs, many complex diagnostic procedures have been evolved, but the diagnosis of a skin disease is usually made on the history together with the naked eye appearances and distribution of the rash. It is only in recent times that other methods of investigation have come into common use. One of these is the skin biopsy, and this paper describes the techniques and indications for this simple, and often useful, office procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468755

  20. Correlation between aggregation structure and tailing mineral crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-tao; Li, Xin-wei; Wang, Hua-jun; Sun, Chuan-yao; Duan, Xu-qin

    2014-09-01

    Direct reduction is an emerging technology for the utilization of refractory iron ore. With this technology, iron oxides in the ore can be reduced to recoverable elemental iron. The structure of granular aggregates in direct reduction products was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that iron is mainly generated as a shell in the outer edge of the aggregates. The thermal conductivity of the iron shell is higher than that of other minerals. Thus, minerals close to the iron shell cool faster than those in the inner shells and do not crystallize well. These minerals mainly become stage 2 tailings. Hence the XRD intensity of stage 2 tailings is lower than that of stage 1 tailings. When iron is mainly generated in the interior of the aggregates, the crystallinity of stage 2 tailings will be higher than that of stage 1 tailings. This indicates that the crystallinity of tailings can be used as a marker for the aggregate structure.

  1. On the importance of tail ratios for psychological science.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Mohr, Elisabeth; Hagmann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda. PMID:24245078

  2. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

    Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

    The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

    This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  3. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and show new directions.

  4. Simple Core-Needle Biopsy for Thyroid Nodule, Complicated Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Beaudoin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Background Fine-needle aspiration is the procedure of choice for evaluating thyroid nodules. Core-needle biopsy (CNB) is not included in the American Thyroid Association recommendations for evaluating such nodules. CNB complications are classically bleeding and hematomas. To our knowledge, no case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) secondary to a CNB has been reported, nor has any case of tinnitus secondary to a post-CNB AVF. Objectives To make the clinician aware of possible vascular complications caused by CNB and the possibility of difficult pathology reading caused by previous CNB. Methods A 44-year-old female is described who was referred to our tertiary care center for left-sided pulsatile tinnitus. She did report having had a CNB right before the tinnitus appeared. Conventional angiography demonstrated a focal AVF originating from the left vertebral artery, with reflux to the left vertebral venous plexus. A 6-mm stent was placed over the site of the fistula via an endovascular approach, which solved both the radiological and clinical documented problems. Moreover, CNB greatly complicated pathology reading once total thyroidectomy was later performed. The suspected area of invasion was an artifact due to the previous biopsies. Conclusion Although many authors recommend a CNB as an alternative modality in cases of inconclusive cytology with fine-needle aspiration, it is not in the American Thyroid Association recommendations. In cases of iatrogenic AVFs caused by a CNB, angiography is recommended both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Stenting the fistula with an endoprosthesis can correct the problem immediately. PMID:25114877

  5. Clinical Value of Core Length in Contemporary Multicore Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Hak Jong; Byun, Seok Soo; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is little data about the clinical value of core length for prostate biopsy (PBx). We investigated the clinical values of various clinicopathological biopsy-related parameters, including core length, in the contemporary multi-core PBx. Patients and Methods Medical records of 5,243 consecutive patients who received PBx at our institution were reviewed. Among them, 3,479 patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ?10ng/ml level who received transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided multi (?12)-core PBx at our institution were analyzed for prostate cancer (PCa). Gleason score upgrading (GSU) was analyzed in 339 patients who were diagnosed with low-risk PCa and received radical prostatectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for PCa detection and prediction of GSU were performed. Results The mean age and PSA of the entire cohort were 63.5 years and 5.4ng/ml, respectively. The overall cancer detection rate was 28.5%. There was no statistical difference in core length between patients diagnosed with PCa and those without PCa (16.1 ± 1.8 vs 16.1 ± 1.9mm, P = 0.945). The core length was also not significantly different (16.4 ± 1.7 vs 16.4 ± 1.6mm, P = 0.889) between the GSU group and non-GSU group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the core length of PBx did not affect PCa detection in TRUS-guided multi-core PBx (P = 0.923) and was not prognostic for GSU in patients with low-risk PCa (P = 0.356). Conclusions In patients undergoing contemporary multi-core PBx, core length may not have significant impact on PCa detection and also GSU following radical prostatectomy among low-risk PCa group. PMID:25875823

  6. HERA BEAM TAIL SHAPING BY TUNE MODULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.

    2003-05-19

    To study CP violation, the HEM-B experiment uses an internal wire target in the transverse halo of the stored HERA proton beam. Operational experience shows that the resulting interaction rates are extremely sensitive to tiny orbit jitter amplitudes. Various methods have been studied to stabilize these interaction rates by increasing diffusion in the transverse proton beam tails without affecting the luminosity at the electron-proton collider experiments ZEUS and H1. Tune modulation was found to be a promising method for this task. Experiments performed in recent years will be reported.

  7. The Damping Tail of CMB Anisotropies

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Martin White

    1996-09-10

    By decomposing the damping tail of CMB anisotropies into a series of transfer functions representing individual physical effects, we provide ingredients that will aid in the reconstruction of the cosmological model from small-scale CMB anisotropy data. We accurately calibrate the model-independent effects of diffusion and reionization damping which provide potentially the most robust information on the background cosmology. Removing these effects, we uncover model-dependent processes such as the acoustic peak modulation and gravitational enhancement that can help distinguish between alternate models of structure formation and provide windows into the evolution of fluctuations at various stages in their growth.

  8. Plasma flow pulsations in earth's magnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Lepping, R. P.; Scarf, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    On November 9, 1972 Imp 7 was in the plasma sheet from 0430 to 1000 UT and detected strong earthward plasma flows. A series of nine temporal pulsations were observed to vary in bulk speed from 0 to about 1500 km/s and to occur at 15-30 minute intervals. A positive correlation exists between the speed variations and changes in the standard deviation of the magnetic field. Evident periodicity was not found corresponding to Imp 7 pulsations and other magnetospheric or solar wind data. It is felt that the pulsations may indicate that tail reconnection is unsteady in periods of 10-30 minutes.

  9. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. Rare Events Simulation for Heavy-Tailed Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Asmussen; Klemens Binswanger; Bjarne Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies rare events simulation for the heavy--tailed case, where some of theunderlying distributions fail to have the exponential moments required for the standardalgorithms for the light--tailed case. Several counterexamples are given to indicate that inthe heavy--tailed case, there are severe problems with the approach of developing limit resultsfor the conditional distribution given the rare event and use this

  11. Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Andersson

    1982-01-01

    Darwin's1 hypothesis that male secondary sexual ornaments evolve through female preferences is theoretically plausible2-7, but there is little experimental field evidence that such preferences exist8-10. I have studied female choice in relation to male tail length in the long-tailed widowbird, Euplectes progne, and report here that males in which the tail was experimentally elongated showed higher mating success than males

  12. NESTING ECOLOGY OF SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH R. NOLTE

    1996-01-01

    We examined nest-site selection and nesting success of the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (TyrunnusforJicatus) on the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, San Patricia County, Texas in 1992-1993. Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) comprised 22% of available shrubs; however, Scissor-tailed Flycatchers used shrubs out of proportion to their availability, placing 91% of their nests in mesquite. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher nests were placed in taller

  13. Comparison of Trace Element Concentrations Between Chick and Adult Black-Tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-06-01

    Trace elements were measured in the feathers of black-tailed gull chicks (n = 10) and adults (n = 10) collected at Chilsando Is., Jeollanam-do, Korea, in June 2011. Pb, Mn and Fe were significantly greater in adult (arithmetic mean 2.02, 3.81, 92.1 ?g/g dw, respectively) than chick (0.74, 2.14, 68.7 ?g/g dw) gulls. In contrast, Zn was greater in chicks (74.9 ?g/g dw) than adults (46.5 ?g/g dw). Cd, Pb and Cr in all chicks and adults were lower than an approximate threshold level for toxic effects. Cd, Pb and Cr were comparable or lower than reported in other gull studies worldwide. Essential elements including Al, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe were within the background and normal physiological levels reported earlier in other gull species including black-tailed gulls. PMID:25899571

  14. Minimum biopsy set for HER2 evaluation in gastric and gastro-esophageal junction cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Irene; Grillo, Federica; Molinaro, Luca; Fassan, Matteo; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine; Rugge, Massimo; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The HER2 status of small endoscopic biopsies is important for predicting the eligibility of patients with metastatic HER2-positive gastric cancer or gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancer for anti-HER2 therapy approved by the U.S.?Food and Drug Administration. The aim of this study was to identify the minimum biopsy set required to evaluate the HER2 status with confidence. Patients and methods: A total of 103 consecutive patients with resected gastric cancer or GEJ cancer were retrospectively selected; 2 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of each surgical specimen and all paired endoscopic biopsies were analyzed for HER2 status with both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. A total of 10 virtual biopsies were constructed by selecting areas 2.6?mm in diameter on the luminal side of digitalized slides obtained from the surgical specimens. The results of evaluating HER2 status in virtual biopsies, slides containing complete surgical specimens, and endoscopic biopsies were compared. The resulting minimum biopsy set was applied to the endoscopic biopsy series for validation. Results: A biopsy set containing a minimum of 5 samples was identified as the most accurate in predicting HER2 status (sensitivity, 92?%; specificity, 97?%). In only 3 of the 103 cases (2.9?%) did a comparison of the HER2 evaluation of virtual biopsies and that of entire slides show inconsistent results. Overall agreement between the endoscopic biopsies and surgical samples for HER2 IHC status increased from 78.4?% to 92.3?% when biopsy sets containing 4 or fewer samples were compared with biopsy sets containing 5 or more samples. Conclusions: Although the recommendations suggest that 8 to 10 biopsies are necessary, the results show that a minimum set of 5 biopsies may be sufficient for reliable HER2 assessment in gastric cancer and GEJ cancer. However, endoscopists should be aware that a smaller sample size may be less accurate in selecting patients eligible for anti-HER2 therapy.

  15. Upgrading the Gleason Score in Extended Prostate Biopsy: Implications for Treatment Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: katiaramos@uol.com.br; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.A. [Laboratory of Surgical and Molecular Pathology - Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dall'Oglio, Marcos F.; Cury, Jose; Antunes, Alberto A.; Sanudo, Adriana; Srougi, Miguel [Laboratory of Medical Investigation - LIM 55, Urology Department, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of overestimation of Gleason score (GS) in extended prostate biopsy, and consequently circumventing unnecessary aggressive treatment. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective study of 464 patients who underwent prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy between January 2001 and November 2007. The GS from biopsy and radical prostatectomy were compared. The incidence of overestimation of GS in biopsies and tumor volume were studied. Multivariate analysis was applied to find parameters that predict upgrading the GS in prostate biopsy. Results: The exact agreement of GS between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy occurred in 56.9% of cases. In 29.1% cases it was underestimated, and it was overestimated in 14%. One hundred and six (22.8%) patients received a diagnosis of high GS (8, 9, or 10) in a prostate biopsy. In 29.2% of cases, the definitive Gleason Score was 7 or lower. In cases in which GS was overestimated in the biopsy, tumors were significantly smaller. In multivariate analysis, the total percentage of tumor was the only independent factor in overestimation of GS. Tumors occupying less than 33% of cores had a 5.6-fold greater chance of being overestimated. Conclusion: In the extended biopsy era and after the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus on GS, almost one third of tumors considered to have high GS at the biopsy may be intermediate-risk cancers. In that condition, tumors are smaller in biopsy. This should be remembered by professionals involved with prostate cancer to avoid overtreatment and undesirable side effects.

  16. Diagnostic Imaging and Biopsy Use Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Massarweh, Nader N.; Park, James O.; Bruix, Jordi; Yeung, Raymond S.W.; Etzioni, Ruth B.; Symons, Rebecca Gaston; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Flum, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnostic imaging is effective for evaluating patients suspected of having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the diagnosis can be established with imaging alone, diagnostic biopsy may be useful for patients with tumors measuring 1 to 2 cm. To date, biopsy and imaging use among patients with HCC has not been evaluated in the general community. Patients and Methods: This cohort study used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) -Medicare data (2002-2005) evaluating biopsy, imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography [CT] scan, and/or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and HCC risk factors. Results: Of 3,696 patients, 1,197 (32.4%) underwent one or more biopsies, with no change in yearly biopsy rate (trend test, P = .64). Patients with tumors > 5 cm were most likely to receive biopsies (35.3%), with increasing rates of biopsy for larger tumors (P = .001). Patients who received biopsies underwent more imaging than those who did not (P < .001) and were more likely to have an HCC risk factor. Tumor size > 5 cm in the setting of a concurrent HCC risk factor increased the odds of biopsy. In 47.8% of patients, the diagnostic sequence was not consistent with contemporary evidence-based guidelines. Conclusions: Despite widespread availability and use of CT scan and MRI, one third of HCC patients undergo biopsy, suggesting a problem with the performance and/or quality of diagnostic imaging or that providers do not believe imaging alone is sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Understanding factors that drive biopsy use may help improve the care of patients with HCC. PMID:21886495

  17. Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

  18. Evaluating target cold spots by the use of tail EUDs *†

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David; Dempsey, James F.; Halabi, Tarek; Romeijn, H. Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of “cold spots” below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution. It has units of Gy. We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head&neck plans. Results Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful both for plan evaluation and optimization. In addition, it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols. PMID:18440728

  19. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  20. EGFR: tale of the C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Gajiwala, Ketan S

    2013-07-01

    The carboxy terminal tail of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in the regulation of the enzyme activity of the kinase. There is a good structural model for the mechanism by which the C-terminal tail proximal to the kinase domain contributes to the negative regulation of the activity. Its conformation in the active state, conversely, has remained elusive due to its dynamic nature. A recently published structure of EGFR kinase domain shows the conformation of the proximal C-terminal tail in the active kinase. Analysis of this conformational state of the C-terminal tail is presented, and some of the mutagenesis data is revisited. PMID:23674349