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Sample records for tail biopsy collection

  1. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis. PMID:26865693

  2. Adverse Effects of Vapocoolant and Topical Anesthesia for Tail Biopsy of Preweanling Mice

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Gillian C; Brice, Angela K; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Tail biopsy of laboratory mice for genotyping purposes has been studied extensively to develop refinements for this common procedure. Our prior work assessed tail vertebral development in different mouse strains (age, 3 to 42 d) and analyzed behavior and activity in mice (age, 21 to 45 d) biopsied under isoflurane anesthesia. To assess the effects of biopsy on preweanling mice, we here evaluated BALB/cAnNCrl mice (n = 80; age, 18 to 21 d) that received topical vapocoolant (ethyl chloride), topical anesthetic (Cetacaine), or isoflurane anesthesia before undergoing a 5-mm or sham biopsy. Control mice did not receive any anesthetic intervention. Regardless of the anesthetic used, acute observation scores indicative of distress were increased at 10 min after biopsy, and locomotor activity was decreased, in biopsied compared with control mice. Acute observation scores at 10 min after biopsy were higher in mice that received ethyl chloride compared with isoflurane or no anesthesia. Microscopic analysis revealed that inflammatory changes in the distal tail remained elevated until 7 d after biopsy and were higher in tails exposed to ethyl chloride. Our findings indicate that vapocoolant, topical anesthesia, and inhaled isoflurane do not enhance the wellbeing of preweanling mice undergoing tail biopsy. Due to the lack of appreciable benefits and the presence of notable adverse effects, using vapocoolants or Cetacaine for this tail biopsy procedure in laboratory mice is unadvisable and we encourage the removal of these agents from institutional tail biopsy guidelines. PMID:26045455

  3. Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

  4. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Tissue sampling ... biopsy is called a percutaneous biopsy. It removes tissue using a needle attached to a hollow tube ... The needle is passed several times through the tissue being examined. The doctor uses the needle to ...

  5. Emergent Data-Networks from Long-Tail Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Hedstrom, M.; Myers, J. D.; Plale, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of scientific data coming from individuals and small research group activities, known as long-tail data, with the existing resources elucidates useful scientific knowledge. In general, long-tail data are irreplaceable, expensive to reproduce, infrequently reused, follow no predefined data model, and they are often bounded in different information systems. The contextual relationships across the many attributes among such data in a data collection are herewith defined as data-network. These relationships have the potential to provide deep insights for the scientific challenges that require multidisciplinary interaction by identifying a new data object in the broader context of other data objects, and characterizing its spatial and temporal dependencies with others. Despite the advancement that has been achieved in various geoscience information models, it is not always straightforward to identify and characterize the contextual relationships among long-tail data because information models focus on profiling data attributes more than exploring data tie-ins. To address this need, we have designed the Long Tail Data Networks (LTDN) engine, which depends on a context-based approach to analyze the data attributes, predict data contextual relationships, and publish these relationships as a RDF graph. The engine groups data using their geographic location in spatial collections, and applies binary logic predicates to analyze the spatial, temporal, and variable attributes associated with data entities of each spatial collection to infer their relationships. Here we present the design of the LTDN engine and demonstrate its application for predicting the latent connectivity among long-tail data collections. To demonstrate the capabilities of the engine, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that supports long-tail data curation and preservation, and show how relationships among datasets can be extracted. Results of this work demonstrates the capabilities of LTDN engine to predict the latent connectivity among long-tail geoscience data across their domain boundaries, as well as temporal and spatial windows to establish dynamic Web-based data-networks in the Semantic Web context.

  6. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  7. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... right diagnosis. [ Top ] What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... Top ] What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  8. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  9. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

  10. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  11. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Using a small tool similar to an apple corer, a punch biopsy can be used to ... diagnosing infection. References/Trusted Links References Logical Images, Inc. editorial staff: Ramsey Markus, MD and Blanca Ochoa, ...

  12. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... egg in the lab. This process is called in vitro fertilization. Testicular biopsy may also be done if you have found a lump during testicular self-examination . If tests ... the lump may be in the testicle, surgery may be needed to look ...

  13. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures can be done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

  14. Antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsies from white-tailed deer by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly fifty years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The increasing expansion of this disease makes the d...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America:Effects of age,sex,polymorphism at PRNP codon 96,and disease progression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective live animal diagnostic test is needed to assist in the control of chronic wasting disease (CWD), which has spread through captive and wild herds of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa ...

  17. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy ... procedure. All or part of the problem area (lesion) is removed. It is sent to the laboratory to check for problems. If a growth in the mouth or throat needs to be removed, the biopsy ...

  18. Acuity of biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Malangoni, M A

    1989-01-01

    The acuities of the conventional biopsy device and of a new design of biopsy needle holder were determined in an in vitro study using fresh pork kidney. A second study, using fresh beef kidney, evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the acuity of biopsy needles. Only minor clinical differences were found in the acuities of the two types of biopsy needle. It was established, however, that silicone surface treatment and cryogenic treatment of biopsy needles significantly increases their acuity. PMID:2713435

  19. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  20. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. ...

  1. Transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed T; Gomella, Leonard G

    2013-11-01

    Grayscale transrectal ultrasonographic prostate biopsy using local anesthesia remains the standard approach to the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Careful patient evaluation and preparation are essential to maximize the results and minimize the complications of the biopsy procedure. PMID:24182969

  2. Heritability estimation of osteoarthritis in the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) with a look toward future data collection

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peter B.; Duncan, Andrea E.; Kramer, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine heritability estimation of an ordinal trait for osteoarthritis, using a population of pig-tailed macaques from the Washington National Primate Research Center (WaNPRC). This estimation is non-trivial, as the data consist of ordinal measurements on 16 intervertebral spaces throughout each macaque’s spinal cord, with many missing values. We examine the resulting heritability estimates from different model choices, and also perform a simulation study to compare the performance of heritability estimation with these different models under specific known parameter values. Under both the real data analysis and the simulation study, we find that heritability estimates from an assumption of normality of the trait differ greatly from those of ordered probit regression, which considers the ordinality of the trait. This finding indicates that some caution should be observed regarding model selection when estimating heritability of an ordinal quantity. Furthermore, we find evidence that our real data have little information for valid heritability estimation under ordered probit regression. We thus conclude with an exploration of sample size requirements for heritability estimation under this model. For an ordinal trait, an incorrect assumption of normality can lead to severely biased heritability estimation. Sample size requirements for heritability estimation of an ordinal trait under the threshold model depends on the pedigree structure, trait distribution and the degree of relatedness between each phenotyped individual. Our sample of 173 monkeys did not have enough information from which to estimate heritability, but estimable heritability can be obtained with as few as 180 related individuals under certain scenarios examined here. PMID:24860700

  3. Complications of Transjugular Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Navuluri, Rakesh; Ahmed, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Transvenous biopsy was first performed in 1964 by Charles Dotter. Now routinely performed in the liver and kidney by interventional radiologists, the transjugular approach to biopsy has assumed a central role in coagulopathic patients. Major arterial complications from transjugular liver and renal biopsy are rare. In this article, the authors describe such complications in both organs that necessitated selective endovascular coil embolization. PMID:25762847

  4. Skin biopsy: Biopsy issues in specific diseases.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M; Stratman, Erik J; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis may result from biopsy site selection, technique, or choice of transport media. Important potential sources of error include false-negative direct immunofluorescence results based on poor site selection, uninformative biopsy specimens based on both site selection and technique, and spurious interpretations of pigmented lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancer based on biopsy technique. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article addresses common pitfalls involving site selection and biopsy technique in the diagnosis of bullous diseases, vasculitis, panniculitis, connective tissue diseases, drug eruptions, graft-versus-host disease, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, hair disorders, and neoplastic disorders. Understanding these potential pitfalls can result in improved diagnostic yield and patient outcomes. PMID:26702794

  5. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  6. PanMetaDocs - A tool for collecting and managing the long tail of "small science data"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of thinking about cyberinfrastructure the focus was on "big science data". Today, the challenge is not anymore to store several terabytes of data, but to manage data objects in a way that facilitates their re-use. Key to re-use by a user as a data consumer is proper documentation of the data. Also, data consumers need discovery metadata to find the data they need and they need descriptive metadata to be able to use the data they retrieved. Thus, data documentation faces the challenge to extensively and completely describe these objects, hold the items easily accessible at a sustainable cost level. However, data curation and documentation do not rank high in the everyday work of a scientist as a data producer. Data producers are often frustrated by being asked to provide metadata on their data over and over again, information that seemed very obvious from the context of their work. A challenge to data archives is the wide variety of metadata schemata in use, which creates a number of maintenance and design challenges of its own. PanMetaDocs addresses these issues by allowing an uploaded files to be described by more than one metadata object. PanMetaDocs, which was developed from PanMetaWorks, is a PHP based web application that allow to describe data with any xml-based metadata schema. Its user interface is browser based and was developed to collect metadata and data in collaborative scientific projects situated at one or more institutions. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. In the development of PanMetaDocs the business logic of panMetaWorks is reused, except for the authentication and data management functions of PanMetaWorks, which are delegated to the eSciDoc framework. The eSciDoc repository framework is designed as a service oriented architecture that can be controlled through a REST interface to create version controlled items with metadata records in XML format. PanMetaDocs utilizes the eSciDoc items model to add multiple metadata records that describe uploaded files in different metadata schemata. While datasets are collected and described, shared to collaborate with other scientists and finally published, data objects are transferred from a shared data curation domain into a persistent data curation domain. Through an RSS interface for recent datasets PanMetaWorks allows project members to be informed about data uploaded by other project members. The implementation of the OAI-PMH interface can be used to syndicate data catalogs to research data portals, such as the panFMP data portal framework. Once data objects are uploaded to the eSciDoc infrastructure it is possible to drop the software instance that was used for collecting the data, while the compiled data and metadata are accessible for other authorized applications through the institution's eSciDoc middleware. This approach of "expendable data curation tools" allows for a significant reduction in costs for software maintenance as expensive data capture applications do not need to be maintained indefinitely to ensure long term access to the stored data.

  7. Delayed culture of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dedet, J P; Pratlong, F; Pradinaud, R; Moreau, B

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1997 and October 1998, 16 skin biopsies collected from 13 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana were inoculated in culture medium after travel for 3-17 days from the place of biopsy to the culture laboratory in France. Each biopsy fragment was introduced near the flame of a Bunsen burner into the transport medium (RPMI medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum) which was maintained at ambient temperature during postal delivery to France. In France the biopsies were ground in sterile saline before being inoculated into NNN culture tubes. The cultures were incubated at 25 degrees C and subcultured every week until the 5th week. The cultures were positive in 9 cases, remained negative in 4, and were contaminated in 3 cases. Positive results were obtained at all seasons and for 3 different Leishmania species. The study indicates that delayed culture can yield useful results from biopsies taken in field conditions. PMID:10717763

  8. Utilization Trends and Positive Biopsy Rates for Prostate Biopsies in the United States: 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Deepak A; Bostwick, David G; Mendrinos, Savvas E; Anderson, Ann E; Olsson, Carl A

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the positive biopsy rate and core sampling pattern in patients undergoing needle biopsy of the prostate in the United States at a national reference laboratory (NRL) and anatomic pathology laboratories integrated into urology group practices, and analyzes the relationship between positive biopsy rates and the number of specimen vials per biopsy. For the years 2005 to 2011 we collected pathology data from an NRL, including number of urologists and urology practices referring samples, total specimen vials submitted for prostate biopsies, and final pathologic diagnosis for each case. The diagnoses were categorized as benign, malignant, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or atypical small acinar proliferation. Over the same period, similar data were gathered from urology practices with in-house laboratories performing global pathology services (urology practice laboratories; UPLs) as identified by a survey of members of the Large Urology Group Practice Association. For each year studied, positive biopsy rate and number of specimen vials per biopsy were calculated in aggregate and separately for each site of service. From 2005 to 2011, 437,937 biopsies were submitted in > 4.23 million vials (9.4 specimen vials/biopsy); overall positive biopsy rate was 40.3%-this was identical at both the NRL and UPL (P = .97). Nationally, the number of specimen vials per biopsy increased sharply from a mean of 8.8 during 2005 to 2008 to a mean of 10.3 from 2009 to 2011 (difference, 1.5 specimen vials/biopsy; P = .03). For the most recent 3-year period (2009–2011), the difference of 0.6 specimen vials per biopsy between the NRL (10.0) and UPL (10.6) was not significant (P = 0.08). Positive biopsy rate correlated strongly (P < .01) with number of specimen vials per biopsy. The positive prostate biopsy rate is 40.3% and is identical across sites of service. Although there was a national trend toward increased specimen vials per biopsy from 2005 to 2011, from 2009 to 2011 there was no significant difference in specimen vials per biopsy across sites of service. Increased cancer detection rate correlated significantly with increased number of specimens examined. Segregation of prostate biopsy cores into 10 to 12 unique specimen vials has been widely adopted by urologists across sites of service. PMID:24659910

  9. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  10. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may ... This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are ...

  11. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  12. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale Cysts of the lung Pulmonary hypertension ...

  13. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. ... the next step is to find the lymph node closest to the tumor site and retrieve it ...

  14. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  15. Multiple Biopsies and Detection of Cervical Cancer Precursors at Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Walker, Joan L.; Gold, Michael A.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Mathews, Cara; Dunn, S. Terence; Zhang, Roy; Moxley, Katherine; Bishop, Erin; Tenney, Meaghan; Nugent, Elizabeth; Graubard, Barry I.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results are referred to colposcopy and biopsy for diagnosis of cervical cancer precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSILs]). Colposcopy with a single biopsy can miss identification of HSILs. No systematic study has quantified the improved detection of HSIL by taking multiple lesion-directed biopsies. Methods The Biopsy Study was an observational study of 690 women referred to colposcopy after abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Up to four directed biopsies were taken from distinct acetowhite lesions and ranked by colposcopic impression. A nondirected biopsy of a normal-appearing area was added if fewer than four directed biopsies were taken. HSIL identified by any biopsy was the reference standard of disease used to evaluate the incremental yield and sensitivity of multiple biopsies. Results In the overall population, sensitivities for detecting HSIL increased from 60.6% (95% CI, 54.8% to 66.6%) from a single biopsy to 85.6% (95% CI, 80.3% to 90.2%) after two biopsies and to 95.6% (95% CI, 91.3% to 99.2%) after three biopsies. A significant increase in sensitivity of multiple biopsies was observed in all subgroups. The highest increase in yield of HSIL was observed for women with a high-grade colposcopic impression, HSIL cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 positivity. Only 2% of all HSILs diagnosed in the participants were detected by biopsies of normal-appearing transformation zone. Conclusion Collection of additional lesion-directed biopsies during colposcopy increased detection of histologic HSIL, regardless of patient characteristics. Taking additional biopsies when multiple lesions are present should become the standard practice of colposcopic biopsy. PMID:25422481

  16. Wind-tunnel Investigation of End-plate Effects of Horizontal Tails on a Vertical Tail Compared with Available Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E

    1946-01-01

    A vertical-tail model with stub fuselage was tested in combination with various simulated horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical tail. Available theoretical data on end-plate effects were collected and presented in the form most suitable for design purposes. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the measured and theoretical end-plate effects of horizontal tails on vertical tails, and the data indicated that the end-plate effect was determined more by the location of the horizontal tail than by the span of the horizontal tail. The horizontal tail gave most end-plate effect when located near either tip of the vertical tail and, when located near the base of the vertical tail, the end-plate effect was increased by moving the horizontal tail rearward.

  17. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  18. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy in pancreatic tumor diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyng, Chiang J; Almeida, Maria Fernanda A; Barbosa, Paula NV; Bitencourt, Almir GV; Berg, José Augusto AG; Maciel, Macello S; Coimbra, Felipe JF; Schiavon, Luiz Henrique O; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Guimarães, Marcos D; Zurstrassen, Charles E; Chojniak, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the techniques, results, and complications related to computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions. METHODS: CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of solid pancreatic lesions performed at a cancer reference center between January 2012 and September 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Biopsy material was collected with a 16-20 G Tru-Core needle (10-15 cm; Angiotech, Vancouver, CA) using a coaxial system and automatic biopsy gun. When direct access to the lesion was not possible, indirect (transgastric or transhepatic) access or hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection maneuvers were used. Characteristics of the patients, lesions, procedures, and histologic results were recorded using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 103 procedures included in the study were performed on patients with a mean age of 64.8 year (range: 39-94 year). The mean size of the pancreatic lesions was 45.5 mm (range: 15-195 mm). Most (75/103, 72.8%) procedures were performed via direct access, though hydrodissection and/or pneumodissection were used in 22.2% (23/103) of cases and indirect transhepatic or transgastric access was used in 4.8% (5/103) of cases. Histologic analysis was performed on all biopsies, and diagnoses were conclusive in 98.1% (101/103) of cases, confirming 3.9% (4/103) of tumors were benign and 94.2% (97/103) were malignant; results were atypical in 1.9% (2/103) of cases, requiring a repeat biopsy to diagnose a neuroendocrine tumor, and surgical resection to confirm a primary adenocarcinoma. Only mild/moderate complications were observed in 9/103 patients (8.7%), and they were more commonly associated with biopsies of lesions located in the head/uncinate process (n = 8), than of those located in the body/tail (n = 1) of the pancreas, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: CT-guided biopsy of a pancreatic lesion is a safe procedure with a high success rate, and is an excellent option for minimally invasive diagnosis. PMID:25834323

  19. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  20. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... spring-driven needle core biopsy device, or biopsy gun. The MRI-guided biopsy can be performed with ... spring-driven needle core biopsy device, or biopsy gun. The handheld device includes a long but very ...

  1. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element variation in otoliths from fish collected near acid mine tailings: Potential for monitoring contaminant dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquet, M.; Halden, N. M.; Babaluk, J.; Campbell, J. L.; Nejedly, Z.

    2002-04-01

    Otoliths from fish sampled proximal to acid mine tailings located near Sherridon, Manitoba contain elevated abundances of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sr is also present in amounts ranging from 250 to 1200 ppm with the actual levels dependent on the lake from which fish were taken. Previous work on analyzing Zn and Mn suggests Zn will typically vary between 50 and ˜100 ppm (in marine and non-marine species) and Mn between 10 and ˜100 ppm. Otoliths analyzed in this study contain up to ˜1000 ppm Zn and up to ˜400 ppm Mn; Fe is present, ranging between 50 and 100 ppm and Cu is typically 40-50 ppm. Water samples showed variation in these elements depending on proximity to the tailings.

  2. Open Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Norman C.; Strangway, Donald W.

    1964-01-01

    Steady improvement in the diagnostic appraisal of obscure pulmonary and mediastinal disease has permitted more intelligent treatment, better prognosis, and where necessary more accurate assessment of compensability. Open lung biopsy is designed to obtain material for pathological study when there is no pleural, mediastinal, or airway lesion on which to base a working diagnosis. A study of 54 patients in whom lung biopsy was performed at the Toronto General Hospital and Weston Sanatorium is reported. A positive tissue diagnosis was obtained in approximately 75%. The procedure is considered relatively innocuous if sensible selection is exercised to exclude patients with terminal disease, particularly that associated with severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. No major complications occurred in this series. It is concluded that open lung biopsy might reasonably receive much wider application than in the past in cases in which a definite diagnosis cannot otherwise be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14180532

  3. Ultrasound-guided biopsy and drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R.C.; Wellauer, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the ultrasound (US) biopsy techniques, cytology, histology, and physics. The emphasis is on use of US guidance, as the authors find that virtually all lesions are visible at US scanning and they thus save valuable time on the computer tomographic scanner. The authors present in great detail their considerable work in designing needles that are readily visible at US scanning and can also collect good cytologic and histologic material. Biopsy techniques are discussed separately for each organ system. The accuracy of these techniques in over 3,000 of the author's cases is presented.

  4. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required.

  5. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting.

    PubMed

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Context .- There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective .- To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design .- The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results .- Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions .- We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  6. [Basic research on endomyocardial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Li, Z M; Xu, Y Y; Zhu, G Y

    1989-12-01

    To determine the risk of biopsy in different parts of heart and the artifacts of histomorphology, right heart endomyocardial biopsy in eight dogs were done. The result showed no tamponade occurred even 53 pieces of heart muscles were got from right ventricular free wall. In contrast, biopsies on right atrial free wall had higher risk in causing tamponade. It was confirmed by autopsy and histomorphology that endomyocardial biopsy could cause heart muscle damage. The artifacts caused by biopsy of normal beating heart muscle include: contraction bands (21.8%), widen of intracellular space (100%), interstitial edema (78%) and interstitial bleeding (53%). The results of the patients of right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy may provide practical value in the application of endomyocardial biopsy. PMID:2637135

  7. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

  8. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  9. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  10. Use of a frameless computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy system for nasal biopsy in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Gregory M; Taylor, Amanda R; Thieman-Mankin, Kelley M; Griffin, Jay; Cook, Audrey K; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-04-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs (median age, 9 years; median body weight, 31 kg [68.2 lb]) with undefined nasal masses were examined after undergoing CT of the head and nasal biopsy via a rostral rhinoscopic or unaided (blind) approach because histologic results for collected biopsy specimens (inflammatory, necrotic, or hemorrhagic disease) suggested the specimens were nonrepresentative of the underlying disease process identified via CT (aggressive or malignant disease). CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical signs at the time dogs were evaluated included open-mouth breathing, sneezing, or unilateral epistaxis. Histologic findings pertaining to the original biopsy specimens were suggestive of benign processes such as inflammation. In an attempt to obtain better representative specimens, a frameless CT-guided stereotactic biopsy system (CTSBS) was used to collect additional biopsy specimens from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of the dogs. The second set of biopsy specimens was histologically evaluated. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens collected via the CTSBS revealed results suggestive of malignant neoplasia (specifically, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma) for 3 dogs, mild mixed-cell inflammation for 1 dog, and hamartoma for 1 dog. No complications were reported. These findings resulted in a change in treatment recommendations for 3 dogs and confirmed that no additional treatment was required for 1 dog (with hamartoma). For the remaining dog, in which CT findings and clinical history were strongly suggestive of neoplasia, the final diagnosis was rhinitis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Biopsy specimens were safely collected from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of dogs by use of a frameless CTSBS, allowing a definitive diagnosis that was unachievable with other biopsy approaches. PMID:27031420

  11. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  12. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

  13. Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

  14. [Liquid Biopsy and Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Koh

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress in cancer biology has revealed the fact that molecular profiles of primary and metastatic cancer are not necessarily the same. Furthermore, evidence of intra-tumor heterogeneity has been disclosed repeatedly. In addition to these, acquiring resistances to chemoradiation therapy is far more rapid than typical predictions. Under these circumstances, physicians are realizing that one biopsy is not enough to predict the direction of cancer progression or extension. Repeated biopsy was proposed in this context. For "re-biopsy", acquiring blood is much easier compared to regular biopsies of acquiring body tissues. Therefore, CTC or Cell-free DNA is one of the hot topics in clinical and molecular diagnostic fields. The term "liquid biopsy" is used to include these two materials. We utilized a CTC isolation device based on microfluidic principles. Procedures for the extraction of DNA from plasma (Cell-free DNA) is also available. Based on this background, we performed a feasibility study of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) by analyzing materials from advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have successfully acquired NGS results using these liquid biopsies. We have also investigated the possibility of storing CTCs by evaluating procedures after cytospin using H1975 cells with various fixation conditions under a DIC microscope examination. Because of the paucity of the number of isolated CTCs, H1975 cells were used for this purpose. After cytospin, 95% ETOH and then -80 degrees C storage provided the best results. Attempts at not only NGS but also storage in this sequence of studies have opened new fields of liquid biopsy in clinical laboratories. PMID:26731900

  15. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

  16. [Optical biopsy: the surgical perspective].

    PubMed

    Canis, Michel; Rabischong, Benoît; Botchorishvili, Revaz; Jardon, Kris; Bourdel, Nicolas; Mage, Gérard; Avan, Benoît

    2011-03-01

    Several new intraoperative imaging techniques, often described under the generic term "optical biopsy", have been developed over the last twenty years. The term optical biopsy in fact covers two distinct approaches. The first is endomicroscopy, which provides the surgeon with histologic images comparable to those obtained by the pathologist in the laboratory. The second is image-guided surgery, which includes a variety of techniques, from fluorescence to sentinel node biopsy and real-time image fusion (enhanced reality). The diagnostic value of intraoperative histology, and the reproducibility of these methods outside the expert centers where they were initially developed, remains to be determined In particular, it remains to be seen whether they can avoid the need for conventional biopsy. The main issue will probably be to decide who is qualified to read these images: a surgeon with training in pathology, or a pathologist who examines images transmitted to the lab or directly in the operating room? Pathologic diagnosis may require several readings of the same slides, additional biopsy sections, or even additional staining procedures. The ability to examine living tissue in situ is a very attractive prospect and will probably represent a major step forward in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. It is difficult to know which of the many candidate techniques will finally be adopted, but the future seems to lie in a combination of image-guided surgery and endomicroscopy. PMID:22292306

  17. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  18. Estimating tail probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  19. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  20. Standing rectal and tail surgery.

    PubMed

    DeBowes, R M

    1991-12-01

    A variety of rectal, perirectal, and coccygeal surgeries can be performed in the standing equine patient if appropriate chemical and physical restraints are available and adequate regional anesthesia can be achieved. Some rectal tears and most rectal prolapses, mass lesions, perirectal abscesses, rectal biopsies, and selected injuries of the tail can be managed without prohibitive difficulty. Severe injuries that compromise the small colon cranial to the peritoneal reflection may require flank laparotomy, midline celiotomy, or humane euthanasia to manage the disease process effectively and appropriately. The foremost perioperative consideration beyond the use of effective restraint is the management of tenesmus in horses with rectal tears or prolapses. Medications to control bowel motility, epidural anesthesia, antiinflammatory analgesics, and topical compounds adequate to soothe and lubricate inflamed rectal tissues are an important adjunctive therapy in the aftercare of these surgical patients. Of nearly equal importance is the requirement that a loose fecal consistency be maintained with laxative diets, psyllium, and mineral oil. Failure to maintain a loose consistency of stool after treatment of these conditions may lead to rectal impaction or incisional dehiscence and surgical failure. PMID:1820231

  1. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  2. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  3. Pericardial Tamponade: a Rare Complication of Sternal Bone Marrow Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Santavy, Petr; Troubil, Martin; Lonsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Injury of the heart with concomitant pericardial tamponade as a result of sternal bone marrow biopsy is rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted with dehydration and non-specified abdominal pain to the regional hospital. Sternal aspiration biopsy was performed because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Later on, because of the back pain, general weakness and blood pressure drop, an echocardiography examination was indicated. Pericardial fluid collection was found. Anticipated ascending aortic dissection was excluded on computed tomography scan, but pericardial fluid collection was confirmed. Transfer to our cardiac surgical facility ensued. Limited heart tamponade was affirmed on echocardiography and surgery was immediately indicated. Blood effusion was found in upper mediastinal fat tissue and 300 mL of blood were evacuated from opened pericardial space. Stab wound by sternal biopsy needle at the upper part of ascending aorta was repaired by pledgeted suture. Postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:24179668

  4. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... This page was reviewed on June 19, 2015 Send us your feedback Did you find the information ... to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From (your name): ...

  5. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Online Store Welcome Calendar of Events Find a Dermatology DO Osteopathic Medicine Disease Database Contributors Doctor Derm ... of Trustees Contact Us Ethics Foundation for Osteopathic Dermatology What is the FOD? Governance By-Laws Committees ...

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  7. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Waiting ... topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  8. The role of percutaneous biopsy in detection of pancreatic transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Lee, B C; McGahan, J P; Perez, R V; Boone, J M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous pancreatic transplant biopsy guided by ultrasound alone or with a combination of computerized tomography (CT) for pancreas localization and ultrasound for needle placement. We also compare our finding on the use of 18-gauge and 20-gauge needles for percutaneous pancreatic transplant biopsy. In 42 attempted biopsies performed on 21 patients, two different imaging modalities were used. Twenty-seven attempted biopsies were performed under the guidance of ultrasound alone, and 15 used a combination of ultrasound and CT. Of the 27 ultrasound-guided biopsies. 24 produced at least one sample adequate for histopathological analysis for an 89% biopsy success rate. Of the 15 biopsies guided by combined ultrasound and CT, 11 produced adequate samples for a 73% success rate. For all biopsies, an 83% success rate was found. In assessing the use of 18-gauge versus 20-gauge needles, 86 out of 110 tissue cores were adequate for histopathological analysis for a 78% yield. In 27 biopsy attempts using the 18-gauge needle, 75 tissue cores were obtained, for an average of 2.8 cores per biopsy. Fifty-seven pancreas samples collected using the 18-gauge needle were adequate for pathological evaluation for a 76% yield. With 15 biopsy attempts using the 20-gauge needle, 35 tissue cores were collected, for an average of 2.3 cores per biopsy. Twenty-nine pancreas specimens obtained from using the 20-gauge needle were adequate for analysis for an 83% yield. No major complications occurred. Only one incidence of minor complication was reported for a 2% complication rate. The only complication was local, mild bleeding at the biopsy site in one case. Air within the transplant pancreas as revealed by post-biopsy scans and streaky density appearing adjacent to the biopsy site occurred in a total of four cases and were not included. No complications were reported that required any invasive intervention. We conclude that percutaneous biopsy guided by ultrasound is a safe, simple, and effective method to detect pancreatic transplant rejection. Our results for biopsies compare favorably with other reported techniques in terms of effectiveness, complication rates, and ease of use. With its high success rate and low complications, ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy is an excellent method to sample pancreatic transplant. PMID:11048995

  9. The impact of tail tip amputation and ink tattoo on C57BL/6JBomTac mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Stub, Charlotte; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Hjorth, Peter; Ottesen, Jan Lund; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2007-01-01

    Genetic material for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis on transgenic mice is normally obtained by tail biopsy. Additionally, it may be necessary to tattoo the mice, as it is essential to have a good and permanent identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amputating the tip of the tail to obtain a biopsy for genetic analysis and of ink tattooing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice, a strain often used as genetic background for transgenes. The behaviour of the animals, fluctuating asymmetry (FA, a measure of developmental instability) and the level of restitution in the remaining part of the tail were evaluated and used for an assessment of the impact of these procedures on the welfare of the animals. One group of mice was marked by tail tattooing at various ages. Another group of mice were tail amputated at 12 or 20 days of age. Body weight and FA were followed, and at the end of the experiment, the level of fear/anxiety was assessed using a light-dark box. In the group of tail-amputated animals observation of climbing behaviour and a beam walking test for balance was performed. Seven weeks after tail amputation, the animals were euthanized. The remaining part of the tail was evaluated histopathologically. Body weight, behaviour in the light-dark box and balance test results were not influenced by tail amputation or tattooing. FA was only transiently increased by tattooing. Climbing behaviour was reduced just after tail amputation at 20 days of age. No signs of neuromas were found in the amputated tails, but seven weeks after amputation a significant number of mice did not have fully regenerated glandular tissue and hair follicles in the tail. It is concluded that both tail amputation and tail tattooing seem to have minor short-term negative effects on welfare and that the tissues on the tail probably do not regenerate fully after amputation. PMID:17234047

  10. Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2014-12-01

    Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing. PMID:24599706

  11. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

  12. Biopsy of hand, wrist, and forearm tumors.

    PubMed

    Trigg, Stephen D

    2004-05-01

    This article describes three biopsy methods currently used for treating masses arising in the hand, wrist, and forearm: open biopsy, fine needle aspiration, and core needle biopsy. The forearm, wrist, and hand comprise a complex and diverse anatomic region, and biopsy is emphasized as the most important element in the diagnosis of the musculoskeletal tumor. Biopsy methods for assessing true neoplasms, bony protuberances, cysts,infection and abscesses, foreign bodies, reactive granulomas, tenosynovial proliferation,and skin and fascial lesions are discussed. PMID:15201019

  13. Prostate Biopsy for the Interventional Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Amalou, Hayet; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Yan, Pingkun; Kruecker, Jochen; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are usually performed by urologists in the office setting using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The current standard of care involves obtaining 10–14 cores from different anatomical sections. These biopsies are usually not directed into a specific lesion as most prostate cancers are not visible on TRUS. Color-Doppler, ultrasound contrast agents, elastography, MRI, and MRI/ultrasound fusion are proposed as imaging methods to guide prostate biopsies. Prostate MRI and fusion biopsy create opportunities for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to play an increasingly important role in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, targeted biopsy, surveillance and focal therapy of the prostate cancer patient. PMID:24581731

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Majithia, Raj; Diehl, David L.; Baron, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    Liver biopsy remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis and management of liver disorders. Results of liver biopsy can often drive therapeutic decision-making. Unfortunately, studies have shown conventional biopsy techniques to carry significant sampling variability that can potentially impact patient care. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is gaining traction as an alternative method of biopsy. For parenchymal disease, it can decrease sampling variability. It offers a more targeted approach for focal lesions. Its diagnostic yield and limited adverse event profile make it a promising approach for liver biopsy. PMID:26020041

  15. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Efficient utilization of washery tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadov, V.V.; Litmanovich, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The quality and quantity of coal recoverable from jigging machine tailings from the washeries at the Makeevha and Yasinovka Coke Works was investigated. Recleaning of tailings from these washeries can provide over 5 X 10/sup 5/ ton/year of coal suitable for use as an energy fuel. Tailings were processed using a dense medium separator.

  17. Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 μmol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

  18. Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    See, Teik Choon; Thompson, Barbara C.; Howie, Alexander J.; Karamshi, M.; Papadopoulou, Anthie M.; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient was temporarily dialyzed; the remaining patient required ureteric stenting. In conclusion, TJRB provides an adequate yield for diagnosis. Complication rates are relatively high, but patients are also at high risk from the conventional percutaneous approach. Patient selection and optimization are critical to avoid major complications.

  19. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Kpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  20. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  1. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  2. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Welsh pony embryos after biopsy and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Guignot, F; Reigner, F; Perreau, C; Tartarin, P; Babilliot, J M; Bed'hom, B; Vidament, M; Mermillod, P; Duchamp, G

    2015-11-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and embryo cryopreservation are important tools to improve genetic management in equine species with marked consequences on the economic value, health, biodiversity, and preservation of the animals. This study aimed to develop a biopsy method at the blastocyst stage that provides viable genotyped cryopreserved Welsh pony embryos. Embryos were collected at d 6.75 to 7 after ovulation. Biopsies were performed with either a microblade or a micropipette. After biopsy, embryos were cryopreserved. The survival rate of biopsied embryos was evaluated on fresh and cryopreserved embryos either 24 h after in vitro culture or after transfer to recipients. Fresh and nonbiopsied embryos were used as controls. Sex, coat color genes, myotony (neuromuscular disorder) diagnosis, and markers of parentage were investigated using PCR on biopsied cells after whole-genome amplification and on remaining embryos. The embryo survival rate after transfer was not affected by the micropipette biopsy (50%, = 8; 43%, = 7; and 50%, = 12, at d 30 for fresh biopsied embryos, vitrified biopsied embryos, and control embryos, respectively) but was significantly reduced by the use of microblade biopsy: 9 ( = 11) vs. 67% ( = 12) for control embryos. Successful sex determination was achieved for 82% ( = 28) of the micropipette biopsies and 100% ( = 50) of the microblade biopsies. Sex determined on biopsied cells was found to correspond completely (100%) with that determined on the remaining embryo ( = 37). More than 90% of the parentage checking markers, coat color, and myotony diagnosis were successfully determined on biopsies obtained with either a micropipette or a microblade. Mendelian incompatibility (7.5 and 5.5%) and embryo genotyping errors (6.6 and 8.6%) were low and not significantly different between the 2 methods. In conclusion, for the first time, pregnancy at Day 30 was obtained after transfer of Welsh pony biopsied and vitrified embryos >300 μm in diameter to recipient pony mares. The biopsied cells collected enabled multigenetic embryo diagnoses to be performed to a high degree of accuracy. The micropipette biopsy is the better method to apply on Welsh pony embryos. PMID:26641042

  3. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  4. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  5. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  6. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology: Results of 1836 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Hamidi, Nurullah; Suer, Evren; Tangal, Semih; Huseynov, Adil; Ibiş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the role of NLR prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated data of patients underwent prostate biopsy between May 2005 and March 2015. We collected the following data: age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy histology, Gleason score (GS) in prostate cancer patients, neutrophil counts, and lymphocyte counts. Patients were grouped as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The Chi square test was used to compare categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for continuous variables. Results: Data of 1836 patients were investigated. The mean age, total PSA and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the population were 66.8 ± 8.17 years, 9.38 ± 4.7 ng/dL, and 3.11 ± 1.71, respectively. Patients were divided as follows: 625 in the group with BPH history, 600 in the prostatitis group, and 611 in the prostate cancer histology group. The mean NLR of the prostatitis group was higher compared to the prostate cancer and BPH groups (p = 0.0001). The mean NLR of the prostate cancer group was significantly higher compared to the BPH group (p = 0.002). The GS 8–10 group had a significantly higher mean NLR compared to GS 5–6 (3.64 vs. 2.54, p = 0.0001) and GS 7 (3.64 vs. 2.58, p = 0.0001) patients. Conclusions: NLR was found to differ with regard to histology of prostate biopsy and higher GS was associated with higher NLR in patients with prostate cancer. However prostatitis prevents the use of NLR in predicting prostate cancer before a prostate biopsy. Also, the retrospective nature and lack of multivariate analysis in this study somewhat limits the relevance of these results. PMID:26600880

  7. Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosed by Bronchoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Jung, Sang-Ok; Cho, Min-Ji; Kang, Da-Hyun; Chung, Chae-Uk; Park, Dong-Il; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from mesothelial surfaces of the pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, tunica vaginalis, or pericardium. Typically, pleural fluid cytology or closed pleural biopsy, surgical intervention (video thoracoscopic biopsy or open thoracotomy) is conducted to obtain pleural tissue specimens. However, endobronchial lesions are rarely seen and cases diagnosed from bronchoscopic biopsy are also rarely reported. We reported the case of a 77-year-old male who was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma on bronchoscopic biopsy from obstructing masses of the endobronchial lesion. PMID:26175790

  8. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  9. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  10. Diagnostic needle muscle biopsy. A practical and reliable alternative to open biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Heckmatt, J Z; Moosa, A; Hutson, C; Maunder-Sewry, C A; Dubowitz, V

    1984-01-01

    The technique of needle muscle biopsy using the Bergstr m needle has been in routine use in our muscle clinic since 1978. In an initial feasibility study 24 children had a needle and an open biopsy performed simultaneously through extension of the same incision and 22 had identical interpretation of the needle and open biopsies. Needle biopsies have subsequently been performed in 674 children and have been satisfactory for diagnostic assessment in 656. The samples have been of adequate size and comparable in quality to our previous open biopsies, with good preservation and orientation. Needle muscle biopsy under local anaesthetic is quicker and less traumatic than open biopsy and leaves only a very small scar. Sufficient muscle can be obtained for routine histological, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic diagnosis, as well as for specialised biochemical and research purposes. There seems little justification for the continued use of open biopsy for routine investigation of neuromuscular disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6742872

  11. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  13. Asymptomatic large extracapsular renal pseudoaneurysm following kidney transplant biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maite; Villacorta, Javier; Jiménez-Alvaro, Sara; Quereda, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Vascular complications after kidney biopsy include hematomas, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of these complications, and color Doppler scan is effective at distinguishing among them. We describe a transplant patient who underwent percutaneous kidney biopsy in whom echography performed after biopsy showed a pulsatile hypoechoic perinephric mass of 4.4 cm. This collection illuminated with color Doppler and connected to the transplant. Color Doppler scanning of the mass showed high-velocity turbulent flow within the cavity and a jet of blood from an intrarenal segmental artery. A typical pattern biphasic flow ("to-and-fro" waveform) at the pseudoaneurysm neck on color Doppler confirmed the diagnosis of postbiopsy pseudoaneurysm. Pseudoaneurysms usually are asymptomatic, but when they cause clinical signs or risk rupture, interventional treatment is required. Supraselective coil embolization of the artery feeding the pseudoaneurysm was performed successfully in our patient. Pseudoaneurysm can mimic renal cysts on gray-scale ultrasound. We suggest that Doppler sonography be performed in cystic areas detected after biopsy to exclude pseudoaneurysm. PMID:21184923

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-02-01

    Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication.All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann-Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants.We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing "medullary tissue only" were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk).In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  16. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann–Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants. We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing “medullary tissue only” were susceptible to complications (P < 0.001, 1.8 of relative risk). In modern era, this study demonstrates the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications. PMID:26871853

  17. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  19. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  20. Tailed bacteriophages: the order caudovirales.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, H W

    1998-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages have a common origin and constitute an order with three families, named Caudovirales. Their structured tail is unique. Tailed phages share a series of high-level taxonomic properties and show many facultative features that are unique or rare in viruses, for example, tail appendages and unusual bases. They share with other viruses, especially herpesviruses, elements of morphogenesis and life-style that are attributed to convergent evolution. Tailed phages present three types of lysogeny, exemplified by phages lambda, Mu, and P1. Lysogeny appears as a secondary property acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Amino acid sequence alignments (notably of DNA polymerases, integrases, and peptidoglycan hydrolases) indicate frequent events of horizontal gene transfer in tailed phages. Common capsid and tail proteins have not been detected. Tailed phages possibly evolved from small protein shells with a few genes sufficient for some basal level of productive infection. This early stage can no longer be traced. At one point, this precursor phage became perfected. Some of its features were perfect enough to be transmitted until today. It is tempting to list major present-day properties of tailed phages in the past tense to construct a tentative history of these viruses: 1. Tailed phages originated in the early Precambrian, long before eukaryotes and their viruses. 2. The ur-tailed phage, already a quite evolved virus, had an icosahedral head of about 60 nm in diameter and a long non-contractile tail with sixfold symmetry. The capsid contained a single molecule of dsDNA of about 50 kb, and the tail was probably provided with a fixation apparatus. Head and tail were held together by a connector. a. The particle contained no lipids, was heavier than most viruses to come, and had a high DNA content proportional to its capsid size (about 50%). b. Most of its DNA coded for structural proteins. Morphopoietic genes clustered at one end of the genome, with head genes preceding tail genes. Lytic enzymes were probably coded for. A part of the phage genome was nonessential and possibly bacterial. Were tailed phages general transductants since the beginning? 3. The virus infected its host from the outside, injecting its DNA. Replication involved transcription in several waves and formation of DNA concatemers. Novel phages were released by burst of the infected cell after lysis of host membranes by a peptidoglycan hydrolase (and a holin?). a. Capsids were assembled from a starting point, the connector, and around a scaffold. They underwent an elaborate maturation process involving protein cleavage and capsid expansion. Heads and tails were assembled separately and joined later. b. The DNA was cut to size and entered preformed capsids by a headful mechanism. 4. Subsequently, tailed phages diversified by: a. Evolving contractile or short tails and elongated heads. b. Exchanging genes or gene fragments with other phages. c. Becoming temperate by acquiring an integrase-excisionase complex, plasmid parts, or transposons. d. Acquiring DNA and RNA polymerases and other replication enzymes. e. Exchanging lysin genes with their hosts. f. Losing the ability to form concatemers as a consequence of acquiring transposons (Mu) or proteinprimed DNA polymerases (phi 29). Present-day tailed phages appear as chimeras, but their monophyletic origin is still inscribed in their morphology, genome structure, and replication strategy. It may also be evident in the three-dimensional structure of capsid and tail proteins. It is unlikely to be found in amino acid sequences because constitutive proteins must be so old that relationships were obliterated and most or all replication-, lysogeny-, and lysis-related proteins appear to have been borrowed. However, the sum of tailed phage properties and behavior is so characteristic that tailed phages cannot be confused with other viruses. PMID:9891587

  1. Peroral small-intestinal biopsy: experience with the hydraulic multiple biopsy instrument in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, B B; Losowsky, M S

    1976-01-01

    Experience of the peroral, hydraulic, multiple, small-bowel biopsy instrument is recorded and compared with reported experience of other peroral biopsy instruments. It is concluded that, in routine clinical practice, there is no particular danger associated with this instrument despite warnings to the contrary. Furthermore, biopsies are obtained at least as quickly as with other instruments and with great reliability. Since this instrument also enables multiple, precisely located biopsies to be taken from various levels of the small intestine, it could be considered the instrument of choice for peroral jejunal biopsy. PMID:1086269

  2. Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

  3. Hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for optical biopsy.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhaojun; An, Ran; Hayward, Joseph E; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin

    2013-09-01

    A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrument is developed to study endogenous fluorophores in biological tissue as an optical biopsy tool. This instrument is able to spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolve fluorescence signal, thus providing multidimensional information to assist clinical tissue diagnosis. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is used to realize rapid wavelength switch, and a photomultiplier tube and a high-speed digitizer are used to collect the time-resolved fluorescence decay at each wavelength in real time. The performance of this instrument has been characterized and validated on fluorescence tissue phantoms and fresh porcine skin specimens. This dual-arm AOTF design achieves high spectral throughput while allowing microsecond nonsequential, random wavelength switching, which is highly desirable for time-critical applications. In the results reported here, a motorized scanning stage is used to realize spatial scanning for two-dimensional images, while a rapid beam steering technique is feasible and being developed in an ongoing project. PMID:24002188

  4. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be done to collect a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as a stem cell transplant ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). continue Preparation After the procedure is explained and all of ...

  5. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be done to collect a bone marrow sample for procedures (such as stem cell transplantation ) or other testing (such as chromosomal analysis). continue Preparation After the procedure is explained and all of ...

  6. Molecular profile of liquid biopsies: next generation biomarkers to improve lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Molecular profiling of liquid biopsies is now emerging as pivotal for cancer biomarker discovery. The low-invasive nature of the approach used for collecting biospecimens (i.e. blood, urine, saliva, etc.) may allow a widespread application of novel molecular diagnostics based on liquid biopsies. This is relevant, for example, in cancer screening programmes where it is essential to reduce costs and the complexity of screening tests in order to increase study compliance and effectiveness. Here, I discuss recent advances in biomarkers for the early cancer detection and prediction of chemotherapy response based on the molecular profiling of liquid biopsies. PMID:26635902

  7. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  8. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  9. Facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Chant, H

    2014-01-01

    Temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard investigation of giant cell arteritis and is recommended in suspected cases despite a sensitivity of 81–91%. This review highlights the potential risk of facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy and introduces recent advances in the emerging role of imaging modalities. When these non-invasive techniques are used in conjunction with American College of Rheumatology scoring, which includes clinical features and biochemical test results, temporal artery biopsy may be avoided in selected cases. PMID:24780014

  10. Ultrasound guided synovial biopsy of the wrist.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, R M; van Dalen, A; Bijlsma, J W

    1997-01-01

    Seven patients (4 female and 3 male, mean age 46) with arthritis of the wrist (n = 7) without known etiology were evaluated. High-definition ultrasound equipment was used for localization of synovial hypertrophy, suitable for ultrasound guided biopsy without risk. A 18-gauge diameter Tru-cut biopsy needle was used in an automated gun. Two passes were performed with continuous guidance of the needle-tip. In all patients representative synovial tissue was obtained in adequate amount. No complications were encountered. Ultrasound guided biopsy is proposed as an effective technique which can be performed with low patient discomfort on an outpatient basis. PMID:9225877

  11. Stereofluoroscopic image-guided robotic biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Minyan; Liu, Hong; Tao, Gang; Fajardo, Laurie L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the key techniques of a stereo- fluoroscopic image-guided robotic biopsy system: 3D position reconstruction, 3D path planning, path registration and robot trajectory control with safety considerations. This system automatically adjusts the needle inserting path according to a real-time 3D position error feedback. This system is particularly applicable to the soft tissue and organ biopsy, with advantages of increased accuracy, short completion time and minimum invasiveness to the patient. Simulation shows the safety and accuracy of this robotic biopsy system.

  12. Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

    2014-10-01

    Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

  13. Diagnosis of asbestosis by needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Walton, M.; Skeoch, T.

    1968-01-01

    Nine patients from Teesside who had asbestosis are briefly described. In seven of them a needle biopsy was made to confirm the diagnosis. The advantages of the procedure, using the Jack needle (Smith, 1964a), are discussed. Images PMID:5680241

  14. For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast conditions: Not all lumps are cancer For Women Facing a Breast Biopsy Mary’s doctor calls to ... of Use State Fundraising Notices Site Comments Better Business Bureau Health On The Net National Health Council © ...

  15. Hepatitis C Transmission after Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferhi, Karim; Rouprêt, Morgan; Mozer, Pierre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Haertig, Alain; de La Taille, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is a current and well-codified procedure; antibiotic prophylaxis and rectal enema limit the risk of infection. To date, there has been no reported viral transmission between patients due to a contaminated ultrasound probe. In this study, we report the case of a patient who contracted the hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer. PMID:23533934

  16. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  17. Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

    2013-02-01

    Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

  18. The relationship of GH and LEP gene polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in fat-tailed Makooei breed of Iranian sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hajihosseinlo, Abbas; Jafari, Shoja; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the association of GH and LEP genes’ single-nucleotide polymorphisms with fat-tail measurements (fat-tail dimensions) in Makooei sheep. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from whole blood samples collected from 100 sheep. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were collected at the Makooei Sheep Breeding Station in Makoo (36°, 35′S and 48°, 22′E) of West Azerbaijan province. Climatically, this location has temperate summers and cold winters and receives a mean annual rainfall of about 400 mm. Ewes are raised in an annual breeding cycle starting in September. In general, the flock is managed under a semi-migratory system. Results: In the tested Makooei sheep population, significant statistical results were found in all traits of fat-tail measurements for GH and LEP genes. Individuals with the G4, L4 genotype of GH and LEP genes had lower tail length (rump length), fat thickness (the thick rump), and tail width (rump width) when compared to those of individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that individuals with the G5, L5 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail length (rump length) and fat thickness (the thick rump) compared to those individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Individuals with the G2, L2 genotype of GH and LEP genes had superiority of tail width (rump width) compared individuals with other genotypes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results confirmed potential usefulness of GH and LEP genes in marker-assisted selection programs of sheep breeding. PMID:26605211

  19. Skin Biopsy Techniques for the Internist

    PubMed Central

    Alguire, Patrick C; Mathes, Barbara M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review three commonly performed skin biopsy procedures: shave, punch, and excision. DATA SOURCES English-language articles identified through a MEDLINE search (1966 –1997) using the MeSH headings skin and biopsy, major dermatology and primary care textbooks, and cross-references. STUDY SELECTION Articles that reviewed the indications, contraindications, choice of procedure, surgical technique, specimen handling, and wound care. DATA EXTRACTION Information was manually extracted from all selected articles and texts; emphasis was placed on information relevant to internal medicine physicians who want to learn skin biopsy techniques. DATA SYNTHESIS Shave biopsies require the least experience and time but are limited to superficial, nonpigmented lesions. Punch biopsies are simple to perform, have few complications, and if small, can heal without suturing. Closing the wound with unbraided nylon on a C-17 needle will enhance the cosmetic result but requires more expertise and time. Elliptical excisions are ideal for removing large or deep lesions, provide abundant material for many studies, and can be curative for a number of conditions, but require the greatest amount of time, expertise, and office resources. Elliptical excisions can be closed with unbraided nylon using a CE-3 or FS-3 needle in thick skin or a P-3 needle on the face. All specimens should be submitted in a labeled container with a brief clinical description and working diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Skin biopsies are an essential technique in the management of skin diseases and can enhance the dermatologic care rendered by internists. PMID:9462495

  20. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  1. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values within 1 day. Milk composition and SCC were affected transiently. Increased milking frequency did not influence udder health. Post-biopsy recovery was rapid and the procedure proved effective without damaging the cows' health. PMID:26567715

  2. Efficient utilization of washery tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadov, V.V.; Litmanovich, I.M.

    1982-05-01

    The possibility of building a plant in Makeevka for the utilization of jigging machine tailings from the Yasinovka and Makeevka Coke Works washeries for production of lightweight concrete fillers and wall materials is being investigated.

  3. Theseus Tail Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  4. Harmonics optical biopsy of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Shih-Peng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chu, Shi-Wei; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Liao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-04-01

    Traditional biopsy requires the removal, fixation, and staining of tissues from the human body. Its procedure is invasive and painful. Therefore, a novel method of optical biopsy is desired which can perform in vivo examination and is noninvasive, highly penetrative, with no energy deposition and damage, without invasive pharmaceutical injection, and with three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability and sub-micron spatial resolution. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) is previously applied for biopsy of skin due to its high lateral resolution, low out-of-focus damage, and intrinsic 3D section capability. However, for future clinical applications without surgery, current 700-850 nm based laser scanning technology still presents several limitations including low penetration depth, in-focus cell damages, multi-photon phototoxicity due to high optical intensity in the 800 nm wavelength region, and toxicity if exogenous fluorescence markers were required. Here we demonstrate a novel noninvasive optical biopsy method called harmonics optical biopsy (HOB), which combines both second harmonic generation imaging and third harmonic generation imaging. Due to virtual transition nature of harmonic generations and based on light sources with an optical wavelength located around the biological penetration window (~1300nm), our HOB can serve as a truly non-invasive biopsy tool with sub-micron three-dimensional spatial resolution without any energy deposition and exogenous contrast agents. From preliminary experiment result, our HOB can reconstruct 3D cellular and subcellular images from skin surface through dermis. Besides, by utilizing backward propagating detection geometry, we will show that this technique is ideal for non-invasive clinical biopsy of human skin diseases and even useful for the early diagnosis of skin cancer symptom such as the angiogenesis.

  5. Stage Determination of Breast Cancer Biopsy Using Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Aguiñaga-Serrano, B. I.; Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.; Oceguera-Villanueva, A.

    2011-08-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze biopsy biochemistry and hence distinguish between the breast cancer stages was investigated. The biopsy samples were obtained from 13 patients who were clinically diagnosed with breast cancer. A preliminary diagnosis of some breast cancer patient was realized by pathologist of the Cancer Institute. The biopsies were put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at a Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the breast cancer stages of biopsies can be discriminated when the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is applied to their Raman spectra. Ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be an excellent technique for stage determination of breast cancer.

  6. Raman spectroscopy: a real-time tool for identifying microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core needle biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, A.; Barman, I.; Dingari, N. C.; McGee, S.; Volynskaya, Z.; Galindo, L. H.; Liu, W.; Plecha, D.; Klein, N.; Dasari, R. R.; Fitzmaurice, M.

    2011-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. We present here a Raman spectroscopic tool for detecting microcalcifications in breast tissue based on their chemical composition. We collected ex vivo Raman spectra from 159 tissue sites in fresh stereotactic breast needle biopsies from 33 patients, including 54 normal sites, 75 lesions with microcalcifications and 30 lesions without microcalcifications. Application of our Raman technique resulted in a positive predictive value of 97% for detecting microcalcifications. This study shows that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to detect microcalcifications during stereotactic breast core biopsies and provide real-time feedback to radiologists, thus reducing non-diagnostic and false negative biopsies. PMID:22025985

  7. Clinical Validation of an Epigenetic Assay to Predict Negative Histopathological Results in Repeat Prostate Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Partin, Alan W.; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A.; Marks, Leonard S.; Gee, Jason R.; Troyer, Dean A.; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J. Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lance, Raymond S.; Bigley, Joseph W.; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. Materials and Methods We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. Results The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85–91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60–4.51). Conclusions The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. PMID:24747657

  8. Technical note: a technique for multiple liver biopsies in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K S; Merchen, N R; Erdman, J W; Drackley, J K; Orias, F; Douglas, G N; Huhn, J C

    2000-09-01

    Our objective was to develop a rapid and safe liver biopsy technique that could be repeated on multiple occasions in individual neonatal calves. A pilot study was performed to verify the efficacy of sedation and restraint procedures and to evaluate different biopsy instruments. Following the pilot experiment, a biopsy trocar was fabricated and an experiment was conducted using this procedure. Liver biopsies were performed in neonatal calves on d 4, 9, 15, 21, and 28 of life to evaluate the effect of vitamin A intake on liver vitamin A concentrations. On these days, a single injection of ceftiofur sodium was administered i.m. 1 to 2 h prior to the procedure. Calves were lightly sedated with xylazine and placed on a surgical table in left-lateral recumbency. The right caudo-thoracic area was clipped and scrubbed with an iodophor agent. Following administration of a local anesthetic (lidocaine), a small incision was made in the skin between the 12th and 13th ribs approximately 15 cm from the dorsal midline. The biopsy trocar was inserted through the body wall and peritoneum and introduced into the liver parenchyma, and a liver sample was collected. Following the biopsy, the cutaneous incision was sutured and an antiseptic agent was applied to prevent infection. An i.m. injection of an analgesic was administered 1 h following the procedure to alleviate postsurgical discomfort. Most calves were able to stand within 2 h after the biopsy. The entire procedure, which could be performed by a single individual, usually required about 20 min from initial sedation until skin closure. Although liver samples of up to 500 mg were obtained, most samples weighed 75 to 150 mg (wet weight). A total of 156 liver biopsies were performed on 33 calves. Complications due to the biopsy procedure were observed in only two calves. Therefore, this procedure can be useful for studies designed to monitor changes in liver composition or enzyme activities over time. PMID:10985422

  9. Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in planning transthoracic CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions. Methods Thirteen patients with lung lesions suspicious for malignancy underwent CT-guided biopsy. Chest DW-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation were performed to aid biopsy planning with fused images. MRI was indicated due to large heterogeneous masses, association with lung atelectasis/consolidation/necrosis, and/or divergent results of other biopsy type and histopathology versus clinical/radiological suspicion. Eight patients underwent PET/CT to identify appropriate areas for biopsy. Results Mean patient (n = 9 males) age was 59 (range, 30 to 78) years. Based on DW-MRI results, biopsies targeted the most suspicious areas within lesions. All biopsied areas showed higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs (mean, 0.79 (range, 0.54 to 1.2) × 10−3 mm2/s), suggesting high cellularity. In patients who underwent PET/CT, areas with higher 18-fluorodeoxyglucose concentrations (standard uptake value mean, 7.7 (range, 3.6 to 13.7)) corresponded to areas of higher DW signal intensity and lower ADCs. All biopsies yielded adequate material for histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions Functional imaging is useful for lung biopsy planning. DW-MRI and PET/CT increase overall performance and enable the collection of adequate material for specific diagnosis. PMID:25012544

  10. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite. PMID:23428178

  11. Open rib biopsy guided by radionuclide technique

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.; Magoun, S.; Dillon, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    When abnormally increased radioactivity is seen in a rib or ribs by bone imaging in a patient with suspected or known malignancy, it frequently is difficult to differentiate fracture from metastatic disease. Histological examination of the lesion is crucial for diagnosis, staging, and planning of therapy. To assess the value of external localization of the site or sites of abnormal uptake in a rib as a guide for open rib biopsy, 10 patients (7 men, 3 women; age range, 34 to 68 years) with known or suspected malignancy were studied. With reference to the oscilloscope image, a cobalt 57 marker was placed on the skin overlying the focus of increased uptake, and the area of increased activity was marked on the skin as a guide to surgical resection. Of ten resected ribs, four showed metastatic disease and five had fractures. (One patient underwent two external marking procedures and two surgical procedures.) Rib biopsy was not performed in 1 patient because prior to the surgical procedure, a small subcutaneous nodule adjacent to the skin marker was excised and confirmed to be carcinoma. Appropriate courses of management (operation, irradiation, chemotherapy) were taken after the biopsies. The surgeon responsible for the biopsy should be present during the skin-marking procedure, and the area beneath the scapula and the region adjacent to the spine should be avoided. Our results indicate that the technique is a very useful aid for approaching open rib biopsies more precisely.

  12. Is extended and saturation biopsy necessary?

    PubMed

    Scattoni, Vincenzo; Maccagnano, Carmen; Zanni, Giuseppe; Angiolilli, Diego; Raber, Marco; Roscigno, Marco; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Prostate biopsy (PBx) techniques have significantly changed since the original Hodge's 'sextant scheme', which should now be considered obsolete. The feasibility of carrying out a biopsy scheme with a high number of cores in an outpatient setting is a result of the great improvement and efficacy of local anesthesia. Peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine injection should be considered the 'gold standard' because it provides the best pain relief to patients undergoing PBx. The optimal extended protocol should now include the sextant template with an additional 4-6 cores directed laterally (anterior horn) to the base and medially to the apex. Saturation biopsies (i.e. template with > or = 20 cores, including transition zone) should be carried out only when biopsies are repeated in patients where there is a high suspicion of prostate cancer. Complementary imaging methods (such as color- and power-Doppler imaging, with or without contrast enhancement, and elastography) could be used in order to increase the accuracy of biopsy and reduce the number of unnecessary procedures. Nevertheless, the routine use of these methods is still under evaluation. PMID:20415706

  13. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

  14. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  15. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. PMID:25132483

  16. Renal Biopsy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Eugenia; Agraz, Irene; Ibernon, Meritxell; Ramos, Natalia; Fort, Joan; Serón, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The majority of diabetic patients with renal involvement are not biopsied. Studies evaluating histological findings in renal biopsies performed in diabetic patients have shown that approximately one third of the cases will show pure diabetic nephropathy, one third a non-diabetic condition and another third will show diabetic nephropathy with a superimposed disease. Early diagnosis of treatable non-diabetic diseases in diabetic patients is important to ameliorate renal prognosis. The publication of the International Consensus Document for the classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has provided common criteria for the classification of diabetic nephropathy and its utility to stratify risk for renal failure has already been demonstrated in different retrospective studies. The availability of new drugs with the potential to modify the natural history of diabetic nephropathy has raised the question whether renal biopsies may allow a better design of clinical trials aimed to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. PMID:26239461

  17. A snail in the long tail: a new Plekocheilus species collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Amphibulimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S. H.; Araujo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among the historical collection gathered by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ during 1862–1865, type material was found of one of the species described on the basis of the material collected shortly afterwards. Inspection of the types revealed that only one specimen may be considered as type material of Bulimus aristaceus Crosse, 1869; this specimen is now designated as the lectotype. The other specimens are described as a new species, Plekocheilus (Plekocheilus) cecepeus. PMID:26312021

  18. Human feasibility study of fluorescence spectroscopy guided optical biopsy needle for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Werahera, Priya N; Jasion, Edward A; Liu, Yongjun; Daily, John W; Arangua, Paul; Jones, Clifford; Nash, S Russell; Morrell, Michael; Crawford, E David

    2015-08-01

    Current prostate biopsy cores have a very low diagnostic yield. These biopsies often fail to diagnose prostate cancer since 90% of cores are histopathologically classified as benign. The concentrations of endogenous fluorophores in prostate tissue vary with disease states. Thus, fluorescence spectroscopy could be utilized to quantify these variations for identification of malignant lesions. We investigated clinical feasibility of a 14 gauge (1.98 mm) optical biopsy needle guided by fluorescence spectroscopy for real-time in vivo prostate cancer diagnosis. Built-in optical sensor has 8×100μm fibers for tissue excitation and a single 200μm fiber to collect spectral data. Custom-made fluorometer has 2 light-emitting diodes at 290 and 340 nm and a spectrometer. User interface for fluorometer operation and data collection was developed using LabView software. Each spectral data acquisition required ~2 seconds. The in vivo biopsies were performed during radical retropubic prostatectomy surgery on the exposed prostate with blood flow to the gland intact. A tissue biopsy core was obtained from each biopsy site after acquisition of spectral data. Above procedure was repeated ex vivo after surgical excision of the prostate. Biopsy cores were histopathologically classified as either benign or malignant and correlated with corresponding spectral data. Partial Least Square analysis was performed to determine diagnostically significant principal components as potential classifiers. A linear support vector machine and leave-one-out cross validation method was employed for tissue classification. Thirteen patients were consented to the study. Histopathological analysis found cancer in 29/208 in vivo and 51/224 ex vivo viable biopsy cores. Study results show 72% sensitivity, 66% specificity, and 93% negative predictive value for in vivo and 75%, 80%, and 93%, respectively, for ex vivo malignant versus benign prostatic tissue classification. Optical biopsy needle has a very high negative predictive value to indicate benign tissue while sufficient sensitivity for targeting areas suspicious for cancer within the prostate gland. Hence, the optical biopsy needle can increase the diagnostic yield of prostate biopsies with consequent improvement in patient care. PMID:26737991

  19. Best way to perform a punch biopsy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Gutiérrez Mendoza, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Nail punch biopsy is used to obtain a tissue sample for the diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases. The best results will be possible if the surgeon is familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the nail apparatus. A punch biopsy can be used in all regions of the nail apparatus in the presence or absence of nail plate. When the procedure is performed with a careful handling of the anatomic site and specimen, in most cases a successful diagnosis can be achieved. PMID:25828717

  20. Transjugular Liver Biopsy: A Review of 77 Biopsies Using a Spring-Propelled Cutting Needle (Biopsy Gun)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorriz, Elias; Reyes, Ricardo; Lobrano, Mary Beth; Pulido-Duque, Juan M.; San Roman, Jose L.; Lonjedo, Elena; Ferral, Hector; Maynar, Manuel

    1996-11-15

    Seventy-seven transjugular liver biopsies were performed with a coaxial, spring-loaded, 18-gauge cutting needle, the Biopty gun (Bard Biopsy System, Covington, GA, USA) on consecutive patients between July 1993 and February 1995. Fifty men and 27 women were included in the study; the mean age was 45 years (range 15-69 years). The average number of punctures per patient was 5.2, with a range of 2-9, yielding an average of 4.8 samples per patient (range 1-7). The length of the samples varied from 10 to 22 mm with a constant diameter of 1 mm. The mean time required to complete the procedure was 48 min (43-52 min). Histological diagnoses were obtained in 74 of 77 patients (96%), with non-diagnostic specimens attributed to excessive fragmentation (3 cases). Complications occurred in 10 patients (puncture site hematoma, carotid artery puncture, abdominal pain, vasovagal reaction, hepatic capsule perforation, and hemobilia). The latter two complications were self-limited. In our experience this transjugular hepatic biopsy method is promising for performing biopsies in patients with chronic liver disease, due to its high success rate and low morbidity rate.

  1. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ASSEMBLAGE A GIARDIA IN WHITE-TAILED DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from hunter killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a managed hunt in a central Maryland county. Fecal samples were cleaned of debris and concentrated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and stained with MerIFluor reagents. Stained samples were exami...

  3. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  4. Short-term prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin in extended 16-core prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Chambó, Renato Caretta; Tsuji, Fábio Hissachi; Yamamoto, Hamilton Akihissa; de Jesus, Carlos Márcio Nóbrega

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety, efficacy and possible complications of 16-core transrectal prostate biopsies using two doses of ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of infectious complications. Materials and Methods Sixteen-core prostate biopsies were performed on a number of patients with different signs of potential prostate cancer. Complications were assessed both during the procedure and one week later. After the procedure, urine samples were collected for culture. The rate of post-biopsy complications, hospital visits and hospitalizations were also analyzed. Ciprofloxacin (500 mg) was administered two hours before, and eight hours after the procedure. Results The overall rate of post-biopsy complications was 87.32%, being 5.4% of those considered major complications due to hemorrhage, or to urinary retention. Eight patients required hospital treatment post-biopsy. Fever occurred in just one patient (0.29%). There was no incidence of orchitis, epididymitis, prostatitis, septicemia, hospitalization, or death. The urine culture showed positive results in five patients (2.15%). Conclusion One-day prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin proved to be safe and effective in the prevention of infectious complications following 16-core prostate biopsies. PMID:25928510

  5. A Structured Assessment to Decrease the Amount of Inconclusive Endometrial Biopsies in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Visser, N. C. M.; van Hanegem, N.; van der Wurff, A. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; van Doorn, H. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Timmermans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether structured assessment of outpatient endometrial biopsies decreases the number of inconclusive samples. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Single hospital pathology laboratory. Population. Endometrial biopsy samples of 66 women with postmenopausal bleeding, collected during the usual diagnostic work-up and assessed as insufficient for a reliable histological diagnosis. Methods. Endometrial biopsy samples were requested from the pathology laboratories. The retrieved samples were systematically reassessed by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology. Main Outcome Measure. Disagreement between initial assessment and conclusion after structured reassessment. Results. We retrieved 36 of 66 endometrial biopsy samples from six different pathology laboratories. Structured reassessment of the retrieved samples by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology did not change the conclusion in 35 of the 36 samples. The remaining sample contained a large amount of endometrial tissue and the diagnosis at reassessment was endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All other samples contained insufficient material for a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion. A structured reassessment of endometrial biopsies samples, which were classified as inconclusive due to insufficient material, did not change the conclusion. Although it might be helpful for pathologists to have diagnostic criteria for adequacy and/or inadequacy of an endometrial biopsy sample, the gain in efficiency is likely to be small. PMID:27034826

  6. Core biopsies of the breast: diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Megha; Reddy, Sriharshan J; Nanavidekar, Manjiri; Russo, John P; Russo, Armand V; Pathak, Ram

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In this review article, the authors compare and contrast the incidence of breast cancer, and the inherent differences in the United States (US) and India in screening techniques used for diagnosing breast cancer. In spite of these differences, core biopsies of the breast are common for diagnosis of breast cancer in both countries. The authors describe "Best Practices" in the reporting and processing of core biopsies and in the analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2/neu). The pitfalls in the diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast on core biopsy are discussed, as also the significance of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast (PASH) is discussed in core biopsy. In this review, the management and diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and radiation atypia are elaborated and the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in papillary lesions, phyllodes tumor, and complex sclerosing lesions (radial scars) is illustrated. Rarer lesions such as mucinous and histiocytoid carcinoma are also discussed. PMID:22234089

  7. Percutaneous needle biopsy and synovial histology.

    PubMed

    Saaibi, D L; Schumacher, H R

    1996-08-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsies of synovium are successfully used for diagnosis and investigation of joint disease by an increasing number of groups around the world. This procedure can be done in the office with little morbidity; a large number of samples can minimize the potential limitation of sampling error. Clinical indications for 'imaging the joint' by looking at morphological and other features of the actual tissue include undiagnosed acute or chronic mono- or oligoarthritis, haemarthrosis, suspected deposition diseases, new developments in previous stable disease and less often unexplained polyarthritis. Research into any joint disease can be helped by study of synovium especially using newer immunohistochemical, EM and molecular techniques. This report has reviewed other methods used for obtaining synovium, described the different percutaneous biopsy needles, detailed the methods used for biopsy with the Parker-Pearson needle and described how our group handles tissue so as to obtain maximal impact. The very few side effects of needle biopsy include haemarthrosis and, rarely, needle breakage. Finally, we have provided a brief overview of normal synovium and some aspects of synovium in a variety of joint diseases. PMID:8876958

  8. [Liver biopsy in surgery of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Eggert, A; Becker, J; Kopf, R; Hartmann, V

    1984-05-01

    Biopsy of the liver with the menghini needle was done as a routine diagnostic procedure during surgery in 581 cases. During earlier decades morphological changes of the liver could be demonstrated by that procedure in 80-100% of the patients. In contrast such changes could be found only in 55% of our cases; in 5,5% these changes were severe. From these numbers it should be concluded that liver biopsy during gall bladder surgery is not necessary as a routine procedure. If patients are selected for biopsy on the basis of history, ultrasonography, laboratory data and intraoperative microscopical liver findings this procedure is necessary only in 14% of the cases, complication rate being 0,09%. In this particularly selected group changes of the liver can be found in 90,4%, severe changes in 33% of the cases. Pathological changes of the liver are likely to occur in 65-91% of patients with complicated gall stone disease and/or accompanying diseases like diabetes, obesitas, alcoholism, or a history of hepatitis. In this particular group biopsy and histological examination during surgery seem to be indicated as it was the case before. PMID:6738291

  9. Clinical aspects of sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cody, H S

    2001-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy requires validation by a backup axillary dissection in a defined series of cases before becoming standard practice, to establish individual and institutional success rates and the frequency of false negative results. At least 90% success in finding the SLN with no more than 5-10% false negative results is a reasonable goal for surgeons and institutions learning the technique. A combination of isotope and dye to map the SLN is probably superior to either method used alone, yet a wide variety of technical variations in the procedure have produced a striking similarity of results. Most breast cancer patients are suitable for SLN biopsy, and the large majority reported to date has had clinical stage T1-2N0 invasive breast cancers. SLN biopsy will play a growing role in patients having prophylactic mastectomy, and in those with 'high-risk' duct carcinoma in situ, microinvasive cancers, T3 disease, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SLN biopsy for the first time makes enhanced pathologic analysis of lymph nodes logistically feasible, at once allowing greater staging accuracy and less morbidity than standard methods. Retrospective data suggest that micrometastases identified in this way are prognostically significant, and prospective clinical trials now accruing promise a definitive answer to this issue. PMID:11250755

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Horenblas, Simon

    2012-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a fairly new technique that is becoming the standard of care for regional lymph node staging of many solid tumors. This technique is based on the hypothesis of stepwise distribution of malignant cells in the lymphatic system. The absence of tumor cells in the first lymph node(s) in the lymphatic drainage of a tumor would indicate the absence of further spread in the regional lymph node basin(s). Therefore, this first lymph node is the guardian (sentinel) of the regional lymph node basin. To localize the sentinel node preoperatively, lymphoscintigraphy is usually performed after intradermal peritumoral injections of colloid particles labeled with technetium-99m. The tracer is transported through the lymphatic channels to the first draining nodes in the groins and is visible on the lymphoscintigram as hot spots. The main advantage of SLN biopsy in penile cancer is to decrease the treatment-related morbidity without compromising the survival benefit for the patient. Recent figures indicate a false-negative rate of 7%, with a complication rate of less than 5% for SLN biopsy. In conclusion, sentinel node biopsy of patients with penile cancer has evolved into a highly reliable procedure enabling the detection of lymph node invasion at the earliest possible time with minimal morbidity. With this technology at hand, which minimizes the treatment-related morbidity, there is hardly any place for standard lymphadenectomy in penile cancer patients. PMID:22641958

  11. Performance feedback in a spine biopsy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Cleary, Kevin R.

    1998-06-01

    A surgical simulator for needle biopsy of the spine is being developed in the Radiology Department at Georgetown University Medical Center to assist in learning the procedure as well as to maximize accuracy and efficiency. Spine biopsies are often done under computed tomography (CT) guidance and while this technique is effective, it can be time consuming since the biopsy needle must be advanced slowly and its position checked several times to ensure vital organs are not damaged. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback tot eh surgeon as well as the design engineers. Quantifying performance during simulation will allow accurate feedback to the surgeon as well as the design engineers. Performance measures are also important to determine transfer of simulator training skills to actual surgical skills. The simulation protocol is in advanced development, and the steps include selecting the best CT slice for viewing the lesion, choosing the skin entry point, and advancing the needle to the biopsy location. Our methods for developing the system include the following: 1) A task analysis, which produces a detailed list of tasks needed to complete a goal, their order, and time to completion, 2) A function allocation assessment, which identifies critical task components with the goal of relieving the human workload by a reallocation of system functions, and 3) A simulator evaluation through subjective ratings and objective human performance measures.

  12. Biopsy with thermally-responsive untethered microtools

    PubMed Central

    Gultepe, Evin; Randhawa, Jatinder S.; Kadam, Sachin; Yamanaka, Sumitaka; Selaru, Florin M.; Shin, Eun J.; Kalloo, Anthony N.

    2013-01-01

    Thermally activated, untethered μ-grippers can reach narrow conduits in the body and be used to excise tissue for diagnostic analyses. As depicted in the figure, we show the feasibility of an in vivo biopsy of the porcine bile duct using untethered μ-grippers. PMID:23047708

  13. Perforation from endoscopic small bowel biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, B; Holmes, G

    1993-01-01

    Two patients, having undergone an apparently straightforward endoscopy with small bowel biopsy, developed a perforation. One, who proved to have normal small bowel mucosa, needed laparotomy and suturing of the duodenal perforation. The other, who had coeliac disease, settled with conservative management. PMID:8432444

  14. Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing image-guided core-needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Harter, Josephine M.; Zhu, Changfang; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-01-01

    We describe a side-firing fiber optic sensor based on near-infrared spectroscopy for guiding core needle biopsy diagnosis of breast cancer. The sensor is composed of three side firing optical fibers (two source fibers and one detection fiber), providing two source-detector separations. The entire assembly is inserted into a core biopsy needle, allowing for sampling to occur at the biopsy site. A multi-wavelength frequency-domain near-infrared instrument is used to collect diffuse reflectance in the breast tissue through an aperture on the biopsy needle before the tissue is removed for histology. Preliminary in vivo measurements performed on 10 normal or benign breast tissues from 5 women undergoing stereo- or ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy show the ability of the system to determine tissue optical properties and constituent concentrations, which are correlated with breast tissue composition derived from histopathology. PMID:19547057

  15. Sedoanalgesia With Midazolam and Fentanyl Citrate Controls Probe Pain During Prostate Biopsy by Transrectal Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Fábio Hissachi; Chambó, Renato Caretta; Agostinho, Aparecido Donizeti; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the pain intensity of patients administered midazolam and fentanyl citrate before undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This was a study in patients with different indications for prostate biopsy in whom 5 mg of midazolam and 50 µg of fentanyl citrate was administered intravenously 3 minutes before the procedure. After biopsy, pain was assessed by use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) in three stages: VAS 1, during probe introduction; VAS 2, during needle penetration into prostate tissue; and VAS 3, in the weeks following the exam. Pain intensity at these different times was tested with stratification by age, race, education, prostate volume, rebiopsy, and anxiety before biopsy. Pain was ranked according to the following scores: 0 (no pain), 1-3 (mild pain), 4-7 (moderate pain), and 8-10 (severe pain). Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon two-tailed tests with a significance of 5%. Results Pain intensity was not influenced by any risk factors. The mean VAS 1 score was 1.95±1.98, the mean VAS 2 score was 2.73±2.55, and the mean VAS 3 score was 0.3±0.9, showing greater pain at the time of needle penetration than in other situations (VAS 2>VAS 1>VAS 3, p=0.0013, p=0.0001, respectively). Seventy-five percent of patients reported a VAS pain scale of less than 3.1 or mild pain. Conclusions Intravenous sedation and analgesia with midazolam and fentanyl citrate is a good method for reducing pain caused by prostate biopsy, even during probe insertion. PMID:24578806

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Adam B.; Nyame, Yaw; Martin, Iman K.; Catalona, William J.; Hollowell, Courtney M.P.; Nadler, Robert B.; Kozlowski, James M.; Perry, Kent T.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kittles, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between vitamin D and prostate biopsy outcomes has not been evaluated. We examine serum vitamin D levels with prostate biopsy results in men with abnormal PSA and/or digital rectal examination. Experimental Design Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) was obtained from 667 men, age 40-79, prospectively enrolled from Chicago urology clinics undergoing first prostate biopsy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between 25-OH D status and incident prostate cancer (PCa), Gleason score, and tumor stage. Results Among European American (EA) men, there was an association of 25-OH D < 12 ng/ml with higher Gleason score ≥ 4+4 (OR = 3.66 [1.41, 9.50], p = 0.008) and tumor stage (stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a, OR = 2.42 [1.14, 5.10], p = 0.008). In African American (AA) men, we find increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy with 25-OH D < 20 ng/ml (OR = 2.43 [1.20, 4.94], p = 0.01). AA men demonstrated an association between 25-OH D < 12ng/ml and Gleason ≥ 4+4 (OR = 4.89 [1.59, 15.07]; p = 0.006). There was an association with tumor stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a (OR: 4.22, [1.52 – 11.74], p = 0.003). Conclusions In AA men, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy. In both EA and AA men, severe deficiency was positively associated with higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. PMID:24789033

  17. Responses to tail docking in calves and heifers.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, D A; Ruegg, P L

    2002-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42 d of age. Preparturient heifers (n = 24) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) tails were cleaned and handled; 2) tails were cleaned, handled, and an elastrator band was applied to the tail; 3) an epidural was administered 15 min before cleaning and handling; and 4) an epidural was administered 15 min before application of an elastrator band. Behavioral observations and physiological responses were collected for 6 wk. Additionally, behavioral responses to tail banding were recorded for 10 d on Holstein heifer calves that were 1 to 6 wk of age (n = 40). No significant differences in behavior were observed among treatment groups of preparturient heifers at any time during the 6-wk observation period. Preweaned calves that were 21 to 42 d of age demonstrated significantly more restlessness after application of tail bands compared to younger calves or control calves of the same age. Plasma cortisol values of preparturient heifers remained within limits previously described for nonstressed animals and no significant differences were detected among groups. Hematological values remained within the reference values for cattle, and there were no significant differences between groups except for relatively more eosinophils in the heifers that received epidurals. No significant differences in heart rate or body temperature were detected among groups. PMID:12512602

  18. Comparison of echocardiography-guided and fluoroscopy-guided endomyocardial biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of bioptome placement for endomyocardial biopsy was evaluated using standard fluoroscopic guidance and compared simultaneously with two-dimensional echocardiography in six healthy subadult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Despite perceived adequate positioning of the bioptome toward the septum when judged using fluoroscopy, only one out of the six placements were actually positioned in the right ventricular apex toward the septum when evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography. The bioptome was readily relocated to the right ventricular apex/septal location by echocardiography. The forceps were easily visualized at all times and the open cups were readily directed into the desired location for biopsy. Based on a subjective score for tissue quantity from 1 to 4 (poor to excellent), biopsies collected by echocardiographic-guided technique had a mean score of 3.4, while biopsies collected by fluoroscopic-guided technique had a mean score of 1.8. In summary, this study suggests that endomyocardial biopsy locations can be accurately positioned using two-dimensional echocardiography with the advantages of less radiation, lower procedural costs, and direct visualization of the sampling site. Clear definition of endocardial surface as afforded by echocardiography may enhance tissue sample quality and lower potential complications from this procedure. PMID:15869156

  19. Image-Guided Percutaneous Splenic Biopsy and Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Jennifer; Twomey, Maria; Crush, Lee; Maher, Michael M.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous splenic biopsy and drainage are relatively safe and accurate procedures. The risk of major complication (1.3%) following percutaneous splenic biopsy does not exceed that of other solid intra-abdominal organ biopsies, and it has less morbidity and mortality than splenectomy. Both computed tomography and ultrasound can be used to provide image guidance for biopsy and drainage. The safety profile of fine-needle aspiration cytology is better than core needle biopsy, but core biopsy has superior diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24293803

  20. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression and amplification in endoscopic biopsies and resection specimens in esophageal and junctional adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Hagen, P; Biermann, K; Boers, J E; Stoss, O; Sleddens, H F; van Lanschot, J J B; Dinjens, W N M; Rueschoff, J; Wijnhoven, B P L

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Frequently, biopsy material is used for evaluation of HER2 status. The aim of the study was to determine if HER2 expression in preoperative endoscopic biopsies is representative for the entire tumor. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies and matched resection specimens were collected from 75 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) on HER2 and dual-color in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed. HER2 status was determined by following a clinical algorithm, first determining HER2 overexpression on immunohistochemistry and, when equivocal (2+), determining HER2 amplification on ISH. Seventy-one of 75 (95%) biopsies and 69/75 (92%) resection specimens could be analyzed due to technical failure. HER2 positivity was seen in 18/71 (25%) biopsies and in 15/69 (22%) resection specimens. Overall, HER2 status in the biopsy was concordant with HER2 status in the resection specimen in 94% of cases. Interobserver agreement on IHC scoring for all three observers was 83% in biopsies and 85% in resection specimens. HER2 positivity was detected in 22% of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Although interobserver agreement was moderate, HER2 status of a primary tumor can be reliably determined based on the endoscopically obtained pretreatment biopsy. PMID:24611982

  1. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  2. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North America fluctuate temporally and spatially. We also reviewed methods used to investigate jackrabbit populations, including spotlight line transects, flushing transects, drive counts, pellet plot counts, collections, roadside counts, mark-recapture studies, and radio-telemetry studies. Our review of jackrabbit literature illustrates a number of deficiencies in our understanding of jackrabbits in general. As an example, a detailed quantitative description of habitat preferences is lacking, as is a thorough understanding of sympatric jackrabbit species interactions. Even the existence of the oft-cited jackrabbit “cycle” is a matter of debate. Survey methods generally do not address efficacy or accuracy in measuring jackrabbit density or abundance. In addition, there is a paucity of information about jackrabbits in the Mojave Desert, with no real understanding of home ranges, habitat preferences, and population dynamics or demographics in this region.

  3. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  4. Conjunctival biopsy in adult form galactosialidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Usui, T; Sawaguchi, S; Abe, H; Iwata, K; Oyanagi, K

    1993-01-01

    Conjunctival biopsy was performed in two siblings with adult-form galactosialidosis. Electron microscopically, several types of intracytoplasmic inclusion were observed in the fibroblasts in conjunctival stroma, lymphatic capillary endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and epithelial cells. Membrane-bound vesicles with fibrillogranular content were frequently observed, and occasional lamellar structures were noted in these inclusions. Dense granular inclusions and oil droplets were also seen. Dense granular inclusions have not been reported in this disease previously. Images PMID:8384473

  5. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  6. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-03-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time.

  7. [Neuromuscular biopsy and diagnosis of vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Vital, Anne; Vital, Claude

    2006-09-01

    One characteristic histological lesion on biopsy specimens is mandatory to establish the diagnosis of vasculitis. Combined nerve and muscle biopsies, by the same cutaneous incision, improve significantly the percentage of positive results. Nerve fragments should be taken in every patient presenting sensory manifestations. Such vasculitic lesions are present in medium-sized arterioles and/or small vessels, and correspond mainly to 4 necrotizing vasculitis: panarteritis nodosa (PAN), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg and Strauss syndrome and Wegener granulomatosis. Microvasculitis should be added to these classical entities, because it corresponds to small vessel wall infiltration by inflammatory cells, as observed in PAN and MPA, but without any necrosis. Microvasculitis has to be differentiated from the inflammatory cell infiltrates surrounding small vessels. However, such perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates enable the diagnosis of probable vasculitis when associated with clusters of neo-vessels, hemosiderin deposits, or a focal damage of nerve fibers. Grossly, one third of vasculitis diagnosis is confirmed on muscle fragments, a second third on nerve fragments, and the last third on both nerve and muscle fragments. Moreover, in the search for vasculitis, an unpredicted diagnosis of lymphoma or amyloidosis is occasionally established on the neuro-muscular biopsy. PMID:17128151

  8. Microbial colonization of normal skin: Direct visualization of 194 skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Anika C; Alexeyev, Oleg A

    2016-04-01

    Recent genetic studies have suggested the presence of numerous microbial species on and in the skin. We characterised microbial colonization of a large collection of skin biopsies from 194 healthy subjects by fluorescence assay. Forty per cent of all biopsies did not show any evidence for microbial colonization. Propionibacterium acnes was the sole predominant bacterial species in both sebaceous and non-sebaceous areas. Non- P. acnes species were present in approximately 30% of all colonized samples. . Only hair follicles and stratum corneum were colonized. Understanding of cutaneous microbiota requires validation from a variety of approaches and techniques. PMID:26655456

  9. 14 CFR 29.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail rotor. 29.1565 Section 29.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1565 Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal daylight...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail rotor. 29.1565 Section 29.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1565 Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal daylight...

  13. Differential gene expression between the embryonic tail bud and regenerating larval tail in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takuji; Taniguchi, Yuka; Tazaki, Akira; Ueno, Naoto; Watanabe, Kenji; Mochii, Makoto

    2004-02-01

    The regeneration of the amputated tail of Xenopus laevis larvae is an excellent model system for regeneration research. The wound left by the amputated tail is covered with epidermis within 24 h. Then, the cell number increases near the amputation plane at the notochord, spinal cord and muscle regions. An apparently complete tail with notochord, muscle and spinal cord is regenerated within two weeks. To reveal whether the molecular mechanism underlying the tail regeneration is the same as that in embryonic tail development, the gene expression patterns of the embryonic tail bud and the regenerating tail were compared by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Most genes analyzed were expressed at similar levels in both tissues, whereas two bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-antagonists, chordin and noggin, were detected only in the embryonic tail bud. The regenerating tail also lacked expression of Xshh in the floor plate and expression of Xdelta-1 in the spinal cord and presomitic mesoderm. These results show that there are some differences in gene expression between the two processes. Furthermore, when the tail of Xenopus larvae is amputated, the regenerating tail has a gene expression pattern similar to the distal portion of the larval tail rather than the embryonic tail bud, suggesting that the cut larval tail does not make a new embryonic tail bud, but rather a new larval tail tip for regeneration. PMID:15008858

  14. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  15. 21 CFR 878.4755 - Absorbable lung biopsy plug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable lung biopsy plug. 878.4755 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4755 Absorbable lung biopsy plug. (a) Identification. A preformed (polymerized) absorbable lung biopsy plug is intended to...

  16. A New Apparatus for Standardized Rat Kidney Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney. PMID:25506931

  17. Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) Guided Suction Catheter-Biopsy in Histological Diagnosis of Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Carapic, Vladimir; Kovacevic, Tomi; Stojanovic, Goran; Panjkovic, Milana; Kioumis, Ioannis; Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Stratakos, Grigoris; Tsavlis, Drosos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sachpekidis, Nikos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Perin, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Background: EBUS guided trans-bronchial biopsy became routine in diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). Suction catheter-biopsy is a technique for obtaining a tissue sample from peripheral lung parenchyma. Aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic efficiency, feasibility and safety of EBUS guided suction catheter-biopsy (SCB) in comparison to trans-bronchial biopsy (TBB) in diagnosis of PPL. The main intention was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the technique over trans-bronchial biopsy, especially when used under navigation of the EBUS. Methods: Radial EBUS probe (UM-3R, Olympus Co, Japan.) without guiding sheath was used to navigate suction catheter and TBB forceps to the PPL. The catheter was connected to the collection canister via vacuum pump. The SCB specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Results: There were 168 patients enrolled in this study; 69.9% males and 30.1% females. Main lesion diameter was 4.1±1.9 cm. Majority of patients, 131(77.9%) were diagnosed with lung cancer. Per-biopsy calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for EBUS-SCB were 92.4%, 100%, 100% and 67.7%, respectively. Corresponding values for EBUS-TBB were 92.3%, 100%, 100% and 69.7%. Only the size of the lesion significantly influenced (p=0.005) diagnostic performance. Complications occurred in 2 patients; one pneumothorax and one excessive bleeding. Conclusion: EBUS guided SCB is efficient, feasible and safe in diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. The technique is complementary to trans-bronchial biopsy. PMID:26722354

  18. Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Latkovich, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

  19. A biopsy procedure for determining filet and predicting whole-fish mercury concentration.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S A; Van Sickle, J; Hughes, R M; Schacher, J A; Echols, S F

    2005-01-01

    Although mercury contamination of fish is a widespread phenomenon, its regional evaluation is hindered by the reluctance of permitting agencies to grant collection permits, problems in securing adequate freezer space, and time to process whole, large fish or filets. We evaluated mercury concentrations in 210 filet biopsies from 65 sites in 12 western states relative to whole-body mercury concentration in the same fish. We found a highly significant relationship (r(2) = 0.96) between biopsy and whole-fish mercury concentrations for 13 piscivorous and nonpiscivorous fish species. We concluded that relative to conventional fish-tissue sampling and analysis procedures for whole fish or filets, the biopsy procedure for mercury in fish tissue is nonlethal, less cumbersome, more likely to be permitted by fisheries agencies, and a precise and accurate means for determining both filet and whole-fish mercury concentrations. PMID:15657811

  20. A diagnostic paradigm for resectable liver lesions: to biopsy or not to biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Adrian B; Welsh, Fenella K S; Rees, Myrddin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of evidence reporting the deleterious mechanical and oncological complications of biopsy of hepatic malignancy, a small but significant number of patients undergo the procedure prior to specialist surgical referral. Biopsy has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and advances in modern imaging modalities provide equivalent, or better, diagnostic accuracy. Methods: The literature relating to needle-tract seeding of primary and secondary liver cancers was reviewed. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for case reports and series relating to the oncological complications of biopsy of liver malignancies. Current non-invasive diagnostic modalities are reviewed and their diagnostic accuracy presented. Results: Biopsy of malignant liver lesions has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and does not confer any diagnostic advantage over a combination of non-invasive imaging techniques and serum tumour markers. Conclusions: Given that chemotherapeutic advances now often permit downstaging and subsequent resection of ‘unresectable’ disease, the time has come to abandon biopsy of solid lesions outside the setting of a specialist multi-disciplinary team meeting (MDT). PMID:20495704

  1. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-08-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  2. Solitary Osteochondroma in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Katharine L; Boedeker, Nancy C; Gordon, Sebastian S; Walsh, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old, male, ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) presented with a large, firm mass on the proximal caudolateral left femur. The animal displayed no clinical signs associated with the mass. Radiographs revealed a mineralized mass protruding from the femur, with an intact femoral cortex. Histopathology diagnosed osteochondroma in view of the presence of a peripheral layer of cartilage with progressive endochondral ossification and typical remodeling of bony trabeculae. The mass grew quickly after the initial biopsy, and a second surgery to debulk 95% of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic features of the larger samples were similar to those of the initial biopsies, with the cartilage layer being discontinuous and development of bone from some borders progressing directly from a periost-like layer. Nineteen months after the second surgery, the mass had regrown and extended further proximally on the femur toward the epiphysis, but the animal remained asymptomatic, and additional debulking was not attempted. This report is the first description of an osteochondroma in a prosimian and describes unique behavior of the tumor compared with osteochondromas found in humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:26310465

  3. Tidal Tails of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2002-06-01

    We present N-body simulations of globular clusters including gravitational field of the Galaxy, in order to study effects of tidal field systematically on the shape of outer parts of globular clusters using NBODY6. The Galaxy is assumed to be composed of central bulge and outer halo. We investigate the cluster of multi-mass models with a power-law initial mass function (IMF) starting with different initial masses, initial number of particles, different slopes of the IMF and different orbits of the cluster. We have examined the general evolution of the clusters, the shape of outer parts of the clusters, density profiles and the direction of tidal tails. The density profiles appear to become somewhat shallower just outside the tidal boundary consistent with some observed data. The position angle of the tidal tail depends on the location in the Galaxy as well as the direction of the motion of clusters. We found that the clusters become more elongated at the apogalacticon than at the perigalacticon. The tidal tails may be used to trace the orbital paths of globular clusters.

  4. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  5. What Makes a Tidal Tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

  6. Comet Tails of Type 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probstein, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of a theory for the head and tail regions of Type 2 (dust) comets, wherein dust particles having a wide distribution of sizes are assumed to be released from the comet nucleus in an essentially continuous manner in time during the period of distinctive cometary phenomena. The dust particles are assumed to be accelerated radially outward from the nucleus as a result of a drag interaction with the expanding gas in the comet head. In the tail region the only significant forces assumed to act on the dust particles are solar gravity and the force of solar radiation pressure. It is shown how results describing the surface density in the tail are obtained and how by matching calculated distributions with measured ones it is possible to determine the dust and head-gas emission rates as a function of time, the distribution of dust particle sizes, and the emission velocity from the inner head region as a function of particle size and time. The results of matching calculated density distributions with light intensity measurements from Comet Arend-Roland 1956h are summarized.

  7. Comparison of Swabbing and Biopsy for Studying the Flora of the Bovine Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Messier, S.; Higgins, R.; Couture, Y.; Morin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of uterine biopsy as a sampling procedure for bacteriological examination, and to assess the importance of obligate anaerobes in the bovine uterus. The aerobic and anaerobic uterine flora of cows with postpartum metritis, cows in postpartum period without metritis and repeat-breeder cows was examined by using swab and biopsy sampling techniques. Obligate anaerobes were isolated in all the 11 cows with postpartum metritis and in three of the five normal cows. No obligate anaerobes were isolated from the six repeatbreeder cows. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the number of bacterial isolates obtained from samples collected by biopsy and by swabbing. A total of 72 isolates was obtained with the biopsies compared to 48 by swabbing. Obligate anaerobes make up an important part of the postpartum uterine bacterial flora, and it seems that in some instances uterine biopsy would be more satisfactory than swabbing for bacteriological examination of the uterus. PMID:17422427

  8. Seeding of the Rectus Sheath with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Image Guided Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Using Coaxial Biopsy Needle System

    PubMed Central

    Tchatalbachev, Vladislav V.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel L.; Duff, Deiter J.; Travis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Needle track seeding following image guided needle biopsy is a known but uncommon complication in the workup of hepatocellular carcinoma. We present the case of a 55 year-old male who was found to have a recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in the rectus sheath five years following a CT guided biopsy with the biopsy needle passing through the anterior abdominal wall muscles. PMID:25926917

  9. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  10. Real time MRI-ultrasound image guided stereotactic prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Irving; Oldenburg, Nicklas E; Meskell, Paul; Blake, Michael; Church, Paul; Holupka, Edward J

    2002-04-01

    To report a technique for target directed transperineal ultrasound guided biopsy using high resolution endorectal MRI images Ultrasound fusion. Two patients presented after external beam irradiation for prostate cancer with a rising PSA. An Endorectal MRI using a 1.5 Tesla scanner was obtained. Subsequently a Transrectal Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed. The Ultrasound probe was fixed to a stepper-stabilizer to provide a reference coordinate system for stereotaxic needle biopsy needle placement. The MRI image set was fused to the Ultrasound images in real time. Abnormal areas determined in the MR images were targeted for biopsy. Recurrent prostate carcinoma was detected pathologically in 3 of 4 stereotactic biopsies. Abnormal areas suspicious for cancer detected on T1 weighted images obtained in a strong field Endorectal MRI scan can be targeted for stereotactic biopsy using Transrectal Ultrasound. This image guide technique may be very useful in directing biopsies. PMID:12117612

  11. Microcomputer use in an oral biopsy service.

    PubMed

    Rankin, K V; Jones, D L

    1986-04-01

    The need for rapid and accurate retrieval of the data generated by an oral biopsy service and the adjacent medical center was met with the purchase and programming of a microcomputer and hard disk drive. The planning phase involved an assessment of the needs of the department, creation of an ideal form to be displayed on the video screen that can be easily used to enter the information, selection of coding systems, and selection of compatible hardware and software. Customized in-house programming using a commercially available database management system has created an entry form and menu-driven information retrieval system tailored to the needs of the department. PMID:3458147

  12. Preprostate Biopsy Rectal Culture and Postbiopsy Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Aisha Khalali; Murphy, Adam Bryant

    2015-11-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSP) remains the primary procedure for the accurate histologic diagnosis of prostate cancer. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are still recommended as the agents of choice for antimicrobial prophylaxis for TRUSP despite the alarming increasing incidence of FQ-resistant organisms among men undergoing TRUSP. This article reviews the current TRUSP antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines, antimicrobial resistance and its implications for these guidelines, the incidence of post-TRUSP infectious complications including urosepsis, the seminal data supporting pre-TRUSP rectal swab (RS), RS technique and protocol, and the current available literature surrounding the efficacy of RS in reducing post-TRUSP infectious complications. PMID:26475942

  13. Perineural Invasion in Prostate Cancer Is More Frequently Detected by Multiparametric MRI Targeted Biopsy Compared With Standard Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Gordetsky, Jennifer B; Nix, Jeffrey W; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-04-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) incorporates high-resolution imaging to aid in the detection of lesions suspicious for prostate cancer (PCa). MP-MRI and MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy has been shown to detect more clinically significant PCa. However, to date there have been no studies in fusion-guided biopsies evaluating the detection of perineural invasion. We assessed whether MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsies diagnosed more perineural invasion compared with standard techniques. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database evaluating men who underwent MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy between January 2014 and June 2015. Patients underwent MP-MRI followed by 12-core standard biopsy and fusion-guided biopsies of MRI-identified lesions. Patients' clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. A total of 114 patients underwent both 12-core standard biopsy and MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy. The mean age and prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen of our patient cohort was 64.5 years and 10.7 ng/mL, respectively. Sixty-four of 114 (56%) patients were found to have PCa. Perineural invasion was identified in 19/64 (30%) patients. Of the patients with perineural invasion, 9 were diagnosed on the fusion biopsy only, 2 were diagnosed on standard biopsy only, and 8 were diagnosed on both standard and fusion biopsies. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with higher prostate-specific antigen and with a higher number of cores involved by cancer (P<0.05). Compared with standard biopsy, MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy improves detection of perineural invasion in PCa. As perineural invasion has only been studied on standard biopsies to date, it is unclear whether this finding has the same clinical significance for MP-MRI targeted lesions. PMID:26523543

  14. Parelaphostrongyliasis in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Banks, S M; Ashley, D C

    2000-07-01

    The heads of 137 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected on the opening day of the 1996 Missouri (USA) fire-arms deer season and surveyed for the presence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Eighteen percent of the deer examined were infected. Mean intensity of infection was 2.0 (range 1-7). There were no significant differences of infection or mean intensity when deer were classified and compared according to sex or age class. PMID:10941746

  15. Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2000-04-01

    Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to alleviate buffet loads were quite intense during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Most of the investigations were carried out on the F/A-18 mainly because of two international programs involving countries that operate the F/A-18 in their air force. This review begins with a description of the water tunnel experiments showing some flow visualization results of the leading-edge extension (LEX) burst vortical flows. Wind tunnel studies on a 1/9 scale F/A-18 model in Australia, a 1/6.65 scale model in the United Kingdom, a 6% scale model in Canada, 12%, 16% and full-scale models in the United States are summarized. Scale effects can be deduced from the various sub- and full-scale models tested. Flight test results conducted on the High Alpha Research Vehicle in the United States and on an instrumented CF-18 test aircraft in Canada are presented. The accuracy of analytical methods utilizing wind tunnel data to predict buffet loads at flight conditions is discussed. The use of CFD to compute vertical fin buffeting is challenging and requires a large amount of computing power. A brief exposure to the methodology is given and results from the only available computational case study carried out by NASA Ames are compared with wind tunnel and flight test data. A short introduction to statistical non-stationary effects is given. Hysteresis effect of the LEX vortex burst on the buffet loads is discussed, and a statistical non-stationary buffet prediction method is outlined. This review provides a useful reference to the results collected from the High Alpha Technology Program, The Technical Cooperation Program and the International Follow-On Structural Test Project which together form an extremely valuable data base for vertical tail buffeting studies.

  16. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, ?). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  17. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Ovine rumen papillae biopsy via oral endoscopy; a rapid and repeatable method for serial sampling

    PubMed Central

    McRae, KM; Schultz, M; Mackintosh, CG; Shackell, GH; Martinez, MF; Knowler, KJ; Williams, M; Ho, C; Elmes, SN; McEwan, JC

    2016-01-01

    Abstract AIMS: To explore and validate the utility of rumen endoscopy for collection of rumen papillae for gene expression measurement. METHODS: Four adult Coopworth ewes were fasted for either 4 or 24 hours. Animals were sedated, placed in a dorsally recumbent position at 45 degrees with the head upright, and an endoscope inserted via a tube inserted into the mouth. Biopsies of rumen papillae were taken from the ventral surface of the rumen atrium under visual guidance. Two biopsies were collected from one of the animals that had been fasted for 4 hours, and three from one of the animals that had been fasted for 24 hours. Video of the rumen atrium and reticulum was also collected. The animals recovered uneventfully. Biopsies were subsequently used for extraction and sequencing of mRNA. RESULTS: The ventral surface of the rumen atrium was accessible after 4 hours off pasture, but a larger region was accessible after 24 hours of fasting. Sedation allowed access for endoscope use for around 5 to 10 minutes after which increased saliva flow was noted. Rumen papillae biopsies were easily collected, with samples from a variety of sites collected in the ∼10 minute time window. High quality RNA was obtained for stranded mRNA sequencing. Of the resulting reads, 69–70% mapped uniquely to version 3.1 of the ovine genome, and 48–49% to a known gene. The rumen mRNA profiles were consistent with a previously reported study. CONCLUSIONS: This method for obtaining rumenal tissue was found to be rapid and resulted in no apparent short or long term effects on the animal. High quality RNA was successfully extracted and amplified from the rumen papillae biopsies, indicating that this technique could be used for future gene expression studies. The use of rumen endoscopy could be extended to collection of a variety of rumen and reticulum anatomical measurements and deposition and retrieval of small sensors from the rumen. Rumen endoscopy offers an attractive and cost effective approach to repeated rumen biopsies compared with serial slaughter or use of cannulated animals. PMID:26642120

  19. Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar Ahad; Wani, M. Afzal; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Shafiq, S.; Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Ashish; Lone, Iqbal; Makhdoomi, Rumana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system.

  20. Consistent and reproducible outcomes of blastocyst biopsy and aneuploidy screening across different biopsy practitioners: a multicentre study involving 2586 embryo biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Cimadomo, Danilo; Maggiulli, Roberta; Patassini, Cristina; Dusi, Ludovica; Sanges, Federica; Buffo, Laura; Venturella, Roberta; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is blastocyst biopsy and quantitative real-time PCR based comprehensive chromosome screening a consistent and reproducible approach across different biopsy practitioners? SUMMARY ANSWER The blastocyst biopsy approach provides highly consistent and reproducible laboratory and clinical outcomes across multiple practitioners from different IVF centres when all of the embryologists received identical training and use similar equipment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Recently there has been a trend towards trophectoderm (TE) biopsy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the reproducibility that can be obtained from multiple biopsy practitioners in different IVF centres in relation also to blastocysts of different morphology. Although it has been demonstrated that biopsy at the blastocyst stage has no impact on embryo viability, it remains a possibility that less experienced individual biopsy practitioners or laboratories performing TE biopsy may affect certain outcomes. We investigated whether TE biopsy practitioners can have an impact on the quality of the genetic test and the subsequent clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This longitudinal cohort study, between April 2013 and December 2014, involved 2586 consecutive blastocyst biopsies performed at three different IVF centres and the analysis of 494 single frozen euploid embryo transfer cycles (FEET). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Seven biopsy practitioners performed the blastocyst biopsies in the study period and quantitative PCR was used for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The same practitioner performed both the biopsy and tubing procedures for each blastocyst they biopsied. To investigate the quality of the biopsied samples, the diagnostic rate, sample-specific concurrence and the cell number retrieved in the biopsy were evaluated for each biopsy operator. Clinical outcomes following FEET cycles were stratified by biopsy operator and compared. Cellularity of the biopsy sample was also correlated with clinical outcomes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The seven practitioners performed 2586 biopsies, five in centre IVF-1 and one in each of the other two IVF centres (IVF-2 and IVF-3). Overall, 2437 out of 2586 (94.2%) blastocyst biopsies resulted in a conclusive diagnosis, 119 (4.6%) showed a nonconcurrent result and 30 (1.2%) failed to amplify, suggesting the absence of TE cells in the test tube or presence of degenerated/lysed cells only. Among the samples producing a conclusive diagnosis, a mean concurrence value of 0.253 (95% CI = 0.250–0.257) was observed. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors showed no differences in the diagnosis rate and in the concurrence of the genetic analysis between different biopsy practitioners. An overall mean number of 7.32 cells (95% CI = 6.82–7.81; range 2–15) were predicted from all biopsies. Higher cellularity was significantly associated with a better quality of the CCS diagnosis (P < 0.01) and with the conclusive diagnosis rate, with nonconcurrent samples showing significantly lower numbers of cells (2.1; 95% CI=1.5–2.7) compared with samples resulting in a conclusive diagnosis (mean cells number 7.5; 95% CI = 7.1–7.9, P < 0.01). However, no differences were recorded between different biopsy practitioners regarding cellularity of the biopsy. Finally, logistic analysis showed no impact of the biopsy practitioners on the observed ongoing rates of implantation, biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriage after the FEET cycles. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data come from a restricted set of laboratories where all of the embryologists received identical training and use identical equipment. A single TE biopsy method and CCS technology was used and these data particularly apply to PGS programmes using blastocyst biopsy without zona opening at the cleavage stage and using qPCR-based CCS. To make firm conclusions on the potential impact of biopsy on biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriages according to practitioner and biopsy cellularity, a larger sample size is needed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS We reported a very high consistency and reproducibility of the blastocyst biopsy approach coupled with qPCR-based CSS for both genetic and clinical outcomes across different practitioners working in different IVF centres when appropriate training is provided and when the same laboratory setting is used. These data are important considering the trend towards the use of blastocyst biopsy worldwide for PGD/PGS applications. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) None. PMID:26637492

  1. Genetic Divesity of Cultivated and Wild Type Peanuts Evaluated with M13-Tailed SSR Markers and Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one peanut genomic SSR markers with a M13-tail attached were used to assess the genetic diversity in the peanut mini core collection, which is maintained by the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (USDA, ARS, PGRCU). The M13-tailed method was effective in discriminating indi...

  2. Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

    2012-12-01

    Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS. PMID:22932120

  3. Prevalence of shigellosis and other enteric pathogens in a zoologic collection of primates.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Sims, R; Sack, D; Montali, R J; Phillips, L; Bush, M

    1993-07-01

    An epidemiologic study of shigellosis was the preliminary step in the formulation of a plan for the control of devastating infectious diseases in nonhuman primates at the National Zoological Park. Data were collected from primate groups with enzootic shigellosis and included the following species: white-cheeked and siamong gibbons (Hylobates concolor and H syndactylies); lion-tailed, celebes, and Barbary macaques (Macaca silenus, M nigera, and M sylvanus); black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guerzea); grey-cheeked mangabeys (Cerecocebus albigena); spider monkeys (Ateles susciceps robusuts); ruffed lemurs (Lemur varrigatus); lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla); and orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). Data included results of physical examination, proctoscopy with biopsy, fecal parasitologic and cytologic examinations, and bacteriologic culturing of swabbed specimens of rectum and gingiva. Repetitive fecal examinations were subsequently performed and included bacteriologic culturing of fecal specimens for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites and cytologic examination of feces. Data were collected for a 1-year period from 82 primates, and 14 gibbons were studied intensively. White-cheeked and siamang gibbons shed Shigella flexneri sporadically, but persistently. All gibbons were affected with a mean point prevalence of 30.7% (range 0 to 71%). Shigella flexneri also was isolated from feces of lion-tailed macaques. Shigella sonnei was isolated from feces of grey-cheeked mangabeys, celebes macaques, and spider monkeys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8407446

  4. Temporal artery biopsy: is there any value in examining biopsies at multiple levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, A; Franks, A

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To analyse the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for examining temporal artery biopsies based on data from cases examined over the past 10 years. Methods—Of a total of 172 temporal artery biopsies, five were unsuitable for further analysis, 47 had already had levels cut, and 120 had levels cut as part of the study. All the biopsies were examined blind before and after levels. A tree with eventual diagnostic outcomes for different strategies was constructed and economic and sensitivity analyses performed. Welcan units were used to assess technical workload. Results—Only one of the 132 initially normal cases and two of 14 diagnosed with periarterial lymphocytic infiltration (PALI) revealed giant cell arteritis after examining the tissue at multiple levels. Fifteen cases (8.9%) showed PALI not previously observed. The marginal cost for each extra case of giant cell arteritis detected was 83.5 Welcan units for a strategy of routine levels on all sections, and 21 Welcan units for a strategy of only cutting levels if PALI was present on the initial section. These costs were sensitive to the frequency of giant cell arteritis in cases with PALI and to the relative extra cost of moving from cutting single section to routine levels. Conclusions—Routinely examining a temporal artery biopsy at multiple levels does not increase the diagnostic yield of the test, although selective further examination may be indicated in some cases. The significance of PALI is uncertain. The cost-benefit of the different strategies in terms of clinical decision making revolve around the perceived risk inherent in not making a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Key Words: temporal artery biopsy • economic analysis • decision analysis PMID:10767829

  5. Tail regeneration in the Xenopus tadpole.

    PubMed

    Mochii, Makoto; Taniguchi, Yuka; Shikata, Isshin

    2007-02-01

    The tail of the Xenopus tadpole contains major axial structures, including a spinal cord, notochord and myotomes, and regenerates within 2 weeks following amputation. The tail regeneration in Xenopus can provide insights into the molecular basis of the regeneration mechanism. The regenerated tail has some differences from the normal tail, including an immature spinal cord and incomplete segmentation of the muscle masses. Lineage analyses have suggested that the tail tissues are reconstructed with lineage-restricted stem cells derived from their own tissues in clear contrast to urodele regeneration, in which multipotent blastema cells derived from differentiated cells play a major role. Comprehensive gene expression analyses resulted in the identification of a panel of genes involved in sequential steps of the regeneration. Manipulation of genes' activities suggested that the tail regeneration is regulated through several major signaling pathways. PMID:17335436

  6. Ion populations in the tail of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Fedorov, A.; Dunjushkin, F.; Kozhukhovsky, A.; Smirnov, V.; Avanov, L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma measurements in the tails of Venus showed the existence of several ion populations. Measurements performed on Venera and Pioneer Venus spacecraft at different planetocentric distances showed the evolution of the plasma parameters along the tail. Low-energy ion fluxes measured in the tail at close downstream distances, are also observed farther downstream, and show low acceleration from 0.5 R(sub V) to 12 R(sub V). High energy ions (energetic O(+) ions) reported from Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observations in the tail at 10-12 R(sub V) seem to be the same ion component that was observed as energetic ions at the tail boundary close to the planet on Venera spacecraft. We give evidence that these ions are accelerated in the narrow shear layer near the tail boundary.

  7. CT-Guided Needle Biopsy of Deep Pelvic Lesions by Extraperitoneal Approach Through Iliopsoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay; Madoff, David C.; Ahrar, Kamran; Morello, Frank A.; Wallace, Michael J.; Murthy, Ravi; Hicks, Marshall E.

    2003-11-15

    We report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided coaxial needle biopsy of deep pelvic lesions by an extraperitoneal approach through the iliopsoas muscle, using a curved needle for difficult-to-reach lesions. We reviewed the records of all patients with pelvic masses who underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy via iliopsoas muscle between January 1999 and December 2001. Direct anterior or posterior approach to the lesion was obstructed by bowel, bladder, vessels, or bones in all patients. An 18-gauge guide needle was advanced through the iliopsoas muscle and a 22-gauge Chiba needle was used to perform the biopsy. A custom-tailored curved 22-g needle was used in 17 procedures when the location of the iliac vessels and the slope of the iliac wing obstructed a straight path to the lesion. Fifty-three patients underwent 57 CT-guided needle biopsies during the study period. The lesions comprised obturator (n = 25), internal iliac (n = 11), anterior external iliac (n = 4), and common iliac nodes (n = 4); soft tissue masses along pelvic side-wall (n = 6); adnexal lesions (n = 5); a loculated fluid collection, and a perirectal node. All lesions were safely accessed, and major vessels and viscera were avoided in all cases. Of the 57 biopsies, 53 (93%) yielded diagnostic specimens. No major complications were encountered. CT-guided coaxial needle biopsy by an anterolateral approach through the iliopsoas muscle, with the use of a curved needle in selected cases is safe and effective for obtaining samples from deep pelvic lesions.

  8. Tail structure of Comet West 1976 VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Iu. V.

    The tail structure of Comet West 1976 VI was investigated using plates obtained during March 9 to 12, 1976. The position of structural details in the plane of the comet orbit and the motion of bands of the type II tail were determined. The solar wind velocity was calculated on the basis of the orientation of the main gas stream. Wavelengths in the type I tail were measured; the mean wavelength decreased gradually from March 9 to March 12.

  9. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  10. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

    2008-03-18

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  11. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.; Blendis, L.; Evans, W.K.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In this group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.

  12. Terror management theory in dermatology: skin biopsy influences patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joonhwan; Jung, You-Hee; Yi, Youjae; Ahn, Hyo Hyun

    2010-05-01

    A skin biopsy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in the dermatology outpatient clinic, but doctors often do not consider the cognitive impact of the biopsy procedure. Based on "terror management theory," we reasoned that a skin biopsy increases patient compliance by unconsciously stimulating mortality salience. To study this hypothesis, trust toward doctors, authoritarian personality, mood, attitude toward recommendations, and intention to accept recommendations were compared be-tween skin biopsy and non-skin biopsy groups of patients. Eighty-three patients participated in the study, and 78 responses were used for the analysis. The results showed that patients who had a skin biopsy had a more positive attitude toward doctors' recommendations and a higher intention to follow the recommendations. These effects were not moderated by the patient's own personality (patient trust and authoritarian personality). The outcome of this study implies that performing a procedure itself can subliminally influence a patient's attitude toward a doctor's recommendations. PMID:20526540

  13. Automated quantitative muscle biopsy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An automated system to aid the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases by producing fiber size histograms utilizing histochemically stained muscle biopsy tissue. Televised images of the microscopic fibers are processed electronically by a multi-microprocessor computer, which isolates, measures, and classifies the fibers and displays the fiber size distribution. The architecture of the multi-microprocessor computer, which is iterated to any required degree of complexity, features a series of individual microprocessors P.sub.n each receiving data from a shared memory M.sub.n-1 and outputing processed data to a separate shared memory M.sub.n+1 under control of a program stored in dedicated memory M.sub.n.

  14. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  15. Liquid Biopsies: Genotyping Circulating Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Genotyping tumor tissue in search of somatic genetic alterations for actionable information has become routine practice in clinical oncology. Although these sequence alterations are highly informative, sampling tumor tissue has significant inherent limitations; tumor tissue is a single snapshot in time, is subject to selection bias resulting from tumor heterogeneity, and can be difficult to obtain. Cell-free fragments of DNA are shed into the bloodstream by cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, and the load of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) correlates with tumor staging and prognosis. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and accuracy of DNA analysis have allowed for genotyping of cfDNA for somatic genomic alterations found in tumors. The ability to detect and quantify tumor mutations has proven effective in tracking tumor dynamics in real time as well as serving as a liquid biopsy that can be used for a variety of clinical and investigational applications not previously possible. PMID:24449238

  16. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  17. Confocal Microscopy in Biopsy Proven Argyrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Akalin, Taner; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the confocal microscopy findings of a 46-year-old male with bilateral biopsy proven argyrosis. Materials and Methods. Besides routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment photography and confocal microscopy with cornea Rostoch module attached to HRT II (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. Findings. Squamous metaplastic changes on conjunctival epithelium and intense highly reflective extracellular punctiform deposits in conjunctival substantia propria were detected. Corneal epithelium was normal. Highly reflective punctiform deposits starting from anterior to mid-stroma and increasing through Descemet's membrane were evident. Corneal endothelium could not be evaluated due to intense stromal deposits. Conclusion. Confocal microscopy not only supports diagnosis in ocular argyrosis, but also demonstrates the intensity of the deposition in these patients. PMID:23970986

  18. Targeted cryotherapy using disposable biopsy punches.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Avitus John Raakesh

    2014-04-01

    Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin. PMID:25136216

  19. Targeted Cryotherapy Using Disposable Biopsy Punches

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Avitus John Raakesh

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin. PMID:25136216

  20. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 μM and a concentrated pocket of 300 μM occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 μM) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

  1. Patient Outcomes in Canceled MRI-Guided Breast Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Niell, Bethany L.; Lee, Janie M.; Johansen, Christopher; Halpern, Elkan F.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The reported frequency of aborted MRI-guided breast biopsies ranges from 8% to 17%, usually secondary to nonvisualization at attempted biopsy. Our study examines the frequency of MRI-guided breast biopsies aborted because of lesion nonvisualization and the subsequent risk of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We identified 350 patients and 445 lesions scheduled for MRI-guided biopsy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2009. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to ascertain patient demographics, lesion and imaging characteristics, and subsequent pathology results. Chi-square statistics were calculated for patient level analyses. RESULTS. MRI-guided biopsies were aborted in 13% (56/445) of lesions and 15% (53/350; 95% CI, 11.6–19.3%) of patients because of nonvisualization of the biopsy target at the time of attempted biopsy. Of these 53 patients, 50 patients had follow-up data available. Malignancy was subsequently diagnosed in five of those 50 patients (10%; 95% CI, 3.3–21.8%) patients, three with invasive ductal carcinomas and two with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean time to malignant diagnosis from the date of aborted biopsy was 2.6 months (range, 1.1–6.9 months). CONCLUSION. Informed consent for MRI-guided breast biopsies should include discussion of biopsy cancellation because of nonvisualization of the target lesion. The low yet significant risk of malignancy in patients subsequent to an aborted MRI-guided breast biopsy warrants short-term follow-up MRI after a canceled biopsy. PMID:24370148

  2. Seven cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after cold biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Alneaimi, Khaled; Abdelmoula, Ali; Vincent, Magalie; Savale, Camille; Baye, Birane; Lesur, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Routine biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract is performed with increasing frequency. It is generally considered to be safe without significant complication. However, gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of cold biopsy is a known complication. We report seven cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after cold biopsy and discuss clinical data, risks factors, severity and management of this event. We suggest that physicians must be more cautious with this rare but potentially severe complication.

  3. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  4. CT-guided transthoracic biopsy: histopathologic results and complication rates

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Aykut Recep; Gözlek, Emel; Yılmaz, Ömer; Kayan, Mustafa; Ünlü, Nisa; Demirtaş, Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and complications of transthoracic CT-guided biopsy techniques. METHODS A total of 94 CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic biopsy procedures performed in 85 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Core biopsy technique was used in 87 procedures and transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy was used in seven procedures. RESULTS Diagnostic results were achieved in 79 of 94 biopsy procedures. Pathology results were malignant in 54 patients, suspicious for malignancy in three patients, benign in five patients, and benign nonspecific in 17 patients. Specific diagnoses were obtained in 59 patients (62.8%) using core biopsy, but no specific diagnosis could be reached with transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Complications included pneumothorax in 27 patients (28.7%) and parenchymal hemorrhage during and after the procedure in eight patients (8.5%). CONCLUSIONS CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy is a highly accurate procedure for histopathological diagnosis of thoracic masses. In addition, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy has an acceptably low complication rate and it reduces the need for more invasive surgical procedures. PMID:25430528

  5. Method to quantify tail vein injection technique in small animals.

    PubMed

    Groman, Ernest V; Reinhardt, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Injection errors, which are often not readily recognized, can greatly impact the outcome of a pre-clinical research study. As a result, unrecognized misadministration of test compounds can render a high cost to the biomedical community. In this report, we propose six criteria for a reagent designed to assess tail vein injection technique in small animals and suggest a reagent, colloidal gold labeled with the stable isotope 197Au, that satisfies these criteria, thereby describing and validating for the first time a method to quantify technical compliance in tail vein injections. In an application of this reagent, we show the degree of variation experienced by technologists performing tail vein injection procedures in mice. In this study, mice were manually restrained and received an injection in the tail vein. One hour after injection, the mice were euthanized, various organs including the tail (the site of the injection) were collected, and their gold content was quantified by neutron activation. The three experienced animal technologists in the study were tested for tail vein injection proficiency in 30 mice. Prior to the study, the supervisor stated that a misinjection occurs when more than 10% of the intended volume remains in the tail. In light of this criterion, 12 of the 30 injections were misadministered: two with technologist 1, three with technologist 2, and seven with technologist 3. Although she was able to correctly rank the injection skills of the three technologists used in this experiment, i.e., technologist 1 and 2 more better skilled than technologist 3, the supervisor greatly underestimated the extent and degree of injection failures for the procedure. The results of the study illustrate the potential problems associated with the technical compliance with this common laboratory procedure and suggest that there is a need to validate injection methods and a need to monitor technical competence. Application of reagents similar to colloidal gold and the methods presented will facilitate the development of improved methods of teaching injection technique and monitoring technical quality in the laboratory setting. In Vivo Micro Computed Tomography of Subchondral Bone in the Rat After Intra-articular Administration of Monosodium Iodoacetate PMID:14984288

  6. Automatic biopsy instruments used through a coaxial bone biopsy system with an eccentric drill tip.

    PubMed

    Aström, K G; Sundström, J C; Lindgren, P G; Ahlström, K H

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive CT (n = 23) or ultrasonographically (n = 5) guided biopsy procedures were performed on musculoskeletal lytic lesions covered (n = 13) or not covered (n = 15) with intact bone. Specimens were obtained by means of Biopty techniques (n = 27), i.e. Biopty and Monopty instruments, through different cannulas with normal or shortened needle-throws. Four out of 5 bone penetrations were successful with an Ostycut needle, and all 8 bone penetrations by a coaxial bone biopsy system with an eccentric drill. The eccentric drill makes a hole in the cortical bone larger than the diameter of the outer cannula of this system, making it easy to anchor the cannula and then coaxially insert a Biopty-Gun needle for example. The overall histopathological diagnostic accuracy of the Biopty techniques was 25/27 (92.6%). PMID:7742114

  7. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  8. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Dust Wind Tails Around Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 32. The Pathfinder lander is at right and is about 9 meters away. Wind tails of dust are clearly seen extending from the left side of many of the small rocks in the foreground. The large rocks on the horizon at left center are the next goal of Sojourner as it continues our exploration of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with needle guide by nephrologists decreases post-biopsy complications

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Shashi; Manjunath, Revanasiddappa; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama; Sharma, Raj K; Gupta, Amit; Lal, Hira; Jain, Manoj; Agrawal, Vinita

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) can result in serious complications. The study is aimed to compare the biopsy yield and complications rate of the real-time ultrasonagram (USG)-guided PRB and needle tracking with and without needle guide in two different study periods. Methods We compared the yield and complications of 2138 kidney biopsies performed in two different periods, 1510 biopsies during the first period from April 2004–December 2010 and 628 biopsies during second period from January 2011–March 2013. All biopsies in both periods were performed by nephrologists. Radiologists provided the real-time image without needle guide during the first period while nephrologists performed both imaging and biopsy with needle guide during the second period. Results Of all the 2138 patients, 226 (10.5%) patients developed 118 minor and 108 major complications. Only 13 (2.1%) major complications occurred in the second period and 95 (6.7%) in the first period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing a major complication without guide was 3.04 times greater than that of the biopsies performed with use of the guide. The mean number of glomeruli per biopsy obtained during the second period (17.98 ± 6.75) was significantly greater than that of the first period (14.14 ± 6.01) (P = 0.004). The number of passes to acquire adequate tissue (P = 0.001) and percentage of cortex on biopsy (P = 0.001) were also significantly better in the second period. The optimal observation period post biopsy is 24 h. Conclusions Real-time USG imaging supported by needle guide device is associated with better biopsy yield and fewer complications. PMID:25815170

  11. Histomorphologic Features of Biopsy Sites Following Excisional and Core Needle Biopsies of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Frazier, Shellaine; Schanzmeyer, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic studies have documented a number of architectural changes occurring around breast biopsy sites. These changes are well described in the radiological literature, but similar studies do not appear to be present in the pathology literature. We reviewed 100 consecutive mastectomy specimens from women who had undergone prior core needle or excisional biopsies. Multiple sections of the needle tract or excisional biopsy site were reviewed and morphologic findings reported. Hemorrhage, fat necrosis, granulation tissue, necrosis of fibrous tissue, and epithelium along with fibrosis and foreign body type giant cells were common features. Less frequent were areas of synovial metaplasia, atypical spindle cells, atypical duct-like structures, single atypical cells, squamous metaplasia, proliferations of abnormal blood vessels, and hemosiderin deposition. The misinterpretation of atypical spindle cells, single atypical cells, atypical duct-like structures and squamous metaplasia could result in the false-positive diagnosis of residual malignancy. Careful attention to the reactive nature of these changes aids in their distinction from carcinoma. PMID:25929243

  12. Deliveries from trophectoderm biopsied, fresh and vitrified blastocysts derived from polar body biopsied, vitrified oocytes.

    PubMed

    Grifo, Jamie; Adler, Alexis; Lee, Hsiao Ling; Morin, Scott J; Smith, Meghan; Lu, Lucy; Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; McCaffrey, Caroline; Berkeley, Alan; Munné, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study reports preliminary findings of six patients who underwent first polar body biopsy followed by oocyte vitrification. All oocytes were warmed, inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured to blastocyst. All suitable blastocysts underwent trophectoderm biopsy for aneuploidy screening, and supernumerary blastocysts were vitrified. Euploid blastocysts were transferred either fresh or in a subsequent programmed cycle. Of the 91 metaphase II oocytes, 30 had euploid first polar bodies. Development to blastocyst was more likely in oocytes with a euploid first polar body (66.7% versus 24.6%; P < 0.001). Nineteen euploid blastocysts were produced: 10 from oocytes with a euploid first polar body and nine from oocytes with an aneuploid first polar body. Five out of six patients (83%) had a live birth or ongoing pregnancy at the time of analysis. Eleven euploid blastocysts have been transferred and seven implanted (64%). Although the chromosomal status of the first polar body was poorly predictive of embryonic ploidy, an association was found between chromosomal status of the first polar body and development to blastocyst. Further study is required to characterize these relationships, but proof of concept is provided that twice biopsied, twice cryopreserved oocytes and embryos can lead to viable pregnancies. PMID:26096028

  13. Isolation and cytokine analysis of lamina propria lymphocytes from mucosal biopsies of the human colon.

    PubMed

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Malter, Lisa B; Chen, Lea Ann; Wolff, Martin J; Robertson, Ian; Rifkin, Daniel B; Poles, Michael; Cho, Ilseug; Loke, P'ng

    2015-06-01

    Much of our understanding of gut-microbial interactions has come from mouse models. Intestinal immunity is complex and a combination of host genetics and environmental factors play a significant role in regulating intestinal immunity. Due to this complexity, no mouse model to date gives a complete and accurate representation of human intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. However, intestinal tissue from patients undergoing bowel resection reflects a condition of severe disease that has failed treatment; hence a more dynamic perspective of varying inflammatory states in IBD could be obtained through the analyses of pinch biopsy material. Here we describe our protocol for analyzing mucosal pinch biopsies collected predominantly during colonoscopies. We have optimized flow cytometry panels to analyze up to 8 cytokines produced by CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as for characterizing nuclear proteins and transcription factors such as Ki67 and Foxp3. Furthermore, we have optimized approaches to analyze the production of cytokines, including TGF-beta from direct ex vivo cultures of pinch biopsies and LPMCs isolated from biopsies. These approaches are part of our workflow to try and understand the role of the gut microbiota in complex and dynamic human intestinal diseases. PMID:25769417

  14. Rare complication after a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a giant retroperitoneal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco; Mirone, Vincenzo; Fedelini, Maurizio; Meccariello, Clemente; Pucci, Luigi; Carrino, Maurizio; Fedelini, Paolo

    2016-05-24

    Common complications related to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostatic needle biopsy are hematuria, hematospermia, and hematochezia. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case of a very large hematoma extending from the pelvis into the retroperitoneal space in literature.A 66-year-old man with a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.4 ng/ml was admitted to our department for a TRUS-guided prostatic needle biopsy. Laboratory values on the day before biopsy, including coagulation studies, were all normal. The patients did not take any anticoagulant drugs. No immediate complications were encountered. Nevertheless, 7 hours after the biopsy, the patient reached our emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain, hypotension, tachycardia, and confusional state. He underwent an ultrasonography and then a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed "a blood collection in the pelvis that extending to the lower pole of left kidney associated with a focus of active contrast extravasation, indicating active ongoing prostate bleeding." Consequently, he underwent a diagnostic angiography that showed no more contrast extravasation, without the need of embolization. Management of hematoma has been conservative and hematoma was completely reabsorbed 4 months later. PMID:26616460

  15. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification. PMID:20132593

  16. Optical biopsy of pre-malignant or degenerative lesions: the role of the inflammatory process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Martinho, Herculano

    2011-03-01

    Recent technological advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have stimulated unprecedented development of optical methods to detect pathological changes in tissues. These methods, collectively termed "optical biopsy," are nondestructive in situ and real-time assays. Optical biopsy techniques as fluorescence spectroscopy, polarized light scattering spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal reflectance microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy had been extensively used to characterize several pathological tissues. In special, Raman spectroscopy technique had been able to probe several biochemical alterations due to pathology development as change in the DNA, glycogen, phospholipid, non-collagenous proteins. All studies claimed that the optical biopsy methods were able to discriminate normal and malignant tissues. However, few studies had been devoted to the discrimination of very common subtle or early pathological states as inflammatory process, which are always present on, e.g., cancer lesion border. In this work we present a systematic comparison of optical biopsy data on several kinds of lesions were inflammatory infiltrates play the role (breast, cervical, and oral lesion). It will be discussed the essential conditions for the optimization of discrimination among normal and alterated states based on statistical analysis.

  17. The role of fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses

    PubMed Central

    Kocaay, Akin Firat; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Sevim, Yusuf; Ozyazici, Sefa; Cetinkaya, Omer Arda; Alic, Kamil Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modern approach to palpable breast masses is to get cytopathologic diagnosis before definitive surgery. We aimed to compare fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with core biopsy in histopathologic diagnosis of palpable breast masses. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 123 women who have suspicious palpable breast masses from 2007 to 2010. Results: Of the 123 patients, core biopsies were performed on 64 patients (Group 1) and FNAC on 59 patients (Group 2). Malignancy was confirmed in 25 out of 32 clinically suspicious patients in Group 1 (78.1%), and 20 out of 21 participants in Group 2 (95.2%). Among the clinically suspicious patients, 81.8% of 33 patients in Group 1, and 90.3% of 31 patients in Group 2 were identified malignancy. Sensitivity was 100% for core biopsy and 95% for FNAC. Specificity was 100% in both procedures. False negativity rate in FNAC were 5%. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity showed that in the case of true histopathologic classification, core biopsy is superior to FNAC. Nevertheless, FNAC's role as a fast, simple and cheap diagnosis cannot be ignored. It is an effective diagnostic tool in most patients, in comparison to the correct and specific typing of core biopsies in benign lesions which protect patients from the open biopsy.

  18. Is magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy better than systematic prostate biopsy? an updated meta- and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xiao; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junyuan; Yu, Yasai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Liu, Ben; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether Magnetic Resonance/Ultrasound (MR/US) fusion prostate biopsy is better than systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared for their ability to detect lesions with different degrees of suspicion on MRI and clinically significant prostate cancer, and the number of cores needed for diagnosis. The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline were searched from inception until May 1, 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.2 software. Data was expressed as risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Fourteen trials were included, encompassing a total of 3105 participants. We found that MR/US fusion biopsy detected more prostate cancers than systematic biopsy (46.9% vs. 44.2%, p=0.03). In men with moderate/high MRI suspicion, MR/US fusion biopsy did better than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.46; p < 0.05) for making a diagnosis. Moreover, MR/US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers than systematic biopsy (RR = 1.19; p < 0.05). We recommend that MR/US fusion prostate biopsy be used to better detect prostate cancer, particularly in patients with moderate/high suspicion lesions on MRI. PMID:26498362

  19. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Margarida; Moreira Freitas, Ana Cristina; Milhazes Freitas, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency.

  20. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations. PMID:24241059

  1. A low background Raman probe for optical biopsy of brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Hutchings, Joanne; Gray, William; Day, John C.

    2014-03-01

    Removal of intrinsic brain tumours is a delicate process, where a high degree of specificity is required to remove all of the tumour tissue without damaging healthy brain. The accuracy of this process can be greatly enhanced by intraoperative guidance. Optical biopsies using Raman spectroscopy are a minimally invasive and lower cost alternative to current guidance methods. A miniature Raman probe for performing optical biopsies of human brain tissue is presented. The probe allows sampling inside a conventional stereotactic brain biopsy system: a needle of length 200mm and inner diameter of 1.8mm. The probe achieves a very low fluorescent background whilst maintaining good collection of Raman signal by employing a miniature stand-off Raman design. To illustrate this, the probe is compared with a Raman probe that uses a pair of optical fibres for collection. The miniature stand-off Raman probe is shown to collect a comparable number of Raman scattered photons, but the fluorescence caused by silica fibres in a Raman needle probe is reduced by a factor of two for Raman shifts under 500 cm-1, and by 30% at 600-700 cm-1. In addition, this design contains only medically approved materials at the distal end. The probe's suitability for use on tissue is demonstrated by discriminating between different types of porcine brain tissue.

  2. Tail suspension increases energy expenditure independently of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, Pei San; Wong, Davie; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Leckstrom, Arnold; Schwartz, Jacquie; Dodd, Janice G; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2009-10-01

    Space travelers experience anorexia and body weight loss in a microgravity environment, and microgravity-like situations cause changes in hypothalamic activity. Hypothalamic melanocortins play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that microgravity affects metabolism through alterations in specific hypothalamic signaling pathways, including melanocortin signaling. To address this hypothesis, the microgravity-like situation was produced by an antiorthostatic tail suspension in wild-type and agouti mice, and the effect of tail suspension on energy expenditure and hypothalamic gene expression was examined. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry before and during the tail suspension protocol. Hypothalamic tissues were collected for gene expression analysis at the end of the 3 h tail suspension period. Tail suspension significantly increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat production in wild-type mice. Tail suspension-induced increases in energy expenditure were not attenuated in agouti mice. Although tail suspension did not alter hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels, it significantly increased hypothalamic interleukin 6 (Il-6) mRNA levels. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that microgravity increases energy expenditure and suggest that these effects are mediated through hypothalamic signaling pathways that are independent of melanocortins, but possibly used by Il-6. PMID:20052010

  3. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring options for reducing the genetic propensity to tail bite. If these various approaches to reduce tail biting are implemented we propose that the need for tail docking will be reduced. PMID:25130712

  4. Prediction of extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer based on needle biopsy findings: perineural invasion lacks significance on multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Egan, A J; Bostwick, D G

    1997-12-01

    Extraprostatic extension (EPE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) are adverse prognostic factors in prostate cancer, and their prediction before prostatectomy would be useful. Perineural invasion in needle biopsy has been advocated as a marker of extraprostatic extension, but its independent value as a predictor of stage has not been established. We studied 349 previously untreated men with prostatic adenocarcinoma who underwent bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and radical retropubic prostatectomy. All patients were clinically free of metastases and had cancer that was diagnosed on needle biopsy. Five preoperative variables were collected: clinical stage (TNM staging system), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score on needle biopsy, presence or absence of perineural invasion, and proportion of the biopsy involved by cancer. The subsequent prostatectomy specimens were completely embedded, and whole mount sections were used to evaluate four outcome staging variables: EPE (absent/present), EPE (absent/unilateral/bilateral), seminal vesicle invasion, and pathologic stage (TNM). On univariate analysis, each preoperative variable was significantly associated with each outcome variable except for a lack of association between clinical stage and SVI. Perineural invasion in the biopsy predicted EPE with a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 70%, positive predictive value of 49%, and negative predictive value of 71%. On multivariate analysis (stepwise logistic regression), only preoperative PSA, proportion of the biopsy involved by cancer, and Gleason score were significant (p < 0.05); perineural invasion and clinical stage had no independent predictive value for any of the outcome variables. We conclude that the finding of perineural invasion in needle biopsy of prostatic carcinoma has no independent predictive value for the presence of extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle involvement, or pathologic stage in the radical prostatectomy. Accordingly, we no longer routinely evaluate this finding in biopsy specimens. PMID:9414194

  5. Incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at a tertiary-care medical center in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Shahait, Mohammed; Degheili, Jad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Tamim, Hani; Nasr, Rami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Urosepsis is a rare but life-threatening complication following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided needle prostate biopsy. Despite the technological and pharmacological improvements, the problem of bacterial urosepsis after prostate biopsy remains. A strategy for preventing urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy in areas with high prevalence of resistant strains or patients presenting risk factors is lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urosepsis, as well its predictors, following TRUS guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a tertiary care medical center in Lebanon. Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective study on all patients who underwent TRUS prostate biopsy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, 2011 and June 31, 2013. Patients’ hospital charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographic information, pre-procedure disease specific information, as well as post-procedure information. Predictors of urosepsis following TRUS were assessed. Results In total, 265 patients were included in this study, where the prevalence of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy was found to be 9.4%. The significant independent predictors of urosepsis were found to be: age with an OR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00, p-value=0.03), and hypertension comorbidity with an OR=3.25 (95% CI: 1.19–8.85, p-value=0.02). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of urosepsis among patients who have undergone TRUS prostate biopsy, and identified two significant risk factors. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing strategies for prevention of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy. PMID:27136468

  6. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

  7. Satellite Tagging and Biopsy Sampling of Killer Whales at Subantarctic Marion Island: Effectiveness, Immediate Reactions and Long-Term Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ryan R.; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D.; de Bruyn, P. J. Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction–defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive–when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following biopsy sampling or tagging. PMID:25375329

  8. Monte Carlo-based tail exponent estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barunik, Jozef; Vacha, Lukas

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to estimation of the tail exponent in financial stock markets. We begin the study with the finite sample behavior of the Hill estimator under α-stable distributions. Using large Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the Hill estimator overestimates the true tail exponent and can hardly be used on samples with small length. Utilizing our results, we introduce a Monte Carlo-based method of estimation for the tail exponent. Our proposed method is not sensitive to the choice of tail size and works well also on small data samples. The new estimator also gives unbiased results with symmetrical confidence intervals. Finally, we demonstrate the power of our estimator on the international world stock market indices. On the two separate periods of 2002-2005 and 2006-2009, we estimate the tail exponent.

  9. The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears gsim350'' (2.5 × 108 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 μm and a combined mass ~3 × 105 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  10. 21 CFR 870.4075 - Endomyocardial biopsy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endomyocardial biopsy device. 870.4075 Section 870.4075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4075 Endomyocardial biopsy device. (a) Identification....

  11. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  12. Spastic paraparesis, abnormal muscle biopsy and positive antithyroid antibodies.

    PubMed

    George, A; Abdurahman, P; James, J

    2007-08-01

    A 35 year old lady presented with progressive spastic paraparesis and hyperintense signals in the spinal cord and brain. She was noted to have high titres of antithyroid antibodies and primary hypothyroidism. Her muscle biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytes around endomysial vessels. We highlight the association of spinal cord involvement and abnormal muscle biopsy in a case of Hashimotos encephalopathy. PMID:18019801

  13. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  14. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-11-16

    This invention relates to a microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures. The advantages include: minimal specimen handling; smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 {mu}m or greater); micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens; low cost; disposable; fabrication process which renders sterile parts; and ease of use. The cutter is a cheese-grater style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate. For automation purposes, microvalves and micropumps may be incorporated. Also, specimens in parallel may be cut and treated with identical or varied chemicals. The instrument is disposable due to its low cost and thus could replace current expensive microtome and histology equipment.

  15. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  16. Quantification, morphology, and viability of equine preantral follicles obtained via the Biopsy Pick-Up method.

    PubMed

    Haag, K T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Fonseca, G R; Wischral, A; Gastal, M O; King, S S; Jones, K L; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2013-03-01

    A Biopsy Pick-Up (BPU) method was tested to determine the feasibility of retrieving preantral follicles from mare ovaries in vivo. A total of 33 ovarian biopsy procedures were performed on 18 mares during the breeding season. Mares were 5 to 21 years old and biopsies were performed during the estrous and/or diestrous phase, as confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography. Follicles were mechanically isolated using a tissue chopper, counted, and classified as normal or abnormal and primordial or primary. Viability of isolated follicles was determined by Trypan Blue dye. A total of 256 biopsy attempts were made resulting in 185 successful tissue sample collections (72% success rate). The mean weight of ovarian tissue collected per procedure was 25.0 ± 1.6 mg. Overall, 620 preantral follicles were collected and isolated (95% primordial and 5% primary). The mean (±SEM) number of follicles isolated per biopsy procedure was 18.8 ± 1.9. Primordial and primary follicles had an average diameter of 31.3 ± 6.2 and 41.1 ± 6.6 μm, respectively. Viability rate was higher (P < 0.001) for primordial follicles (91%) compared with primary follicles (50%). Primordial follicles tended (P < 0.06) to have a higher rate of morphological normality (96%) compared with primary follicles (80%). The total number of follicles isolated, amount of tissue harvested, and number of follicles per mg of tissue did not differ (P > 0.05) according to phase of the estrous cycle. Younger mares (5 to 7 years old) had more (P < 0.05) follicles isolated per procedure than older mares (14 to 21 years old). The length of the interovulatory interval was not affected (P > 0.05) by any biopsy procedure, and there were no adverse effects on cyclicity or general reproductive health. In conclusion, the BPU method provided large numbers of normal and viable preantral follicles for the study of early follicular development in mares. The BPU method might be used in the future to obtain preantral follicles for in vitro culture to enable the use of numerous oocytes present within the equine ovary. This could allow for the preservation of genetic material or large-scale embryo production. PMID:23260865

  17. Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

  18. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  19. The global burden of major infectious complications following prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H Y; Roberts, M J; Doi, S A R; Gardiner, R A

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization. PMID:26645476

  20. New Techniques in Image-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2004-03-15

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy is a well-established and safe technique for obtaining tissue specimens from various regions of the body and plays a crucial role in patient management. Improvements in needle designs, development of new biopsy techniques, and continual advances in image-guidance technology have improved the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Lesions previously considered relatively inaccessible can now be safely biopsied. This review looks at the recent technologic developments in image guidance for percutaneous biopsy procedures. Improvements in needle design and other innovations intended to enhance the diagnostic yield of biopsy specimens are briefly discussed. Also described are some new techniques and unconventional approaches that help provide safe access to difficult-to-reach lesions.

  1. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  2. Diagnosis of Amyloidosis and Differentiation from Chronic, Idiopathic Enterocolitis in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Pig-Tailed (M. nemestrina) Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529

  3. Electric currents in Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian; Song, Bing; Zhao, Min

    2009-11-01

    Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate tail, including spinal cord, after partial amputation, but lose this ability during a specific period around stage 45. They regain this ability after stage 45. What happens during this "refractory period" might hold the key to spinal cord regeneration. We hypothesize that electric currents at amputated stumps play significant roles in tail regeneration. We measured electric current at tail stumps following amputation at different developmental stages. Amputation induced large outward currents leaving the stump. In regenerating stumps of stage 40 tadpoles, a remarkable reversal of the current direction occurred around 12-24 h post-amputation, while non-regenerating stumps of stage 45 tadpole maintained outward currents. This reversal of electric current at tail stumps correlates with whether tails regenerate or not (regenerating stage 40-inward current; non-regenerating stage 45-outward current). Reduction of tail stump current using sodium-free solution decreased the rate of regeneration and percentage regeneration. Fin punch wounds healed normally at stages 45 and 48, and in sodium-free solution, suggesting that the absence of tail re-growth at stage 45 is regeneration-specific rather than a general inhibition of wound healing. These data suggest that electric signals might be one of the key players regulating regeneration. PMID:19733557

  4. Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

  5. Heavy metal localisation in mycorrhizas of Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser (Orchidaceae) from zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, A; Turnau, K; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, J; Przyby?owicz, W; Godzik, B

    2001-01-01

    The metal distribution within mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of Epipactis atrorubens collected from zinc mine tailings and an area rich in heavy metal ores (both located in southern Poland) was investigated. The tailings, consisting of post-flotation material, were characterised by high levels of toxic elements such as Zn, Pb, and Cd, while soil outside the tailings was also strongly enriched in heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission analysis revealed that heavy metals were mostly accumulated within orchid roots. Elemental maps from proton-induced X-ray emission showed that plant root epidermis and fungal coils which had developed within cortical cells of roots collected from the zinc mine tailings were the main places of Zn and Pb accumulation, associated with increased concentrations of Fe, Cd, Ti, Mn, Si, Ca, and S. The mean content of Pb and Zn in the coils was 4 to 5 times higher than in the root epidermis. In mycorrhizal roots from the tailings a statistically significant decrease in Pb and Zn content towards the inside of the root was observed. The mean content of Pb in coils from roots of plants growing outside the tailings was about 1% of the concentration in root coils from the tailings. Coils selected from orchid roots originating from a site outside the tailings contained comparatively high concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Cu, which was probably due to the high content of these elements in the soil. The results presented suggest a biofiltering effect against heavy metals by orchid mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:11770428

  6. Biopsies: next-generation biospecimens for tailoring therapy.

    PubMed

    Basik, Mark; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Rousseau, Caroline; Diaz, Zuanel; Tejpar, Sabine; Spatz, Alan; Greenwood, Celia M T; Batist, Gerald

    2013-08-01

    The majority of samples in existing tumour biobanks are surgical specimens of primary tumours. Insights into tumour biology, such as intratumoural heterogeneity, tumour-host crosstalk, and the evolution of the disease during therapy, require biospecimens from the primary tumour and those that reflect the patient's disease in specific contexts. Next-generation 'omics' technologies facilitate deep interrogation of tumours, but the characteristics of the samples can determine the ultimate accuracy of the results. The challenge is to biopsy tumours, in some cases serially over time, ensuring that the samples are representative, viable, and adequate both in quantity and quality for subsequent molecular applications. The collection of next-generation biospecimens, tumours, and blood samples at defined time points during the disease trajectory--either for discovery research or to guide clinical decisions--presents additional challenges and opportunities. From an organizational perspective, it also requires new additions to the multidisciplinary therapeutic team, notably interventional radiologists, molecular pathologists, and bioinformaticians. In this Review, we describe the existing procedures for sample procurement and processing of next-generation biospecimens, and highlight the issues involved in this endeavour, including the ethical, logistical, scientific, informational, and financial challenges accompanying next-generation biobanking. PMID:23799370

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  8. Intermediate behavior of Kerr tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenginoğlu, Anıl; Khanna, Gaurav; Burko, Lior M.

    2014-03-01

    The numerical investigation of wave propagation in the asymptotic domain of Kerr spacetime has only recently been possible thanks to the construction of suitable hyperboloidal coordinates. The asymptotics revealed an apparent puzzle in the decay rates of scalar fields: the late-time rates seemed to depend on whether finite distance observers are in the strong field domain or far away from the rotating black hole, an apparent phenomenon dubbed `splitting.' We discuss far-field `splitting' in the full field and near-horizon `splitting' in certain projected modes using horizon-penetrating, hyperboloidal coordinates. For either case we propose an explanation to the cause of the `splitting' behavior, and we determine uniquely decay rates that previous studies found to be ambiguous or immeasurable. The far-field `splitting' is explained by competition between projected modes. The near-horizon `splitting' is due to excitation of lower multipole modes that back excite the multipole mode for which `splitting' is observed. In both cases `splitting' is an intermediate effect, such that asymptotically in time strong field rates are valid at all finite distances. At any finite time, however, there are three domains with different decay rates whose boundaries move outwards during evolution. We then propose a formula for the decay rate of tails that takes into account the inter-mode excitation effect that we study.

  9. Mercury's Tail Current Sheet from MESSENGER Magnetic Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Asad, M.; Johnson, C. L.; Philpott, L. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have estimated the spatial variations in the position and average thickness of Mercury's magnetospheric tail current sheet from orbital magnetic field data collected by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. We have investigated the changes in these average properties with varying solar wind conditions and magnetospheric activity. The time-averaged thickness of the current sheet was obtained from superposed epoch analysis (SEA) of the 1-s-averaged vector magnetic field data within ± 10 min of the identified magnetic equator position at different down-tail distances. The average thickness was then estimated from a given SEA by identifying the time interval during which the field completed a rotation from the sunward to the anti-sunward direction, or vice versa, accompanied by a depression in the field magnitude. We have found that the current sheet has a thickness of ~0.8 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius, or 2440 km) close to the planet (~ 1.1 RM) and thins to ~0.2 RM in the far tail region (~2.8 RM). We examined individual orbits to catalogue the existence and number of current sheet crossings encountered on each orbit. These data allow us to (1) determine whether the thickness obtained from the SEA is an actual thickness or an apparent thickness controlled by rapid motions of the current sheet, and (2) estimate the statistical likelihood of observing the current sheet as a function of down-tail distance. For example, some magnetically quiet orbits that cross the magnetic equator at down-tail distances greater than 2 RM do not record a current sheet crossing and appear to cross closed field lines in the vicinity of the magnetic equator, even though they lie in a region in which the tail current sheet is usually observed. This result suggests that the inner (near-planet) edge of the current sheet is not stationary but may move anti-sunward (or sunward) under quiet (or active) magnetospheric conditions.

  10. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    PubMed

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

  11. Vibrations of the earth's magnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yershkovich, A. I.; Nusinov, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The natural vibration period of the tail (regarded as bundle of magnetic line-of-force strings) and the characteristic time of recurrence of magnetospheric substorms are of the same order, suggesting the possibility of a relation between these phenomena. A model of the tail in the form of a plasma cylinder whose free boundary is immersed in the interplanetary plasma is examined. The nature of the natural oscillations of the tail excited by variations of the solar wind pressure is studied in this model. These vibrations have a total energy of approximately 10 to the 22nd power erg, which is sufficient to generate magnetospheric substorms.

  12. Moulting tail feathers in a juvenile oviraptorisaur.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O

    2010-11-01

    Xu et al. describe the extraordinarily preserved feathers from two subadults of the oviraptorisaur Similicaudipteryx from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China. The preserved tail feathers of the juvenile specimen (STM4.1) show a morphology not previously observed in any fossil feathers. The tail feathers of an older, immature specimen (STM22-6) show a typical closed pennaceous structure with a prominent, planar vane. I propose that the feathers of the tail of the juvenile specimen are not a specialized feather generation, but fossilized 'pin feathers' or developing feather germs. PMID:21048715

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided deep and large biopsy for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hang-Hai; Usman, Ali; Ji, Feng; Jin, Xi; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Chen, Hong-Tan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic yield and safety of a deep and large biopsy technique under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors with negative malignant endoscopy biopsies. METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2014, 36 patients in whom gastric infiltrating tumors had been diagnosed by EUS received negative results for malignancy after endoscopic biopsies. The deep and large biopsy technique combined bite-on-bite technique with or without endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to obtain submucosal tissue from lesions. EUS was used to select the appropriate biopsy sites. If the lesion protruded into the cavity, EMR was performed for removal of the overlying mucosa and then bite-on-bite technique was conducted in the resected area to obtain submucosal tissue. If the lesion appeared to be flat or was difficult to lift by injection, the bite-on-bite technique was directly used. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 36 patients were treated by EMR followed by bite-on-bite technique, while 8 patients only underwent bite-on-bite technique. Histological results showed 23 of the 36 lesions were poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 4 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas, and 7 undiagnosed. The deep and large biopsy technique provided a definitive and conclusive diagnosis in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients. The 12 gastric linitis plastica and 6 lymphoma patients received chemotherapy and avoided surgery. Minor oozing of blood in 2 mucosal resection wounds was managed by argon plasma coagulation and in 5 cases after deep biopsies by epinephrine (0.001%). Neither severe hemorrhage nor perforation occurred in any patient. CONCLUSION: The deep and large biopsy technique is superior to ordinary endoscopic biopsy for achieving an accurate diagnosis of gastric infiltrating tumors. This procedure guided by EUS is an effective and safe diagnostic method for gastric infiltrating tumors in which endoscopic biopsy results were negative for malignancy. PMID:25834327

  14. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Matushita Junior, João Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paresthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. PMID:25741100

  15. How to perform transrectal ultrasound and prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to support patients who require a prostate biopsy to diagnose or exclude prostate cancer. Nurses will also gain an understanding of the procedure for transrectal biopsy. ▶ A transrectal biopsy is commonly used to access the prostate. ▶ Indications for a biopsy include elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen in the blood, identification of abnormal areas on digital rectal examination and active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer. ▶ The healthcare professional uses an ultrasound probe to guide them to specific areas of the prostate to obtain biopsy specimens. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would identify a patient with post-biopsy sepsis. 2. Psychological support needs of a patient undergoing prostate biopsy. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27050013

  16. Complications of Ultrasound-Guided Renal Transplant Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T A; Chandran, S; Burger, I M; Zhang, C A; Goldstein, R B

    2016-04-01

    Renal transplant biopsies to diagnose transplant pathology are routinely performed using ultrasound guidance. Few large studies have assessed the rate and risk factors of major biopsy complications. This study is a single-center 5-year retrospective cohort analysis of 2514 biopsies. Major complications occurred in 47 of 2514 patients (1.9%) and included hospitalization, transfusion of blood products, operative exploration and interventional radiology procedures. The complication rate among "cause" biopsies was significantly higher than in "protocol" biopsies (2.7% vs. 0.33%, p < 0.001). Complications presented on postbiopsy days 0-14, with the majority diagnosed on the same day as the biopsy and manifested by hematocrit drop, although the presence of such delayed presentation of complications occurring >24 h after the biopsy on days 2-14 is previously unreported. Specific patient characteristics associated with increased risk of a complication were increased age and blood urea nitrogen, decreased platelet count, history of prior renal transplant, deceased donor transplant type and use of anticoagulant medications but not aspirin. PMID:26601796

  17. Wound-healing complications following biopsy of the irradiated breast.

    PubMed

    Pezner, R D; Lorant, J A; Terz, J; Ben-Ezra, J; Odom-Maryon, T; Luk, K H

    1992-03-01

    A retrospective review evaluated results of 38 posttreatment biopsies (with resulting benign pathologic findings) that were performed on 32 irradiated breasts or axillae in 31 of 232 patients who underwent conservation treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Postbiopsy wound-healing complications developed in eight (30%) of 27 patients who were undergoing open biopsies but in none of 11 who underwent only needle biopsies. Wound-healing complications occurred in two of five patients who underwent incisional skin biopsy, three of five who underwent mammographic needle-localized excisional biopsy, and three of 17 who underwent other types of open biopsies. Frequency of wound-healing complications following open biopsy was not related to patient age, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, or use of chemotherapy. Wound-healing complications were related to breast size, developing in four (67%) of six patients with large breasts (brassiere cup size D or DD) as compared with that in only four (19%) of 21 patients with smaller breasts. Significant worsening of cosmetic breast retraction was frequently associated with wound-healing complications, especially wounds that took more than 1 month to heal. PMID:1550480

  18. Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H.; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V.

    2015-01-01

    Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 out of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25661242

  19. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  20. Skin biopsies for cell cultures from Mediterranean free-ranging cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Marsili, L; Fossi, M C; Neri, G; Casini, S; Gardi, C; Palmeri, S; Tarquini, E; Panigada, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a useful method for obtaining viable tissue samples for establishing cell cultures from skin biopsies of free-ranging cetaceans. The skin biopsies were performed by two methods: dart from an air gun and dart from a crossbow. The dart tip was modified to collect tissue. The tissue was kept in tissue culture medium at ambient temperature, then processed within 24 h. Many modifications in culture technique, with respect to conventional culture methods for human fibroblasts, were made. The cultures thus obtained can be used for many purposes, including genetic and toxicological studies. In toxicology they are an alternative in vitro system for studying threatened animals such as marine mammals. In particular, fibroblasts can be used to test the vulnerability of cetaceans and pinnipeds to different environmental contaminants such as organochlorine compounds, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:11460744

  1. The current role of percutaneous needle biopsies of renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Scarpa, Roberto M

    2009-06-01

    The role of percutaneous biopsy of renal masses has been traditionally limited by concerns about its safety, accuracy and sampling errors. The increasing incidence in the diagnosis of incidental small renal masses (SRMs), the development of conservative and minimally invasive treatments for low risk renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and the discovery of novel targeted treatments for metastatic disease are now leading to wider indications for renal tumor biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy of renal tumors can be performed in an outpatient setting under ultrasound and/or CT guidance. 18 gauge needles loaded in an automatic biopsy gun are used to retrieve cores and 21 gauge needles to obtain FNA specimens through a 17 gauge coaxial cannula placed close to the tumor. A careful check of the quality of biopsies and aspirates is paramount to maximize the diagnostic yield of the procedure. With the development of new biopsy techniques the risk of tumor seeding appears negligible and significant bleeding is unusual and very rarely clinically significant. In centres with expertise, needle core biopsy with or without FNA can provide adequate specimens for an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Incidental SRMs are frequently detected in elderly patients and have a very heterogeneous biological behaviour At surgery up to one third have benign histologies and most of those that are malignant are low grade RCCs. Pretreatment percutaneous biopsy can significantly decrease the number of unnecessary surgeries for benign disease and assist the urologist in clinical decision making, especially for elderly and unfit patients who are possible candidates for active surveillance and/or minimally invasive ablative therapies. Finally, there is potential for stratifying initial therapy of metastatic RCC by histological subtype on needle biopsies. PMID:19760866

  2. Does Prebiopsy, Nonsterile Ultrasonography Gel Affect Biopsy-Site Asepsis?

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, Kamil Karabay, Oguz; Gurel, Safiye; Hildebolt, Charles

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of nonsterile gel, prior to antiseptic procedures in ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous biopsies, results in contamination of the biopsy site. Materials and Methods. Patients referred for US-guided percutaneous biopsies were included in this study. Transmission material used for US evaluation before biopsy-site antiseptic procedures were performed was either nonsterile gel or sterile saline. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: nonsterile gel (n = 30) and sterile saline (n = 30). Before the transmission material was used and after antiseptic procedures were performed, microbial swabs of a 10-cm{sup 2}-diameter area were obtained at the biopsy site. Swabs were also obtained from the gel, saline, and povidine-iodine. Inoculated specimen plates were incubated at 37{sup o}C under aerobic conditions, and the numbers of colony-forming units recorded. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of postantisepsis bacterial growth (after antiseptic procedures were performed) based on group, gender, coincidental disease (diabetes, chronic renal failure, and malignancy), biopsy-site location (head and neck or breast and abdomen), and local factors (skin fold, skin tag, and hair). Results. The following odds ratios (adjusted for the other variables) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated: (1) group (2.9 [0.8-11.1]; p = 0.10); (2) gender (1.2 [0.3-5.2]; p = 0.78); (3) coincidental disease (7.6 [0.9-166.7]; p = 0.09); (4) biopsy site location (6.2 [1.4-31.3]; p = 0.02); and (5) local factors (7.0 [1.6-36.0]; p = 0.01). No bacterial growth occurred with swabs obtained from gel, povidine-iodine, or saline. Conclusion. We conclude that nonsterile gel used prior to percutaneous biopsy does not affect biopsy-site asepsis.

  3. Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

    2002-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

  4. "Semi-open" muscle biopsy technique. A simple outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, K G

    1979-06-01

    An easy and safe method for muscle biopsy is described. The biopsy instrument is an alligator forceps (Weil-Bladesley's conchotome). With this method an adequate amount of muscle tissue can be obtained for both chemical and morphological studies. The method combines the advantage of the "open-surgical" method - sufficient quantity of material - with the advantages of the needle methods - easy to perform, not incapacitating and only slightly uncomfortable for the patient. Out of 959 consecutive biopsies with this method only 19 were impossible to evaluate because of too much artefact or too little tissue. PMID:484204

  5. Fulminant sepsis after liver biopsy: A long forgotten complication?

    PubMed Central

    Claudi, Corinna; Henschel, Martin; Vogel, Jürgen; Schepke, Michael; Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 74-year-old patient with recurrent cholangitis and a large juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. Despite drainage of the common bile duct by an endoscopically placed stent, the elevated liver enzymes normalized only partially. To rule out other possible causes of liver injury, a percutaneous liver biopsy was done. After the liver biopsy the patient developed fulminant septic shock and died within 24 h. We discuss the possible causes of the septic shock following percutaneous liver biopsy in our patient and give a concise overview of the literature. PMID:24303461

  6. Physical space and long-tail markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

  7. Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A; Donegan, James J

    1951-01-01

    A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.

  8. The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. BIOMECHANICS. Why the seahorse tail is square.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Adriaens, Dominique; Hatton, Ross L; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the predominant shapes of most animal tails are cylindrical, seahorse tails are square prisms. Seahorses use their tails as flexible grasping appendages, in spite of a rigid bony armor that fully encases their bodies. We explore the mechanics of two three-dimensional-printed models that mimic either the natural (square prism) or hypothetical (cylindrical) architecture of a seahorse tail to uncover whether or not the square geometry provides any functional advantages. Our results show that the square prism is more resilient when crushed and provides a mechanism for preserving articulatory organization upon extensive bending and twisting, as compared with its cylindrical counterpart. Thus, the square architecture is better than the circular one in the context of two integrated functions: grasping ability and crushing resistance. PMID:26138983

  10. [Preventative tail amputation in fattening bulls].

    PubMed

    Busch, B; Kramer, S

    1995-03-01

    In 5 cattle fattening farms with 900 to 3000 bulls tail docking was practised prophylactically in consequence of losses due to tail necrosis. Following detailed consultations in the farms temporary exceptional permission of the ban of amputation according to article 6 of the German Animal Welfare Law was given to 4 of the 5 farms, associated with real instructions to improve the housing conditions. By that means communication between farmer and veterinary authority was intensified and the contrariety between legislation and practice was pointed out clearly. The farmers were concerned with consequences of the ban of tail docking intensively. A process of understanding began, resulting in renunciation of prophylactic tail docking in 4 of the 5 farms. PMID:7555686

  11. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    PubMed

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments. PMID:23284771

  12. Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

  13. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    SciTech Connect

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M. E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  14. High-Resolution Rapid Diagnostic Imaging of Whole Prostate Biopsies Using Video-Rate Fluorescence Structured Illumination Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Kimbrell, Hillary Z; Sholl, Andrew B; Tulman, David B; Elfer, Katherine N; Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C; Lee, Benjamin R; Lacey, Michelle; Brown, J Quincy

    2015-10-01

    Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced transrectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histologic, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols, such as frozen section analysis (FSA), are destructive and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical. Ex vivo microscopy of the excised specimens, stained with fast-acting fluorescent histology dyes, could be an attractive nondestructive alternative to FSA. In this work, we report the first demonstration of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) for rapid high-resolution diagnostic imaging of prostate biopsies in realistic point-of-procedure timeframes. Large mosaic images of prostate biopsies stained with acridine orange are rendered in seconds and contain excellent contrast and detail, exhibiting close correlation with corresponding hematoxylin and eosin histology. A clinically relevant review of VR-SIM images of 34 unfixed and uncut prostate core biopsies by two independent pathologists resulted in an area under the receiver operative curve (AUC) of 0.82-0.88, with a sensitivity ranging from 63% to 88% and a specificity ranging from 78% to 89%. When biopsies contained more than 5% tumor content, the sensitivity improved to 75% to 92%. The image quality, speed, minimal complexity, and ease of use of VR-SIM could prove to be features in favor of adoption as an alternative to destructive pathology at the point-of-procedure. PMID:26282168

  15. Frequency of tail lesions and risk factors for tail biting in heavy pig production from weaning to 170 kg live weight.

    PubMed

    Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F

    2016-01-01

    Tail biting lesions have a negative effect on both the welfare of pigs and on the revenue of the pig farm. Due to the multifactorial nature of this abnormal behaviour and its sporadic onset, an epidemiological approach was adopted to identify the management and housing factors influencing the occurrence of tail biting and the frequency of bitten pigs in the weaning and fattening phases up to 170 kg live weight in heavy pig production. Data were collected from a sample of 67 commercial pig farms via an on-farm visit and a questionnaire to the farmer. Data collected included general farm information, hygiene and herd health, prevention, management, climate control, feeding and production traits. In the weaning phase, the occurrence of tail biting was increased by a factor of 16.64 for tipped vs. short-docked tails, by a factor of 68.09 when the observer detected poor air quality, and by a factor of 14.44 when the feeding time was variable. In fattening pigs, a high stocking density increased the risk of tail biting by a factor of 18.00. The frequency of lesions in weaners was greater in pigs with tipped tails (0.29 vs. 0.03%; P = 0.034), whereas in fatteners the frequency of lesions was greater when drinkers were not present in the lying area (0.71 vs. 0.05%; P = 0.009) and when air turnover was not detected in the barn (0.70 vs. 0.07%; P = 0.005). There was also a trend for increased tail biting when the stocking density was high (1.06 vs. 0.33%; P = 0.057). Many of the risk factors that emerged for heavy pigs in the present study could be easily managed to reduce the risk of tail biting and the frequency of tail lesions through the systematic evaluation and control of stocking density, climate, and feed and water management. PMID:26626091

  16. Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Senčilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Österlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function. PMID:23470522

  17. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  18. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  19. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa. PMID:25776548

  20. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Meditation May Ease Pain, Anxiety from Breast Cancer Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... From Breast Cancer Biopsy: Study Researchers also found music helps during the procedure To use the sharing ... THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Meditation and music may reduce pain, anxiety and fatigue associated with ...

  2. Acp. Best practice no 160. Renal biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Furness, P N

    2000-06-01

    Taking a kidney biopsy is not a trivial procedure. The sample is almost invariably smaller than the pathologist would like. Investigation usually requires division into even smaller samples to permit the application of specialist techniques. In some cases the biopsy is taken not for diagnosis, but to assess the extent of tissue damage. The clinical need is sometimes extremely urgent. These features all underline the crucial importance of collaboration between pathologist and nephrologist if maximum benefit is to be obtained from such very small samples. Consequently, in deciding what to do with a renal biopsy, flexibility and thought are required rather than a single prescribed list of procedures. This article, written after extensive international consultation, represents an attempt to define current best practice in the laboratory handling of renal biopsy specimens, while not neglecting the need to tailor processing to the individual needs of each case. PMID:10911800

  3. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ernest W; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  4. CT-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Intrathoracic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Hira; Nath, Alok; Borah, Samudra

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous CT-guided needle biopsy of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions is a minimally invasive approach for obtaining tissue for histopathological examination. Although it is a widely accepted procedure with relatively few complications, precise planning and detailed knowledge of various aspects of the biopsy procedure is mandatory to avert complications. In this pictorial review, we reviewed important anatomical approaches, technical aspects of the procedure, and its associated complications. PMID:22438689

  5. ERCP-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Pancreatic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Freeny, Patrick C.; Kidd, Reiley; Ball, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    In patients with a radiologic diagnosis of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, exploratory laparotomy for tissue diagnosis is no longer required. Histologic confirmation of the diagnosis may be obtained safely and accurately with percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) precisely localized the biopsy site for cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in 13 of 14 patients (93 percent) with pancreatic carcinoma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7385832

  6. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ii; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward targeted biopsies rather than systematic biopsy for getting information reflecting the exact status of the prostate. PMID:25599070

  7. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  8. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  9. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in childhood: diagnosis by transbronchial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C; Whitehead, B; Malone, M; Dinwiddie, R

    1996-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl of Arabic origin by consanguineous parents presented with a miliary pattern on chest x-ray. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histological diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, a condition rarely described in childhood. This report highlights the clinical and radiological features, documents the transbronchial lung biopsy as a useful diagnostic procedure, and suggests a possible genetic etiology with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:8776269

  10. Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Montgomery, Mark; Reiter, Charles G.; Culp, William C.

    2008-07-15

    While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

  11. EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

  12. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to...

  13. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to...

  14. 14 CFR 27.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 27.411... System Loads § 27.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to contact the landing surface during a normal landing. (b) If a tail rotor guard is required to...

  15. Effects of muscular biopsy on the mechanics of running.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Samozino, Pierre; Féasson, Léonard; Geyssant, André; Millet, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the main stride mechanical parameters. Ten male runners performed 4-min runs before and after undergoing a biopsy of their left vastus lateralis muscle. Step frequency and duty factor were significantly higher after biopsy (2.86 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.15 Hz, and 0.77 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.75 +/- 0.05, respectively), whereas other factors were significantly lower: maximal vertical ground reaction force (1,601 +/- 240 vs. 1,643 +/- 230 N), loading rate (53.9 +/- 12.8 vs. 58.4 +/- 13.5 bw s(-1)), center of mass vertical displacement (0.056 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.008 m) and external mechanical work at each step (1.14 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.10 J kg(-1) step(-1)). These effects were observed on the left (biopsed) leg, but also on the right one for the external mechanical work, the duty factor and the maximal vertical ground reaction force, showing that a single biopsy had both ipsi- and contralateral effects on running mechanics. PMID:18841378

  16. Effects of tail docking on milk quality and cow cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, D A; Ruegg, P L

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infection (IMI), and udder and leg cleanliness in commercial dairy herds. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1250) from eight Wisconsin farms were blocked by farm and randomly allocated to tail docked (D) or control (C) groups. Milk samples, somatic cell counts, and hygiene scores were collected for 8 to 9 mo. The prevalence of IMI was determined for each of the five occasions when milk samples were obtained. Udder and leg cleanliness were assessed during milk sample collection. Docked and control animals were compared by logSCC, prevalence of IMI, and leg and udder cleanliness score. Variables were analyzed according to all treatment, period, and farm interactions. At the end of the study period 76 (12.2%) and 81 (13%) of cows were culled in the D and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the initial data for parity, daily milk yield, logSCC, or DIM between treatment groups. Effects significant to farms were identified for all variables over all periods. Period was significant for all variables except for the prevalence of environmental pathogens, but no period x treatment interactions were detected. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for somatic cell count. The prevalence of contagious, environmental, or minor pathogens did not differ significantly between treatment groups. This study did not identify any differences in udder or leg hygiene or milk quality that could be attributed to tail docking. PMID:12416802

  17. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  18. Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R

    2014-09-01

    Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still occur in cattle raised in slatted-floor facilities. Because of the animal welfare issues associated with tail docking and tail injuries, we recommend pursuing alternative solutions to reducing the incidence of tail tip injury in feedlot cattle housed in confined slatted-floor facilities. PMID:24987071

  19. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  20. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: Implications for biogeography and host associations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic distribution for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni, considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer, remain poorly defined particularly in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from the northern population of Columbia white-tailed deer (Odocoi...

  1. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  2. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\...

  3. Plasma entry into the distant tail lobes - ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 measurements indicate that a broad mantle-like boundary layer plasma often exists within the distant geomagnetic tail lobes at all latitudes, directly adjacent to the tail magnetopause. The presence of this boundary layer at large tail distances indicates that plasma from the magnetosheath often crosses the magnetopause locally along much of the length of the tail, and is evidence that the tail is 'open'.

  4. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin; Lammer, Johannes; Biederer, Juergen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  5. Gastric Cancer-Specific Protein Profile Identified Using Endoscopic Biopsy Samples via MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kim, Hee Sung; Oshima, Akira; Chertov, Oleg; Colantonio, Simona; Fisher, Robert J.; Allen, Jamie L.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Green, Jeffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    To date, proteomic analyses on gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples have been performed using surgical specimens only, which are obtained after a diagnosis is made. To determine if a proteomic signature obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples could be found to assist with diagnosis, frozen endoscopic biopsy samples collected from 63 gastric cancer patients and 43 healthy volunteers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. A statistical classification model was developed to distinguish tumor from normal tissues using half the samples and validated with the other half. A protein profile was discovered consisting of 73 signals that could classify 32 cancer and 22 normal samples in the validation set with high predictive values (positive and negative predictive values for cancer, 96.8% and 91.3%; sensitivity, 93.8%; specificity, 95.5%). Signals overexpressed in tumors were identified as ?-defensin-1, ?-defensin-2, calgranulin A, and calgranulin B. A protein profile was also found to distinguish pathologic stage Ia (pT1N0M0) samples (n = 10) from more advanced stage (Ib or higher) tumors (n = 48). Thus, protein profiles obtained from endoscopic biopsy samples may be useful in assisting with the diagnosis of gastric cancer and, possibly, in identifying early stage disease. PMID:20557134

  6. Concomitant Colonization of Helicobacter pylori in Dental Plaque and Gastric Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Teymournejad, Omid; Karbalaei, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Frequently reported H. pylori antimicrobial therapy failures suggest that there might be a different niche where the bacteria can stay safe. Current study aims to examine potential role of oral colonization of H. pylori to feed reinfection after primary therapy. However, patients who were admitted to the gastroscopy section were chosen and gastric biopsy and dental plaque specimens were collected. Molecular and biochemical tests were applied to confirm H. pylori identity in different colonization niches. Results showed that 88.8% of dyspeptic patients had epigastric pains with nocturnal awakening when they were hungry (P = 0.023). All patients who received therapy already were again H. pylori positive while they are still carrying H. pylori in dental plaque (P = 0.001). Moreover, H. pylori infection was sought in 100% of gastric biopsy's dyspeptic patients who had ulcerated esophagitis and erosive duodenitis and who were H. pylori positive, and 75% of dyspeptic patients with duodenum deformity had this bacterium in gastric biopsies (P = 0.004). Present study showed that only successful eradication of gastric H. pylori cannot guarantee prevention of reinfection. Conclusively, a new strategy which indicates concomitant eradication in oral and gastric colonization can result in clearance of H. pylori infection. PMID:25120932

  7. Concomitant Colonization of Helicobacter pylori in Dental Plaque and Gastric Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Teymournejad, Omid; Karbalaei, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Frequently reported H. pylori antimicrobial therapy failures suggest that there might be a different niche where the bacteria can stay safe. Current study aims to examine potential role of oral colonization of H. pylori to feed reinfection after primary therapy. However, patients who were admitted to the gastroscopy section were chosen and gastric biopsy and dental plaque specimens were collected. Molecular and biochemical tests were applied to confirm H. pylori identity in different colonization niches. Results showed that 88.8% of dyspeptic patients had epigastric pains with nocturnal awakening when they were hungry (P = 0.023). All patients who received therapy already were again H. pylori positive while they are still carrying H. pylori in dental plaque (P = 0.001). Moreover, H. pylori infection was sought in 100% of gastric biopsy's dyspeptic patients who had ulcerated esophagitis and erosive duodenitis and who were H. pylori positive, and 75% of dyspeptic patients with duodenum deformity had this bacterium in gastric biopsies (P = 0.004). Present study showed that only successful eradication of gastric H. pylori cannot guarantee prevention of reinfection. Conclusively, a new strategy which indicates concomitant eradication in oral and gastric colonization can result in clearance of H. pylori infection. PMID:25120932

  8. Short-term clinical outcome of laparoscopic liver biopsy in dogs: 106 cases (2003-2013).

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Heidi L; Mayhew, Philipp D; Giuffrida, Michelle A; Brown, Dottie C; Culp, William T N; Runge, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique, complications, and conversion rates for laparoscopic liver biopsy (LLB) in dogs and evaluate short-term clinical outcome for dogs that underwent the procedure. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 106 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent an LLB with a single-port or multiport technique at either of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from August 2003 to September 2013. Demographic and laboratory data, preoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma, procedural and diagnostic information, intraoperative complications, and survival to discharge were recorded. The LLB specimens were obtained with 5-mm laparoscopic biopsy cup forceps and a grasp-and-twist technique. RESULTS Prior to surgery, 25 of 94 (27%) dogs had coagulopathy (prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time greater than the facility reference ranges, regardless of platelet count). Twenty-one dogs were thrombocytopenic, 14 had ascites, and 14 received fresh frozen plasma transfusion before surgery. In all cases, biopsy samples collected were of sufficient size and quality for histopathologic evaluation. Two dogs required conversion to an open laparotomy because of splenic laceration during initial port placement. One hundred one of 106 dogs survived to discharge; 5 were euthanized during hospitalization owing to progression of liver disease and poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Single-port and multiport LLB were found to be effective, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques with a low rate of complications. Results suggested LLB can be safely used in dogs with underlying coagulopathies and advanced liver disease. PMID:26684095

  9. Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

  10. Intrinsic gene expression subsets of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis are stable in serial skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Pendergrass, Sarah A; Lemaire, Raphael; Francis, Ian P; Mahoney, J Matthew; Lafyatis, Robert; Whitfield, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    Skin biopsy gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray from 13 diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dSSc) patients enrolled in an open-label study of rituximab, 9 dSSc patients not treated with rituximab, and 9 healthy controls. These data recapitulate the patient "intrinsic" gene expression subsets described previously, including fibroproliferative, inflammatory, and normal-like groups. Serial skin biopsies showed consistent and non-progressing gene expression over time, and importantly, the patients in the inflammatory subset do not move to the fibroproliferative subset, and vice versa. We were unable to detect significant differences in gene expression before and after rituximab treatment, consistent with an apparent lack of clinical response. Serial biopsies from each patient stayed within the same gene expression subset, regardless of treatment regimen or the time point at which they were taken. Collectively, these data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of SSc and demonstrate that the intrinsic subsets are an inherent, reproducible, and stable feature of the disease that is independent of disease duration. Moreover, these data have fundamental importance for the future development of personalized therapy for SSc; drugs targeting inflammation are likely to benefit those patients with an inflammatory signature, whereas drugs targeting fibrosis are likely to benefit those with a fibroproliferative signature. PMID:22318389

  11. Role of blind closed pleural biopsy in the management of pleural exudates

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Marco F; San-José, Esther; Ferreiro, Lucía; Golpe, Antonio; Antúnez, José; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Abdulkader, Ihab; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Valdés, Luis

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of blind closed pleural biopsy (BCPB) in the study of pleural exudates is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic yield of BCPB in clinical practice and its role in the study of pleural exudates. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who underwent BCPB performed between January 1999 and December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 658 BCPBs were performed on 575 patients. Pleural tissue was obtained in 590 (89.7%) of the biopsies. A malignant pleural effusion was found in 35% of patients. The cytology and the BCPB were positive in 69.2% and 59.2% of the patients, respectively. Of the patients with negative cytology, 21 had a positive BCPB (diagnostic improvement, 15%), which would have avoided one pleuroscopy for every seven BCPBs that were performed. Of the 113 patients with a tuberculous effusion, granulomas were observed in 87 and the Lowenstein culture was positive in an additional 17 (sensitivity 92%). The overall sensitivity was 33.9%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 71%. Complications were recorded in 14.4% of patients (pneumothorax 9.4%; chest pain 5.6%; vasovagal reaction, 4.1%; biopsy of another organ 0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: BCPB still has a significant role in the study of a pleural exudate. If an image-guided technique is unavailable, it seems reasonable to perform BCPB before resorting to a pleuroscopy. These results support BCPB as a relatively safe technique. PMID:23951560

  12. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to estimate the tumor volume from the corresponding positive core volumes. Finally, we propose an algorithm for developing a statistically optimized prostate needle biopsy protocol. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.

  13. Management of rising prostate-specific antigen after a negative biopsy.

    PubMed

    Levy, David A; Jones, J Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Prostate biopsy remains one of the most commonly performed urologic office procedures. A significant percentage of men with a negative result may have unrecognized disease. Inadequate biopsy strategies or findings of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypia increase this likelihood. The term "negative biopsy" may be misleading. Traditional sextant biopsy is inaccurate and extended- or saturation-biopsy protocols miss small cancers. A rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after a negative prostate biopsy may indicate undiagnosed cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and template-guided biopsy have been proposed as diagnostic adjuncts in this setting. Medical manipulation has met with limited acceptance in this setting. In the presence of a rising PSA after a negative biopsy a low threshold for repeat biopsy should be entertained. Saturation biopsy increases cancer detection, especially in patients with more than two prior biopsies. Adjuncts to improve cancer detection, such as administration of 5-α-reductase inhibitors and MRI, are promising. PMID:21344195

  14. Cell lineage tracing during Xenopus tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gargioli, Cesare; Slack, Jonathan M W

    2004-06-01

    The tail of the Xenopus tadpole will regenerate following amputation, and all three of the main axial structures - the spinal cord, the notochord and the segmented myotomes - are found in the regenerated tail. We have investigated the cellular origin of each of these three tissue types during regeneration. We produced Xenopus laevis embryos transgenic for the CMV (Simian Cytomegalovirus) promoter driving GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) ubiquitously throughout the embryo. Single tissues were then specifically labelled by making grafts at the neurula stage from transgenic donors to unlabelled hosts. When the hosts have developed to tadpoles, they carry a region of the appropriate tissue labelled with GFP. These tails were amputated through the labelled region and the distribution of labelled cells in the regenerate was followed. We also labelled myofibres using the Cre-lox method. The results show that the spinal cord and the notochord regenerate from the same tissue type in the stump, with no labelling of other tissues. In the case of the muscle, we show that the myofibres of the regenerate arise from satellite cells and not from the pre-existing myofibres. This shows that metaplasia between differentiated cell types does not occur, and that the process of Xenopus tail regeneration is more akin to tissue renewal in mammals than to urodele tail regeneration. PMID:15148301

  15. THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2013-07-10

    We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

  16. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients’ discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 ±7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ±4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 ±12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 ±29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 ±1.1 vs. 5.9 ±1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  17. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Russo, Claudia; Lo Giudice, Rossella; Visca, Paolo; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus. PMID:25405233

  18. Reclamation of Exxon Ray Point Tailings Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L.; Strachan, C.L. ); Estey, H.P. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines key items for reclamation of uranium tailings impoundments, using the reclamation of Exxon Coal and Minerals Company's (ECMC'S) Ray Point (or Felder) uranium mill site and tailings impoundment as a case history. ECMC'S Ray Point is the first Title II site for which a final reclamation plan has been approved and constructed. Initial reclamation work of the Ray Point Site consists of mill decommissioning, mill site cleanup, and initial tailings impoundment cover placement. The licensing process in Texas consists of submitting the reclamation plan documents to Texas Department of Health (TDH), with subsequent discussion of the plans and submittal of additional data, analyses, with subsequent discussion of the plans and submittal of additional data, analysis, and clarification. Following approval of the Ray Point reclamation plan, final reclamation work is carried out, and consists of random fill placement, compacted soil cover construction, topsoiling, and revegetation.

  19. Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 "By our galactic standards, these are extremely lonely stars," said Mark Voit, another team member from MSU. "If life was to form out there on a planet a few billion years from now, they would have very dark skies." The gas that formed the orphan stars was stripped out of its parent galaxy by the pressure induced by the motion of the galaxy through the multimillion degree gas that pervades the intergalactic space of the galaxy cluster. Eventually most of the gas will be scoured from the galaxy, depleting the raw material for new stars, and effectively stopping further star formation in the galaxy. This process may represent an important but short-lived stage in the transformation of a galaxy. Although apparently rare in the present-day universe, galactic tails of gas and orphan stars may have been more common billions of years ago when galaxies were younger and richer in star-forming gas. These results will appear in the December 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. The SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope) is a joint project of Michigan State University, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas (CNPq-Brazil), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  20. Effectiveness of Rectal Suction Biopsy in Diagnosing Hirschsprung Disease.

    PubMed

    Keyzer-Dekker, Claudia M G; Sloots, Cornelius E; Linschoten, Irene K Schokker-van; Biermann, Katharina; Meeussen, Conny; Doukas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Rectal suction biopsy (RSB) is performed on clinical and radiological suspicion of Hirschsprung disease (HD). Positive histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase in the lamina propria mucosa and muscularis mucosa together with the absence of ganglion cells in the submucosa confirms HD. A second RSB or a full-thickness biopsy is done in case of doubt. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of RSB in diagnosing HD. In addition, the results of RSB in preterm born infants were analyzed. Methods This retrospective study included all infants younger than 1 year who had RSB for HD suspicion from January 2004 to April 2014. All histopathological results were reviewed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the first RSB were calculated. Results In total, 183 patients (99 boys, mean age 11 weeks) were included. HD was diagnosed in 55 patients (30%). A second biopsy was performed in 12/55 patients (22%), which confirmed HD in 9 patients. One patient did not undergo a second biopsy, but HD was excluded based on clinical follow-up. Thus, HD was eventually excluded in 4 of the 55 patients with a positive first RSB. HD was excluded in the first biopsy in 128 patients (70%). In 19 of those (15%), a second biopsy was done, which led to the diagnosis of HD in 10 patients. Two patients with negative biopsy results were still operated on because of the high clinical suspicion for HD, and the histopathological analysis on the operative specimen confirmed HD. Thus, HD was eventually diagnosed in 12 out of 128 patients. Thus, the sensitivity of the first RSB was 81% and the specificity was 97%. The positive predictive value was 93% and the negative predictive value was 91%. A subanalysis for the 38 preterm born infants was done, with a mean conceptional age at the time of biopsy of 44 weeks (range 34-82). Sensitivity and specificity of RSB were 83 and 97%, respectively, with one false-positive and one false-negative results. Conclusion The overall sensitivity of the RSB was 81%, with 12 false-negative results, in which cases extra biopsies had been necessary. The specificity was 97%, with four false-positive findings. We found that RSB can also be reliably and safely performed in preterm born infants, which implies there is no reason to postpone a RSB in those infants. New methods, such as calretinin staining, must be considered to achieve better effectiveness of the RSB for diagnosing HD. PMID:26506300

  1. Open lung biopsy in patients with diffuse pulmonary shadowing.

    PubMed Central

    Venn, G E; Kay, P H; Midwood, C J; Goldstraw, P

    1985-01-01

    The radiological appearances of diffuse pulmonary shadowing are not specific and frequently histological examination is necessary to provide a diagnosis or assess the activity of the disease. From July 1979 to May 1983 open lung biopsy was performed in 101 patients through a limited submammary incision. Twenty seven patients had undergone prior invasive investigations and 27 were taking corticosteroids at the time of biopsy. In 92 patients the histological appearances after open lung biopsy were sufficiently specific to permit diagnosis. Respiratory tract infection occurred in six patients and in eight there was some superficial infection of the wound. These complications were more frequent in patients taking corticosteroids but the difference was not statistically significant. The chest drain was removed usually on the first postoperative day. In three critically ill patients an air leak occurred after removal of the drain, requiring formal surgical re-exploration and drainage in two cases and a brief period of intercostal drainage in the third. Four patients in the series died. All had severe pre-existing lung disease; in three open lung biopsy was performed in the late stages of severe, rapidly progressive lung disease eluding diagnosis; the fourth patient, who had massive pulmonary fibrosis from asbestos lung disease, developed a respiratory tract infection and died from progressive respiratory failure. Open lung biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity and a high diagnostic yield. The approach used in this series provides a safe and reliable operation with good cosmetic results. PMID:4095675

  2. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henrik E; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Kristiane; Kaiser, Marianne; Bonde, Marianne K; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Karin H

    2014-03-01

    Shoulder ulcerations can be graded postmortem from 0 to 4 on a pathoanatomical scale. However, veterinarians and farmers express difficulties evaluating the grade of the lesions antemortem. Accurate grading is needed in order to comply with veterinary instruction in relation to the Danish legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically ("gold standard"). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0.90 by calculating the Cohen kappa value. In conclusion, a single punch biopsy from the center of an ulcer is useful for determining the grade of a shoulder ulcer and can be used to facilitate the identification of sows with ulcers requiring an intervention. PMID:24671561

  3. Transumbilical videolaparoscopic (single site) liver biopsy with laparoscopy equipment

    PubMed Central

    Góis e Cunha, Jorge Ricardo; de Oliveira, Izabele Rabelo; Lima, Milena Passos; Júnior, Antônio Alves

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Liver diseases have a high incidence in the whole world. In order to diagnose, stage and follow these diseases it is often necessary the execution of liver biopsy. There are many possible ways to perform the procedure and the rise of transumbilical endoscopic surgery (TUES) brings to the medical practice an additional good option. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is prospective, nonrandomised and cohort type. It involves 42 patients who underwent liver biopsy through TUES using conventional video laparoscopic material. RESULTS: Among the patients 18 (42.86%) underwent isolated liver biopsy and 24 (57.14%) to liver biopsy associated with umbilical hernia repair. Within those, 27 (64.28%) were male and 15 (35.71%) female. The average body mass index (BMI) was of 27.26 kg/m2, 10 were in the normal BMI range, 24 (57.14%) were in the overweight range, 6 (14.28%) had class I obesity and 2 (4.76%) had class II obesity. In none of the cases the procedure was converted to regular video laparoscopy, all the patients were discharged in the day after the procedure and reported a satisfactory aesthetic result. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that liver biopsy using TUES has applicability and good results, including in obese patients that would have a contraindication to other methods. PMID:27073305

  4. [Celebrating fifty years of percutaneous renal biopsies in Spain].

    PubMed

    Garca Nieto, V; Luis Yanes, M I; Ruiz Pons, M

    2009-01-01

    The first renal biopsies, made as much in adults as in children, were surgical. They were made to patients who were under renal decapsulation with the intention to reduce the kidney pressure, especially in cases of nephrotic syndrome. In 1944, Nils Alwall initiated the accomplishment of percutaneous kidney biopsies by means of a needle and aspiration at the University of Lund (Sweden), although his experience was published in 1952. The first article that had by subject the practice of a percutaneous renal biopsy was written in 1950 by a Cuban doctor, Antonino Prez Ara, and published in a local journal with little diffusion. The first work that appeared in a Spanish journal (1953) about the practice of the percutaneus renal biopsies was not signed by any Spanish group but by members of the Hospital "Calixto Garca" of the University of The Havana, Cuba. The first article published in Spain regarding to this subject, saw the light in 1958, now 50 years ago, in the Revista Clnica Espaola. The two first signers were Alfonso de la Pea Pineda and Vicente Gilsanz Garca, professors of the Medicine Faculty of Madrid. Later, the practice of the percutaneous renal biopsy became general in other Spanish hospitals. PMID:19240775

  5. Update on Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy: Reemergence of Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Fernando; Kühl, Uwe; Pieske, Burkert; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Myocarditis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle and is an important cause of acute heart failure, sudden death, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Viruses account for most cases of myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which could induce an immune response causing inflammation even when the pathogen has been cleared. Other etiologic agents responsible for myocarditis include drugs, toxic substances, or autoimmune conditions. In the last few years, advances in noninvasive techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance have been very useful in supporting diagnosis of myocarditis, but toxic, infectious-inflammatory, infiltrative, or autoimmune processes occur at a cellular level and only endomyocardial biopsy can establish the nature of the etiological agent. Furthermore, after the generalization of immunohistochemical and viral genome detection techniques, endomyocardial biopsy provides a definitive etiological diagnosis that can lead to specific treatments such as antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. Endomyocardial biopsy is not commonly performed for the diagnosis of myocarditis due to safety reasons, but both right- and left endomyocardial biopsies have very low complication rates when performed by experienced operators. This document provides a state-of-the-art review of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with special focus on the role of endomyocardial biopsy to establish specific treatments. PMID:26795929

  6. Nose biopsy: a comparison between two sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Osyntsov, Lidia; Olchowski, Judith; Kordeluk, Sofia; Plakht, Ygal

    2016-06-01

    Pre operative biopsy is important in obtaining preliminary information that may help in tailoring the optimal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two sampling techniques of obtaining nasal biopsy-nasal forceps and nasal scissors in terms of pathological results. Biopsies of nasal lesions were taken from patients undergoing nasal surgery by two techniques- with nasal forceps and with nasal scissors. Each sample was examined by a senior pathologist that was blinded to the sampling method. A grading system was used to rate the crush artifact in every sample (none, mild, moderate, severe). A comparison was made between the severity of the crush artifact and the pathological results of the two techniques. One hundred and forty-four samples were taken from 46 patients. Thirty-one were males and the mean age was 49.6 years. Samples taken by forceps had significantly higher grades of crush artifacts compared to those taken by scissors. The degree of crush artifacts had a significant influence on the accuracy of the pre operative biopsy. Forceps cause significant amount of crush artifacts compared to scissors. The degree of crush artifact in the tissue sample influences the accuracy of the biopsy. PMID:26319275

  7. Quantitative analysis of repair tissue biopsies following chondrocyte implantation.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anthony P; Dickinson, Sally C; Sims, Trevor J; Soranzo, Carlo; Pavesio, Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Outcome measures for cartilage repair techniques include clinical assessment of functional status, magnetic resonance imaging, mechanical indentation in situ and second-look biopsies, which are used for detailed ex vivo histological and immunohistochemical assessment. Biopsy analysis is considered an important outcome measure, despite being highly invasive, since it provides a visual record of the spatial organization of matrix proteins and cells. We propose that the value of second-look biopsies would be significantly enhanced if accurate quantification of cartilage matrix molecules could also be obtained. The goal of our work has been to develop a combined method for histological and biochemical analysis of a single biopsy. We have developed a method of cutting frozen sections of cartilage and recovering the uncut tissue for subsequent biochemical analysis. We have also developed a range of miniaturized assays that can be performed after cartilage digestion with trypsin. In this way we are now able to analyse biopsies with a wet weight as low as 5 mg using both histological and biochemical methods, so obtaining the maximum amount of information from the minimum volume of tissue. This new approach will allow a more accurate assessment of the quality of cartilage repair tissue than histological analysis alone. PMID:12708659

  8. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapauff, Dirk Marnitz, Tim Freyhardt, Patrick Collettini, Federico; Hartwig, Kerstin; Joehrens, Korinna; Hamm, Bernd Kroencke, Thomas Gebauer, Bernhard

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  9. Plasma irregularities in the Comet's tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fluctuations in the intensity of radio source PKS 2025-15 during its occultation by Comet Kohoutek (1973f) on January 5, 1974, can be interpreted as scintillations due to the turbulent plasma in the Comet's tail. It was found that the rms fluctuation of the electron density in the Comet's tail is about 200 electrons/cu cm, the inner scale of the fluctuation is about 8 x 10 to the 7th power cm and the largest scale of fluctuation may reach 6 x 10 to the 10th power cm.

  10. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  11. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Albitar, Ferras; Diep, Kevin; Fritsche, Herbert A.; Shore, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the need for prostate biopsy is frequently difficult and more objective criteria are needed to predict the presence of high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies, we explored the potential of using biomarkers in urine and plasma to develop a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. Methods: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR, and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). Results: Using training and validation data sets, a model for predicting the outcome of PCa biopsy was developed with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87% and 63%, respectively. We then developed a second algorithm to identify patients with high-grade PCa (GS ≥7). This algorithm's AUROC was 0.80, and had a PPV and NPV of 56% and 77%, respectively. Patients who demonstrated concordant results using both algorithms showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 93% for predicting high-grade aggressive PCa. Thus, the use of both algorithms resulted in a PPV of 90% and NPV of 89% for predicting high-grade PCa with toleration of some low-grade PCa (GS <7) being detected. Conclusions: This model of a biomarker panel with algorithmic interpretation can be used as a “liquid biopsy” to reduce the need for unnecessary tissue biopsies, and help to guide appropriate treatment decisions. PMID:26918043

  12. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. Methods We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ2H, δ13C and δ15N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ2H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ2H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ2H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. Conclusions In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26044272

  13. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782

    SciTech Connect

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A.; Knezek, Patricia M.; Wehner, Elizabeth E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu

    2012-04-10

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

  14. The potential for metal release by reductive dissolution of weathered mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeta, I.; Ptacek, C. J.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation programs proposed for decommissioned sulphide tailings may include the addition of a cover layer rich in organic-carbon material such as sewage sludge or composted municipal waste. These covers are designed to consume oxygen and prevent the oxidation of underlying sulphide minerals. The aerobic and anaerobic degradation of such organic-carbon-rich waste can release soluble organic compounds to infiltrating precipitation water. In laboratory experiments, and in natural settings, biotic and abiotic interactions between similar dissolved organic compounds and ferric-bearing secondary minerals have been observed to result in the reductive dissolution of ferric (oxy)hydroxides and the release of ferrous iron to pore waters. In weathered tailings, oxidation of sulphide minerals typically results in the formation of abundant ferric-bearing secondary precipitates near the tailings surface. These secondary precipitates may contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals, either coprecipitated with or adsorbed onto ferric (oxy)hydroxides. Reductive dissolution reactions, resulting from the addition of the organic-carbon covers, may remobilize metals previously attenuated near the tailings surface. To assess the potential for metal release to tailings pore water by reductive dissolution reactions, a laboratory study was conducted on weathered tailings collected from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This site was selected for study because it is representative of many tailings sites. Mineralogical study indicates that sulphide minerals originally present in the vadose zone at the time of tailings deposition have been replaced by a series of secondary precipitates. The most abundant secondary minerals are goethite, gypsum and jarosite. Scanning electron microscopy, coupled with elemental analyses by X-ray energy dispersion analysis, and electron microprobe analysis indicate that trace metals including Ni, Cr and Cu are associated with these secondary minerals. To assess the masses of trace metals associated with each of the dominant secondary mineral phases, a series of extraction procedures was used. The masses of metals determined in three fractions (water soluble, reducible and residual) suggest that the greatest accumulation of metals is in the reducible fraction. These measurements indicate that high concentrations of metals are potentially available for release by reductive dissolution of the ferric-bearing secondary minerals. The actual mass of metals that can be released by this mechanism will depend on a number of site-specific characteristics, particularly the intensity of the reducing conditions established near the tailings surface.

  15. Uses of Skin Biopsy for Sensory and Autonomic Nerve Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.

    2013-01-01

    Skin biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for small-fiber-predominant neuropathy by the quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). It has the unique advantage of being a minimally invasive procedure with the potential for longitudinal evaluation of both sensory and autonomic fibers. Unmyelinated small fibers are not otherwise quantified objectively with such a level of sensitivity as has been reported with IENFD. Recent advances include an expansion of the skin punch biopsy technique to evaluate larger myelinated fibers and mechanoreceptors, and recent work has also focused on additional methods of quantifying dermal fibers and densely innervated autonomic structures. This review discusses current work using skin biopsy for the pathologic analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in neuropathy of various causes as well as its use in clinical trials. PMID:23250768

  16. Percutaneous renal transplant biopsy under CAT scanner guidance.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V

    1984-01-01

    The guidance of a computerized axial tomography scanner was used to locate the biopsy site in 10 instances where a previous attempt had failed to yield a satisfactory specimen. 4 of these patients were grossly obese, and the renal allograft could not be outlined by manual palpation. The scanner has facilitated the placement of the needle tip within the renal cortex, while avoiding injury to the renal pelvis, major blood vessels, and other intra-abdominal organs. Adequate tissue was obtained in each instance. There were no complications associated with this procedure. Proper use of this technique should enhance the success rate of needle biopsies and eliminate the need for open surgical biopsies in renal transplant recipients. PMID:6392914

  17. The role of renal biopsy in small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Burruni, Rodolfo; Lhermitte, Benoit; Cerantola, Yannick; Tawadros, Thomas; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Berthold, Dominik; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Renal biopsy is being increasingly proposed as a diagnostic tool to characterize small renal masses (SRM). Indeed, the wide adoption of imaging in the diagnostic workup of many diseases had led to a substantial increased incidence of SRM (diameter ≤4 cm). While modern ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have high sensitivity for detecting SRM, none is able to accurately and reliably characterize them in terms of histological features. This is currently of key importance in guiding clinical decision-making in some situations, and in these cases renal biopsy should be considered. In this review, we aim to summarize the technique, diagnostic performance, and predicting factors of nondiagnostic biopsy, as well as the future perspectives. PMID:26858784

  18. Evaluating dermal myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on small, unmyelinated fibers in the skin, little research has investigated dermal myelinated fibers in comparison. Glabrous, non-hairy skin contains mechanoreceptors that afford a vantage point for observation of myelinated fibers that have previously been seen only with invasively obtained nerve biopsies. This review discusses current morphometric and molecular expression data of normative and pathogenic glabrous skin obtained by various processing and analysis methods for cutaneous myelinated fibers. Recent publications have shed light on the role of glabrous skin biopsy in identifying signs of peripheral neuropathy and as a potential biomarker of distal myelin and mechanoreceptor integrity. The clinical relevance of a better understanding of the role of dermal myelinated nerve terminations in peripheral neuropathy will be addressed in light of recent publications in the growing field of skin biopsy. PMID:23192899

  19. Processing of nerve biopsies: A practical guide for neuropathologists

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Joachim; Brandner, Sebastian; Lammens, Martin; Sommer, Claudia; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Nerve biopsy is a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of peripheral neuropathies. Currently, major indications include interstitial pathologies such as suspected vasculitis and amyloidosis, atypical cases of inflammatory neuropathy and the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies that cannot be specified otherwise. However, surgical removal of a piece of nerve causes a sensory deficit and – in some cases – chronic pain. Therefore, a nerve biopsy is usually performed only when other clinical, laboratory and electrophysiological methods have failed to clarify the cause of disease. The neuropathological work-up should include at least paraffin and resin semithin histology using a panel of conventional and immunohistochemical stains. Cryostat section staining, teased fiber preparations, electron microscopy and molecular genetic analyses are potentially useful additional methods in a subset of cases. Being performed, processed and read by experienced physicians and technicians nerve biopsies can provide important information relevant for clinical management. PMID:22192700

  20. Biopsy of the oral mucosa and use of histopathology services.

    PubMed

    Logan, R M; Goss, A N

    2010-06-01

    Patients often present with intraoral pathology in the general dental practice setting. Therefore, it is important that dental practitioners are aware of how to deal with pathology when this occurs and have an understanding of investigative techniques that might assist in making a diagnosis. Biopsy and subsequent histological examination of the lesion is an important diagnostic tool. Even if dentists refer the patient to another practitioner for the biopsy, the referring practitioner still needs to be familiar with the procedure and results obtained so that the patient can be appropriately managed. This paper reviews clinical issues that may impact on biopsy procedures and the potential pitfalls and problems that may affect the histological assessment of tissue and therefore affect diagnosis. The medico-legal responsibilities of practitioners are also addressed. PMID:20553240

  1. Multiple mutant T alleles cause haploinsufficiency of Brachyury and short tails in Manx cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Kati J.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Cortes, Alejandro; Weinmann, Amy S.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (?) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats. PMID:23949773

  2. Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-02-01

    Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

  3. IgG Subclass Staining in Routine Renal Biopsy Material.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Jessica; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Satoskar, Anjali; Brodsky, Sergey V; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Immunofluorescence staining plays a vital role in nephropathology, but the panel of antibodies used has not changed for decades. Further classification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G-containing immune-type deposits with IgG subclass staining (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) has been shown to be of diagnostic utility in glomerular diseases, but their value in the evaluation of renal biopsies has not been addressed systematically in large renal biopsy material. Between January 2007 and June 2014, using direct immunofluorescence, we stained every renal biopsy for the IgG subclasses if there was moderate to prominent glomerular IgG staining and/or IgG-predominant or IgG-codominant glomerular staining. The total number of biopsies stained was 1084, which included 367 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis, 307 cases of lupus nephritis, 74 cases of fibrillary glomerulonephritis, 53 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, and 25 cases of antiglomerular basement membrane disease, among others. We found that monoclonality of IgG deposits cannot always be reliably determined on the basis of kappa and lambda light chain staining alone, particularly if concomitant (frequently nonspecific) IgM staining is present. In IgG heavy and heavy and light chain deposition disease (3 cases), subclass staining is very helpful, and in proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits subclass staining is necessary. IgG subclass staining is useful in differentiating primary from secondary membranous glomerulonephritis. In proliferative glomerulonephritis with polyclonal IgG deposition, IgG1 dominance/codominance with concomitant IgG3 and IgG2 but weak or absent IgG4 staining favors an underlying autoimmune disease. IgG subclass staining is a very useful diagnostic method in a selected cohort of renal biopsies, particularly in biopsies with glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits. PMID:26848798

  4. Transcript Signatures of Lymphocytic Bronchitis in Lung Allograft Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Dolganov, Gregory; Jones, Kirk D.; Donnelly, Samantha; Weaver, Timothy; Caughey, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis are barriers to sustained graft function in recipients of transplanted lungs. Early detection is hindered by inadequate tests and an incomplete understanding of the molecular events preceding or accompanying graft deterioration. Methods Hypothesizing that genes involved in immune responses and tissue remodeling produce biomarkers of rejection, we measured the expression of 192 selected genes in 72 sets of biopsy specimens from human lung allografts. Gene transcripts were quantified using a 2-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach in endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy specimens from transplant recipients without acute infections undergoing routine surveillance bronchoscopy. Results Comparisons of histopathology in parallel biopsy specimens identified 6 genes correlating with rejection as manifested by lymphocytic bronchitis, a suspected harbinger of obliterative bronchiolitis. For example, β2-defensin and collagenase transcripts in inflamed bronchi increased 37-fold and 163-fold, respectively. By contrast, these transcripts did not correlate with acute rejection in transbronchial specimens. Further, no correspondence was noted between histopathologic bronchitis and parenchymal rejection when endobronchial and transbronchial samples were obtained from the same patient. Conclusions Our highly sensitive method permits quantitation of many gene transcripts simultaneously in small, bronchoscopically acquired biopsy specimens of allografts. Transcript signatures obtained by this approach suggest that airway and alveolar responses to rejection differ and that endobronchial biopsy specimens assess lymphocytic bronchitis and chronic rejection but are not proxies for transbronchial biopsy specimens. Further, they reveal changes in airway expression of the specific genes involved in host defense and remodeling and suggest that the measurement of transcripts correlating with lymphocytic bronchitis may be diagnostic adjuncts to histopathology. PMID:16102441

  5. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  6. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  7. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation. PMID:6781264

  8. Imaging guided mediastinal percutaneal core biopsy--technique and complications.

    PubMed

    Azrumelashvili, T; Mizandari, M; Magalashvili, D; Dundua, T

    2015-05-01

    165 percutaneous biopsies of anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum lesions were performed to 156 patients. Procedure was guided by US in 40 cases, by CT - in 125 cases. Hydrodissection was used in 5 cases, artificial pneumothorax - in 3 cases in order to avoid transpulmonary needle pass. Post-biopsy CT scan was performed and patients observed for any complications. Adequate tissue for histological diagnosis was obtained in 156 (94.5%) cases at the first attempt; in 9 (5.5%) cases the repeated procedure was needed. No major complications were detected after biopsy procedures; minor complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemophtysis) were detected in 23 (13.9%) cases. No complications were detected after US guided procedures; In 17 (10.3% of all complications) cases pneumothorax, in 4 (2.4%) cases - hemothorax and in 2 (1.2%) cases hemophtisis was detected on CT guided procedures. All hemothorax and hemophtisis and 10 pneumothorax cases happened to be self-limited; in 3 pneumothorax cases aspiration and in 4 cases - pleural drainage was needed. Percutaneous image-guided core biopsy of mediastinal lesions is an accurate and safe procedure, which enables to get the tissue material from all mediastinum compartments. Ultrasound is the most efficient for biopsy guidance, if the target is adequately imaged by it; the advantages of US guidance are: a) possibility of real-time needle movement control b) possibility of real-time blood flow imaging b) noninvasiveness c) cost-effectiveness d) possibility to perform the biopsy at the bedside, in a semiupright position; so, ultrasound is a "Gold Standard" for procedure guidance if the 'target" can be adequately imaged by this technique. If US guidance is impossible biopsy should be performed under CT guidance. Hydrodissection and artificial pneumothorax enables to avoid the lung tissue penetration related complications. Pneumothorax was associated with multiple Needle passes and larger diameter needle use. The safety and biopsy procedure success high rate proves the use of IGMPCB as a first choice procedure when the mediastinal mass morphology is needed. PMID:26042444

  9. Skin Biopsy and Patient-Specific Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Nguyen, Huy V.; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells permits the development of next-generation patient-specific systems biology models reflecting personalized genomics profiles to better understand pathophysiology. In this chapter, we describe how to create a patient-specific iPS cell line. There are three major steps: (1) performing a skin biopsy procedure on the patient; (2) extracting human fibroblast cells from the skin biopsy tissue; and (3) reprogramming patient-specific fibroblast cells into the pluripotent stem cell stage. PMID:26141312

  10. A survey of oral biopsies in Brazilian pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maia, D M; Merly, F; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of 1018 oral biopsies in pediatric patients from the Oral Pathology Service, Minas Gerais Federal University, Brazil. The lesions were divided into ten main categories. The most common oral lesions in this study were follicular cyst in the maxillary anterior region, followed by inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia in the same region, and mucocele in the lower lip. Cysts of the jaws and oral soft tissues comprised 26.1 percent of total oral biopsies. The importance of these findings in oral diagnosis is discussed. PMID:10826049

  11. Outcomes of trophectoderm biopsy on cryopreserved blastocysts: a case series.

    PubMed

    Lathi, Ruth B; Massie, Jamie A M; Gilani, Morgan; Milki, Amin A; Westphal, Lynn M; Baker, Valerie L; Behr, Barry

    2012-11-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an increasingly common adjunct to IVF. The information gained from PGD may be used to reduce the incidence of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and augment the current selection process of embryos. As such, patients may choose to utilize PGD in either fresh or cryopreserved IVF cycles. It is a common practice to cryopreserve excess embryos at the blastocyst stage. In these cases, trophectoderm biopsy is the only technique available for PGD. This articles reports this study centre's experience with trophectoderm biopsies of cryopreserved blastocysts in 12 patients who underwent 13 cycles of PGD. The implantation rate per embryo transferred was 46% and the ongoing pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 63%. The results from this case series demonstrate that trophectoderm biopsy on cryopreserved blastocysts to perform PGD is logistically feasible. In addition, the rate of implantation and ongoing pregnancy were maintained within a reasonable range to justify the procedure. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an increasingly common adjunct to IVF and is used to evaluate the genetic makeup of the embryo prior to transfer of the embryo into the uterus. The information gained from PGD may be used to identify single-gene disorders that result in genetic disease, reduce the incidence of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and/or augment the selection process of embryos to be transferred. In order to perform PGD, a biopsy of the embryo is the performed and cells are removed for testing. PGD may be performed in either fresh or frozen (cryopreserved) IVF cycles. Patients who have cryopreserved embryos remaining in storage from a previous fresh cycle may wish to have these embryos tested with PGD. Many embryos are frozen on day 5 of development, referred to as the blastocyst stage. At this stage of development, embryo biopsy is performed via a technique known as 'trophectoderm biopsy', in which 1-3 of the cells destined to become the placenta are removed from the embryo for chromosomal testing. We report our experience with trophectoderm biopsy of frozen blastocysts in 12 patients who underwent 13 cycles of PGD. The implantation rate per embryo transferred was 46% and the ongoing pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 63%. The results from this case series demonstrate that trophectoderm biopsy on cryopreserved blastocysts to perform PGD is logistically feasible. In addition, the rate of implantation and ongoing pregnancy were maintained within a reasonable range to justify the procedure. PMID:22985500

  12. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  13. Structural Equation Modeling with Heavy Tailed Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.; Chan, Wai

    2004-01-01

    Data in social and behavioral sciences typically possess heavy tails. Structural equation modeling is commonly used in analyzing interrelations among variables of such data. Classical methods for structural equation modeling fit a proposed model to the sample covariance matrix, which can lead to very inefficient parameter estimates. By fitting a…

  14. Ra-226 radioassay of soil and tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, C.S.; Rayno, D.R.; Kretz, N.D.; Zelle, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of inactive uranium tailings piles have shown that tailings sands containing Ra-226 and other radionuclides may be dispersed by wind and water erosion, causing contamination of adjacent areas. To conduct an effective cleanup operation, it is necessary that boundaries of contamination be well defined. To accomplish this, data from surface gamma-ray surveys made under the Measurement Monitoring Program of the US DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) are first used to delineate a general outline of the contaminated area. Then, data from portable scintillometer surveys and from sealed-can gamma-ray analyses of soil samples are used to more precisely define the perimeter of Ra-226 contamination. These field measurements are supported by radiochemical analyses of randomly selected samples. Because of its adaptability to the widely varying chemical composition of the material in these samples, the complexing agent EDTA is used in a complexometric leaching procedure to analyze Ra-226. By this procedure, natural concentrations of Ra-226 in soil (approx. 1 pCi/g) can be measured routinely. The potential limit of detection is in the 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/g range. Details of the method, which includes leaching of radium followed by radon de-emanation, are described. Comparative data for various soil and tailings samples are presented.

  15. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  16. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

  17. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  18. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  19. Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  20. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  1. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  2. Entropy-based heavy tailed distribution transformation and visual analytics for monitoring massive network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keesook J.; Hodge, Matthew; Ross, Virginia W.

    2011-06-01

    For monitoring network traffic, there is an enormous cost in collecting, storing, and analyzing network traffic datasets. Data mining based network traffic analysis has a growing interest in the cyber security community, but is computationally expensive for finding correlations between attributes in massive network traffic datasets. To lower the cost and reduce computational complexity, it is desirable to perform feasible statistical processing on effective reduced datasets instead of on the original full datasets. Because of the dynamic behavior of network traffic, traffic traces exhibit mixtures of heavy tailed statistical distributions or overdispersion. Heavy tailed network traffic characterization and visualization are important and essential tasks to measure network performance for the Quality of Services. However, heavy tailed distributions are limited in their ability to characterize real-time network traffic due to the difficulty of parameter estimation. The Entropy-Based Heavy Tailed Distribution Transformation (EHTDT) was developed to convert the heavy tailed distribution into a transformed distribution to find the linear approximation. The EHTDT linearization has the advantage of being amenable to characterize and aggregate overdispersion of network traffic in realtime. Results of applying the EHTDT for innovative visual analytics to real network traffic data are presented.

  3. Identification of 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers in the Xenopus tadpole tail fin containing photosensitive melanophores.

    PubMed

    Okano, Keiko; Oishi, Tadashi; Miyashita, Yoko; Moriya, Tsuneo; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Irie, Toshiaki; Ueki, Nobuo; Seki, Takaharu

    2002-02-01

    It is well characterized that melanophores in the tail fin of Xenopus laevis tadpoles are directly photosensitive. In order to better understand the mechanism underlying this direct photosensitivity, we performed a retinal analysis of the tail fins and eyes of Xenopus tadpoles at stages 51-56 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Following the extraction of retinoids by the formaldehyde method, a fraction containing retinal and/or 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers from the first HPLC analysis were collected. These isomers were then reduced by sodium borohydride to convert retinal and/or 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers into the corresponding retinol isomers to prepare for a second HPLC analysis. Peaks of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinol were detected in the eyes and tail fins containing melanophores, but they were not detected in the tail fins without melanophores. The amounts of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinol were 27.5 and 5.7 fmol/fin, respectively, and the total quantity of 3,4-didehydroretinal was calculated at approximately 5 x 10(6) molecules/melanophore. These results strongly suggest the presence of 11-cis and all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinal in melanophores of the tadpole tail fin, which probably function as the chromophore of photoreceptive molecules. PMID:12012782

  4. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 10(4) mg·kg(-1) with an average value of 4.67 × 10(3) mg·kg(-1), which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg(-1)). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N) and Gd(N)/Yb(N)). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  5. Construction and preliminary evaluation of copper tailings reclamation test plots at Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Chammas, G.A.; McCaulou, D.R.; Jones, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty pilot-scale test plots were constructed in mid-1998 at the Cyprus Miami mine to investigate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of various reclamation strategies for establishment of self-sustaining native vegetation on acidic copper tailings. Four reclamation strategies are being tested: (1) directly covering acidic tailings with varying thicknesses f cover soil; (2) removing and/or neutralizing particularly acidic surgical tailings before soil cover placement, (3) chemically and/or physically inhibiting upward water and solute movement using neutralizing and neutral capillary barriers, and (4) constructing a subgrade of neutral tailings beneath cover soil. Preliminary results suggest that thicker soil covers and capillary barrier test plots initially support vegetation to a greater extent than other test plots, probably because of their increased moisture storage capacity. Results also suggest that salts are beginning to migrate upward from underlying tailings into cover soil. Data collected from ongoing vegetation surveys and soil testing will be used to evaluate the effect of various reclamation strategies on vegetation establishment and the potential impact of upward salt migration.

  6. Male-specific use of the purr in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bolt, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, purring has been described in mostly affiliative contexts. In the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), both males and females purr, but only males were observed purring in agonistic contexts. In order to determine whether male ring-tailed lemurs purr as aggressive displays during intrasexual agonistic encounters, 480 h of focal data were collected on 25 adult males from Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from March to July 2010. The male purring rate increased during periods of male-male agonism when compared to times without intrasexual agonism, and the purring rate was positively correlated with male dominance rank. However, the purring rate was not significantly higher during winning agonistic interactions when compared with losing encounters. My results indicate that the male ring-tailed lemur purr is used most frequently as an agonistic vocalization in male-male encounters, in addition to being used less frequently in other social contexts, including during tail-waving at females, resting, scent-marking, feeding and copulation. Dominant males have higher purring rates across social situations, suggesting that the purring rate may be driven by intrinsic male qualities rather than functioning as a meaningful signal in each disparate social context. Male purring in intrasexual agonistic encounters can be added to previously described social contexts for ring-tailed lemur purring. PMID:25139722

  7. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg-1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg-1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg-1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  8. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg−1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg−1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg−1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  9. Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Victoria G; Liegler, Teri; Cohen, Craig R; Sawaya, George F; Smith-McCune, Karen; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Huchko, Megan J

    2013-07-01

    HIV-1 genital shedding is associated with increased HIV-1 transmission risk. Inflammation and ulceration are associated with increased shedding, while highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to have a protective effect. We sought to examine the impact of cervical biopsies, a routine component of cervical cancer screening, on HIV-1 genital RNA levels in HIV-infected women on HAART. We enrolled HIV-1-infected women undergoing cervical biopsy for diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 in this prospective cohort study. All were stable on HAART for at least 3 months. Clinical and demographic information as well as plasma HIV-1 viral load were collected at the baseline visit. Specimens for cervical HIV-1 RNA were collected immediately prior to biopsy, and 2 and 7 days afterward. Quantitative PCR determined HIV-1 concentration in cervical specimens at each time point to a lower limit of detection of 40 copies/specimen. Among the 30 participants, five (16.6%) women had detectable cervical HIV-1 RNA at baseline, of whom four (80%) had detectable HIV-1 RNA after cervical biopsy, with no significant increase in viral load in the follow-up specimens. Only one woman (3.3%) with undetectable baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA had detection postbiopsy. Detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA was the only factor associated with baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA. In women on HAART, an increase in cervical HIV-1 RNA detection or concentration was not associated with cervical biopsy. These findings help provide safety data regarding cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in HIV-infected women and inform postprocedure counseling. PMID:23594240

  10. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  11. Renal Biopsy: A much needed tool in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Sumbal Nasir; Mukhtar, Kunwer Naveed; Deen, Saima; Khan, Faiza Nafees

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) is an inflammatory disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Kidneys are frequently affected in SLE and various stages of lupus nephritis have been identified based on severity of the disease. Treatment varies with the staging and correct diagnosis is essential for timely intervention as it can have significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to determine whether laboratory parameters of lupus nephritis (LN); including urinalysis, serum creatinine (S. Cr) and 24 hours urine protein can accurately predict histologic staging of the disease. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in department of Nephrology, Liaquat National Hospital Karachi from January 2012 to December 2014. Fifty one patients of SLE who underwent renal biopsy were selected. Patients, urinalysis at the time of renal biopsy, serum creatinine and 24 hours urine collection for protein were noted. All patients renal biopsy was read by the same pathologist. Patients were clinically staged based on these parameters and their histologic staging based on biopsy findings were compared, to see their correlation. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical data and p<0.05 was considered significant. Cohen’s kappa (κ) analysis was used to examine the agreement by comparing lupus nephritis staging done by laboratory and histological ground. P value <0.05 indicates that agreement was unlikely due to chance alone. Results: Among 51 patients analyzed, 37 patients were females (72.5%) and 14 patients were males (27.5%) with mean age of 32.51 + 16.91 years. In stage II, kappa (κ) of 0.304 represented fair strength of agreement and a p value of 0.012 (p<0.05)which was statistically significant. In stage III, kappa was 0.209 indicating none to slight agreement and a p value of 0.131 (p>0.05). In stage IV, kappa (κ) was 0.141 (slight agreement)and p value 0.301 (p>0.05) in stage V; kappa (κ) of 0.030 represented poor agreement and a p value of 0.828 (p>0.05). Conclusion: Staging of lupus nephritis done on basis of laboratory findings did not correlate well with underlying histological staging. Therefore, renal biopsy is an essential tool in approach to lupus nephritis in order to provide timely and appropriate treatment to patients.

  12. Sentinel lymph node in Merkel cell carcinoma: to biopsy or not to biopsy?

    PubMed

    Sattler, Elke; Geimer, Till; Sick, Isabell; Flaig, Michael J; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola; Kunte, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is commonly recommended for patients with primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). However, it is critically discussed whether survival rates improve by SLNB in MCC patients in general or in subgroups of higher risk (e.g. with primary tumor size >1 cm). The present study correlates clinical data, histology and lymph node status with follow-up and survival data to see if subgroups can be identified for modification of the current recommendations. The medical records of 47 patients with histologically confirmed MCC treated between 1995 and 2010 at a German dermatosurgery department were reviewed. Nineteen patients with excision of the primary tumor and SLNB were compared to 28 patients with excision of the primary tumor but without SLNB. End-points of this study were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition, clinical course was correlated with tumor size and size of safety margin. The group of patients who received SLNB showed a significant advantage in terms of OS (P < 0.05), but not in terms of DFS. Tumors of smaller size were associated with a significantly better DFS and a trend towards better OS. Comparing the groups with different safety margins (1-3 cm), no differences in DFS and OS could be found. Our data support the current recommendation for SLNB in all MCC patients and question the use of extensive safety margins in MCC surgery. Larger prospective multicenter studies with multivariate analysis are needed to confirm whether a prolonged OS is really due to the SLNB procedure or biased by other factors. PMID:23414107

  13. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  14. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  16. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  17. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  18. 14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and tail wheels contact the ground simultaneously. (2) For airplanes with nose wheels, a stalling.... (b) For airplanes with either tail or nose wheels, ground reactions are assumed to be vertical,...

  19. Histopathologic Review of Previously Negative Prostatic Core Needle Biopsies Following a New Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate by Core Needle Biopsies: Implications for Quality Assurance Programs

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jay; Layfield, Lester J.

    2008-01-01

    Programs for quality assurance are increasingly important in surgical pathology. Many quality assurance (QA) techniques for surgical pathology were adopted from procedures introduced in cytopathology. Surgical pathology specimens have diminished in size such that the majority of diagnostic biopsies of prostatic lesions are now core needle biopsies. These specimens raise issues similar to those of cytology specimens, including concerns regarding adequacy and the representative nature of the biopsy. Due to sample size, some neoplasms may not be diagnosed on initial biopsy, raising concerns regarding false negative results. Cytopathologists have instituted QA procedures including review of all previously negative slides received within five years prior to the new diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or gynecologic malignancy. No such requirement exists in surgical pathology for review of core biopsies. The Department of Pathology at the University of Utah instituted a QA policy requiring review of prior negative prostatic needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We reviewed five years of QA records of prostate needle biopsy review. During this time, nine hundred and fifty-eight core biopsy sets were performed. Two hundred and ninety-five of these contained at least one biopsy with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Two hundred and eight patients had a prior set of prostatic needle biopsies with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The remaining 87 had prior biopsies with either a diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (23), small atypical acinar proliferation (21) or no evidence of malignancy (43). QA review of these 87 cases revealed two biopsies which revealed foci of adenocarcinoma. Both had been initially diagnosed as no evidence of malignancy. The false negative rate for core biopsy was 0.68%. In an additional twenty-one cases, microscopic foci of atypical small acinar proliferations were found in core biopsies antedating the positive core biopsy (7.1%). PMID:21876655

  20. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  1. Relationship between initial PSA density with future PSA kinetics and repeat biopsies in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kotb, A F; Tanguay, S; Luz, M A; Kassouf, W; Aprikian, A G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study is to examine the correlation between PSA density (PSAd) at the time of diagnosis with PSA velocity (PSAV), PSA doubling time and tumour progression, on repeat biopsy, in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance. Data from 102 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance in the period between 1992 and 2007, who had the necessary parameters available, were collected. PSAd was calculated and correlated with PSAV, PSA doubling time (PSADT), Gleason score at diagnosis and local progression on repeated biopsies. PSAV was 0.64 and 1.31 ng ml–1 per year (P=0.02), PSADT of 192 and 113 months (P=0.4) for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively. The rate of detecting high Gleason score (⩾7) at diagnosis was 6 and 23% for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively. A total of 101 patients underwent at least a second biopsy and the incidence of upgrading was 10 and 31% for PSAd below and above 0.15, respectively (P=0.001). Although low PSAd is an accepted measure for suggesting insignificant prostate cancer, our study expands its role to indicate that PSAd <0.15 may be an additional clinical parameter that may suggest indolent disease, as measured by future PSAV and repeat biopsy over time. PMID:20938463

  2. Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Sina, Bahram; Kao, Grace F; Deng, April C; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2009-05-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases, particularly inflammatory dermatoses, is based primarily on clinical information. Pathologic examination of the biopsied specimen often serves as a complementary or confirmative part of the diagnosis. However, the clinical diagnosis of skin diseases may be challenging, as the clinical information and appearance of skin lesions invariably overlap. Evidence for a correct diagnosis may be lacking without histopathologic examination of skin biopsies. It is well known that the histologic diagnosis of inflammatory and other skin diseases requires clinicopathologic correlation, and there is evolution of skin lesions into different stages as the diseases progress. Other factors important for accurate dermatopathologic diagnosis are optimum time, best location and preferred techniques of skin biopsy. In searching for available information concerning when, where and how to take skin biopsies, it is noted that there are only limited practical guidelines currently available. We present this review article in hopes that our collective dermatopathologic and dermatologic experience can provide a quick reference for accurate diagnosis and proper management of skin diseases. PMID:19187117

  3. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer. PMID:6644934

  4. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  5. Optical spectroscopy for stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Niklas; von Berg, Anna; Fiedler, Sebastian; Goetz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Polzer, Christoph; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic biopsy procedure is performed to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis purposes. Currently, a fiber-based mechano-optical device for stereotactic biopsies of brain tumors is developed. Two different fluorophores are employed to improve the safety and reliability of this procedure: The fluorescence of intravenously applied indocyanine green (ICG) facilitates the recognition of blood vessels and thus helps minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhages. 5- aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is used to localize vital tumor tissue. ICG fluorescence detection using a 2-fiber probe turned out to be an applicable method to recognize blood vessels about 1.5 mm ahead of the fiber tip during a brain tumor biopsy. Moreover, the suitability of two different PpIX excitation wavelengths regarding practical aspects was investigated: While PpIX excitation in the violet region (at 405 nm) allows for higher sensitivity, red excitation (at 633 nm) is noticeably superior with regard to blood layers obscuring the fluorescence signal. Contact measurements on brain simulating agar phantoms demonstrated that a typical blood coverage of the tumor reduces the PpIX signal to about 75% and nearly 0% for 633 nm and 405 nm excitation, respectively. As a result, 633 nm seems to be the wavelength of choice for PpIX-assisted detection of high-grade gliomas in stereotactic biopsy.

  6. Biopsy of parotid masses: Review of current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Sananda; Sinnott, Joseph D; Tekeli, Kemal M; Turner, Samuel S; Howlett, David C

    2016-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy (USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section (IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice.

  7. Percutaneous biopsy for risk stratification of renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Blute, Michael L.; Drewry, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to identification of more patients with incidental renal masses, and renal mass biopsy (RMB) has become a popular method to evaluate unknown renal masses prior to definitive treatment. Pathologic data obtained from biopsy may be used to guide decisions for treatment and may include the presence or absence of malignant tumor, renal cell cancer subtype, tumor grade and the presence of other aggressive pathologic features. However, prior to using RMB for risk stratification, it is important to understand whether RMB findings are equivalent to pathologic analysis of surgical specimens and to identify any potential limitations of this approach. This review outlines the advantages and limitations of the current studies that evaluate RMB as a guide for treatment decision in patients with unknown renal masses. In multiple series, RMB has demonstrated low morbidity and a theoretical reduction in cost, if patients with benign tumors are identified from biopsy and can avoid subsequent treatment. However, when considering the routine use of RMB for risk stratification, it is important to note that biopsy may underestimate risk in some patients by undergrading, understaging or failing to identify aggressive tumor features. Future studies should focus on developing treatment algorithms that integrate RMB to identify the optimal use in risk stratification of patients with unknown renal masses. PMID:26425141

  8. Automatic Dissection Position Selection for Cleavage-Stage Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenan; Ang, Wei Tech

    2016-03-01

    Embryo biopsies are routinely performed for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). In order to avoid blastomere membrane rupture and cell lysis, correct selection of a suitable dissection position on the zona pellucida (ZP) is necessary. Although, the technology for automated cell manipulation has advanced greatly over the past decade, fully automated embryo biopsy in PGD has not been realized yet. Automated PGD may ultimately set a new clinical standard that improves the consistency of outcomes, increases cell survival rates, flattens the learning curve of the manual procedure, and reduces the effects of human fatigue. In this paper, we present the first approach to automatically select a suitable ZP dissection position prior to embryo biopsy from a single focused embryo image based on edge detection. The proposed method consists of a technique that estimates the elliptical ZP boundaries and another two techniques that select the suitable position for ZP dissection. These techniques achieved success rates of 96%, 94%, and 94% respectively. In addition, the proposed ZP boundary estimation technique has the potential to perform ZP thickness variation (ZPTV) test and other ZP morphology measurements with further improvement in the future. Our methods provide a starting point for fast position selection prior to automatic embryo biopsy. PMID:26259216

  9. Structure of the tails of Comet Levy 1990 XX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Yu. V.

    1997-08-01

    The structures of the tails of Comet Levy 1990 XX are studied using plates obtained in February, 1991. We explain the unusual appearance of the tails of Comet Levy by the conditions of tail projection onto the image plane. The bimodal size distribution of the particles in the cometary atmosphere is confirmed. It is shown that the observed structures of the dust tail are not of the neck-line type.

  10. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  11. The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  13. Structure of the tails of comet Levy 1990 XX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Yu. V.

    The author studied the structure of the tails of comet Levy 1990 XX using the plates acquired in February 1991. The tails owe their unusual appearance to the observation perspective. It is confirmed that the size distribution of particles in the cometary atmosphere is bimodal. The features observed in the dust tail are shown not to be neck-line structures.

  14. Study of the plasma tail of comet West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Yu. V.; Shabas, N. L.

    2002-11-01

    The brightness profiles of the plasma tail of comet West for two dates have been obtained. The photometric profiles were compared with the brightness distribution along the tail streams calculated with the diffusion model of the plasma tail. The lifetime of the ions, the magnetic field induction and the coefficients of diffusion of ions have been estimated.

  15. Structure of the tails of comet 1996 B2 (Hyakutake).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, Yu. V.

    The authors study the structure of the tails of comet 1996 B2 (Hyakutake) using the plates acquired in March - April 1996. A DE-like event occurred when the comet was at the shortest distance from the Earth. The author describes some other structural features of the comet tails which attest to the interaction of the type I tail with the solar wind.

  16. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  17. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  18. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  19. Interventional Optical Molecular Imaging Guidance during Percutaneous Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Rahul A.; Heidari, Pedram; Esfahani, Shadi A.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indocyanine green (ICG) as a molecular beacon for malignant lesions within the liver and evaluate the ability of a developed handheld imaging system to allow measurement of ICG fluorescence within focal hepatic lesions with high target-to-background ratios in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. A handheld optical molecular imaging device was constructed to pass through the introducer needle of a standard percutaneous biopsy kit. An ex vivo phantom system was constructed to quantify tissue attenuation properties of ICG in liver parenchyma. Subsequently, intrahepatic colorectal cancer metastases were generated in nude mice, and epifluorescence imaging of ICG, as well as histologic analysis of the explanted livers, was performed at 3 weeks after implantation (n = 6). Epifluorescence imaging with the handheld imaging device was then performed on intrahepatic colorectal metastases after the administration of ICG (n = 15) at 3, 6, and 24 hours after injection. Target-to-background ratios were calculated for each time point. Subsequently, a core biopsy of intrahepatic colorectal metastases was performed by using a standard clinical 18-gauge biopsy needle. Results There was avid localization of ICG to the focal lesions at all time points. Similarly, fluorescence within the tumors was greater than that within normal liver, as detected with the handheld imaging system (mean target-to-background ratio ± standard deviation, 3.9 ± 0.2 at 24 hours). A core biopsy of tumor and normal adjacent liver by using a standard biopsy needle demonstrated a sharp margin of fluorescence intensity at the tumor-liver interface. Conclusion The custom-designed molecular imaging device, in combination with ICG, readily allowed differentiation between normal and malignant tissue in a murine model of intrahepatic colorectal metastasis. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24520946

  20. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders. PMID:26416245

  1. Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 total (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.

  2. Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom

    2012-11-01

    Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ∼1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ∼10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 μm size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni μ-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly reflective particles distributed throughout the tailings matrix are primary As-, Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-bearing minerals. Geochemical modeling of the neutralization process shows that the nodules (gypsum) formed at pH ∼1 and acted as a substrate for the precipitation of ferrihydrite at pH ∼3.4. The As and Ni subsequently adsorb to the ferrihydrite. Overall, the microscale data suggest that the As and Ni adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite should remain stable for many years and continue to the control the Fe, As, and Ni concentrations in the tailings porewater.

  3. Experimental verification of a simplified vee-tail theory and analysis of available data on complete models with vee tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E; Campbell, John P

    1945-01-01

    An analysis has been made of available data on vee tail surfaces. Previously published theoretical studies of vee tails have been extended to include the control effectiveness and control forces in addition to the stability. Tests of two isolated tail surfaces with various amounts of dihedral provided a check of the theory. Methods for designing vee tails were also developed and are given in the present paper.

  4. The Reliability of Endoscopic Biopsies in Assessing HER2 Status in Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Study Comparing Biopsies with Surgical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, Federica; Fassan, Matteo; Ceccaroli, Chiara; Giacometti, Cinzia; Curto, Monica; Zagonel, Vittorina; Ceppa, Paola; Nitti, Donato; Castoro, Carlo; Fiocca, Roberto; Rugge, Massimo; Mastracci, Luca

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to validate the accuracy of HER2 assessment on biopsies by comparing matched biopsy/surgical material from the same patients. METHODS: HER2 status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 103 cases of gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers in coupled biopsy and surgical material. RESULT: Complete concordance between IHC and FISH results on biopsy versus surgical samples was noted in 80% and 95% of cases, respectively. At comprehensive comparison, including IHC and FISH data on biopsy and surgical samples, 89% of biopsies were predictive of HER2 status in surgical samples, whereas 11% showed variable inconsistencies. The majority of these (10 of 12 cases) showed IHC score 0/1+ on biopsy but were all IHC positive and amplified at surgery; in particular, three (3 of 35; 8.5%) IHC score 0 and four (4 of 16; 25%) IHC score 1+ cases were FISH amplified on biopsy material also, whereas the remaining three cases were FISH non-amplified on biopsy. The percentage of cases, which were FISH amplified with IHC score 1+ or 2+ on biopsies, were similar (25% and 33%, respectively) and they also shared a similar grade of amplification. These data suggest that both IHC score 1+ and 2+ on biopsy material represent equivocal cases that may merit further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive value of HER2 IHC in biopsies is high. FISH analysis should be considered for IHC score 2+ and 1+ biopsy cases. Approximately 8% of cases will not be accurately predicted by biopsy evaluation. PMID:23418612

  5. The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Alan; Sansom, Ivan J; Gagnier, Pierre-Yves; Cespedes, Ricardo; Janvier, Philippe

    2007-02-22

    The tail of the earliest known articulated fully skeletonized vertebrate, the arandaspid Sacabambaspis from the Ordovician of Bolivia, is redescribed on the basis of further preparation of the only specimen in which it is most extensively preserved. The first, but soon discarded, reconstruction, which assumed the presence of a long horizontal notochordal lobe separating equal sized dorsal and ventral fin webs, appears to have considerable merit. Although the ventral web is significantly smaller than the dorsal one, the presence of a very long notochordal lobe bearing a small terminal web is confirmed. The discrepancy in the size of the ventral and dorsal webs rather suggests that the tail was hypocercal, a condition that would better accord with the caudal morphology of the living agnathans and the other jawless stem gnathostomes. PMID:17443969

  6. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  7. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy. PMID:19086069

  8. The kangaroo's tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Dawson, Terence J; Kram, Rodger; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2014-07-01

    When moving slowly, kangaroos plant their tail on the ground in sequence with their front and hind legs. To determine the tail's role in this 'pentapedal' gait, we measured the forces the tail exerts on the ground and calculated the mechanical power it generates. We found that the tail is responsible for as much propulsive force as the front and hind legs combined. It also generates almost exclusively positive mechanical power, performing as much mass-specific mechanical work as does a human leg during walking at the same speed. Kangaroos use their muscular tail to support, propel and power their pentapedal gait just like a leg. PMID:24990111

  9. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  10. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection should be considered as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. PMID:27014706

  11. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection should be considered as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. PMID:27014706

  12. [The biopsy of preimplantation embryos obtained from donor pigs with follicle-stimulating hormone-induced superovulation].

    PubMed

    Amirov, A R; Krivokharchenko, A S; Ivanova, L B; Vil'ianovich, L I

    1998-01-01

    We have examined possible use of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for the induction of superovulation in pigs and studied the effect of biopsy of preimplantation pig embryos on their survival in vitro. Superovulation was induced by injecting FSH twice daily over a period of four days for a total dose of 25 units. per animal. Pigs receiving pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) according to the standard scheme served as the control. The experiments demonstrated that FSH produces significantly better estrus figures as compared with PMSG (100% and 60%, respectively; p < 0.05). The mean number of ovulations per donor was also better in the FSH group, i.e., 36.5 as compared with 17.3 in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean number of embryos obtained from one donor was higher in FSH treated animals as compared with the animals that received PMSG (29.2 vs. 19.3), however, this difference was not statistically significant. Biopsy of preimplantation pig embryos was conducted by a "manual" technique without a micromanipulator; middle blastocysts collected at days 5-6 after insemination were the most convenient for this operation. Embryos at these developmental stages contained a well developed inner cell mass, which allows separation of trophoectodermal cells only, thus minimizing damage to the embryo. The number of cells in dissected fragments did not depend on the stage of development, and even smallest fragments (4 blastomeres) were sufficient for genome analysis with the aid of PCR. The survival of embryos in vitro after biopsy practically did not differ from that of control intact embryos. Thus, we demonstrated the effective use of FSH for the induction of superovulation in pigs; we also determined the developmental stages which are most convenient for conducting biopsies and developed a technique for preimplantation biopsy, which allows genome analysis of embryos without any decrease of their survival in vitro. PMID:9750236

  13. Touch Imprint Cytology and Stereotactically-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Suspicious Breast Lesions: 15-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Fasching, P. A.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Jud, S.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C.; Wachter, D. L.; Hartmann, A.; Beckmann, M. W.; Uder, M.; Loehberg, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stereotactically-guided core needle biopsies (CNB) of breast tumours allow histological examination of the tumour without surgery. Touch imprint cytology (TIC) of CNB promises to be useful in providing same-day diagnosis for counselling purposes and for planning future surgery. Having addressed the issue of accuracy of immediate microscopic evaluation of TIC, we wanted to re-examine the usefulness of this procedure in light of the present health care climate of cost containment by incorporating the surgical 15-year follow-up data and outcome. Patients and Methods: From January until December 1996 we performed TIC in core needle biopsies of 173 breast tumours in 169 patients, consisting of 122 malignant and 51 benign tumours. Histology of core needle biopsies was proven by surgical histology in all malignant and in 5 benign tumours. Surgical breast biopsy was not performed in 46 patients with 46 benign lesions, as the histological result from the core needle biopsy and the result of the TIC were in agreement with the suspected diagnosis from the complementary breast diagnostics. A 15-year follow-up of these patients followed in 2013 and follow-up data was collected from 40 women. Results: In the 15-year follow-up of the 40 benign lesions primarily confirmed using CNB and TIC, a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of 100 % was found. Conclusion: TIC and stereotactically guided CNB showed excellent long-term follow-up in patients with benign breast lesions. The use of TIC to complement CNB can therefore provide immediate cytological diagnosis of breast lesions. PMID:26855442

  14. Reconciling PM10 analyses by different sampling methods for Iron King Mine tailings dust.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Félix, Omar I; Gonzales, Patricia; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The overall project objective at the Iron King Mine Superfund site is to determine the level and potential risk associated with heavy metal exposure of the proximate population emanating from the site's tailings pile. To provide sufficient size-fractioned dust for multi-discipline research studies, a dust generator was built and is now being used to generate size-fractioned dust samples for toxicity investigations using in vitro cell culture and animal exposure experiments as well as studies on geochemical characterization and bioassay solubilization with simulated lung and gastric fluid extractants. The objective of this study is to provide a robust method for source identification by comparing the tailing sample produced by dust generator and that collected by MOUDI sampler. As and Pb concentrations of the PM10 fraction in the MOUDI sample were much lower than in tailing samples produced by the dust generator, indicating a dilution of Iron King tailing dust by dust from other sources. For source apportionment purposes, single element concentration method was used based on the assumption that the PM10 fraction comes from a background source plus the Iron King tailing source. The method's conclusion that nearly all arsenic and lead in the PM10 dust fraction originated from the tailings substantiates our previous Pb and Sr isotope study conclusion. As and Pb showed a similar mass fraction from Iron King for all sites suggesting that As and Pb have the same major emission source. Further validation of this simple source apportionment method is needed based on other elements and sites. PMID:26820180

  15. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  16. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  18. Patchy innervation confirmed in pull-through bowel with normal conventional biopsy results in Hirschsprung's disease - the benefit of circumferential biopsying.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kato, Yoshifumi; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Lane, Geoffrey J

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease is dependent on accurate identification of normoganglionic bowel in intraoperative biopsy specimens. We report 2 cases of patchy innervation of pull-through bowel in children with Hirschsprung's disease only identified by circumferential biopsying. Case 1 was an 8-month-old boy. During laparoscopy-assisted transanal endorectal pull-through, extra biopsies of bowel were taken circumferentially, 2 cm proximal to the level of normoganglionosis confirmed by laparoscopic colon biopsies. Aganglionosis was found at 3 o'clock, suggesting that bowel innervation at this level was patchy. Circumferential biopsies were performed a further 2cm proximally, and all sites were normoganglionic. This level was used for pull-through with excellent outcome. Case 2 was a 27-day-old boy. Similarly, extra biopsies were taken circumferentially, 2cm proximal to the level of "normoganglionosis" as indicated by conventional biopsying. Normoganglionosis was found only at 3 o'clock, while all other sites were hypoganglionic. A further series of circumferential biopsies was performed 2 cm proximally and hypoganglionosis was still identified, but only at 6 o'clock. Circumferential biopsies were repeated another 2cm proximally, and all sites were normoganglionic. We recommend circumferential biopsies be performed routinely to prevent bowel with patchy innervation from being used for pull-through and possibly causing postoperative bowel dysmotility in a subgroup of Hirschsprung's disease patients. PMID:23803365

  19. Does this baby have a tail?: a case of congenital isolated perineal lipoma presenting as human pseudo-tail

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Cho, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A pseudo-tail is defined as a tail-like lesion in the lumbosacrococcygeal region that is not a true tail but one caused by disease. Perineal lipoma is one of the conditions that may present as a pseudo-tail. Congenital perineal lipoma is a rare disease and in particular, isolated congenital perineal lipoma without other anomalies is extremely rare. Here we report a case of congenital isolated perineal lipoma presenting as a pseudo-tail and also include a literature review of the condition. PMID:26793694

  20. A new method to gently place biopsy needles or treatment electrodes into tissues with high target precision.

    PubMed

    Wiksell, Hans; Löfgren, Lars; Schässburger, Kai-Uwe; Leifland, Karin; Thorneman, Karin; Auer, Gert

    2016-05-01

    We present a new core needle biopsy and treatment electrode precision placement technique which, regardless of needle size, target lesion hardness and elasticity, makes it possible to precisely place an image guided device inside the abnormal tissue. Once inside the abnormal lesion, multiple tissue samples can be collected using a dedicated trocar and collecting system. Our unique "Fourier" driver substitutes the commonly used spring-loaded device or complements the jerky insertion technique used by experienced interventional physicians. It enables the physician to precisely and with extreme tactility maneuver even large diameter core needles or treatment-electrodes into the lesion using only a diminutive external force. This is achieved by applying supporting servo-controlled mechanical high-acceleration micro-pulses, proportional to the average vector directed by the physician. The Fourier-needle or Fourier-electrode stands completely non-moving when the system automatically goes into full idling. This means that the angle of attack successively and arbitrary can be aligned to hit the target, becoming successively symmetrically inserted into even small tumors to be treated as well as exactly hit any point outlined by real time ultrasound guiding. This kind of biopsy needle or treatment electrode placement results in a uniquely accurate and less traumatic procedure. Due to the risk of disseminating viable tumor cells the precision placement device can be combined with a computer controlled anti-seeding system, denaturizing tumor cells detached during penetration of the biopsy needle or treatment electrode. PMID:27132032

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology and biopsy in primary bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C R; Hadfield, J W; Stovin, P G; Barker, V; Heard, B E; Stark, J E

    1981-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosis in 656 patients with the four common histopathological types of primary lung cancer has been assessed by comparing the cell type diagnosis made on cytological and histological investigation with that determined by examination of the surgically resected or necroscopy specimen. The accuracy of diagnosis achieved by cytological examination of sputum and bronchial aspirate, and by bronchial biopsy histology was over 85%. The least accurate diagnostic procedure was percutaneous needle biopsy (62%). Squamous and small cell tumours were accurately diagnosed by all four investigations but errors were made in the diagnosis of large cell and adenocarcinomas. Nearly half the number of patients (43%) with large cell carcinoma were later reclassified as having squamous carcinoma and of the patients with adenocarcinoma 32% had been predicted to be squamous and 18% large cell carcinoma. We consider such quality control of pretreatment diagnosis mandatory in management of individual patients and before enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:6267108

  2. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  3. Robotically assisted small animal MRI-guided mouse biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Chiodo, Chris; Wong, Kenneth H.; Fricke, Stanley; Jung, Mira; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Small mammals, namely mice and rats, play an important role in biomedical research. Imaging, in conjunction with accurate therapeutic agent delivery, has tremendous value in small animal research since it enables serial, non-destructive testing of animals and facilitates the study of biomarkers of disease progression. The small size of organs in mice lends some difficulty to accurate biopsies and therapeutic agent delivery. Image guidance with the use of robotic devices should enable more accurate and repeatable targeting for biopsies and delivery of therapeutic agents, as well as the ability to acquire tissue from a pre-specified location based on image anatomy. This paper presents our work in integrating a robotic needle guide device, specialized stereotaxic mouse holder, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a long-term goal of performing accurate and repeatable targeting in anesthetized mice studies.

  4. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  5. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria. Renal biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Collan, Y; Lähdevirta, J; Jokinen, E J

    1979-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy were performed on 5 patients with selective vitamin B12 malabsorption of whom 3 had proteinuria. Light microscopy showed slight prominence of the mesangial areas but otherwise the findings were normal. Electron microscopy showed increased mesangial matrix, thickening of the basement membrane at the mesangial areas and dark mesangial deposit. Light flocculent subendothelial material, moon craters, membranous convoluted structures, extracellular round particles and occasional intracellular microtubular inclusions were also seen in the glomeruli. The tubular basement membrane appeared thickened around a few tubules, showing membranous vesicular debris and convoluted structures. The capsular membrane also showed vesicular debris. On immunohistochemical examination the glomerular deposits contained immunoglobulins but not complement - an argument against their immunological nature. Deposits were seen only in patients who had been on inadequate treatment for years before the biopsy. Adequate treatment after correct diagnosis decreased the amount of deposits. Proteinuria did not apparently depend on the presence of glomerular deposits. PMID:384282

  6. Percutaneous biopsy facilitates modern treatment of renal masses.

    PubMed

    Jason Abel, E

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary approaches to cancer therapy have moved away from a one-size-fits-all model. Precision treatments are based on patients and their individual tumor characteristics. In general, incidental renal masses fall into three categories: aggressive cancers, indolent cancers, and benign tumors. Treatments may include surgery, thermal ablation, or observation. Choosing the best treatment based solely on radiologic information is uninformed and unnecessary, and may lead to overtreatment of benign tumors or inappropriate treatment of aggressive tumors. Percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective tool that provides prognostic information about unknown masses to guide treatment decision making. The first step for improving personalized treatments for small renal masses is clear: increase utilization of pretreatment renal mass biopsy. PMID:27112777

  7. Skin Biopsy, the Allergists' Tool: How to Interpret a Report.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Brett H; Gavino, Aries Caesar P; Gavino, Alde Carlo P

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory dermatoses are frequently encountered by the allergist, and histologic evaluation achieved through skin biopsy can be of tremendous value clinically. There is no substitute for a thorough history and physical exam; however, the skin biopsy is a simple, in-office procedure with little risk of complication that can provide invaluable information when a diagnosis is uncertain. Histopathologically, many inflammatory eruptions can look similar or overlap, but information provided by the dermatopathologist can help the clinician render or refine the clinical diagnosis and guide management. This review will discuss descriptive elements contained in the pathology report to provide a framework that can be used by the allergist to comfortably and confidently diagnose inflammatory dermatologic conditions. PMID:26310278

  8. Which patients with ARDS benefit from lung biopsy?

    PubMed

    Palakshappa, Jessica A; Meyer, Nuala J

    2015-10-01

    A central tenet of caring for patients with ARDS is to treat the underlying cause, be it sepsis, pneumonia, or removal of an offending toxin. Identifying the risk factor for ARDS has even been proposed as essential to diagnosing ARDS. Not infrequently, however, the precipitant for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is unclear, and this raises the question of whether a histologic lung diagnosis would benefit the patient. In this review, we consider the historic role of pathology in establishing a diagnosis of ARDS and the published experience of surgical and transbronchial lung biopsy in patients with ARDS. We reflect on which pathologic diagnoses influence treatment and suggest a patient-centric approach to weigh the risks and benefits of a lung biopsy for critically ill patients who may have ARDS. PMID:25950989

  9. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. PMID:22520818

  10. Brief communication: Morphometric data for adult lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus).

    PubMed

    Harvey, N C; Clarke, A S; Lindburg, D G

    1991-06-01

    Basic morphometric data were collected from 22 adult lion-tailed macaques (M. silenus) of both sexes. M. silenus is a rare primate species from which adequate morphometric data have not heretofore been available for comparative purposes. Data collected include measures of gross body size (weight; crown-rump and rump-heel length), and for males, measures of secondary sexual characteristics (canine tooth and testes size). Degree of sexual dimorphism was marked, with males significantly larger and heavier than females. The three body size measures were correlated for males but not for females. There was substantial variation among individual males in secondary sex characteristics measurements. The data indicate than lion-tailed macaque morphometrics are consonant with the general pattern of positive allometry for body size and sexual dimorphism characteristic of the primate order. PMID:1882986

  11. Dysplasia-Carcinoma Transition Specific Transcripts in Colonic Biopsy Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Ferenc; Spisk, Sndor; Krencs, Tibor; Tth, Kinga; Leiszter, Katalin; Kalmr, Alexandra; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnr, Bla

    2012-01-01

    Background The early molecular detection of the dysplasia-carcinoma transition may enhance the strength of diagnosis in the case of colonic biopsies. Our aims were to identify characteristic transcript sets in order to develop diagnostic mRNA expression patterns for objective classification of benign and malignant colorectal diseases and to test the classificatory power of these markers on an independent sample set. Methodology/Principal Findings Colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma specific transcript sets were identified using HGU133plus2 microarrays and 53 biopsies (22 CRC, 20 adenoma and 11 normal). Ninety-four independent biopsies (27 CRC, 29 adenoma and 38 normal) were analyzed on microarrays for testing the classificatory power of the discriminatory genes. Array real-time PCR validation was done on 68 independent samples (24 CRC, 24 adenoma and 20 normal). A set of 11 transcripts (including CXCL1, CHI3L1 and GREM1) was determined which could correctly discriminate between high-grade dysplastic adenoma and CRC samples by 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The discriminatory power of the marker set was proved to be high on independent samples in both microarray and RT-PCR analyses. 95.6% of original and 94.1% of cross-validated samples was correctly classified in discriminant analysis. Conclusions/Significance The identified transcripts could correctly characterize the dysplasia-carcinoma transition in biopsy samples, also on a large independent sample set. These markers can establish the basis of gene expression based diagnostic classification of colorectal cancer. Diagnostic RT-PCR cards can become part of the automated routine procedure. PMID:23155391

  12. Application of statistical cancer atlas for 3D biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. While the exact cause is still under investigation, researchers agree on certain risk factors like age, family history, dietary habits, lifestyle and race. It is also widely accepted that cancer distribution within the prostate is inhomogeneous, i.e. certain regions have a higher likelihood of developing cancer. In this regard extensive work has been done to study the distribution of cancer in order to perform biopsy more effectively. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was demonstrated along with an optimal biopsy scheme achieving a high detection rate. In this paper we discuss the complete construction and application of such an atlas that can be used in a clinical setting to effectively target high cancer zones during biopsy. The method consists of integrating intensity statistics in the form of cancer probabilities at every voxel in the image with shape statistics of the prostate in order to quickly warp the atlas onto a subject ultrasound image. While the atlas surface can be registered to a pre-segmented subject prostate surface or instead used to perform segmentation of the capsule via optimization of shape parameters to segment the subject image, the strength of our approach lies in the fast mapping of cancer statistics onto the subject using shape statistics. The shape model was trained from over 38 expert segmented prostate surfaces and the atlas registration accuracy was found to be high suggesting the use of this method to perform biopsy in near real time situations with some optimization.

  13. Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Kayacetin, Serra

    2004-01-01

    Liver penetration is a rare but serious complication of peptic ulcer disease. Usually the diagnosis is made by operation or autopsy. Clinical and laboratory data were no specific. A 64-year-old man was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hepatic penetration was diagnosed as the cause of bleeding. Endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with a pseudotumoral mass protruding from the ulcer bed. Definitive diagnosis was established by endoscopic biopsies of the ulcer base. PMID:15188520

  14. Optical Biopsy of Peripheral Nerve Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A New Tool for Nerve Surgeons?

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Joseph C; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a challenge for reconstructive surgeons with many patients obtaining suboptimal results. Understanding the level of injury is imperative for successful repair. Current methods for distinguishing healthy from damaged nerve are time consuming and possess limited efficacy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an emerging optical biopsy technology that enables dynamic, high resolution, sub-surface imaging of live tissue. Porcine sciatic nerve was either left undamaged or briefly clamped to simulate injury. Diluted fluorescein was applied topically to the nerve. CLE imaging was performed by direct contact of the probe with nerve tissue. Images representative of both damaged and undamaged nerve fibers were collected and compared to routine H&E histology. Optical biopsy of undamaged nerve revealed bands of longitudinal nerve fibers, distinct from surrounding adipose and connective tissue. When damaged, these bands appear truncated and terminate in blebs of opacity. H&E staining revealed similar features in damaged nerve fibers. These results prompt development of a protocol for imaging peripheral nerves intraoperatively. To this end, improving surgeons' ability to understand the level of injury through real-time imaging will allow for faster and more informed operative decisions than the current standard permits. PMID:26430636

  15. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  16. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  17. Effects of copper mine tailings disposal on littoral meiofaunal assemblages in the Atacama region of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Correa, Juan A

    2005-02-01

    The effects of the disposal of copper mine tailings on the littoral meiofaunal assemblages of the Chañaral area of northern Chile were studied. Of the metals data collected, only in the case of copper was there a clear association with the tailings distribution in both the seawater and porewater samples, and it is assumed that the tailings on the beaches was the source of copper in the adjacent seawater. When compared to the reference sites, the meiofaunal assemblages at the impacted sites had significantly lower densities and taxa diversities; at the northern sites only the densities were lower. Otoplanid turbellarians were identified as characteristic of those beaches impacted by tailings. The combination of porewater copper and the amount of tailings present were identified as mostly responsible for the observed structure of the meiofaunal assemblages. It was also established that the variation in natural sediment grain size from beach to beach was not a significant factor in the observed differences in the meiofaunal assemblages. The two groups of meiofauna that proved to be most sensitive to the effects of tailings dumping were the foraminiferans and the harpacticoid copepods. PMID:15325133

  18. The application of remote sensing in the environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond: a case study in Zhangjiakou area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Rulin; Shen, Wenming; Fu, Zhuo; Shi, Yuanli; Xiong, Wencheng; Cao, Fei

    2012-10-01

    As a kind of huge environmental risk source, tailings pond could cause a huge environmental disaster to the downstream area once an accident happened on it. Therefore it has become one key target of the environmental regulation in china. Especially, recently environmental emergencies caused by tailings pond are growing rapidly in China, the environmental emergency management of the tailings pond has been confronting with a severe situation. However, the regulatory agency is badly weak in the environmental regulation of tailings pond, due to the using of ground surveys and statistics which is costly, laborious and time consuming, and the lacking of strong technical and information support. Therefore, in this paper, according to the actual needs of the environmental emergency management of tailings pond, we firstly make a brief analysis of the characteristics of the tailings pond and the advantages and capability of remote sensing technology, and then proposed a comprehensive and systematic indexes system and the method of environmental risk monitoring of tailings pond based on remote sensing and GIS. The indexes system not only considers factors from the upstream area, the pond area and the downstream area in a perspective of the risk space theory, but also considers factors from risk source, risk receptor and risk control mechanism in a perspective of risk systems theory. Given that Zhangjiakou city has up to 580 tailings pond and is nearly located upstream of the water source of Beijing, so finally we apply the proposed indexes system and method in Zhangjiakou area in China to help collect environmental risk data of tailings pond in that area and find out it works well. Through the use case in Zhajiakou, the technique of using remote sensing to monitor environmental risk of tailings pond is feasible and effective, and would contribute to the establishment of `Space-Ground' monitoring network of tailings pond in future.

  19. Major Bleeding after Percutaneous Image-Guided Biopsies: Frequency, Predictors, and Periprocedural Management

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sean A.; Milovanovic, Lazar; Midia, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Major bleeding remains an uncommon yet potentially devastating complication following percutaneous image-guided biopsy. This article reviews two cases of major bleeding after percutaneous biopsy and discusses the frequency, predictors, and periprocedural management of major postprocedural bleeding. PMID:25762845

  20. Major bleeding after percutaneous image-guided biopsies: frequency, predictors, and periprocedural management.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sean A; Milovanovic, Lazar; Midia, Mehran

    2015-03-01

    Major bleeding remains an uncommon yet potentially devastating complication following percutaneous image-guided biopsy. This article reviews two cases of major bleeding after percutaneous biopsy and discusses the frequency, predictors, and periprocedural management of major postprocedural bleeding. PMID:25762845

  1. Molecular correlates of renal function in kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, Sakarn; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff; Jhangri, Gian S; Mueller, Thomas F; Sis, Banu; Hidalgo, Luis G; Mengel, Michael; Kayser, Daniel; Kaplan, Bruce; Halloran, Philip F

    2009-05-01

    The molecular changes in the parenchyma that reflect disturbances in the function of kidney transplants are unknown. We studied the relationships among histopathology, gene expression, and renal function in 146 human kidney transplant biopsies performed for clinical indications. Impaired function (estimated GFR) correlated with tubular atrophy and fibrosis but not with inflammation or rejection. Functional deterioration before biopsy correlated with inflammation and tubulitis and was greater in cases of rejection. Microarray analysis revealed a correlation between impaired renal function and altered expression of sets of transcripts consistent with tissue injury but not with those consistent with cytotoxic T cell infiltration or IFN-gamma effects. Multivariate analysis of clinical variables, histologic lesions, and transcript sets confirmed that expression of injury-related transcript sets independently correlated with renal function. Analysis of individual genes confirmed that the transcripts with the greatest positive or negative correlations with renal function were those suggestive of response to injury and parenchymal dedifferentiation not inflammation. We defined new sets of genes based on individual transcripts that correlated with renal function, and these highly correlated with the previously developed injury sets and with atrophy and fibrosis. Thus, in biopsies performed for clinical reasons, functional disturbances are reflected in transcriptome changes representing tissue injury and dedifferentiation but not the inflammatory burden. PMID:19389845

  2. Outpatient biopsy of breast cancer. Influence on survival.

    PubMed Central

    Bertario, L; Reduzzi, D; Piromalli, D; Piva, L; Di Pietro, S

    1985-01-01

    From 1948 to 1975, at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan, 209 patients underwent extended radical mastectomy (ERM) for breast cancer classified as T1 NO-1 MO. In 57 patients (27.3%), the ERM was preceded by an excisional biopsy performed in the outpatient clinic (Group A), of which 75% were performed within 30 days of admission and 25% after 30 days (average, 25 days; range 5-99). The remaining 152 patients (Group B) underwent an extemporaneous frozen biopsy. There was no difference in the distribution of the histologic types in the two groups. The axillary lymph nodes (N) and the internal mammary chain (MI) were free of neoplastic invasion (N-, MI-) in 156 patients (74.6%), 44 in Group A (77.2%) and 112 in Group B (73.7%). Actuarial 10-year survival of the patients was 79.9% in Group A and 77.7% in Group B (p = NS). It was 90% in N- MI- patients of Group A and 81.9% in those of Group B (p = NS). Instead, for N+ patients, actuarial survival at 10 years was 50% in Group A and 67% in Group B (p = NS), and for MI+ patients it was 50% and 49.8%, respectively. These present data do not support the hypothesis that a delay between biopsy and radical surgery of breast cancer is an important prognostic factor. PMID:3966829

  3. Three different anesthesia techniques for a comfortable prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Adnan; Ceylan, Cavit; Gazel, Eymen; Odabaş, Öner

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this paper, we aimed to compare the efficacy of three different anesthesia techniques applied in 90 cases of which transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) -guided prostate biopsies were taken. Materials and Methods: Between February 2012 and July 2012, TRUS-guided 16 core biopsies were taken from 90 patients who comply the study criteria. Patients were randomly divided into three groups each of which consists of 30 individuals. Group 1: Was applied periprostatic block anesthesia; Group 2: Was administered intrarectal lidocaine gel; Group 3: Was applied pudendal block. Visual analog scale (VAS) of patients in groups was evaluated. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the mean ages, prostate-specific antigen values of three groups. Although pain ratings of Groups 2 and 3 were high, no significant difference was present between each other (P > 0.05). In Groups 1 and 2, the difference between VASs was significant. In the group where periprostatic block was applied, pain ratings were significantly low compared with the other two groups (P = 0.0001). Discussion: Enabling pain and discomfort control in patients is very important during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In our study, we observed that the periprostatic block enables more comfortable compared with patient groups with intrarectal lidocaine gel and pudendal block and better reduction in pain scores. PMID:26229322

  4. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Odrzywolski, Karen J; Shah, Bharati; Henderson, Don; Fricke, Alex F.; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J; Tawil, Rabi

    2015-01-01

    Background Posited pathological mechanisms in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) include activation in somatic tissue of normally silenced genes, increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and induction of apoptosis. Objective To determine the histopathological changes in FSHD muscle biopsies and compare to possible pathological mechanisms of disease. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on quadriceps muscle biopsies from 32 genetically confirmed FSHD participants, compared to healthy volunteers and myotonic dystrophy type 1 as disease controls. Biopsies were divided into groups to evaluate apoptosis rates, capillary density, myonuclear and satellite cell counts. Results Apoptosis rates were increased in FSHD (n=10, 0.74%) compared to myotonic dystrophy type 1 (n=10, 0.14%, P=0.003) and healthy volunteers (n=14, 0.13%, P=0.002). Apoptosis was higher in FSHD patients with the smallest residual D4Z4 fragments. Capillary density was decreased in FSHD1 (n=10, 316 capillaries/mm2) compared to healthy volunteers (n=15, 448 capillaries/mm2, P=0.001). No differences were seen in myonuclear or satellite cell counts. Conclusions Preliminary evidence for increased apoptosis rates and reduced capillary density may reflect histopathological correlates of disease activity in FSHD. The molecular-pathological correlates to these changes warrants further investigation. PMID:26345300

  5. Outpatient renal needle biopsy of the transplanted kidney: safety profile.

    PubMed

    Petrone, H; Frapiccini, M G; Skare, R; Baran, M

    2011-11-01

    Since May 2005, we began performing renal graft biopsies as outpatient procedures when the patient's condition did not require hospitalization. To evaluate the safety profile of the 137 procedures performed in 111 patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of complications after all biopsies between 4 May 2005 and 6 January 6, 2011. The analysis focused on types of complications as well as needs for hospitalization with length of stay, for blood transfusion or for a further intervention. There were complications in 10.9% of procedures (n = 15) with 8% requiring hospitalization (n = 11). The complications were: gross hematuria (n = 10) including blockage of urinary flow (n = 2) with one subject requiring urologic intervention, and one patient experienced severe pain at the puncture site. Neither renal graft nor patient survival was threatened; there was no hemodynamic decompensation needing blood transfusions. The average hospital stay was 2.27 days (range = 1-8). Outpatient renal biopsies in 111 patients (137 procedures) had an 8% incidence of complications requiring admission and an average length of hospitalization of 2.27 days. Gross hematuria the most frequent problem, in no way compromised patient or graft survival showing it to be a safe outpatient procedure. PMID:22099801

  6. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound and novel navigation biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Chenna, Praveen; Chen, Alexander C

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral pulmonary lesions are an increasingly common finding in clinical practice. While many nodules are followed with radiographic surveillance, some may require biopsy. Conventional bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsy has traditionally performed poorly for small, peripheral lesions, and transthoracic needle aspiration with computed tomographic (CT) guidance has been favored as the diagnostic test of choice. Despite the high diagnostic yield of transthoracic needle aspiration, procedural complications such as pneumothorax continue to be problematic. New technology has been developed to improve the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy for peripheral lesions over conventional methods, while maintaining the favorable safety profile of a bronchoscopic approach. Virtual bronchoscopy and electromagnetic navigation are CT-based image guidance systems that create virtual bronchoscopic representations of the tracheobronchial tree to assist the bronchoscopist in locating peripheral lesions. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound utilizes real-time ultrasound to confirm the location of peripheral lesions before biopsy. This article summarizes the technical platforms, procedures, and clinical evidence for these emerging technologies. PMID:25463156

  7. Isobaric (gasless) laparoscopic liver and kidney biopsy in standing steers

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, O. Alberto; von Bredow, Jurgen; Li, Hui; Smith, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the suitability of an isobaric laparoscopic procedure, using a single port, for obtaining serial kidney and liver biopsy samples from standing steers. The samples were used in support of a pharmacokinetic tissue–fluid correlation study. Laparoscopic access was performed 3 times in each of 8 healthy Holstein steers, alternating from the right side to the left side and then to the right side again. The surgery was performed in standing stocks after the animals were given 3 doses of sulfadimethoxine sulfate intravenously and fasted for at least 18 h. Sedation and analgesia were achieved with acepromazine and xylazine. Lidocaine 2% was injected at the center of the paralumbar fossa (left or right), and an incision was made for introduction of a trocar–cannula assembly. Room air was allowed to enter the abdomen through the cannula at the time of insertion. Once the peritoneal cavity was reached, an operating endoscope was inserted. No pressurized insufflation was performed. A biopsy forceps was introduced into the operating channel of the endoscope to obtain a 100-mg kidney or liver sample. No complications were encountered. The 24 laparoscopic procedures provided 24 kidney and 16 liver samples. The results suggest that the isobaric (gasless) single-port laparoscopic technique is feasible for kidney and liver biopsy on standing steers. The procedure can be performed in a reliable and efficient manner in the sedated standing bovine. PMID:19337395

  8. [Wedge excision: a new reconstructive technique after longitudinal nail biopsy].

    PubMed

    Marin Braun, F; Loréa, P; Ameziane, L; Dury, M

    2001-10-01

    A biopsy is needed when a solitary melanonychia striata in a white patient remains unexplained after careful clinical examination in order to rule out the development of a malignant melanoma. The ideal biopsy has to excise entirely the lesion and to provide enough tissue for pathological examination. The authors describe a new method of excisional biopsy based on primarily closure using a longitudinal closing wedge osteotomy of the distal phalanx. The longitudinal elliptical resection extended from the distal interphalangeal joint to the hyponychium with en bloc resection of the entire thickness of the nail complex, including the periosteum. A longitudinal closing wedge osteotomy was then performed in the distal phalanx allowing primarily closure with precise alignment of the nailbed edges. After suture of the nailbed, a tension band nail synthesis was performed. Four consecutive melanonychia striata of 2 to 3 mm were consecutively operated on using this technique. Postoperative cares were uneventful in all the cases. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in one case, Bowen's disease in one and junctional nevus in two. Cosmetic and functional assessment at a mean follow-up of 12 months evidenced light nail dystrophy in all the cases. Our method offers to the pathologist enough tissue with preserved architecture for precise pathological examination. The technically simple closing wedge osteotomy never complicated the postoperative course. These preliminary results are encouraging and allow us to recommend this technique for the diagnosis of all suspect melanonychia striata between 2 and 3 mm wide. PMID:11723773

  9. A retrospective analysis of osteochondroma of scapula following excision biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, T; Ravi Kumar, N; Nataraj, A R

    2015-06-01

    Scapula is an uncommon site for osteochondroma. There is a paucity of information regarding postoperative complications, recurrence of osteochondroma, functional improvement. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients treated for osteochondroma scapula over a period of 4 years was undertaken to assess postoperative complications, recurrence, and functional improvement following excision biopsy for osteochondroma scapula. All patients of any age group who were diagnosed with osteochondroma scapula and treated with excision biopsy in the past 6 years were included in the study. Patients were followed up for recurrence, postoperative complications and functional assessment using modified UCLA shoulder rating scale. The mean age at presentation was 13.7 years. Boys were more commonly affected than girls with a male to female ratio of 7:2. There was no incidence of recurrence of osteochondroma, postoperative wound complications or functional limitation following excision biopsy of osteochondroma scapula. We conclude that preoperative functional restriction in osteochondroma of scapula is mainly due to location of tumour especially when present over ventral or ventromedial aspect scapula. After complete excision they do not cause any functional limitations. PMID:26280971

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  11. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic infarction after liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Ting, Peng-Sheng; Green, Richard M

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms (HAP) are rare events, particularly after liver biopsy, but can be associated with serious complications. Therefore a high suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report on a case of HAP that potentially formed after a liver biopsy in a patient with sarcoidosis. The HAP in our case was virtually undetectable initially by angiography but resulted in several complications including recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic cholecystitis and finally hepatic infarction with abscess formation until it became detectable at a size of 5-mm. The patient remains asymptomatic over a year after endovascular embolization of the HAP. In this report, we demonstrate that a small HAP can avoid detection by angiography at an early stage while being symptomatic for a prolonged course. A high clinical suspicion with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is needed in symptomatic patients with history of liver biopsy despite initial negative work up. Once diagnosed, HAP can be safely and effectively treated by endovascular embolization. PMID:24587666

  12. Biopsy-negative, varicella zoster virus (VZV)-positive giant cell arteritis, zoster, VZV encephalitis and ischemic optic neuropathy, all in one

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, Tiago; Nagel, Maria A.; Geraldes, Ruth; White, Teresa; Mahalingam, Ravi; Batista, Paulo; Wellish, Mary; Pimentel, Jose; Khmeleva, Nelly; Heintzman, Anna; Albuquerque, Luísa; Boyer, Philip J.; Choe, Alexander; Peralta, Rita; Gilden, Don

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old man developed clinical features of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and ipsilateral ophthalmic-distribution zoster, followed within 2 weeks by VZV encephalitis and 2 months later by ischemic optic neuropathy. Temporal artery biopsy was histopathologically negative for GCA, but contained VZV antigen and VZV DNA in multiple non-contiguous (skip) areas. The collective clinical and laboratory findings revealed a remarkably close temporal association of zoster, multifocal VZV vasculopathy with temporal artery infection, biopsy-negative VZV-positive GCA and VZV encephalitis. PMID:24923742

  13. P12.04GLIOMATOSIS CEREBRI: IS THERE A ROLE FOR SURGERY OTHER THAN BIOPSY?

    PubMed Central

    Agnoletti, A.; Bertero, L.; Fornaro, R.; Calamo Specchia, F.M.; Garbossa, D.; Lanotte, M.; Cassoni, P.; Soffietti, R.; Rudà, R.; Ducati, A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a highly infiltrative glial neoplastic lesion that involves at least three lobes (as defined by WHO 2007). GC can appear as primary GC or result from a spread of a focal glioma and it is usually an aggressive neoplasm corresponding to WHO grade III. Due to the tumor extension, patients are generally not candidate to surgical resection, but biopsy is performed in order to obtain an histological diagnosis. Prognosis remains limited despite treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients with GC who underwent surgery at our Institution from 2001 to 2012. We focused on the type (biopsy vs partial resection) and the outcome of surgery at the time of diagnosis and the role of surgery at tumor progression. Diagnosis of GC in patients whose histological evaluation after surgery resulted not conclusive was defined by MR spectroscopy (MRS) and/or by IDH1 mutation immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We collected a total of 38 patients with diagnosis of GC treated at our Institution. 24 out of 38 (63%) were males. Median age at diagnosis was 50.5 (range: 21-72), median KPS at diagnosis was 80 (range: 60-100). As for the MRI patterns at the time of diagnosis, contrast enhancement (CE) was absent in 21/38 (55%) and mild-patchy in 17/38 (45%). 25 patients out of 38 (66%) underwent biopsy only, 13/38 (34%) underwent partial resection. In the group of patients who underwent biopsy the median age at diagnosis was 52 (range: 21-72), median KPS at diagnosis was 80 (range: 60-90).Two patients had serious hemorrhage after biopsy. Histological diagnosis was conclusive in 22/25 (88%), while in three patients histological diagnosis was aspecific gliosis. Median overall survival (OS) in this group of patients was: 17 months (range: 7 months-10 years). 7 patients out of 25 (28%) are still alive. In the group of patients who underwent partial resection the median age at diagnosis was 50 (range: 25-66), median KPS at diagnosis was 80 (range: 70-100) and was unchanged after surgery. Histological diagnosis was conclusive in all patients (100%). Median OS was: 22 months (range: 4.5 months-9 years). Three patients out of 12 (25%) are still alive. Four patients underwent surgical resection of a symptomatic enhancing lesion at the time of tumor progression after treatments (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). In 2 patients KPS improved after surgery, while in the remaining patients KPS was stable. Median OS after second surgery was 6 months. One patient is still alive. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to biopsy alone, partial resection that provides more tissue to the neuropathologist, allows an increase of “conclusive” histological diagnosis. Type of surgery at diagnosis could impact the outcome. Second surgery can be an option at the time of tumor progression when patient develops a focal, enhancing, symptomatic mass.

  14. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of an Oil Sands Composite Tailings Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Lesley A.; Kendra, Kathryn E.; Brady, Allyson L.; Slater, Greg F.

    2016-01-01

    Composite tailings (CT), an engineered, alkaline, saline mixture of oil sands tailings (FFT), processed sand and gypsum (CaSO4; 1 kg CaSO4 per m3 FFT) are used as a dry reclamation strategy in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). It is estimated that 9.6 × 108 m3 of CT are either in, or awaiting emplacement in surface pits within the AOSR, highlighting their potential global importance in sulfur cycling. Here, in the first CT sulfur biogeochemistry investigation, integrated geochemical, pyrosequencing and lipid analyses identified high aqueous concentrations of ∑H2S (>300 μM) and highly altered sulfur compounds composition; low cell biomass (3.3 × 106– 6.0 × 106 cells g−1) and modest bacterial diversity (H' range between 1.4 and 1.9) across 5 depths spanning 34 m of an in situ CT deposit. Pyrosequence results identified a total of 29,719 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, representing 131 OTUs spanning19 phyla including 7 candidate divisions, not reported in oil sands tailings pond studies to date. Legacy FFT common phyla, notably, gamma and beta Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were represented. However, overall CT microbial diversity and PLFA values were low relative to other contexts. The identified known sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria constituted at most 2% of the abundance; however, over 90% of the 131 OTUs identified are capable of sulfur metabolism. While PCR biases caution against overinterpretation of pyrosequence surveys, bacterial sequence results identified here, align with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and geochemical results. The highest bacterial diversities were associated with the depth of highest porewater [∑H2S] (22–24 m) and joint porewater co-occurrence of Fe2+ and ∑H2S (6–8 m). Three distinct bacterial community structure depths corresponded to CT porewater regions of (1) shallow evident Fe(II) (<6 m), (2) co-occurring Fe(II) and ∑H2S (6–8 m) and (3) extensive ∑H2S (6–34 m) (UniFrac). Candidate divisions GNO2, NKB19 and Spam were present only at 6–8 m associated with co-occurring [Fe(II)] and [∑H2S]. Collectively, results indicate that CT materials are differentiated from other sulfur rich environments by modestly diverse, low abundance, but highly sulfur active and more enigmatic communities (7 candidate divisions present within the 19 phyla identified). PMID:26869997

  15. Sulfur Biogeochemistry of an Oil Sands Composite Tailings Deposit.

    PubMed

    Warren, Lesley A; Kendra, Kathryn E; Brady, Allyson L; Slater, Greg F

    2015-01-01

    Composite tailings (CT), an engineered, alkaline, saline mixture of oil sands tailings (FFT), processed sand and gypsum (CaSO4; 1 kg CaSO4 per m(3) FFT) are used as a dry reclamation strategy in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR). It is estimated that 9.6 × 10(8) m(3) of CT are either in, or awaiting emplacement in surface pits within the AOSR, highlighting their potential global importance in sulfur cycling. Here, in the first CT sulfur biogeochemistry investigation, integrated geochemical, pyrosequencing and lipid analyses identified high aqueous concentrations of ∑H2S (>300 μM) and highly altered sulfur compounds composition; low cell biomass (3.3 × 10(6)- 6.0 × 10(6) cells g(-1)) and modest bacterial diversity (H' range between 1.4 and 1.9) across 5 depths spanning 34 m of an in situ CT deposit. Pyrosequence results identified a total of 29,719 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, representing 131 OTUs spanning19 phyla including 7 candidate divisions, not reported in oil sands tailings pond studies to date. Legacy FFT common phyla, notably, gamma and beta Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were represented. However, overall CT microbial diversity and PLFA values were low relative to other contexts. The identified known sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria constituted at most 2% of the abundance; however, over 90% of the 131 OTUs identified are capable of sulfur metabolism. While PCR biases caution against overinterpretation of pyrosequence surveys, bacterial sequence results identified here, align with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and geochemical results. The highest bacterial diversities were associated with the depth of highest porewater [∑H2S] (22-24 m) and joint porewater co-occurrence of Fe(2+) and ∑H2S (6-8 m). Three distinct bacterial community structure depths corresponded to CT porewater regions of (1) shallow evident Fe((II)) (<6 m), (2) co-occurring Fe((II)) and ∑H2S (6-8 m) and (3) extensive ∑H2S (6-34 m) (UniFrac). Candidate divisions GNO2, NKB19 and Spam were present only at 6-8 m associated with co-occurring [Fe((II))] and [∑H2S]. Collectively, results indicate that CT materials are differentiated from other sulfur rich environments by modestly diverse, low abundance, but highly sulfur active and more enigmatic communities (7 candidate divisions present within the 19 phyla identified). PMID:26869997

  16. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. PMID:24681363

  17. Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hakime, Antoine Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia; Barah, Ali; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry De

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid on the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and 'in-plane' or 'out-of-plane' needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5-60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to determine needle tip position and allows fast and accurate needle placement in targeted liver nodules.

  18. Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

    2014-05-01

    The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

  19. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

    Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

    The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

    This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  20. Tailings basin reclamation: Atlantic City Iron Mine, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gusek, J.J.; Richmond, T.C.

    1999-07-01

    An 81 ha (200 ac) tailings impoundment at a taconite operation in Wyoming abandoned in 1985 has been a source of blowing dust. The site qualified for reclamation under Wyoming's Abandoned Mine Land program. The reclamation design included: incorporating commercially available organic amendments and fertilizers into a 300 mm (12 in.) thick cap of a sterile gravelly clay loam cover material, planting trees in the protective wind/snow shadows of rock beams and rock snow fences, lowering the water level n a flooded mine pit that was feeding uncontrolled seeps, and constructing a wide tailings pond spillway that allows flood control while minimizing seasonal water level fluctuations in the pond. The construction of the earthwork aspects of the design were completed over two construction seasons, including work during the winter at this high-altitude (2,470 m [8,100 ft.]) site. This occurred because snow from an early winter storm that collected behind the rock beams and rock snow fences was slow to melt. Furthermore, the increased snow catch made the site too wet the following spring to allow seeding during the normal seeding window; a fall planting was necessary. The rocky nature of the cover material prompted the development of innovative reclamation approaches, including fabricating a rock rake bulldozer blade and applying organic soil amendments by aerial spraying. A randomly-configured two-acre test plot was installed to evaluate the benefits of various soil amendments as the site matures. Future work on the site will include tree seedling planting and plugging of a decant pipeline.

  1. Bioleaching of ultramafic tailings by acidithiobacillus spp. for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Bioleaching experiments using various acid-generating substances, i.e., metal sulfides and elemental sulfur, were conducted to demonstrate the accelerated dissolution of chrysotile tailings collected from an asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. Columns, possessing an acid-generating substance colonized with Acidithiobacillus sp., produced leachates with magnesium concentrations that were an order of magnitude greater than mine site waters or control column leachates. In addition, chrysotile tailings were efficient at neutralizing acidity, which resulted in the immobilization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) associated with the metal sulfide mine tailings that were used to generate acid. This suggests that tailings from acid mine drainage environments may be utilized to enhance chrysotile dissolution without polluting "downstream" ecosystems. These results demonstrate that the addition of an acid-generating substance in conjunction with a microbial catalyst can significantly enhance the release of magnesium ions, which are then available for the precipitation of carbonate minerals. This process, as part of a carbon dioxide sequestration program, has implications for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in the mining industry. PMID:19950896

  2. A feasibility study on bioelectrokinetics for the removal of heavy metals from tailing soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Soon-Oh; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-01-01

    The combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics, termed bioelectrokinetics, has been studied constantly to enhance the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from soil. The use of the bioleaching process originating from Fe- and/or S-oxidizing bacteria may be a feasible technology for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, the bioleaching process driven by injection of S-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, was evaluated as a pre-treatment step. The bioleaching process was sequentially integrated with the electrokinetic soil process, and the final removal efficiency of the combined process was compared with those of individual processes. Tailing soil, heavily contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and As, was collected from an abandoned mine area in Korea. The results of geochemical studies supported that this tailing soil contains the reduced forms of sulfur that can be an energy source for A. thiooxidans. From the result of the combined process, we could conclude that the bioleaching process might be a good pre-treatment step to mobilize heavy metals in tailing soil. Additionally, the electrokinetic process can be an effective technology for the removal of heavy metals from tailing soil. For the sake of generalizing the proposed bioelectrokinetic process, however, the site-specific differences in soil should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:21046430

  3. Contaminant tailing in highly heterogeneous porous formations: Sensitivity on model selection and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mahdi; Jankovic, Igor; Weissmann, Gary S.; Matott, L. Shawn; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Rabideau, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled impacts of slow advection, diffusion and sorption were investigated using two heterogeneity models that differ in structure and in the mathematical framework that was used to simulate flow and transport and to quantify contaminant tailing. Both models were built using data from a highly heterogeneous exposure of the Borden Aquifer at a site located 2 km north-west of the Stanford-Waterloo experimental site at Canadian Forces Base Borden, Ontario, Canada. The inclusions-based model used a simplified representation of the different materials found at the site, while the second model was based on transitional probability geostatistics of the formation. These two models were used to investigate sensitivity of contaminant tailing on model selection and on geometric and material properties. While simulations were based on data collected at Borden, models were exercised beyond the geometric and material properties that characterize the site. Various realizations have identified very low conductive silty clay, found at volume fraction of 23.4%, as the material with dominant influence on tailing, and vertical diffusion in and out of low conductive units, affected by sorption, as the dominant transport mechanism causing tailing. The two models yielded almost identical transport results when vertical correlation lengths of silty clay were matched. Several practical implications relevant for characterization of low conductive units were identified and briefly discussed.

  4. Evaluation of microbial biofilm communities from an Alberta oil sands tailings pond.

    PubMed

    Golby, Susanne; Ceri, Howard; Gieg, Lisa M; Chatterjee, Indranil; Marques, Lyriam L R; Turner, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta has resulted in millions of cubic meters of waste stored on-site in tailings ponds. Unique microbial ecology is expected in these ponds, which may be key to their bioremediation potential. We considered that direct culturing of microbes from a tailings sample as biofilms could lead to the recovery of microbial communities that provide good representation of the ecology of the tailings. Culturing of mixed species biofilms in vitro using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) under aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic growth conditions was successful both with and without the addition of various growth nutrients. Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing revealed that unique mixed biofilm communities were recovered under each incubation condition, with the dominant species belonging to Pseudomonas, Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Rhodoferax, and Acidovorax. This work used an approach that allowed organisms to grow as a biofilm directly from a sample collected of their environment, and the biofilms cultivated in vitro were representative of the endogenous environmental community. For the first time, representative environmental mixed species biofilms have been isolated and grown under laboratory conditions from an oil sands tailings pond environment and a description of their composition is provided. PMID:22029695

  5. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  6. Plasma flow pulsations in earth's magnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Lepping, R. P.; Scarf, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    On November 9, 1972 Imp 7 was in the plasma sheet from 0430 to 1000 UT and detected strong earthward plasma flows. A series of nine temporal pulsations were observed to vary in bulk speed from 0 to about 1500 km/s and to occur at 15-30 minute intervals. A positive correlation exists between the speed variations and changes in the standard deviation of the magnetic field. Evident periodicity was not found corresponding to Imp 7 pulsations and other magnetospheric or solar wind data. It is felt that the pulsations may indicate that tail reconnection is unsteady in periods of 10-30 minutes.

  7. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  8. Biopsy Needle Advancement during Bone Marrow Aspiration Increases Mesenchymal Stem Cell Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anne E.; Watts, Ashlee E.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care kits to concentrate bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in horses. A maximal number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow aspirated might be desired prior to use of a point-of-care system to concentrate MSCs. Our objective was to test a method to increase the number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow collected. We collected two BM aspirates using two different collection techniques from 12 horses. The first collection technique was to aspirate BM from a single site without advancement of the biopsy needle. The second collection technique was to aspirate marrow from multiple sites within the same sternal puncture by advancing the needle 5 mm three times for BM aspiration from four sites. Numbers of MSCs in collected BM were assessed by total nucleated cell count of BM after aspiration, total colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and total MSC number at each culture passage. The BM aspiration technique of four needle advancements during BM aspiration resulted in higher initial nucleated cell counts, more CFU-Fs, and more MSCs at the first passage. There were no differences in the number of MSCs at later passages. Multiple advancements of the BM needle during BM aspiration resulted in increased MSC concentration at the time of BM collection. If a point-of-care kit is used to concentrate MSCs, multiple advancements may result in higher MSC numbers in the BM concentrate after preparation by the point-of-care kit. For culture expanded MSCs beyond the first cell passage, the difference is of questionable clinical relevance. PMID:27014705

  9. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

  10. Aeroelastic characteristics of the AH-64 bearingless tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test program to determine the performance loads and dynamic characteristics of the Composite Flexbeam Tail Rotor (CFTR) for the AH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter are reported. The CFTR uses an elastomeric shear attachment of the flexbeam to the hub to provide soft-inplane S-mode and stiff-inplane C-mode configuration. The properties of the elastomer were selected for proper frequency placement and scale damping of the inplane S-mode. Kinematic pitch-lag coupling was introduced to provide the first cyclic inplane C-mode damping at high collective pitch. The CFTR was tested in a wind tunnel over the full slideslip envelop of the AH-64. It is found that the rotor was aeroelastically stable throughout the complete collective pitch range and up to rotor speeds of 1403 rpm. The dynamic characteristics of the rotor were found to be satisfactory at all pitch angles and rotor speeds of the tunnel tests. The design characteristics of the rotor which permit the high performance characteristics are discussed. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the rotor are provided.

  11. Simulation of tail buffet using delta wing-vertical tail configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Massey, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Computational simulation of the vertical tail buffet problem is accomplished using a delta wing-vertical tail configuration. Flow conditions are selected such that the wing primary-vortex cores experience vortex breakdown and the resulting flow interacts with the vertical tail. This multidisciplinary problem is solved successively using three sets of equations for the fluid flow, aeroelastic deflections and grid displacements. For the fluid dynamics part, the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations are solved accurately in time using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the aeroelastic part, the aeroelastic equation for bending vibrations is solved accurately in time using the Galerkin method and the four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. The grid for the fluid dynamics computations is updated every few time steps using a third set of interpolation equations. The computational application includes a delta wing of aspect ratio 1 and a rectangular vertical tail of aspect ratio 2, which is placed at 0.5 root-chord length downstream of the wing trailing edge. The wing angle of attack is 35 deg and the flow Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.4 and 10,000, respectively.

  12. Cancer detection rates of different prostate biopsy regimens in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoşcan, Mustafa Burak; Özorak, Alper; Oksay, Taylan; Perk, Hakkı; Armağan, Abdullah; Soyupek, Sedat; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Koşar, Alim

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the cancer detection rates of 6-, 10-, 12-core biopsy regimens and the optimal biopsy protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with renal failure. A total of 122 consecutive patients with renal failure underwent biopsy with age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels up to 20 ng/mL. The 12-core biopsy technique (sextant biopsy + lateral base, lateral mid-zone, lateral apex, bilaterally) performed to all patients. Pathology results were examined separately for each sextant, 10-core that exclude parasagittal mid-zones from 12-cores (10a), 10-core that exclude apex zones from 12-cores (10b) and 12-core biopsy regimens. Of 122 patients, 37 (30.3%) were positive for prostate cancer. The cancer detection rates for sextant, 10a, 10b and 12 cores were 17.2%, 29%, 23.7% and 30.7%, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a, 10b and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 40%, 27.5% and 43.2% among the sextant technique, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 17.1% and 21.6% among 10b biopsy technique, respectively. There were no statistical differences between 12 core and 10a core about cancer detection rate. Adding lateral cores to sextant biopsy improves the cancer detection rates. In our study, 12-core biopsy technique increases the cancer detection rate by 5.4% among 10a core but that was not statistically different. On the other hand, 12-core biopsy technique includes all biopsy regimens. We therefore suggest 12-core biopsy or minimum 10-core strategy incorporating six peripheral biopsies with elevated age- specific PSA levels up to 20 ng/mL in patients with renal failure. PMID:24797801

  13. How to Interpret Thyroid Biopsy Results: A Three-Year Retrospective Interventional Radiology Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, Jason D. Kasuganti, Deepa; Nayar, Ritu; Chrisman, Howard B.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Nemcek, Albert A.; Ryu, Robert K.

    2010-08-15

    Results of thyroid biopsy determine whether thyroid nodule resection is appropriate and the extent of thyroid surgery. At our institution we use 20/22-gauge core biopsy (CBx) in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to decrease the number of passes and improve adequacy. Occasionally, both ultrasound (US)-guided FNA and CBx yield unsatisfactory specimens. To justify clinical recommendations for these unsatisfactory thyroid biopsies, we compare rates of malignancy at surgical resection for unsatisfactory biopsy results against definitive biopsy results. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 1979 patients who had a total of 2677 FNA and 663 CBx performed by experienced interventional radiologists under US guidance from 2003 to 2006 at a tertiary-care academic center. In 451 patients who had surgery following biopsy, Fisher's exact test was used to compare surgical malignancy rates between unsatisfactory and malignant biopsy cohorts as well as between unsatisfactory and benign biopsy cohorts. We defined statistical significance at P = 0.05. We reported an overall unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy rate of 3.7% (100/2677). A statistically significant higher rate of surgically proven malignancies was found in malignant biopsy patients compared to unsatisfactory biopsy patients (P = 0.0001). The incidence of surgically proven malignancy in unsatisfactory biopsy patients was not significantly different from that in benign biopsy patients (P = 0.8625). In conclusion, an extremely low incidence of malignancy was associated with both benign and unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy results. The difference in incidence between these two groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, patients with unsatisfactory biopsy specimens can be reassured and counseled accordingly.

  14. Application of a Clinical Whole-Transcriptome Assay for Staging and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Diagnosed in Needle Core Biopsy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Beatrice S; Kim, Hyung L; Erho, Nicholas; Shin, Heesun; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Lam, Lucia L C; Tenggara, Imelda; Chadwich, Karen; Van Der Kwast, Theo; Fleshner, Neil; Davicioni, Elai; Carroll, Peter R; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Chan, June M; Simko, Jeffry P

    2016-05-01

    Molecular and genomic analysis of microscopic quantities of tumor from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens has many unique challenges. Herein, we evaluated the feasibility of obtaining transcriptome-wide RNA expression to measure prognostic classifiers in diagnostic prostate needle core biopsy specimens. One-hundred fifty-eight samples from diagnostic needle core biopsy specimens (BX) and radical prostatectomies (RPs) were collected from 33 patients at three hospitals; each patient provided up to six tumor and benign samples. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were generated using Affymetrix Human Exon arrays for comparison of gene expression alterations and prognostic signatures between the BX and RP samples. A sufficient amount of RNA (>100 ng) was obtained from all RP specimens (n = 77) and from 72 of 81 of BX specimens. Of transcriptomic features detected in RP, 95% were detectable in BX tissues and demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.96). Likewise, an expression signature pattern validated on RPs (Decipher prognostic test) showed correlation between BX and RP (r = 0.70). Of matched BX and RP pairs, 25% showed discordant molecular subtypes. Genome-wide exon arrays yielded data of comparable quality from biopsy and RP tissues. The high concordance of tumor-associated gene expression changes between BX and RP samples provides evidence for the adequate performance of the assay platform with samples from prostate needle biopsy specimens with limited tumor volume. PMID:26945428

  15. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. Luminescent spectroscopy of dry tailings urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander; Bordun, Oleg; Yarynovska, Ivanna

    2006-05-01

    In the work the results of research of luminescent spectrums by photo excitation in the interval of waves lengths 250 - 550 nm and ofluminescent spectrums by the nitric laser (337,1 mn) excitation ofdiy tailings urinaryby the temperature of 300 K are represented. In the spectral interval of 400 - 800 nm a wide bar of luminescence, intensity of which depends on the type of excitation. was observed. It is set, that presence of salts with oxalate, urate and phosphatic compositions in urine results in the move of maximum of luniinescent spectrums in the long-wave region of spectrum and changes the intensity of luminescence. The possible mechanisms of the observed changes in the spectrums of luminescence of dry urine tailings are examined in the work. The model of recombrnational processes which describe the looked luminescent processes is offered. Possible explanations of the looked features in the spectrums of luminescence combine with luminescence of nanobiological complexes, inorganic salts, urea and natural proteins enter in composition of which.

  18. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, J.R.; Hamilton, H.R.; Taylor, B.

    1995-12-31

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters.

  19. INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi; Hsieh, Henry H.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie J.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ohta, Kouji; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Kim, Junhan; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2011-11-15

    Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

  20. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI