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1

Secondary structures involving the poly(A) tail and other 3? sequences are major determinants of mRNA isoform stability in yeast  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous measurements of mRNA stabilities have been determined on a per-gene basis. We and others have recently shown that yeast genes give rise to a highly heterogeneous population of mRNAs thanks to extensive alternative 3? end formation. Typical genes can have fifty or more distinct mRNA isoforms with 3? endpoints differing by as little as one and as many as hundreds of nucleotides. In our recent paper [Geisberg et al. Cell (2014) 156: 812–824] we measured half-lives of individual mRNA isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using the anchor away method for the rapid removal of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA Polymerase II, from the nucleus, followed by direct RNA sequencing of the cellular mRNA population over time. Combining these two methods allowed us to determine half-lives for more than 20,000 individual mRNA isoforms originating from nearly 5000 yeast genes. We discovered that different 3? mRNA isoforms arising from the same gene can have widely different stabilities, and that such half-life variability across mRNA isoforms from a single gene is highly prevalent in yeast cells. Determining half-lives for many different mRNA isoforms from the same genes allowed us to identify hundreds of RNA sequence elements involved in the stabilization and destabilization of individual isoforms. In many cases, the poly(A) tail is likely to participate in the formation of stability-enhancing secondary structures at mRNA 3? ends. Our results point to an important role for mRNA structure at 3? termini in governing transcript stability, likely by reducing the interaction of the mRNA with the degradation apparatus.

Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Geisberg, Joseph V.; Struhl, Kevin

2014-01-01

2

Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

2013-01-01

3

Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

2013-01-01

4

Experimental Determination of the Effect of Horizontal-Tail Size, Tail Length, and Vertical Location on Low-Speed Static Longitudinal Stability and Damping Pitch of a Model Having 45 Degree Sweptback Wing and Tail Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal tails of various sizes and at various tail lengths (when loaded on the fuselage center line) and also the effects of vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the wing on the low-speed static longitudinal stability and on the steady-state rotary damping in pitch for a complete-model configuration. The wing and tail surfaces had the quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees and had aspect ratios of 4. The results of the investigation showed that, in agreement with analytical considerations, the contribution of the horizontal tail to static longitudinal stability was related directly to the tail size and length; whereas, its contribution to damping in pitch was related directly to tail size and the square of tail length.

Lichtenstein, Jacob H

1952-01-01

5

Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

1978-01-01

6

Newt tail regeneration: a model for gravity-dependent morphogenesis and clues to the molecular mechanisms involved.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity alterations are widely recognized to influence living systems. They may cause temporary or permanent effects on physiology and development at different levels, from gene expression to morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are often unclear, and adequate model systems to study them are required. To address this problem we developed a new experimental model of how gravity affects morphogenesis during tail regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltl. The effects of increased gravity on newt tail morphogenesis were first documented in two joint Russian-US NASA spaceflight experiments in the Russian Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) missions. In these experiments the shape of newt tail regenerate was found to depend on the gravity level, being dorso-ventrally symmetrical in microgravity and in neutrally-buoyant aquarium controls, versus hook-like and bent downward in 1g controls. These 1g controls were conducted in spaceflight habitats using a water-saturated PVA sponge mat. These results were reproducible in multiple spaceflight, and ground laboratory studies, both in the US at NASA ARC and in Russia at IDB RAS, and were characterized in detail using morphometry and histology approaches. The role of hypergravity in shaping morphogenesis was confirmed at NASA ARC with an experiment in the ISS Testbed 8-foot diameter centrifuge operating at 2g. Animals that experienced two-week centrifugation (the period of time used in the Foton flights) developed the same hook-like regenerates as 1g controls, and morphometric analysis revealed no significant difference between 1g and 2g groups, however both were significantly different from aquarium controls. We hypothesize that exposure to 1g or 2g during tail morphogenesis constitutes excessive loading for newts that are adapted to microgravity-like conditions in their aquatic habitat. Because Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced molecules that respond to a broad variety of factors and are expressed during development, we hypothesized they may play a role newt tail regenerative morphogenesis under altered g-levels. Specifically there is increasing evidence for HSPs expression changes as a result of hyper-and microgravity. HSPs are also expressed throughout regeneration, rather than just after surgery. To test this hypothesis we performed heat shock on intact and regenerating newts and collected tail tissues. In these experiments we observed that some tails had uplifted tips while others mimicked hook-like regenerates at 1g or 2g. These findings suggest that heat shock, and HSPs induction, may be involved in the mechanism responsible for gravity effects on morphogenesis, or at least interact with them. Current work underway is focused on analyzing the expression of mRNA and localization of proteins for two members of the group, Hsp70 and Hsp90. In summary, we developed and characterized a new practical animal model in which gravity mechanostimulation at 1g, versus unloading in aquaria, causes prominent effects on newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. This model can be achieved without the use of a centrifuge, significantly simplifying its research applications. Initial results using this model suggest that induction of HSPs may be involved in gravity regulation of newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. Further research based on this simple model may help to unravel mechanisms of gravity influence relevant not only to newt tail regeneration, but also to a broad range of other biological processes in amphibian models.

Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora

7

CNS cell groups projecting to sympathetic outflow of tail artery: neural circuits involved in heat loss in the rat.  

PubMed

In the rat, approximately 20% of total body heat-loss occurs by sympathetically mediated increases in blood flow through an elaborate system of arteriovenous anastomoses in the skin of its tail. In this study, the CNS cell groups that regulate this sympathetic outflow were identified by the viral transneuronal labeling method. Pseudorabies virus was injected into the wall of the ventral tail artery in rats that had their cauda equina transected to eliminate the somatic innervation of the tail. After 4-7 days survival, the pattern of CNS transneuronal labeling was studied. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the T11-L2 (mainly L1) levels of the intermediolateral cell column (IML) were labeled by 4 days. After 5 days, sympathetic pre-motor neurons (i.e., supraspinal neurons that project to the IML) were identified near the ventral medullary surface; some of these contained serotonin immunoreactivity. Additional groups of the sympathetic premotor areas were labeled by 6 days post-injection, including the rostral ventrolateral medulla (C1 adrenergic neurons), rostral ventromedial medulla, caudal raphe nuclei (serotonin neurons in the raphe pallidus and magnus nuclei), A5 noradrenergic cell group, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular hypothalamic area (oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons). Seven days after the PRV injections, additional cell groups in the telencephalon (viz., bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and lateral preoptic areas and medial preoptic nucleus), diencephalon (viz., subincertal nucleus, zona incerta as well as dorsal, dorsomedial, parafascicular, posterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei) and midbrain (viz., periaqueductal gray matter, precommissural nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus and ventral tegmental area) were labeled. The discussion is focused on the CNS cell groups involved in the control of body temperature and fever. PMID:9554992

Smith, J E; Jansen, A S; Gilbey, M P; Loewy, A D

1998-03-01

8

Identification of a Site in Sar1 Involved in the Interaction with the Cytoplasmic Tail of Glycolipid Glycosyltransferases*  

PubMed Central

Glycolipid glycosyltransferases (GGT) are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, their site of residence, via COPII vesicles. An interaction of a (R/K)X(R/K) motif at their cytoplasmic tail (CT) with Sar1 is critical for the selective concentration in the transport vesicles. In this work using computational docking, we identify three putative binding pockets in Sar1 (sites A, B, and C) involved in the interaction with the (R/K)X(R/K) motif. Sar1 mutants with alanine replacement of amino acids in site A were tested in vitro and in cells. In vitro, mutant versions showed a reduced ability to bind immobilized peptides with the CT sequence of GalT2. In cells, Sar1 mutants (Sar1D198A) specifically affect the exiting of GGT from the ER, resulting in an ER/Golgi concentration ratio favoring the ER. Neither the typical Golgi localization of GM130 nor the exiting and transport of the G protein of the vesicular stomatitis virus were affected. The protein kinase inhibitor H89 produced accumulation of Sec23, Sar1, and GalT2 at the ER exit sites; Sar1D189A also accumulated at these sites, but in this case GalT2 remained disperse along ER membranes. The results indicate that amino acids in site A of Sar1 are involved in the interaction with the CT of GGT for concentration at ER exiting sites. PMID:20650895

Quintero, Cristián A.; Giraudo, Claudio G.; Villarreal, Marcos; Montich, Guillermo; Maccioni, Hugo J. F.

2010-01-01

9

Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene.  

PubMed Central

Successful completion of the bacteriophage P2 lytic cycle requires phage-induced lysis of its Escherichia coli host, a process that is poorly understood. Genetic analysis of lysis-deficient mutants defined a single locus, gene K, which lies within the largest late transcription unit of P2 and maps between head gene L and tail gene R. We determined and analyzed the DNA sequence of a ca. 2.1-kb EcoRV fragment that spans the entire region from L to R, thus completing the sequence of this operon. This region contains all of the functions necessary for host cell lysis. Sequence analysis revealed five open reading frames, initially designated orf19 through orf23. All of the existing lysis mutants--ts60, am12, am76, and am218--were located in orf21, which must therefore correspond to gene K. The K gene product has extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the product of gene R of bacteriophage lambda, and its exhibits endolysin function. Site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics were used to create P2 amber mutants in each of the four other newly identified open reading frames. Both orf19 (gene X) and orf20 (gene Y) encode essential functions, whereas orf22 (lysA) and orf23 (lysB) are nonessential. Gene Y encodes a polypeptide with striking similarities to the family of holin proteins exemplified by gpS of phage lambda, and the Yam mutant displayed the expected properties of a holin mutant. The gene products of lysA and lysB, although nonessential, appear to play a role in the correct timing of lysis, since a lysA amber mutant caused slightly accelerated lysis and a lysB amber mutant slightly delayed lysis of nonpermissive strains. Gene X must encode a tail protein, since lysates from nonpermissive cells infected with the X amber mutant were complemented in vitro by similar lysates of cells infected with P2 head mutants but not with tail mutants. PMID:8051010

Ziermann, R; Bartlett, B; Calendar, R; Christie, G E

1994-01-01

10

Cyclooxygenase pathway is involved in the vascular reactivity and inhibition of the Na +, K +ATPase activity in the tail artery from L-NAME-treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-NAME (LN) induces hypertension by blocking nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It produces vascular hyperreactivity to phenylephrine (PHE) associated with a reduced vascular Na+, K+-ATPase activity. The aim of this work was to investigate whether products of the cyclooxygenase pathway are involved in alterations of vascular reactivity and Na+-pump activity in the tail artery from LN-induced hypertension rats. Four groups of

Leonardo dos Santos; Fabiano E Xavier; Dalton V Vassallo; Luciana V Rossoni

2003-01-01

11

DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN  

E-print Network

to the individual participant. Equivalent categories appear in the FDA regulations at 21 CFR 50 Subpart D, and are to be applied to all FDA-regulated clinical investigations that will include children as participants. I1 DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN 05/31/2011 DHHS regulations limit

12

DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN  

E-print Network

to the individual participant. Equivalent categories appear in the FDA regulations at 21 CFR 50 Subpart D, and are to be applied to all FDA-regulated clinical investigations that will include children as participants. I1 DETERMINATION OF RISK FOR RESEARCH STUDIES INVOLVING CHILDREN 06/05/2014 DHHS regulations limit

13

Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers  

PubMed Central

Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

2010-01-01

14

Hydrophobic Tail Length, Degree of Fluorination and Headgroup Stereochemistry are Determinants of the Biocompatibility of (Fluorinated) Carbohydrate Surfactants  

PubMed Central

A series of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon carbohydrate surfactants with different headgroups (i.e., gluco-, galacto- and maltopyranoside) and (fluorinated) alkyl tails (i.e., C7 and C14 to C19) was synthesized to investigate trends in their cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity, and how surfactant-lipid interactions of selected surfactants contribute to these two measures of biocompatibility. All surfactants displayed low cytotoxicity (EC50 = 25 to > 250 ?M) and low haemolytic activity (EC50 = 0.2 to > 3.3 mM), with headgroup structure, tail length and degree of fluorination being important structural determinants for both endpoints. The EC50 values of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon glucopyranoside surfactants displayed a “cut-off” effect (i.e., a maximum with respect to the chain length). According to steady-state fluorescence anisotropy studies, short chain (C7) surfactants partitioned less readily into model membranes, which explains their low cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity. Interestingly, galactopyranosides were less toxic compared to glucopyranosides with the same hydrophobic tail. Although both surfactant types only differ in the stereochemistry of the 4-OH group, hexadecyl gluco- and galactopyranoside surfactants had similar apparent membrane partition coefficients, but differed in their overall effect on the phase behaviour of DPPC model membranes, as assessed using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy studies. These observations suggest that highly selective surfactant-lipid interactions may be responsible for the differential cytotoxicity and, possible, haemolytic activity of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon carbohydrate surfactants intended for a variety of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. PMID:19481909

Li, Xueshu; Turanek, Jaroslav; Knotigova, Pavlina; Kudlackova, Hana; Masek, Josef; Parkin, Sean; Rankin, Stephen E; Knutson, Barbara L; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

15

A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However, all water samples collected downstream from the mine site have low Pb concentrations and variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Water samples from a well on the mine site and a pipe discharging water from below the tailings dam also have non-ore Pb isotope ratios. The isotopic compositions of low-Pb samples do not lie on a mixing line between ore and local host rocks, but rather lie on a mixing line between agricultural ditch and stream waters upstream of the mine and New Calumet ore. These waters may form a groundwater system flowing under the mine site that is virtually uncontaminated by the overlying ores and tailings. Compared to the Sullivan case, metals from the New Calumet ore and tailings are only weakly mobilized into local waters, probably due to buffering of waters by carbonate-bearing host rocks. We are impressed with the fingerprinting ability of Pb isotopes to track the sources of heavy metals in water systems, and suggest that other radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd) may also be useful in environmental studies.

Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.

2004-12-01

16

Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1) is involved in pathogen defense  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically determined process in all multicellular organisms. Plant PCD is effected by a unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases (CysEP) with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP). KDEL CysEPs can be stored as pro-enzymes in ER-derived endomembrane compartments and are released as mature CysEPs in the final stages of organelle disintegration. KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated hydroxyprolines of the extensins that form the basic scaffold of the cell wall. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3) are expressed. Cell- and tissue-specific activities of these three genes suggest that KDEL CysEPs participate in the abscission of flower organs and in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD as well as in developmental tissue remodeling. We observed that AtCEP1 is expressed in response to biotic stress stimuli in the leaf. atcep1 knockout mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum. A translational fusion protein of AtCEP1 with a three-fold hemaglutinin-tag and the green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous AtCEP1 promoter (PCEP1::pre-pro-3xHA-EGFP-AtCEP1-KDEL) rescued the pathogenesis phenotype demonstrating the function of AtCEP1 in restriction of powdery mildew. The spatiotemporal AtCEP1-reporter expression during fungal infection together with microscopic inspection of the interaction phenotype suggested a function of AtCEP1 in controlling late stages of compatible interaction including late epidermal cell death. Additionally, expression of stress response genes appeared to be deregulated in the interaction of atcep1 mutants and E. cruciferarum. Possible functions of AtCEP1 in restricting parasitic success of the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungus are discussed. PMID:24605116

Howing, Timo; Huesmann, Christina; Hoefle, Caroline; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika; Huckelhoven, Ralph; Gietl, Christine

2014-01-01

17

Involvement and communication discrepancy as determinants of opinion conformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research studied the relationship between conformity and (a) the extent of the discrepancy between the opinions of a communicator and a recipient and (b) the degree of involvement of the recipient. These variables are central to a dissonance theory analysis of the social influence process, as well as to many previous investigations of attitude change. It can be derived

Philip G. Zimbardo

1960-01-01

18

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-07-22

19

Lift generation by the avian tail.  

PubMed Central

Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail. PMID:11454286

Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

2001-01-01

20

Using behavior theory to investigate individual-level determinants of employee involvement in TQM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much has been written about total quality management and employee involvement, little attention has been paid to individual-level determinants of employee's involvement in total quality management. The use of behaviour theory to formulate propositions regarding the determinants is especially scare in the total quality management and employee involvement literature. The major objective of the present research was to isolate

Zhongjun Tang; Xiaohong Chen; Zhengwen Wu

2010-01-01

21

Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing.  

PubMed

Fatigue during prolonged exercise is often described as an acute impairment of exercise performance that leads to an inability to produce or maintain a desired power output. In the past few decades, interest in how athletes experience fatigue during competition has grown enormously. Research has evolved from a dominant focus on peripheral causes of fatigue towards a complex interplay between peripheral and central limitations of performance. Apparently, both feedforward and feedback mechanisms, based on the principle of teleoanticipation, regulate power output (e.g., speed) during a performance. This concept is called 'pacing' and represents the use of energetic resources during exercise, in a way such that all energy stores are used before finishing a race, but not so far from the end of a race that a meaningful slowdown can occur.It is believed that the pacing selected by athletes is largely dependent on the anticipated exercise duration and on the presence of an experientially developed performance template. Most studies investigating pacing during prolonged exercise in ambient temperatures, have observed a fast start, followed by an even pace strategy in the middle of the event with an end sprint in the final minutes of the race. A reduction in pace observed at commencement of the event is often more evident during exercise in hot environmental conditions. Further, reductions in power output and muscle activation occur before critical core temperatures are reached, indicating that subjects can anticipate the exercise intensity and heat stress they will be exposed to, resulting in a tactical adjustment of the power output. Recent research has shown that not only climatic stress but also pharmacological manipulation of the central nervous system has the ability to cause changes in endurance performance. Subjects seem to adapt their strategy specifically in the early phases of an exercise task. In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. Manipulations of serotonin and, especially, noradrenaline, have the opposite effect and force subjects to decrease power output early in the time trial. Interestingly, after manipulation of brain serotonin, subjects are often unable to perform an end sprint, indicating an absence of a reserve capacity or motivation to increase power output. Taken together, it appears that many factors, such as ambient conditions and manipulation of brain neurotransmitters, have the potential to influence power output during exercise, and might thus be involved as regulatory mechanisms in the complex skill of pacing. PMID:23456493

Roelands, Bart; de Koning, Jos; Foster, Carl; Hettinga, Floor; Meeusen, Romain

2013-05-01

22

Effects of intragastric nutrients upon simultaneously determined plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin\\/glucagon ratios and glucose in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis gmelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Short-term effects (120 min) of an orally intubated amino-acid mixture upon simultaneously-determined plasma insulin, glucagon, I\\/G ratios and glucose levels were studied in five (nonsexed) 24-hr-fasted adults and two immature red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin. For control and comparative purposes the effects of isosmotic saline, free fatty acids (FFA) or mouse pureé (MP) were also determined. 2. Mean preintubation

Merlyn C. Minick; Gary E. Duke; Susan W. Fishman; Rodney B. Harvey

1996-01-01

23

Sorting signals in the MHC class II invariant chain cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region determine trafficking to an endocytic processing compartment  

PubMed Central

Targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic compartment where they encounter processed antigen is determined by the invariant chain (Ii). By analysis of Ii-transferrin receptor (TR) chimera trafficking, we have identified sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region that mediate this process. Two non-tyrosine-based sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail were identified that mediate localization to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits and promote rapid endocytosis. Leu7 and Ile8 were required for the activity of the signal most distal to the cell membrane whereas Pro15 Met16 Leu17 were important for the membrane-proximal signal. The same or overlapping non- tyrosine-based sorting signals are essential for delivery of Ii-TR chimeras, either by an intracellular route or via the plasma membrane, to an endocytic compartment where they are rapidly degraded. The Ii transmembrane region is also required for efficient delivery to this endocytic processing compartment and contains a signal distinct from the Ii cytoplasmic tail. More than 80% of the Ii-TR chimera containing the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region is delivered directly to the endocytic pathway by an intracellular route, implying that the Ii sorting signals are efficiently recognized by sorting machinery located in the trans-Golgi. PMID:8034737

1994-01-01

24

THE MALE FASHION CONSUMER: AN ANALYSIS OF FASHION INVOLVEMENT AND RETAIL PATRONAGE DETERMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the dissertation research was to profile adult male fashion involvement; to measure determinants of patronage for a major metropolitan marketplace; and to relate adult male fashion involvement to retail shopping behavior.^ The research methodology involved the development and administration of an eight-page questionnaire to 1,025 adult male heads of households in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada Census Metropolitan

LAWRENCE JEAN RING

1977-01-01

25

Determination of primary energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions and the high P(sub)T tail of alpha-particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A determination of primary energy is required in order to study the energy dependence of meson multiplicity in A-A collisions in cosmic rays. Various procedures which estimate the energy of a primary nucleus from its interaction were investigated. An average of two methods were used, one using the pions and wounded protons and the other using spectator protons and alpha particles. The high PT tail observed for Z = 2 fragments requires a modification of the latter method.

Freier, P. S.; Atwater, T. W.

1985-08-01

26

Structural and functional characterization of ybr137wp implicates its involvement in the targeting of tail-anchored proteins to membranes.  

PubMed

Nearly 5% of membrane proteins are guided to nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondrial, Golgi, or peroxisome membranes by their C-terminal transmembrane domain and are classified as tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the guided entry of TA protein (GET) pathway has been shown to function in the delivery of TA proteins to the ER. The sorting complex for this pathway is comprised of Sgt2, Get4, and Get5 and facilitates the loading of nascent tail-anchored proteins onto the Get3 ATPase. Multiple pulldown assays also indicated that Ybr137wp associates with this complex in vivo. Here, we report a 2.8-Å-resolution crystal structure for Ybr137wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein is a decamer in the crystal and also in solution, as observed by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that the C-terminal acidic motif of Ybr137wp interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of Sgt2. Moreover, an in vivo study demonstrated that Ybr137wp is induced in yeast exiting the log phase and ameliorates the defect of TA protein delivery and cell viability derived by the impaired GET system under starvation conditions. Therefore, this study suggests a possible role for Ybr137wp related to targeting of tail-anchored proteins. PMID:25288638

Yeh, Yi-Hung; Lin, Tai-Wen; Li, Yi-Chuan; Tung, Jung-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

2014-12-15

27

XAFS determination of the chemical form of lead in smelter-contaminated soils and mine tailings: Importance of adsorption processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated smelter-contaminated soils from Evin-Malmaison, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France, and mine tailings from Leadville, Colorado, U.S.A. Bulk Pb concentrations range from 460 to 1900 ppm in the topsoils at Evin-Malmaison site and from 6000 to 10,000 ppm in the tailings samples from the Leadville site. These concentrations necessarily raise human health and environmental concerns, but bioavailability and chemical lability of Pb in these materials vary dramatically and show little correlation with bulk concentrations. This study provides detailed information on the speciation of Pb in these materials. Emphasis is on the identification and characterization of poorly crystalline and/or fine-grained species, such as sorption complexes and poorly crystalline (co)precipitates, which are likely to control Pb bioavailability and mobility in these natural systems. In the Evin-Malmaison samples, direct spectroscopic evidence for Pb sorbed to humic acids was found, as well as to both manganese and iron (oxyhydr)oxides. In the Leadville samples, variations in Pb speciation with pH are consistent with predictions based on simplified model system studies of adsorption processes; specifically, the carbonate-buffered tailings with near-neutral pH contain up to 50% of total Pb as adsorption complexes on iron (oxyhydr)oxides, whereas Pb speciation in sulfide-rich low pH samples is dominated by Pb-bearing jarosites with no evidence for adsorbed Pb in these latter samples.

Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Ildefonse, P.; Calas, G. [Univ. de Paris 6 et 7 (France). Lab. de Mineralogie-Cristallographie; Ostergren, J.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences]|[Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States)

1999-03-01

28

Paraprofessional involvement in self-determination instruction for students with high-incidence disabilities  

E-print Network

Although enhancing students' self-determination is advocated as a central element of high-quality special education and transition services, little is known about the ways in which paraprofessional are involved in promoting ...

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Carter, Erik W.; Sisco, Lynn

2012-01-01

29

COMET C/2011 W3 (LOVEJOY): ORBIT DETERMINATION, OUTBURSTS, DISINTEGRATION OF NUCLEUS, DUST-TAIL MORPHOLOGY, AND RELATIONSHIP TO NEW CLUSTER OF BRIGHT SUNGRAZERS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the physical and orbital properties of C/2011 W3. After surviving perihelion passage, the comet was observed to undergo major physical changes. The permanent loss of the nuclear condensation and the formation of a narrow spine tail were observed first at Malargue, Argentina, on December 20 and then systematically at Siding Spring, Australia. The process of disintegration culminated with a terminal fragmentation event on December 17.6 UT. The postperihelion dust tail, observed for {approx}3 months, was the product of activity over <2 days. The nucleus' breakup and crumbling were probably caused by thermal stress due to the penetration of the intense heat pulse deep into the nucleus' interior after perihelion. The same mechanism may be responsible for cascading fragmentation of sungrazers at large heliocentric distances. The delayed response to the hostile environment in the solar corona is at odds with the rubble-pile model, since the residual mass of the nucleus, estimated at {approx}10{sup 12} g (equivalent to a sphere 150-200 m across) just before the terminal event, still possessed nontrivial cohesive strength. The high production rates of atomic oxygen, observed shortly after perihelion, are compatible with a subkilometer-sized nucleus. The spine tail-the product of the terminal fragmentation-was a synchronic feature, whose brightest part contained submillimeter-sized dust grains, released at velocities of up to 30 m s{sup -1}. The loss of the nuclear condensation prevented an accurate orbital-period determination by traditional techniques. Since the missing nucleus must have been located on the synchrone, whose orientation and sunward tip have been measured, we compute the astrometric positions of this missing nucleus as the coordinates of the points of intersection of the spine tail's axis with the lines of forced orbital-period variation, derived from the orbital solutions based on high-quality preperihelion astrometry from the ground. The resulting orbit gives 698 {+-} 2 yr for the osculating orbital period, showing that C/2011 W3 is the first member of the expected new, 21st-century cluster of bright Kreutz-system sungrazers, whose existence was predicted by these authors in 2007. From the spine tail's evolution, we determine that its measured tip, populated by dust particles 1-2 mm in diameter, receded antisunward from the computed position of the missing nucleus. The bizarre appearance of the comet's dust tail in images taken only hours after perihelion with the coronagraphs on board the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft is readily understood. The disconnection of the comet's head from the tail released before perihelion and an apparent activity attenuation near perihelion have a common cause-sublimation of all dust at heliocentric distances smaller than about 1.8 solar radii. The tail's brightness is strongly affected by forward scattering of sunlight by dust. From an initially broad range of particle sizes, the grains that were imaged the longest had a radiation-pressure parameter {beta} {approx_equal} 0.6, diagnostic of submicron-sized silicate grains and consistent with the existence of the dust-free zone around the Sun. The role and place of C/2011 W3 in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system and its genealogy via a 14th-century parent suggest that it is indirectly related to the celebrated sungrazer X/1106 C1, which, just as the first-generation parent of C/2011 W3, split from a common predecessor during the previous return to perihelion.

Sekanina, Zdenek; Chodas, Paul W., E-mail: Zdenek.Sekanina@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Paul.W.Chodas@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2012-10-01

30

Paraprofessional Involvement in Self-Determination Instruction for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although enhancing students' self-determination is advocated as a central element of high-quality special education and transition services, little is known about the ways in which paraprofessionals are involved in promoting self-determination or the extent to which they share teachers' views regarding its importance. The authors surveyed 223…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Carter, Erik W.; Sisco, Lynn

2012-01-01

31

Changes in drug involvement: a longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent determinants.  

PubMed

Previous research has identified childhood and adolescent personality determinants of early adolescent drug involvement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the determinants of increased involvement over time and to compare these results with previous findings regarding early involvement. Data were available on 654 white males and females at three points, Time 1 (T1) at ages 1-10 yr., Time 2 (T2) at ages 9-18 yr., and Time 3 (T3) at ages 11-20 yr. The subjects (at T2 and T3) and their mothers (at all three points) were given structured interviews assessing the child's personality and behavior. Results indicated that T1 traits of conventionality and emotional control were associated with similar traits at T2, which, in turn, were related to lower drug involvement over time (T2 and T3). Interactive effects indicated first that T2 adolescent protective (nondrug-conducive) factors weakened the effect of childhood-risk (drug-conducive) characteristics resulting in lower drug involvement. Second, high levels of earlier drug use interacted synergistically with personality risk leading to increased levels of involvement. Over-all, the personality factors implicated in increased involvement were similar to those related to earlier involvement. PMID:2608826

Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Gordon, A S; Cohen, P

1989-12-01

32

Planning for multiple mobile robots in dynamic environ ments involves determining the optimal path each robot  

E-print Network

Abstract Planning for multiple mobile robots in dynamic environ­ ments involves determining Work in outdoor autonomous mobile robotics to date has been primarily concerned with maintaining robot safety while moving in the environment. Mobile robotic tasks, particularly in the outdoor realm, have

Stentz, Tony

33

Yellow-e Determines the Color Pattern of Larval Head and Tail Spots of the Silkworm Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

Yellow proteins form a large family in insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are 14 yellow genes in the genome. Previous studies have shown that the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation; however, the roles of other yellow genes in body coloration are not known. Here, we provide the first evidence that yellow-e is required for normal body color pattern in insect larvae. In two mutant strains, bts and its allele bts2, of the silkworm Bombyx mori, the larval head cuticle and anal plates are reddish brown instead of the white color found in the wild type. Positional cloning revealed that deletions in the Bombyx homolog of the Drosophila yellow-e gene (Bmyellow-e) were responsible for the bts/bts2 phenotype. Bmyellow-e mRNA was strongly expressed in the trachea, testis, and integument, and expression markedly increased at the molting stages. This profile is quite similar to that of Bmyellow, a regulator of neonatal body color and body markings in Bombyx. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that Bmyellow-e mRNA was heavily expressed in the integument of the head and tail in which the bts phenotype is observed. The present results suggest that Yellow-e plays a crucial role in the pigmentation process of lepidopteran larvae. PMID:19996320

Ito, Katsuhiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

34

Characteristics of wing/body/tail configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package of computer programs determine longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing/body/tail combinations including effects of nonlinear aerodynamics of components and interference between components.

Dillenius, M. F. E.; Goodwin, F. K.; Kline, D. M.; Mendenhall, M. R.

1979-01-01

35

Identification of the C/EBP? C-terminal tail residues involved in the protein interaction with GABP and their potency in myeloid differentiation of K562 cells.  

PubMed

The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is the member of a family of related basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and is critical for granulopoiesis. We previously demonstrated that C/EBP? interacts with the ETS domain of widely expressed GABP?, which leads to cooperative transcriptional activation of the myeloid-specific promoter for human FCAR encoding the Fc receptor for IgA (Fc?R, CD89) in part by facilitating recruitment of C/EBP? to the promoter. The C/EBP? molecule contains transactivation domains (TADs) at its N-terminus and a DNA-binding and dimerization bZIP structure at its C-terminus. We demonstrate here that GABP? interacts with the last 18 residues of the C/EBP? C-terminus beyond the bZIP DNA-binding and dimerizing region. Deletion of this C-terminus resulted in loss of GABP? interaction but not affecting its DNA binding ability, indicating that it is not required for homodimer formation. Moreover, the C-terminus confers the ability to functionally synergize with GABP on a heterologous TAD when fused to the C-terminus of the VP16 TAD. We identified a three-amino acid stretch (amino acids 341-343) that is important for both functional and protein interactions with GABP. Ectopic expression in K562 cells of C/EBP? mutant incapable of interacting with GABP? does not induce expression of granulocytic differentiation markers including CD15, CD11b, GCSF-R and C/EBP?, and does not inhibit proliferation, whereas wild type does. These results demonstrate the functional importance of the C/EBP? C-terminus beyond the bZIP DNA-binding and dimerization region, which may mediate cooperative activation by C/EBP? and GABP of myeloid-specific genes involved in C/EBP?-dependent granulopoiesis. PMID:24076158

Shimokawa, Toshibumi; Nunomura, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ra, Chisei

2013-11-01

36

Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes  

PubMed Central

Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have been identified. However, a number of genes, as presented here, have been linked to the process of sex determination or differentiation in zebrafish. The zebrafish FTZ-F1 genes are of central interest as they are involved in regulating interrenal development and thereby steroid biosynthesis, as well as that they show expression patterns congruent with reproductive tissue differentiation and function. Zebrafish can be sex reversed by exposure to estrogens, suggesting that the estrogen levels are crucial during sex differentiation. The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal. FTZ-F1 genes are strongly linked to steroid biosynthesis and the regulatory region of Cyp19 contains binding sites for FTZ-F1 genes, further linking FTZ-F1 to this process. The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review. PMID:16281973

von Hofsten, Jonas; Olsson, Per-Erik

2005-01-01

37

Heads for learning, tails for memory: reward, reinforcement and a role of dopamine in determining behavioral relevance across multiple timescales  

PubMed Central

Dopamine has long been tightly associated with aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation in simple situations where there are a limited number of stimuli to guide behavior and constrained range of outcomes. In naturalistic situations, however, there are many potential cues and foraging strategies that could be adopted, and it is critical that animals determine what might be behaviorally relevant in such complex environments. This requires not only detecting discrepancies with what they have recently experienced, but also identifying similarities with past experiences stored in memory. Here, we review what role dopamine might play in determining how and when to learn about the world, and how to develop choice policies appropriate to the situation faced. We discuss evidence that dopamine is shaped by motivation and memory and in turn shapes reward-based memory formation. In particular, we suggest that hippocampal-striatal-dopamine networks may interact to determine how surprising the world is and to either inhibit or promote actions at time of behavioral uncertainty. PMID:24130514

Baudonnat, Mathieu; Huber, Anna; David, Vincent; Walton, Mark E.

2013-01-01

38

Determination of the Failure Surface Geometry in Quick Slides Using Balanced Cross Section Techniques - Application to Aznalcóllar Tailings Dam Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a landslide investigation, the location of the failure surface is a difficult task when measures of subsurface displacement are lacking, as it occurs in old landslides or in recent but quick ones. The subsurface geological data and ground surface displacement data may not be enough to formulate a unique interpretation of the failure surface. However, an accurate determination of the failure surface is possible when balanced cross section techniques are applied to preliminary interpretations. The former is proved by means of the example of Aznalcóllar dam failure (Seville, Spain).

Moya, José

39

Research in primary care: extent of involvement and perceived determinants among practitioners from one English region.  

PubMed

The lack of research evidence relevant to and generated by general practitioners (GPs) has been a concern in the context of a putative primary care-led National Health Service (NHS). However, very little has been published on the current extent or determinants of research activity among United Kingdom primary care doctors. We surveyed all (n = 2770) service GPs in the West Midlands Region in order to quantify their research involvement and to explore determinants of this. The response rate was 49% (n = 1351). A total of 84% of responders reported participating in research or audit, with 16% having initiated their own research; 9% of GPs had been published in a peer-reviewed journal; 6% had generated research funding; and 3% had held a research training fellowship. The characteristics positively associated with initiating research included an involvement in teaching, having research-active partners, the availability of protected time, and working in a larger practice. The most commonly perceived barriers to undertaking research were lack of time (92%), lack of staff to collect data (73%), and a lack of funding (71%). In all, 41% of responders reported no interest in research. Overall, the extent of research activity among responding GPs appears to be greater than is often assumed. Recent NHS research and development proposals to strengthen and develop research in primary care are, therefore, relevant in highlighting changes to address these issues. PMID:10897537

Jowett, S M; Macleod, J; Wilson, S; Hobbs, F D

2000-05-01

40

Novel non-Mendelian determinant involved in the control of translation accuracy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Two cytoplasmically inherited determinants related by their manifestation to the control of translation accuracy were previously described in yeast. Cells carrying one of them, [PSI(+)], display a nonsense suppressor phenotype and contain a prion form of the Sup35 protein. Another element, [PIN(+)], determines the probability of de novo generation of [PSI(+)] and results from a prion form of several proteins, which can be functionally unrelated to Sup35p. Here we describe a novel nonchromosomal determinant related to the SUP35 gene. This determinant, designated [ISP(+)], was identified as an antisuppressor of certain sup35 mutations. We observed its loss upon growth on guanidine hydrochloride and subsequent spontaneous reappearance with high frequency. The reversible curability of [ISP(+)] resembles the behavior of yeast prions. However, in contrast to known prions, [ISP(+)] does not depend on the chaperone protein Hsp104. Though manifestation of both [ISP(+)] and [PSI(+)] is related to the SUP35 gene, the maintenance of [ISP(+)] does not depend on the prionogenic N-terminal domain of Sup35p and Sup35p is not aggregated in [ISP(+)] cells, thus ruling out the possibility that [ISP(+)] is a specific form of [PSI(+)]. We hypothesize that [ISP(+)] is a novel prion involved in the control of translation accuracy in yeast. PMID:11805042

Volkov, Kirill V; Aksenova, Anna Yu; Soom, Malle J; Osipov, Kirill V; Svitin, Anton V; Kurischko, Cornelia; Shkundina, Irina S; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D; Inge-Vechtomov, Sergey G; Mironova, Ludmila N

2002-01-01

41

P15 and P3, the Tail Completion Proteins of Bacteriophage T4, Both Form Hexameric Rings  

PubMed Central

Two proteins, gp15 and gp3 (gp for gene product), are required to complete the assembly of the T4 tail. gp15 forms the connector which enables the tail to bind to the head, whereas gp3 is involved in terminating the elongation of the tail tube. In this work, genes 15 and 3 were cloned and overexpressed, and the purified gene products were studied by analytical ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy, and circular dichroism. Determination of oligomerization state by sedimentation equilibrium revealed that both gp15 and gp3 are hexamers of the respective polypeptide chains. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained P15 and P3 (P denotes the oligomeric state of the gene product) revealed that both proteins form hexameric rings, the diameter of which is close to that of the tail tube. The differential roles between gp15 and gp3 upon completion of the tail are discussed. PMID:12591887

Zhao, Li; Kanamaru, Shuji; Chaidirek, Chatree'chalerm; Arisaka, Fumio

2003-01-01

42

Involving Watershed Stakeholders: An Issue Attribute Approach to Determine Willingness and Need  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective solutions for addressing nonpoint source pollution on a watershed basis often involves watershed stakeholders. However, success in engaging stakeholders in collaborative decision making processes varies, as watershed managers are faced with the challenges inherent to finding the right process for the decisions needed and in successfully engaging stakeholders in that process. Two characteristics that may provide guidance for determining the appropriateness of applying a collaborative process to a watershed problem are the need to collaborate and the willingness of stakeholders to engage in a collaborative decision making process. By examining seven attributes of the issues confronted by stakeholders in a collaborative process, the consequences of these attributes on the need for collaboration and stakeholders' willingness to engage can be estimated. The issue attributes include: level of uncertainty, balance of information, risk, time horizon of effects, urgency of decision, distribution of effects, and clarity of problem. The issue attribute model was applied to two collaborative decision making processes conducted by the same watershed stakeholder group in a North Carolina coastal watershed. Need and willingness to engage did not coincide for either issue; that is, stakeholders were more willing to engage on the issue that required less need for their involvement.

Smutko, L. Steven; Klimek, Suzanne H.; Perrin, Christy A.; Danielson, Leon E.

2002-08-01

43

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

44

Ergonomic determinants of back pain in physiotherapists involved in paediatric neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapists working with children are due to the failure to apply the principles of ergonomics in their daily practice, which is often caused by the necessity of working in forced positions. Health hazards are even bigger because of the disproportion of body weight and height between the patient and the therapist. The aim of the study was to evaluate positions of the spine at work among physiotherapists involved in child neurorehabilitation and their impact on the occurrence of back pain. Material and methods. The study enrolled 84 physiotherapists between the ages of 28-55 years involved in child neurorehabilitation whose seniority in the profession ranged from 2 to 33 years. The physiotherapists were interviewed about their work and its negative consequences. The 6-degree Jackson and Moskowitz scale was used to determine the level of pain intensity. Three-dimensional positions of the spine were recorded under natural working conditions using a SonoSens Monitor 8 ultrasonic measuring system. The recorded data was compared with the so-called "profile for ergonomic operation of the spine". The idea behind the study was to find the relation between pain intensity, duration and location on the one hand, and working positions of the spine and other data from the interview on the other. The statistical analysis was based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, analysis of variance with single classification, post hoc analysis (Tukey test) and the chi-square test (%2). The level of statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. Results. All subjects reported 1-4° pain. The intensity of pain increased with age, profession seniority, duration of the history of pain and duration of a sense of fatigue persisting after work. Pain intensity correlated with the length of time the spine was placed in unergonomic positions - especially in excessive lateral flexion in the thoracic segment and rotation in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments. Conclusions. 1. Positions of the spine in physiotherapists involved in neurorehabilitation of children are unergonomic and back pain is common in these therapists. 2 There is a correlation between working techniques and the prevalence of pain in physiotherapists. PMID:25404630

Czupryna, Krzysztof; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Nowotny, Janusz

2014-08-28

45

Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings.  

PubMed

Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tailings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary. PMID:7759261

Reif, R H; Andrews, D W

1995-06-01

46

The determinants of dumping: a national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and determinants of economically motivated transfers (aka "dumping") from hospitals treating mental illness. DATA SOURCES: A composite data set constructed from three national random-sampled surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989: (1) of hospitals providing mental health care, (2) of community mental health centers, and (3) of psychiatrists. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses reports from administrators of community mental health centers (CMHCs) to assess the extent of patient dumping by hospitals. To assess the determinants of dumping, reported perceptions of dumping are regressed on variables describing the catchment area in terms of the proportion of for-profit hospitals, intensity of competition among hospitals, extent of utilization review, and capacity of the local treatment system, as well as competition among community mental health centers. To assess if dumping is motivated by factors distinct from those affecting other aspects of access, comparable regressions are estimated with ease of hospital admission as the dependent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Economically motivated transfers of psychiatric patients were widespread in 1988: according to the reports of CMHC administrators, 64.7 percent of all hospitals providing inpatient mental health care engaged in transfers of this sort. The extent of dumping was higher in catchment areas with more competition among hospitals, more proprietary hospitals, and less inpatient capacity in the public sector. Dumping appeared to be more sensitive to capacity in the public sector but less sensitive to involvement by for-profit hospitals than were other measures of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Economically motivated transfers of patients with mental illness were widespread in 1988 and likely have increased since that time, affecting the viability of the community mental health care system. PMID:9402901

Schlesinger, M; Dorwart, R; Hoover, C; Epstein, S

1997-01-01

47

The iso1 gene of Chlamydomonas is involved in sex determination.  

PubMed Central

Sexual differentiation in the heterothallic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is controlled by two mating-type loci, mt+ and mt-, which behave as a pair of alleles but contain different DNA sequences. A mutation in the mt minus-linked imp11 gene has been shown previously to convert a minus gamete into a pseudo-plus gamete that expresses all the plus gametic traits except the few encoded by the mt+ locus. Here we describe the iso1 mutation which is unlinked to the mt- locus but is expressed only in minus gametes (sex-limited expression). A population of minus gametes carrying the iso1 mutation behaves as a mixture of minus and pseudo-plus gametes: the gametes isoagglutinate but they do not fuse to form zygotes. Further analysis reveals that individual gametes express either plus or minus traits: a given cell displays one type of agglutinin (flagellar glycoprotein used for sexual adhesion) and one type of mating structure. The iso1 mutation identifies a gene unlinked to the mating-type locus that is involved in sex determination and the repression of plus-specific genes. Images PMID:7749198

Campbell, A M; Rayala, H J; Goodenough, U W

1995-01-01

48

The iso1 gene of Chlamydomonas is involved in sex determination.  

PubMed

Sexual differentiation in the heterothallic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is controlled by two mating-type loci, mt+ and mt-, which behave as a pair of alleles but contain different DNA sequences. A mutation in the mt minus-linked imp11 gene has been shown previously to convert a minus gamete into a pseudo-plus gamete that expresses all the plus gametic traits except the few encoded by the mt+ locus. Here we describe the iso1 mutation which is unlinked to the mt- locus but is expressed only in minus gametes (sex-limited expression). A population of minus gametes carrying the iso1 mutation behaves as a mixture of minus and pseudo-plus gametes: the gametes isoagglutinate but they do not fuse to form zygotes. Further analysis reveals that individual gametes express either plus or minus traits: a given cell displays one type of agglutinin (flagellar glycoprotein used for sexual adhesion) and one type of mating structure. The iso1 mutation identifies a gene unlinked to the mating-type locus that is involved in sex determination and the repression of plus-specific genes. PMID:7749198

Campbell, A M; Rayala, H J; Goodenough, U W

1995-01-01

49

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

50

Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

Riley, Donald R

1954-01-01

51

An improved technique for tail-cuff blood pressure measurements with dark-tailed mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to stop pulsed flow. Success in obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements

J R Hagaman; S John; L Xu; O Smithies; N Maeda

2005-01-01

52

Horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is given for determining the horizontal tail loads in maneuvering flight. The method is based upon the assignment of a load-factor variation with time and the determination of a minimum time to reach peak load factor. The tail load is separated into various components. Examination of these components indicated that one of the components was so small that it could be neglected for most conventional airplanes; therefore, the number of aerodynamic parameters needed in this computation of tail loads was reduced to a minimum. In order to illustrate the method, as well as to show the effect of the main variables, a number of examples are given. Some discussion is given regarding the determination of maximum tail loads, maximum pitching accelerations, and maximum pitching velocities obtainable.

Pearson, Henry A; Mcgowan, William A; Donegan, James J

1951-01-01

53

Floods from tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released,

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. Díez-Herrero

2008-01-01

54

Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have

Jonas von Hofsten; Per-Erik Olsson

2005-01-01

55

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

56

Reported tailings dam failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and

M. Rico; G. Benito; A. R. Salgueiro; A. D ´ õez-Herrero; H. G. Pereira

2008-01-01

57

Mineralogic variations in fluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings as determined from AVIRIS data, Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of imaging spectrometry in mineralogic mapping of natural terrains indicates that the technology can also be used to assess the environmental impact of human activities in certain instances. Specifically, this paper describes an investigation into the use of data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mapping the spread of, and assessing changes in, the mineralogic character of tailings from a major silver and base metal mining district. The area under investigation is the Coeur d'Alene River Valley in northern Idaho. Mining has been going on in and around the towns of Kellogg and Wallace, Idaho since the 1880's. In the Kellogg-Smelterville Flats area, west of Kellogg, mine tailings were piled alongside the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Until the construction of tailings ponds in 1968 much of these waste materials were washed directly into the South Fork. The Kellogg-Smelterville area was declared an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site in 1983 and remediation efforts are currently underway. Recent studies have demonstrated that sediments in the Coeur d'Alene River and in the northern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, into which the river flows, are highly enriched in Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, and Sb. These trace metals have become aggregated in iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals and/or mineraloids. Reflectance spectra of iron-rich tailing materials are shown. Also shown are spectra of hematite and goethite. The broad bandwidth and long band center (near 1 micron) of the Fe(3+) crystal-field band of the iron-rich sediment samples combined with the lack of features on the Fe(3+) -O(2-) charge transfer absorption edge indicates that the ferric oxide and/or oxyhydroxide in these sediments is poorly crystalline to amorphous in character. Similar features are seen in poorly crystalline basaltic weathering products (e.g., palagonites). The problem of mapping and analyzing the downriver occurrences of iron rich tailings in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Valley using remotely sensed data is complicated by the full vegetation cover present in the area. Because exposures of rock and soil were sparse, the data processing techniques used in this study were sensitive to detecting materials at subpixel scales. The methods used included spectral mixture analysis and a constrained energy minimization technique.

Farrand, W. H.; Harsanyi, Joseph C.

1995-01-01

58

8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND...credible fear determinations, and the immigration judges have exclusive...

2013-01-01

59

8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...  

...and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND...credible fear determinations, and the immigration judges have exclusive...

2014-01-01

60

8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND...credible fear determinations, and the immigration judges have exclusive...

2011-01-01

61

Determining the Impact of Block Scheduling on Leadership Involvement in the FFA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling was established in response to educational reform measures and is the restructuring of the school day in longer class increments with fewer number of classes per day. The FFA, an intra-curricular component of the agricultural education, provides leadership opportunities and involvement within the classroom setting. This study…

Dunigan, Anne H.; Hoover, Tracy S.

2007-01-01

62

Planning for multiple mobile robots in dynamic environ-ments involves determining the optimal path each robot  

E-print Network

Abstract Planning for multiple mobile robots in dynamic environ- ments involves determining Work in outdoor autonomous mobile robotics to date has been primarily concerned with maintaining robot safety while moving in the environment. Mobile robotic tasks, particularly in the outdoor realm, have

Stentz, Tony

63

Student Perceptions of School Efforts to Facilitate Student Involvement, School Commitment, Self-Determination, and High School Graduation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between student perceptions of school efforts to facilitate student involvement, school commitment, self-determination skills, and on track indicators for graduation in 10th grade and actual graduation outcomes two years later. The participants were 154 primarily minority students in a large, urban school…

Cavendish, Wendy

2013-01-01

64

Colonization of mine tailings by marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine if a tailings substrate would inhibit recolonization of benthic macrofauna upon closure of a submarine tailings disposal (STD) operation. Trays of defaunated marine sediment, serving as a reference, and trays of tailings from a proposed gold mine were placed at 21 m depth on the ocean floor to allow colonization via settlement from the water column. Trays of reference sediment and tailings, and cores of ambient sediment were collected 9, 17, and 22 months after tray placement. Probable tray effects, which were desirable given the objectives of this study, precluded direct comparison of ecological succession in the tray sediments to the ambient assemblage. The ambient macrofauna assemblage was distinguishable from the reference sediment and tailings assemblages throughout the experiment and displayed more pronounced seasonality. Differences between the reference sediment and tailings assemblages were generally insignificant, including total abundance, total biomass, number of taxa, average size of individuals, numerically dominant taxa, abundance by ecological guilds, and overall community composition. Upon cessation of STD, recolonization of a benthic macrofauna community should not be inhibited by the presence of these tailings as a benthic substrate. PMID:11495492

Kline, E R; Stekoll, M S

2001-05-01

65

Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform  

E-print Network

of the current educational context. We particularly examine the role of promoting self-determination in light of federal standards-based reform initiatives. We conclude that school reform efforts provide an opportunity to infuse instruction in self...

Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Field, Sharon; Doren, Bonnie; Jones, Bonnie; Mason, Christine

2004-01-01

66

Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of mine tailings, a global problem for which conventional remediation\\u000a technologies are costly. There are two approaches to phytoremediation of mine tailings, phytoextraction and phytostabilization.\\u000a Phytoextraction involves translocation of heavy metals from mine tailings to the plant shoot biomass followed by plant harvest,\\u000a while phytostabilization focuses on establishing a vegetative cap that

Monica O. Mendez; Raina M. Maier

2008-01-01

67

The Tail of BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

68

Heads and Tails  

E-print Network

jHeads & tails M. Fae Glasgow Bene Dictum IV An X-Files Slash Zine Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails is an amateur publication, copyright ? February 1999 by Oblique Publications. All rights reserved. This copyright is not intended to infringe upon... novellas by Sebastian, Helen Raven, & M. Fae Glasgow) WARNING: THIS ANTHOLOGY CONTAINS SAME-SEX, ADULT-ORIENTED MATERIAL. IT WILL NOT BE SOLD TO ANYONE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. Bene Dictum IV: Heads & Tails an anthology of X-Files slash fiction...

Glasgow, M.F.

1999-01-01

69

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

70

Wagging tail vibration absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

1969-01-01

71

Human tail and myelomeningocele.  

PubMed

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received follow-up at our outpatient clinic without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge, no similar case report exists in the literature. Like other skin-related lesions in the lumbosacral area, the present case of caudal appendage with myelomeningocele is only a cutaneous sign of underlying spinal dysraphism since the skin and nerve system are related by their similar ectodermal origin. After excision of the tail and repair of an underlying lesion, long-term follow-up of the neurological status is warranted. PMID:17627154

Lin, Pei-Jung; Chang, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Lin, Jan-You; Huang, Yu-Sheng

2007-01-01

72

Heart involvement and HIV infection in African patients: Determinants of survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, recent studies have reported that HIV may exhibit a cardiac tropism. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical features, sex, age at onset, biological or echocardiographic variables have any influence on survival of African HIV-infected patients and AIDS progression. One hundred and fifty seven consecutive HIV-seropositive patients without cardiac lesions and no other AIDS-defining illnesses

B Longo-Mbenza; K. V Seghers; Mbikila Phuati; F Nkiabungu Bikangi; K Mubagwa

1998-01-01

73

What Makes a Tidal Tail?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions are famous for creating some of the most visually stunning scenes in astronomy, particularly in the cases of tidal tails. These chaotic regions are known to house breeding grounds for young stellar clusters, as shown through past imaging and spectroscopic studies, but the underlying material remains a mystery. While we know that gas is easily stripped from the parent galaxies, what about the stars? The presence of an older stellar population is crucial to dynamical simulations of tidal tails, but has not yet been confirmed by observation. We use the twin tidal tails of NGC3256 as a case study for determining the presence of an old, underlying stellar population. Newly acquired ugriz Gemini data allows us to distinguish between young and old stars, while previous HST data pinpoints the locations of these objects. Deep imaging surveys have often been used to detect tidal features, including these ancient relics, but our survey will be the first to measure the colors of such objects. This will lead us to place constraints on the original composition of the material that was ejected from the interacting/merging galaxies, and the star formation history.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, I.; Charlton, J. C.

2014-01-01

74

The contextual determinants of sexually transmissible infections among street-involved youth in North America.  

PubMed

Young people living on the urban street are at a significantly increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Much research examining the epidemiological basis for their heightened susceptibility has concentrated on the individual behaviours and characteristics associated with acquiring these infections. However, contextual factors, including the social, structural and environmental forces that influence sexual risk behaviour, are increasingly found to play an important role in shaping the transmission dynamics of HIV and STIs within these marginalised populations. This paper reviews research describing the individual and contextual factors that have been shown to influence street youth sexual behaviour and provides an analysis of the potential impact of such factors on HIV and STI transmission. In order to implement effective sexual health programmes for street-involved young people, innovative programmes are required that take into account the unique social and structural context of youth homelessness. Interventions to reduce the elevated prevalence and incidence of HIV and STIs among this population must explicitly target multi-level factors influencing the transmission dynamics of these diseases. PMID:18975227

Marshall, Brandon D L

2008-11-01

75

Differential DNA binding of Ku antigen determines its involvement in DNA replication.  

PubMed

Ku antigen (Ku70/Ku80) is a regulatory subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase, which participates in the regulation of DNA replication and gene transcription through specific DNA sequences. In this study, we have compared the mechanism of action of Ku from A3/4, a DNA sequence that appears in mammalian origins of DNA replication, and NRE1, a transcriptional regulatory element in the long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus through which Ku antigen and its associated kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK(cs)), act to repress steroid-induced transcription. Our results indicate that replication from a minimal replication origin of ors8 is independent of DNA-PK(cs) and that Ku interacts with A3/4-like sequences and NRE1 in fundamentally different ways. UV crosslinking experiments revealed differential interactions of the Ku subunits with A3/4, NRE1, and two other proposed Ku transcriptional regulatory elements. In vitro footprinting experiments showed direct contact of Ku on A3/4 and over the region of ors8 homologous to A3/4. In vitro replication assays using ors8 templates bearing mutations in the A3/4-like sequence suggested that Ku binding to this element was necessary for replication. By contrast, in vitro replication experiments revealed that NRE1 was not involved in DNA replication. Our results establish A3/4 as a new class of Ku DNA binding site. Classification of Ku DNA binding into eight categories of interaction based on recognition and DNA crosslinking experiments is discussed. PMID:12713733

Schild-Poulter, Caroline; Matheos, Diamanto; Novac, Olivia; Cui, Bo; Giffin, Ward; Ruiz, Marcia T; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria; Haché, Robert J G

2003-02-01

76

Left-Right Determination: Involvement of Molecular Motor KIF3, Cilia, and Nodal Flow  

PubMed Central

Mammalian left–right determination is a good example for how multiple cell biological processes coordinate in the formation of a basic body plan. The leftward movement of fluid at the ventral node, called nodal flow, is the central process in symmetry breaking on the left–right axis. Nodal flow is autonomously generated by the rotation of posteriorly tilted cilia that are built by transport via KIF3 motor on cells of the ventral node. How nodal flow is interpreted to create left–right asymmetry has been a matter of debate. Recent evidence suggests that the leftward movement of sheathed lipidic particles, called nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs), may result in the activation of the noncanonical hedgehog signaling pathway, an asymmetric elevation in intracellular Ca2+ and changes in gene expression. PMID:20066075

Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Yosuke; Okada, Yasushi

2009-01-01

77

Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles involved in malarial peptide bonds determine sterile protective immunity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles determine sterile protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified peptide's tendency to assume a regular conformation related to a PPII{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural modifications in mHABPs induce Ab and protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mHABP backbone atom's interaction with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} is stabilised by H-bonds. -- Abstract: Modified HABP (mHABP) regions interacting with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules have a more restricted conformation and/or sequence than other mHABPs which do not fit perfectly into their peptide binding regions (PBR) and do not induce an acceptable immune response due to the critical role of their {Phi} and {Psi} torsion angles. These angle's critical role was determined in such highly immunogenic, protection-inducing response against experimental malaria using the conformers (mHABPs) obtained by {sup 1}H-NMR and superimposed into HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator }-like Aotus monkey molecules; their phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles were measured and the H-bond formation between these molecules was evaluated. The aforementioned mHABP propensity to assume a regular conformation similar to a left-handed polyproline type II helix (PPII{sub L}) led to suggesting that favouring these conformations according to their amino acid sequence would lead to high antibody titre production and sterile protective immunity induction against malaria, thereby adding new principles or rules for vaccine development, malaria being one of them.

Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)] [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

2012-12-07

78

Morphogenetic changes occurring in the regenerating newt tail under changed gravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that gravity greatly affects animal physiology, development, and alters gene expression. Recently it became apparent that it can also affect tissue morphogenesis. In our work, we developed special laboratory conditions that allow us to produce the gravity-dependent alterations in tail regenerates of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. We examined the dynamic morphogenetic changes during 50-day tail regeneration using computer morphometric analysis. Changes that we observed under these conditions were comparable with those found earlier in our spaceflight experiments. The newts kept in aquarium deep water (low g) after 1/3 tail amputation developed normal lanceolate regenerates. In contrast, the animals that stayed on the moist mat (1g) developed tail regenerates curved ventrally, with tips almost touching the mat. The similar results were obtained with a 12-day centrifugation at 2g. The study of the regenerate morphology in low g, 1g, and 2g animal groups allowed us to determine the stage at which the morphological changes in regenerates become apparent, and to detect the main morphological events associated with the development of tail curve, such as bending of ependymal tube and reorientation of the forming cartilage. We describe cellular processes foregoing observed tissue morphogenetic changes, such as cell migration, condensation in cell population, and unequal proliferation in different areas of epidermis and blastema. Cell proliferation in epidermis and blastema of tails regenerated under the conditions of different gravitational load was evaluated by BrdU assay. In 1g newts, cell proliferation increased within the dorso-apical region of the regenerates compared with that in low g group. These results provide us with a valuable insight into the regenerative tissue homostasis that involves cell division, cell death, and migration in the newt regenerating tail. In addition, these findings could provide us with better understanding of the mechanisms mediating morphogenetic response of regenerating tissues to the modified gravity vector.

Radugina, Elena A.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Almeida, Eduardo

2012-07-01

79

Acetyl-L-carnitine suppresses thyroid hormone-induced and spontaneous anuran tadpole tail shortening.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamorphosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for ?-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The ladder-like DNA profile and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 indicative of apoptosis in the tails of T3 -treated tadpoles were found to be suppressed by the addition of acetyl-L-carnitine. Likewise, acetyl-L-carnitine was found to inhibit thyroid hormone regulated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis tadpoles, accompanied by decreases in caspase and phospholipase A2 activity, as well as non-ladder-like DNA profiles. These findings support our previous conclusion that elevated levels of FFAs initiate MPT and activate the signaling pathway controlling apoptotic cell death in tadpole tails during anuran metamorphosis. PMID:23489246

Hanada, Hideki; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Masanao; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Katsu, Kenjiro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Junzo; Inoue, Masayasu; Utsumi, Kozo

2013-02-01

80

Long distance seed dispersal by wind: measuring and modelling the tail of the curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and shape of the tail of the seed dispersal curve is important in determining the spatial dynamics of plants, but\\u000a is difficult to quantify. We devised an experimental protocol to measure long-distance dispersal which involved measuring\\u000a dispersal by wind from isolated individuals at a range of distances from the source, but maintaining a large and constant\\u000a sampling intensity

James M. Bullock; Ralph T. Clarke

2000-01-01

81

Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p<0.05) between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

82

An improved technique for tail-cuff blood pressure measurements with dark-tailed mice.  

PubMed

Study of the genetics of hypertension has been facilitated greatly by the use of mice with modified genes that affect blood pressure. A current successful method for measuring blood pressure in mice relies on detection of light passing through the tail to determine the pressure in a tail-cuff necessary to stop pulsed flow. Success in obtaining reliable blood pressure measurements in light-tailed strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) has been excellent. However, in our and others' experience, mice having highly pigmented tails (e.g., 129S6/SvEvTac) have yielded less consistent measurements. We report here that simple modifications to the channel containing the pulse detection sensor can greatly improve the pulse detection of dark-tailed mice. The first modification--lining the sensor channel with four layers of clear plastic wrap--increased the frequency of successful blood pressure measurements of 129S6/SvEvTac mice twofold and reduced variability by one-third. The second modification--lining the sides of the channel with reflective foil--also improved the success rate with dark-tailed mice. Mean blood pressures were unaffected by these modifications, which enhance detection of the pulse wave and likely will be helpful in diverse applications in which blood pressure is measured in rodent strains with pigmented tails. PMID:16138782

Hagaman, John R; John, Simon; Xu, Lonquan; Smithies, Oliver; Maeda, Nobuyo

2005-09-01

83

Use of washery tailings in hydrotechnical construction  

SciTech Connect

Dam fill material must be sufficiently homogeneous to with-stand selective displacement. Tests were carried out on typical tailings, involving incremental sampling over periods of one hour, one shift, and one day for analysis. The results showed that the mineral content in the samples taken over 1 hour had the greatest qualitative and quantitative variability; those taken over a 24 hour period, the least. It was found that the tailings showed up well enough in situ, regardless of angle of wetting and internal friction angle. Tailings from Avdeev plant used in a dam and compacted by 4-6 heavy dump truck traverses in 1978. Inspection in 1979 failed to show any cracks or displacement, and filtration was found to be at a low level.

Voznyi, G.F.; Preobazhenskii, B.P.; Mandryka, C.V.; Rozanov, N.N.

1981-01-01

84

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

85

Managing 'tail liability'.  

PubMed

To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

2013-11-01

86

Dr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY  

E-print Network

·construction costs occur over life of mine - lower discounted cash flow, lower cash requirements at startup of mine operator ·planning and scheduling of construction required #12;Dr. G. Ward Wilson 2 TailingsDr. G. Ward Wilson 1 Tailings Stability TAILINGS DAM STABILITY · Construction staged over the life

Boisvert, Jeff

87

Ectoderm to Mesoderm Lineage Switching During Axolotl Tail Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign environments may induce adult stem cells to switch lineages and populate multiple tissue types, but whether this mechanism is used for tissue repair remains uncertain. Urodele amphibians can regenerate fully functional, multitissue structures including the limb and tail. To determine whether lineage switching is an integral feature of this regeneration, we followed individual spinal cord cells live during tail

Karen Echeverri; Elly M. Tanaka

2002-01-01

88

PssP2 is a polysaccharide co-polymerase involved in exopolysaccharide chain-length determination in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Production of extracellular polysaccharides is a complex process engaging proteins localized in different subcellular compartments, yet communicating with each other or even directly interacting in multicomponent complexes. Proteins involved in polymerization and transport of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Rhizobium leguminosarum are encoded within the chromosomal Pss-I cluster. However, genes implicated in polysaccharide synthesis are common in rhizobia, with several homologues of pss genes identified in other regions of the R. leguminosarum genome. One such region is chromosomally located Pss-II encoding proteins homologous to known components of the Wzx/Wzy-dependent polysaccharide synthesis and transport systems. The pssP2 gene encodes a protein similar to polysaccharide co-polymerases involved in determination of the length of polysaccharide chains in capsule and O-antigen biosynthesis. In this work, a mutant with a disrupted pssP2 gene was constructed and its capabilities to produce EPS and enter into a symbiotic relationship with clover were studied. The pssP2 mutant, while not altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), displayed changes in molecular mass distribution profile of EPS. Lack of the full-length PssP2 protein resulted in a reduction of high molecular weight EPS, yet polymerized to a longer length than in the RtTA1 wild type. The mutant strain was also more efficient in symbiotic performance. The functional interrelation between PssP2 and proteins encoded within the Pss-I region was further supported by data from bacterial two-hybrid assays providing evidence for PssP2 interactions with PssT polymerase, as well as glycosyltransferase PssC. A possible role for PssP2 in a complex involved in EPS chain-length determination is discussed. PMID:25268738

Marczak, Ma?gorzata; Matysiak, Paulina; Kutkowska, Jolanta; Skorupska, Anna

2014-01-01

89

PssP2 Is a Polysaccharide Co-Polymerase Involved in Exopolysaccharide Chain-Length Determination in Rhizobium leguminosarum  

PubMed Central

Production of extracellular polysaccharides is a complex process engaging proteins localized in different subcellular compartments, yet communicating with each other or even directly interacting in multicomponent complexes. Proteins involved in polymerization and transport of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Rhizobium leguminosarum are encoded within the chromosomal Pss-I cluster. However, genes implicated in polysaccharide synthesis are common in rhizobia, with several homologues of pss genes identified in other regions of the R. leguminosarum genome. One such region is chromosomally located Pss-II encoding proteins homologous to known components of the Wzx/Wzy-dependent polysaccharide synthesis and transport systems. The pssP2 gene encodes a protein similar to polysaccharide co-polymerases involved in determination of the length of polysaccharide chains in capsule and O-antigen biosynthesis. In this work, a mutant with a disrupted pssP2 gene was constructed and its capabilities to produce EPS and enter into a symbiotic relationship with clover were studied. The pssP2 mutant, while not altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), displayed changes in molecular mass distribution profile of EPS. Lack of the full-length PssP2 protein resulted in a reduction of high molecular weight EPS, yet polymerized to a longer length than in the RtTA1 wild type. The mutant strain was also more efficient in symbiotic performance. The functional interrelation between PssP2 and proteins encoded within the Pss-I region was further supported by data from bacterial two-hybrid assays providing evidence for PssP2 interactions with PssT polymerase, as well as glycosyltransferase PssC. A possible role for PssP2 in a complex involved in EPS chain-length determination is discussed. PMID:25268738

Marczak, Malgorzata; Matysiak, Paulina; Kutkowska, Jolanta; Skorupska, Anna

2014-01-01

90

Helicopter tail rotor orthogonal blade vortex interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic operating environment of the helicopter is particularly complex and, to some extent, dominated by the vortices trailed from the main and tail rotors. These vortices not only determine the form of the induced flow field but also interact with each other and with elements of the physical structure of the flight vehicle. Such interactions can have implications in

F. N. Coton; J. S. Marshall; R. A. Mc D. Galbraith; R. B. Green

2004-01-01

91

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

92

Thrust reversing effects on horizontal tail effectiveness of twin-engine fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Research Center has conducted an experimental program to determine the interference effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness of a twin engine, general research fighter model at approach (Mach number 0.15) and in-flight (Mach number 0.60 and 0.90) speeds. Twin vertical tails were tested at three longitudinal locations. Two nonaxisymmetric nozzle reverser concepts were studied. The effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness were found to be very dependent upon vertical tail locations. At approach speeds thrust reverser operation usually resulted in large variations in horizontal tail effectiveness as either nozzle pressure ratio or model angle of attack was varied. Either increases or decreases in tail effectiveness ocurred due to reverse operation depending upon tail location. At in-flight conditions there were always decreases in tail effectiveness due to reverser operation regardless of vertical tail location.

Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

1983-01-01

93

Interpretation of tails of X-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four reasons for ruling out the Alcock and Hatchett (1978) proposal concerning the tails of X-ray bursts are advanced. This proposal suggests that the tails of X-ray bursts observed during burst decay are due to the small-angle scattering of the original pulse of X-rays on interstellar dust grains; grains with a typical size of approximately 3 microns are assumed. The arguments against this theory involve differences in burst tail sizes sometimes observed for bursts from the same source; the different kinds of bursts emitted by MXB 1730-335 (rapid burster); an indication that MXB 1730-335 bursts have tails less than 2 s long; and the lack of correlation between relative strength of burst tails and the interstellar absorption.

Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

1978-01-01

94

Simulations of Instabilities in Tidal Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use graphics cards to run a hybrid test particle/N-body simulation to integrate 4 million massless particle trajectories within fully self-consistent N-body simulations of 128,000 - 256,000 particles. The number of massless particles allows us to resolve fine structure in the spatial distribution and phase space of a dwarf galaxy that is disrupted in the tidal field of a Milky Way type galaxy. The tidal tails exhibit clumping or a smoke-like appearance. By running simulations with different satellite particle mass, number of massive vs massless particles and with and without a galaxy disk, we have determined that the instabilities are not due to numerical noise or shocking as the satellite passes through the disk of the Galaxy. The instability is possibly a result of self-gravity which indicates it may be due to Jeans instabilities. Simulations involving different halo particle mass may suggest limitations on dark matter halo substructure. We find that the instabilities are visible in velocity space as well as real space and thus could be identified from velocity surveys as well as number counts.

Comparetta, Justin N.; Quillen, A. C.

2010-05-01

95

Recombinants of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and genetic determinants of BCMV involved in overcoming resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) exists as a complex of strains classified by reactions to resistance genes found in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); seven BCMV pathotypes have been distinguished thus far, numbered I to VII. Virus genetic determinants involved in pathogenicity interactions with resistance genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel field isolates of BCMV that helped to narrow down these genetic determinants interacting with specific P. vulgaris resistance factors. Based on a biological characterization on common bean differentials, both isolates were classified as belonging to pathotype VII, similar to control isolate US10, and both isolates exhibited the B serotype. The whole genome was sequenced for both isolates and found to be 98 to 99% identical to the BCMV isolate RU1 (pathotype VI), and a single name was retained: BCMV RU1-OR. To identify a genetic determinant of BCMV linked to the BCMV pathotype VII, the whole genome was also sequenced for two control isolates, US10 and RU1-P. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV RU1-OR and US10 (both pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV (RU1-P, RU1-D, and RU1-W, all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1-OR originated through a series of recombination events between US10 and an as-yet-unidentified BCMV parental genome, resulting in changes in virus pathology. The data obtained suggest that a fragment of the RU1-OR genome between positions 723 and 1,961 nucleotides that is common to US10 and RU1-OR in the P1-HC-Pro region of the BCMV genome may be responsible for the ability to overcome resistance in bean conferred by the bc-2(2) gene. This is the first report of a virus genetic determinant responsible for overcoming a specific BCMV resistance gene in common bean. PMID:24915430

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Nikolaeva, Olga V; Myers, James R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

96

Structural Characterization of the Bacteriophage T7 Tail Machinery*?  

PubMed Central

Most bacterial viruses need a specialized machinery, called “tail,” to inject their genomes inside the bacterial cytoplasm without disrupting the cellular integrity. Bacteriophage T7 is a well characterized member of the Podoviridae family infecting Escherichia coli, and it has a short noncontractile tail that assembles sequentially on the viral head after DNA packaging. The T7 tail is a complex of around 2.7 MDa composed of at least four proteins as follows: the connector (gene product 8, gp8), the tail tubular proteins gp11 and gp12, and the fibers (gp17). Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle image reconstruction techniques, we have determined the precise topology of the tail proteins by comparing the structure of the T7 tail extracted from viruses and a complex formed by recombinant gp8, gp11, and gp12 proteins. Furthermore, the order of assembly of the structural components within the complex was deduced from interaction assays with cloned and purified tail proteins. The existence of common folds among similar tail proteins allowed us to obtain pseudo-atomic threaded models of gp8 (connector) and gp11 (gatekeeper) proteins, which were docked into the corresponding cryo-EM volumes of the tail complex. This pseudo-atomic model of the connector-gatekeeper interaction revealed the existence of a common molecular architecture among viruses belonging to the three tailed bacteriophage families, strongly suggesting that a common molecular mechanism has been favored during evolution to coordinate the transition between DNA packaging and tail assembly. PMID:23884409

Cuervo, Ana; Pulido-Cid, Mar; Chagoyen, Monica; Arranz, Rocio; Gonzalez-Garcia, Veronica A.; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Caston, Jose R.; Valpuesta, Jose M.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Martin-Benito, Jaime; Carrascosa, Jose L.

2013-01-01

97

"Old" tail lobes provide significant additional substorm power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during rounding the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs correspond in the magnetosphere to the old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux ?1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides transport of the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ?' from solar wind into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux ?2 is usually supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but it is far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the ? = ?2/?02, where ?02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and ?2 is variable magnetic flux during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient ? decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in ? as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux ?2, which was considered to be constant earlier, to the ' transport process of the Poynting flux from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A weakening of the transport process at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in ?. Estimates showed that coefficient ? during each regime and the computed Poynting flux varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that effectively increases the accumulated tail energy for the expansion and recovery phases.

Mishin, V.; Mishin, V. V.; Karavaev, Y.

2012-12-01

98

Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Mill tailings dumps at Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka, are creating environmental problems. One of the solutions to these problems is to use the mill tailings for some useful purpose. This study examined the possibility of making bricks from the mill tailings with some additives in laboratory experiments. Samples of the mill tailings and the additives were analysed for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific gravity. The plasticity index of the mill tailings being zero, they could not be used directly for making bricks. Therefore some additives that had plasticity or binding properties were mixed with the mill tailings. Ordinary Portland cement, black cotton soils and red soils were selected as additives. Each of the additives was mixed separately with the mill tailings in different proportions by weight and a large number of bricks were prepared using metallic moulds. The bricks were termed as cement-tailings bricks or soil-tailings bricks, depending on the additives used. The cement-tailings bricks were cured for different periods and their corresponding compressive strengths were determined. The bricks with 20% of cement and 14 days of curing were found to be suitable. The soil-tailings bricks were sun-dried and then fired in a furnace at different temperatures. The quality of bricks was assessed in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption and compressive strength. The cost analysis revealed that cement-tailings bricks would be uneconomical whereas the soil-tailings bricks would be very economical. PMID:17985673

Roy, Surendra; Adhikari, Govind R; Gupta, Rama N

2007-10-01

99

Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O

1954-01-01

100

Teratoma in Human Tail Lipoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a rare congenital teratoma that developed in a lipoma attached to a remnant human tail. A male newborn baby presented with a large, 3-cm mass with an open margin, which pedunculated from a tail attached to the midline skin of the coccygeal area. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple sacral spinal bifida without cord tethering, and

Se-Hyuck Park; Jee Soon Huh; Ki Hong Cho; Yong Sam Shin; Se Hyck Kim; Young Hwan Ahn; Kyung Gi Cho; Soo Han Yoon

2005-01-01

101

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained

A. R. George; S. T. Chou

1986-01-01

102

NOISE IN THE GEOMAGNETIC TAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present observations have revealed a variety of magnetic wave phenomena in the tail, from ULF to ELF frequencies. However, only VLF measurements of electric fields have been made. These measurements reveal that the tail is electrically quiet at VLF fre- quencies, except in the near Earth plasma sheet during substorm expansion phases. The mag- netic waves observed iocIude: waves with

CHRISTOPHER T. RUSSELL

1972-01-01

103

Trends in Tailing Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent releases of tailing effluents and solids from containment facilities around the world, including Mary Spruitt (1994), Omai (1995) and Marcopper (1996), have heightened awareness that risks associated with tailing containment must be fully addressed during all phases of a facility life. Recent studies by independent international organizations (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1996; United Stated Committee on Large Dams

Iain G. Bruce; Clint Logue; Lori-Ann Wilchek

104

Missile rolling tail brake torque system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparatus for simulating varying levels of friction in the bearings of a free rolling tail afterbody on a canard-controlled missile to determine friction effects on aerodynamic control characteristics is described. A ring located between the missile body and the afterbody is utilized in a servo system to create varying levels of friction between the missile body and the afterbody to simulate bearing friction.

Davis, W. T.

1984-01-01

105

Dust tail of the distant comet C/1999 J2 (Skiff)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD observations of comet C/1999 J2 (Skiff) were made at the Pik Terskol Observatory on September 15, 1999. The 2-m telescope equipped with the two-channel focal reducer of the Max-Plank-Institute for Aeronomy was used to study the cometary environment. In spite of the large heliocentric distance, 7.24 AU, a straight dust tail with fairly well defined boundaries was recorded. These data provide an opportunity to study the peculiarity of dust, that is not driven by water vapor. To fit the dust tail, a Monte Carlo model was developed. We trace the trajectories of about 107 sample grains to construct the detailed brightness distribution in the comet tail. The simulated isophote field and the observed one agree very well. In our model we also take into account the heliocentric dependence of the dust production rate and ejection velocity, and the dust ejection anisotropy. To transform the particle population to brightness in the modelled tail we calculate the scattering cross section of a separate particle using Mie theory. The age, ejection velocity, dust size distribution, minimum and maximum size of the involved dust particles have been derived from the model giving the best fit. The intensity map is in agreement with a flow of the slowly travelling icy grains. It has been determined that the age of the dust tail of comet C/1999 J2 (Skiff) was, at the moment of the observations, about 540 days and that the main reason for its appearance is likely phase transition from amorphous to crystalline water ice activated at the heliocentric distance of 8.6 AU.

Korsun, P. P.; Chörny, G. F.

2003-11-01

106

Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.  

SciTech Connect

The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m/sup 3/ (70,000 yd/sup 3/) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO/sub 4/ were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities (<10/sup -8/ cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials.

Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

1984-04-01

107

Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 < XGSM < --15, i.e. which of the records that were located in the current sheet, in the tail lobe, in the magnetosheath and in the boundary layers respectively. The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

1999-01-01

108

Mammalian TIMELESS is involved in period determination and DNA damage-dependent phase advancing of the circadian clock.  

PubMed

The transcription/translation feedback loop-based molecular oscillator underlying the generation of circadian gene expression is preserved in almost all organisms. Interestingly, the animal circadian clock proteins CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) are strongly conserved at the amino acid level through evolution. Within this evolutionary frame, TIM represents a fascinating puzzle. While Drosophila contains two paralogs, dTIM and dTIM2, acting in clock/photoreception and chromosome integrity/photoreception respectively, mammals contain only one TIM homolog. Whereas TIM has been shown to regulate replication termination and cell cycle progression, its functional link to the circadian clock is under debate. Here we show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of TIM in NIH3T3 and U2OS cells shortens the period by 1 hour and diminishes DNA damage-dependent phase advancing. Furthermore, we reveal that the N-terminus of TIM is sufficient for interaction with CRY1 and CHK1 as well for homodimerization, and the C-terminus is necessary for nuclear localization. Interestingly, the long TIM isoform (l-TIM), but not the short (s-TIM), interacts with CRY1 and both proteins can reciprocally regulate their nuclear translocation in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Finally, we demonstrate that co-expression of PER2 abolishes the formation of the TIM/CRY1 complex through affinity binding competition to the C-terminal tail of CRY1. Notably, the presence of the latter protein region evolutionarily and structurally distinguishes mammalian from insect CRYs. We propose that the dynamic interaction between these three proteins could represent a post-translational aspect of the mammalian circadian clock that is important for its pace and adaption to external stimuli, such as DNA damage and/or light. PMID:23418588

Engelen, Erik; Janssens, Roel C; Yagita, Kazuhiro; Smits, Veronique A J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Tamanini, Filippo

2013-01-01

109

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

110

Simulation of pyrite oxidation in fresh mine tailings under near-neutral conditions.  

PubMed

Sulphidic residual products from ore processing may produce acid rock drainage, when exposed to oxygen and water. Predictions of the magnitude of ARD and sulphide oxidation rates are of great importance in mine planning because they can be used to minimize or eliminate ARD and the associated economic and environmental costs. To address the lack of field data of sulphide oxidation rate in fresh sulphide-rich tailings under near-neutral conditions, determination and simulation of the rate was performed in pilot-scale at Kristineberg, northern Sweden. The quality of the drainage water was monitored, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The chemical composition of the solid tailings was also determined. The field data were compared to predictions from simulations of pyrite oxidation using a 1-D numerical model. The simulations' estimates of the amount of Fe and S released over a seven year period (52 kg and 178 kg, respectively) were in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by analysing the tailings (34 kg and 155 kg, respectively). The discrepancy is probably due to the formation of secondary precipitates such as iron hydroxides and gypsum; which are not accounted for in the model. The observed mass transport of Fe and S (0.05 and 1.0 kg per year, respectively) was much lower than expected on the basis of the simulations and the core data. Neutralization reactions involving carbonates in the tailings result in a near-neutral pH at all depths except at the oxidation front (pH < 5), indicating that the dissolution of carbonates was too slow for the acid to be neutralized, which instead neutralized deeper down in the tailings. This was also indicated by the reduced abundance of solid Ca at greater depths and the high levels of carbon dioxide both of which are consistent with the dissolution of carbonates. It could be concluded that the near-neutral pH in the tailings has no decreasing effect on the rate of sulphide oxidation, but does reduce the concentrations of dissolved elements in the drainage water due to the formation of secondary minerals. This means that sulphide oxidation rates may be underestimated if determined from drainage alone. PMID:22777533

Alakangas, Lena; Lundberg, Angela; Nason, Peter

2012-08-01

111

Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

1952-01-01

112

Radiative Tail of Realistic Rotating Gravitational Collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astrophysically realistic model of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes must involve a nonspherical background geometry with angular momentum. We consider the evolution of gravitational (and electromagnetic) perturbations in rotating Kerr spacetimes. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than the corresponding spherically symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, our results turn over the traditional belief (which has been widely accepted during the last three decades) that the late-time tail of gravitational collapse is universal. Our results are also of importance both to the study of the no-hair conjecture and the mass-inflation scenario (stability of Cauchy horizons).

Hod, Shahar

2000-01-01

113

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

2011-01-01

114

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

115

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

TAIL VEIN INJECTION (SOP-7) INTRODUCTION Several techniques can be employed which allow within the vein. If the injection is placed subcutaneously, the tail may also blanch but the resistance, the tail can be warmed under a heat lamp. Warming the tail causes the veins to dilate. 3. Locate the right

Kleinfeld, David

116

78 FR 68411 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-848] Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's...reviews of the antidumping duty order on freshwater crawfish tail meat (crawfish) from...Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the...

2013-11-14

117

French Multicenter Study Involving Eight Test Sites for Radiometric Determination of Activities of 10 Antimicrobial Agents againstMycobacterium aviumComplex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiometric BACTEC 460-TB methodology hasfilled an increased need in the screening of a wide range of antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium avium (MAC) isolates on a patient-to-patient basis. In this context, a multicenter study involving eight test sites across France was performed to determine the MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents for MAC organisms. The aim of the investigation was to

NALIN RASTOGI; ROSINE-MARIE BAURIAUD; ANNE BOURGOIN; BERNARD CARBONNELLE; CLAUDE CHIPPAUX; MARIE-JOSE GEVAUDAN; KHYE SENG GOH

118

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated\\u000a factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003 and use a national sample of 10–15 year old children to examine the factors associated with substance abuse for

Veeran-Anne S. Singh; Tiffany Thornton; Lil Tonmyr

119

On the variability of He+ suprathermal tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar neutral helium penetrates to well within 1 AU where it is ionized predominantly by UV from the Sun. These freshly created He+ pickup ions (PUI) are convected outward with the solar wind and subject to acceleration processes, for example in compression regions, corotating interaction regions, or CME-driven interplanetary shocks. These acceleration processes result in the formation of suprathermal tails in the PUI velocity distribution. The PLASTIC instruments on the STEREO spacecraft cover for pickup He the energy range of ~1-20 keV/nuc. They allow the determination of PUI velocity distribution functions from the source distribution to suprathermal energies. In this paper we study the suprathermal tails of He pickup ions during the period January to December 2008 that featured many corotating interaction regions. The PLASTIC observations for the He+ suprathermal tail show a large variability of the spectral index ? of the distribution function f(w)~w?, with w = V/Vsw, where V and Vsw are the particle velocity and the solar wind velocity, respectively. Incorporating a transformation from the spacecraft frame to the solar wind frame, the spectral index at velocities 1.5 <= w <= 5 (in the solar wind frame) ranges from ? ~ -5.7 at a forward shock to ? = -9 in the slow solar wind.

Popecki, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Simunac, K. D. C.; Galvin, A. B.; Kucharek, H.

2013-06-01

120

Sex Differences in the Right Tail of Cognitive Abilities: A 30 Year Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One factor in the debate surrounding the underrepresentation of women in science technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) involves male-female mathematical ability differences in the extreme right tail (top 1% in ability). The present study provides male-female ability ratios from over 1.6 million 7th grade students in the right tail (top 5%…

Wai, Jonathan; Cacchio, Megan; Putallaz, Martha; Makel, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

121

Indicators of Microbial Sulfate Reduction in Acidic Sulfide-Rich Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are thought to be actively involved in the cycling of sulfur in acidic mine tailings. However, most studies have used circumstantial evidence to assess microbial sulfate activity in such environments. In order to fully ascertain the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sulfur cycling in acidic mine tailings, we measured sulfate reduction rates, sulfur isotopic composition of

Tanmay Praharaj; Danielle Fortin

2004-01-01

122

Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) Obtained from Methanogenic Oil Sands Tailings Pond Metagenomes  

PubMed Central

Draft genome sequences of two Campylobacterales (Sulfurospirillum sp. strain SCADC and Sulfuricurvum sp. strain MLSB [Mildred Lake Settling Basin]) were obtained by taxonomic binning of metagenomes originating from an oil sands tailings pond. Both genomes contain soxABXYZ genes involved in sulfur oxidation, highlighting their potential roles in sulfur cycling in oil sands tailings ponds. PMID:25323712

Tan, BoonFei

2014-01-01

123

Draft genome sequences of campylobacterales (epsilonproteobacteria) obtained from methanogenic oil sands tailings pond metagenomes.  

PubMed

Draft genome sequences of two Campylobacterales (Sulfurospirillum sp. strain SCADC and Sulfuricurvum sp. strain MLSB [Mildred Lake Settling Basin]) were obtained by taxonomic binning of metagenomes originating from an oil sands tailings pond. Both genomes contain soxABXYZ genes involved in sulfur oxidation, highlighting their potential roles in sulfur cycling in oil sands tailings ponds. PMID:25323712

Tan, BoonFei; Foght, Julia

2014-01-01

124

Effect of excess AgO and EDTA on the redox titration involved in potentiometric determination of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to carry out potentiometric determination of plutonium (by AgO-oxidation method) following the determination of thorium (by complexometric EDTA titration) gave positively biased irreproducible values of plutonium. In order to understand the factors leading to the erroneous values of plutonium, the effect of varying amounts of AgO and EDTA on redox [Fe(II)\\/K2Cr2O7] titration in the medium consisting of 1M H2SO4

S. P. Hasilkar; Keshav Chander; S. G. Marathe

1990-01-01

125

Does climate have heavy tails?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

2013-04-01

126

A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

2006-01-01

127

Molycorp Guadalupe Mountain tailings disposal facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Molycorp proposes to construct and operate a molybdenum tailings disposal facility on 1,230 acres of public land near Questa, New Mexico and has located mill site claims for this purpose. The project would consist of a 568-acre tailings pond in the saddle of Guadalupe Mountain. The pond would be formed by the construction of two rock-filled dams at either end of the saddle. Other facilities would include a tailings pump station, an extension of the tailings pipeline, tailings distribution lines, access roads and a patrol road, a powerline, a seepage collection pond, surface water diversion channels, and a decant water channel. The project would provide additional storage for approximately 200 million tons of tailings from Molycorp's molybdenum mine located approximately 12 miles east of Guadalupe Mountain. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) completed an Environmental Assessment (EA) for this project in February 1985. As a result of that EA, the BLM determined that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would be required. The EIS analyzes and documents the environmental impacts of the proposed project through construction, operation, and closure.

Not Available

1989-11-01

128

A variable region on the chlorovirus CVK2 genome contains genes possibly involved in the host range determination.  

PubMed

A 22.6-kbp variable region near the left end of the chlorovirus CVK2 genome which was characterized. This region contained a tandem array of 5 gene copies for Vp260-like protein, a viral surface glycoprotein. The authentic 104-kDa Vp260 was encoded at another site on the genome and contained 13 internally located, tandem repeats of 61-65 amino acids like the prominent Rickettsia surface antigen. By Northern and Western blot analyses, these genes were demonstrated to be expressed late in infection and the proteins were incorporated into virions. These results implied that the extra copies of Vp260-like proteins may be involved in host range in the natural environment. PMID:12836266

Chuchird, N; Nishida, K; Kawasaki, T; Yamada, T

2001-01-01

129

The temperature-sensitive mutation vir ts ( virilizer ) identifies a new gene involved in sex determination of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

When XX animals homozygous for the temperature-sensitive mutation virtsof virilizer (2–103.9) are raised at the restrictive temperature of 29° C, they are transformed into sterile intersexes with a morphology comparable to XX flies mutant at the sex-determining gene doublesex (dsx). The gonads of the virtsintersexes are ovaries in which the germ cells undergo abortive oogenesis. At the permissive temperature of

Andres Hilfiker; Rolf Nothiger

1991-01-01

130

Ratios of bottom meson branching fractions involving J\\/psi mesons and determination of b quark fragmentation fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a measurement of the ratios of the decay rates of the B+, B0, and B0s mesons into exclusive final states containing a J\\/psi meson. The final states were selected from 19.6 pb-1 of pp¯ collisions recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. These data are interpreted to determine the b quark fragmentation fractions fu, fd, and fs. We

F. Abe; H. Akimoto; A. Akopian; M. G. Albrow; S. R. Amendolia; D. Amidei; J. Antos; C. Anway-Wiese; S. Aota; G. Apollinari; T. Asakawa; W. Ashmanskas; M. Atac; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; S. Bagdasarov; M. W. Bailey; J. Bao; P. de Barbaro; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; E. Barzi; G. Bauer; T. Baumann; F. Bedeschi; S. Behrends; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; J. Benlloch; J. Bensinger; D. Benton; A. Beretvas; J. P. Berge; J. Berryhill; S. Bertolucci; B. Bevensee; A. Bhatti; K. Biery; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; A. Bodek; W. Bokhari; G. Bolla; V. Bolognesi; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; L. Breccia; C. Bromberg; N. Bruner; E. Buckley-Geer; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; A. Byon-Wagner; K. L. Byrum; J. Cammerata; C. Campagnari; M. Campbell; A. Caner; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; A. Castro; D. Cauz; Y. Cen; F. Cervelli; P. S. Chang; H. Y. Chao; J. Chapman; M.-T. Cheng; G. Chiarelli; T. Chikamatsu; C. N. Chiou; L. Christofek; S. Cihangir; A. G. Clark; M. Cobal; M. Contreras; J. Conway; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; C. Couyoumtzelis; D. Crane; D. Cronin-Hennessy; R. Culbertson; J. D. Cunningham; T. Daniels; F. Dejongh; S. Delchamps; S. dell'agnello; M. dell'orso; R. Demina; L. Demortier; B. Denby; M. Deninno; P. F. Derwent; T. Devlin; J. R. Dittmann; S. Donati; J. Done; T. Dorigo; A. Dunn; N. Eddy; K. Einsweiler; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; E. Engels; D. Errede; S. Errede; Q. Fan; I. Fiori; B. Flaugher; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; M. Frautschi; J. Freeman; J. Friedman; T. A. Fuess; Y. Fukui; S. Funaki; G. Gagliardi; S. Galeotti; M. Gallinaro; M. Garcia-Sciveres; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; S. Geer; D. W. Gerdes; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; L. Gladney; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; J. Gonzalez; A. Gordon; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; H. Grassmann; L. Groer; C. Grosso-Pilcher; G. Guillian; R. S. Guo; C. Haber; E. Hafen; S. R. Hahn; R. Handler; R. M. Hans; K. Hara; A. D. Hardman; B. Harral; R. M. Harris; S. A. Hauger; J. Hauser; C. Hawk; E. Hayashi; J. Heinrich; K. D. Hoffman; M. Hohlmann; C. Holck; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; A. Hölscher; S. Hong; G. Houk; P. Hu; B. T. Huffman; R. Hughes; J. Huston; J. Huth; J. Hylen; H. Ikeda; M. Incagli; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; J. Iwai; Y. Iwata; H. Jensen; U. Joshi; R. W. Kadel; E. Kajfasz; H. Kambara; T. Kamon; T. Kaneko; K. Karr; H. Kasha; Y. Kato; T. A. Keaffaber; L. Keeble; K. Kelley; R. D. Kennedy; R. Kephart; P. Kesten; D. Kestenbaum; R. M. Keup; H. Keutelian; F. Keyvan; B. Kharadia; B. J. Kim; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; L. Kirsch; P. Koehn; K. Kondo; J. Konigsberg; S. Kopp; K. Kordas; A. Korytov; W. Koska; E. Kovacs; W. Kowald; M. Krasberg; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; T. Kuwabara; S. E. Kuhlmann; E. Kuns; A. T. Laasanen; N. Labanca; S. Lammel; J. I. Lamoureux; T. Lecompte; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; P. Limon; M. Lindgren; T. M. Liss; N. Lockyer; O. Long; C. Loomis; M. Loreti; J. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lukens; S. Lusin; J. Lys; K. Maeshima; A. Maghakian; P. Maksimovic; M. Mangano; J. Mansour; M. Mariotti; J. P. Marriner; A. Martin; J. A. Matthews; R. Mattingly; P. McIntyre; P. Melese; A. Menzione; E. Meschi; S. Metzler; C. Miao; T. Miao; G. Michail; R. Miller; H. Minato; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; H. Mitsushio; T. Miyamoto; S. Miyashita; N. Moggi; Y. Morita; J. Mueller; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; P. Murat; H. Nakada; I. Nakano; C. Nelson; D. Neuberger; C. Newman-Holmes; M. Ninomiya; L. Nodulman; S. H. Oh; K. E. Ohl; T. Ohmoto; T. Ohsugi; R. Oishi; M. Okabe; T. Okusawa; R. Oliveira; J. Olsen; C. Pagliarone; R. Paoletti; V. Papadimitriou; S. P. Pappas; A. Parri; J. Patrick; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; A. Perazzo; L. Pescara; M. D. Peters; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; M. Pillai; K. T. Pitts; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; J. Proudfoot; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; K. Ragan; A. Ribon; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; W. J. Robertson; T. Rodrigo; S. Rolli; J. Romano; L. Rosenson; R. Roser; W. K. Sakumoto; D. Saltzberg; A. Sansoni; L. Santi; H. Sato; V. Scarpine; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; M. P. Schmidt; A. Scribano; S. Segler; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; G. Sganos; M. D. Shapiro; N. M. Shaw; Q. Shen; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; A. Sill; P. Sinervo; P. Singh; J. Skarha; K. Sliwa; F. D. Snider; T. Song; J. Spalding; T. Speer; P. Sphicas; F. Spinella; M. Spiropulu; L. Spiegel; L. Stanco; J. Steele; A. Stefanini; K. Strahl; J. Strait; R. Ströhmer; D. Stuart; G. Sullivan; A. Soumarokov; K. Sumorok; J. Suzuki; T. Takada; T. Takahashi; T. Takano; K. Takikawa; N. Tamura; F. Tartarelli; W. Taylor; P. K. Teng; Y. Teramoto; S. Tether; D. Theriot; T. L. Thomas; R. Thun; M. Timko; P. Tipton; A. Titov; S. Tkaczyk; D. Toback; K. Tollefson; A. Tollestrup; J. Tonnison; J. F. de Troconiz; S. Truitt; J. Tseng; N. Turini; T. Uchida; N. Uemura; F. Ukegawa; G. Unal; J. Valls; S. C. van den Brink; S. Vejcik

1996-01-01

131

HIV-1 Nef Responsiveness is Determined by Env Variable Regions Involved in Trimer Association and Correlates with Neutralization Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated MLV glycoGag similarly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. We now show that the effects of Nef and glycoGag are similarly determined by variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 that control Env trimer association and neutralization sensitivity. Whereas neutralization-sensitive X4-tropic Env proteins conferred high responsiveness to Nef and glycoGag, particles bearing neutralization-resistant R5-tropic Envs were considerably less affected. The profoundly different Nef/glycoGag-responsiveness of a neutralization-resistant and a neutralization-sensitive R5-tropic Env could be switched by exchanging their gp120 V1/V2 regions, which also switches their neutralization sensitivity. Within V1/V2, the same determinants governed Nef/glycoGag-responsiveness and neutralization sensitivity, indicating that these phenotypes are mechanistically linked. The V1/V2 and V3 regions, which form an apical trimer-association domain, together determined the Nef- and glycoGag-responsiveness of an X4-tropic Env. Our results suggest that Nef and glycoGag counteract the inactivation of Env spikes with relatively unstable apical trimer-association domains. PMID:24209751

Usami, Yoshiko; Gottlinger, Heinrich

2013-01-01

132

HIV-1 Nef responsiveness is determined by Env variable regions involved in trimer association and correlates with neutralization sensitivity.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycoGag similarly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. We now show that the effects of Nef and glycoGag are similarly determined by variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 that control Env trimer association and neutralization sensitivity. Whereas neutralization-sensitive X4-tropic Env proteins conferred high responsiveness to Nef and glycoGag, particles bearing neutralization-resistant R5-tropic Envs were considerably less affected. The profoundly different Nef/glycoGag responsiveness of a neutralization-resistant and a neutralization-sensitive R5-tropic Env could be switched by exchanging their gp120 V1/V2 regions, which also switches their neutralization sensitivity. Within V1/V2, the same determinants governed Nef/glycoGag responsiveness and neutralization sensitivity, indicating that these phenotypes are mechanistically linked. The V1/V2 and V3 regions, which form an apical trimer-association domain, together determined the Nef and glycoGag responsiveness of an X4-tropic Env. Our results suggest that Nef and glycoGag counteract the inactivation of Env spikes with relatively unstable apical trimer-association domains. PMID:24209751

Usami, Yoshiko; Göttlinger, Heinrich

2013-11-14

133

A selective spectrofluorimetric method for carbendazim determination in oranges involving inclusion-complex formation with cucurbit[7]uril.  

PubMed

The increase in fluorescence intensity with respect to carbendazim that occurs as a result of supramolecular-complex formation between carbendazim and cucurbit[7]uril has been studied. This host-guest interaction has been employed to develop a sensitive and selective method for benzoimidazole-type pesticide determination in fruit samples. The association constant and stoichiometry of the complex formed are reported herein, and the influence of experimental variables, such as the pH or ionic strength of the solution, on complex formation and the presence of interfering substances is also discussed. Under the optimal conditions found, the developed method allows the detection of carbendazim at a 5.0x10(-9)M level. To test the method, matrix solid phase dispersion was employed as a sample preparation method for carbendazim determination in orange samples with an RSD (%) (n=3) value of 5%. The LOD and LOQ values calculated for real samples were 0.10 and 0.52mg/kg, respectively, thus showing that the proposed method is sensitive enough to meet legal requirements. PMID:20441936

del Pozo, M; Hernández, L; Quintana, C

2010-06-15

134

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1995-08-01

135

Geochemical changes in sulfidic mine tailings stored under a shallow water cover.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an engineered shallow water cover in reducing the oxidation of sulfidic mine tailings and thus preventing the development of acid rock drainage. Fresh tailings were submerged under a 0.3-m water cover in experimental field cells. From 1996 to 1998, we followed the chemistry of the interstitial water near the tailings-overlying water interface using in situ dialysis, and determined pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles across the tailing water interface using micro-electrodes. Penetration of DO into the tailings was limited to <7 mm, even in the presence of DO produced by benthic periphyton. Anoxia in the tailings was further demonstrated by the appearance of dissolved sigmaH2S, Fe and Mn in pore water at depths -1.5 cm below the interface. However, there was clear evidence of surface oxidation of the mine tailings at the mm scale (i.e., DO depletion, coupled with localized increases in [H+] and [SO4(2-)]). Mobilization of Cd and Zn from this surface layer was indicated by the presence of sub-surface peaks in the concentrations of these two metals in the tailings interstitial water and by a change in their solid phase partitioning from refractory to more labile fractions. In contrast, mobilization of Cu from tailings was less evident. Unlike previous reports, which suggested that submerged tailings were effectively inert, our results show alteration of the superficial layer over time. PMID:11235873

Vigneault, B; Campbell, P G; Tessier, A; De Vitre, R

2001-03-01

136

Determinants involved in subtype-specific functions of rat trace amine-associated receptors 1 and 4  

PubMed Central

Aims The trace amine-associated receptor (Taar) family displays high species- and subtype-specific pharmacology. Several trace amines such as ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA), p-tyramine and tryptamine are agonists at TA1 but poorly activate rat and mouse Taar4. Principal Results Using rat TA1 and Taar4 chimera, we identified determinants in transmembrane helices 3 and 6, which, when replaced by the corresponding portion of rat TA1, can rescue cell surface expression of rat Taar4. When expressed at the cell surface, rat Taar4 pharmacology was very similar to that of TA1 and coupled to the G?s-protein/AC pathway. Our data suggest that binding pockets of Taar for surrogate agonists overlap between paralogs. Conclusions This implicates that the repertoire of Taar ensures functional redundancy, tissue- and cell-specific expression and/or different downstream signalling rather than different agonist specificity. PMID:23072560

Staubert, C; Bohnekamp, J; Schoneberg, T

2013-01-01

137

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the basis for selecting among design options having varying liquefaction resistance, and for establishing input parameters for dynamic analysis. Ranges are presented for the quantity and cleanup cost of tailings released in seismic failures to aid in determining expected failure consequences. It is shown that for many tailings dams, accepted lifetime failure probabilities of a few percent may provide a reasonable basis for probabilistic determination of seismic design criteria.)

Vick, S.G.; Atkinson, G.M.; Wilmot, C.I.

1985-07-01

138

Characterization of Emergent Data Networks Among Long-Tail Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data curation underpins data-driven scientific advancements. It manages the information flux across multiple users throughout data life cycle as well as increases data sustainability and reusability. The exponential growth in data production spanning across the Earth Science involving individual and small research groups, which is termed as log-tail data, increases the data-knowledge latency among related domains. It has become clear that an advanced framework-agnostic metadata and ontologies for long-tail data is required to increase their visibility to each other, and provide concise and meaningful descriptions that reveal their connectivity. Despite the advancement that has been achieved by various sophisticated data management models in different Earth Science disciplines, it is not always straightforward to derive relationships among long-tail data. Semantic data clustering algorithms and pre-defined logic rules that are oriented toward prediction of possible data relationships, is one method to address these challenges. Our work advances the connectivity of related long-tail data by introducing the design for an ontology-based knowledge management system. In this work, we present the system architecture, its components, and illustrate how it can be used to scrutinize the connectivity among datasets. To demonstrate the capabilities of this "data network" prototype, we implemented this approach within the Sustainable Environment Actionable Data (SEAD) environment, an open-source semantic content repository that provides a RDF database for long-tail data, and show how emergent relationships among datasets can be identified.

Elag, Mostafa; Kumar, Praveen; Hedstrom, Margaret; Myers, James; Plale, Beth; Marini, Luigi; McDonald, Robert

2014-05-01

139

Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.  

PubMed

In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration. PMID:25413120

Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2015-01-01

140

The tail sheath structure of bacteriophage T4: a molecular machine for infecting bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The contractile tail of bacteriophage T4 is a molecular machine that facilitates very high viral infection efficiency. Its major component is a tail sheath, which contracts during infection to less than half of its initial length. The sheath consists of 138 copies of the tail sheath protein, gene product (gp) 18, which surrounds the central non-contractile tail tube. The contraction of the sheath drives the tail tube through the outer membrane, creating a channel for the viral genome delivery. A crystal structure of about three quarters of gp18 has been determined and was fitted into cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the tail sheath before and after contraction. It was shown that during contraction, gp18 subunits slide over each other with no apparent change in their structure.

Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Leiman, Petr G.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Kostyuchenko, Victor A.; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Rossmann, Michael G.; (SOIBC); (Purdue)

2009-07-22

141

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

142

Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

2011-01-01

143

Nature of axial tail instability and bubble-blob formation in near-Earth plasma sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

revious global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of substorm events have identified the dynamic presence of an axial tail instability that is uniform in the dawn-dusk direction in the near-Earth plasma sheet. The axial tail instability is found to be a major cause of the initial growing MHD force imbalance on closed field lines prior to the subsequent magnetic reconnection and substorm expansion onset processes. In this work, energy principle analysis indicates that a two-dimensional thin current sheet configuration in the magnetotail is typically stable to the axial mode within the framework of ideal MHD model. However, linear resistive MHD calculations find axial tail instabilities on closed field lines in the generalized Harris sheet configurations. The properties of these instabilities are similar to the axial tail modes observed in the global MHD simulations. The axial tail mode is unstable in regimes of low Lundquist number and regions with small normal component of magnetic field. Such resistive axial tail instability would by many researchers be considered as tearing instability in a two-dimensional tail configuration. Unlike the conventional tearing mode of Harris sheet, the linear axial tail instability does not involve any reconnection process. Instead, the nature of the mode is dominantly a slippage process among neighboring flux tubes as facilitated by resistive dissipation. A natural consequence of the axial tail instability is shown to be the formation of bubble-blob pairs in the pressure and entropy profiles in the near-Earth plasma sheet.

Zhu, P.; Raeder, J.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

2013-02-01

144

Tail use in bioinspired quadrupedal locomotion  

E-print Network

Tails are seen in nature to be used in an amazing number of different applications. Many of these applications seen in nature may be of use to bioinspired roboticists in the future. I have provided a brief review of tail ...

Briggs, Randall (Randall Miller)

2012-01-01

145

From metallurgical coal tailings to thermal fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McIntyre Mines in Canada recover coal from washery tailings slurry. The tailings are dewatered in Bird screen bowl centrifuges and thermally dried in Joy Holo-Flite dryers. The coal recovered is burned in a power station.

van den Broek

1982-01-01

146

Absorption of radium and thorium from Wyoming and Utah uranium mill tailings solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the absorption of radium and thorium from waste uranium leach liquor by clays and other materials. Tailings and soil samples from Wyoming and Utah were contacted with tailings liquors to determine the degree of absorption. Absorption ranged from 0 to 99% for radium and from 0 to 31% for thorium. Some samples, which readily absorbed

H. R. Beard; I. L. Nichols; D. C. Seidel

1979-01-01

147

Design of an MR Based on Device for the Adaptive Stiffness Control of Tail Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical tail design is driven by many elements concerning directional stability and directional control. The overall size of a vertical tail is mainly determined by the stability requirements, while its design is guided by structural constraints, and the rudder configuration and size is mainly linked to the established control characteristics. From the statements above, it follows that reducing the size

S. Ameduri; A. Concilio; A. Gianvito

2009-01-01

148

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1993:12:1--199 1 RETURN VALUE PLACEMENT AND TAIL  

E-print Network

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1993:12:1--199 1 RETURN VALUE PLACEMENT AND TAIL CALL OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH between tail call optimization and the placement of output values in functional and logic programming describe an approach that determines, based on a low­level cost model for an implementation together

Debray, Saumya

149

Progress in tail rotor noise analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter tail rotor noise generated by interactions with the main rotor tip vortices and with the fuselage separation mean wake is investigated. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modeled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The present results are compared to the tail rotor loading and high speed thickness noise and are

S.-T. Chou; A. R. George

1986-01-01

150

Physical space and long-tail markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number

R. Alexander Bentley; Mark E. Madsen; Paul Ormerod

2009-01-01

151

Natural Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have documented active sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in chrysotile mine tailings at Clinton Creek, Yukon and Cassiar, British Columbia. Hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals develop in mine tailings as a natural consequence of the weathering process within the residues. Magnesium, leached from minerals, reacts with dissolved CO2 in rainwater, precipitating carbonates at the surface of tailings upon evaporation

S. A. Wilson; G. M. Dipple; M. Raudsepp; R. G. Anderson

2005-01-01

152

Analysis of Imp-C data from the magnetospheric tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite magnetic field measurements in the geomagnetic tail current sheet are analyzed to determine the normal field component, and other CS parameters such as thickness, motion, vector current density, etc., and to make correlations with auroral activity as measured by the A sub e index. The satellite data used in the initial part of this study were from Explorer 28 and Explorer 34 satellites.

Speiser, T. W.

1973-01-01

153

An evaluation procedure for flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In solid–liquid separation of coal preparation plant tailings by flocculation, in addition to the type and amount of flocculants, the composition of waste materials including clay minerals must be determined in order to devise an effective and economic sedimentation system. In this study, the characterization of organic and inorganic impurities was made with the help of mineralogical data and instrumental

E. Sabah; I. Cengiz

2004-01-01

154

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in

Brian L. Gulson; Karen J. Mizon; Michael J. Korsch; Barry N. Noller

1989-01-01

155

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

156

Slow inward tail currents in rabbit cardiac cells.  

PubMed Central

1. A whole-cell gigaseal suction microelectrode voltage-clamp technique has been used to study slow inward tail currents in single myocytes obtained by enzymatic dispersion of rabbit ventricle and atrium. A variety of stimulation protocols, Tyrode solutions and pharmacological agents have been used to test three hypotheses: (a) that the slow inward tail current is generated by an electrogenic Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger; (b) that a rise in [Ca2+]i, due to release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum can modulate the activity of this exchanger; and (c) that the uptake of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum is a major determinant of the time course of the tail current. 2. As shown previously in amphibian atrium and guinea-pig ventricle, slow inward tail currents can be observed consistently under conditions in which action potentials and ionic currents are recorded using microelectrode constituents which only minimally disturb the intracellular milieu. 3. In ventricular cells, the envelope of these tail currents obtained by varying the duration of the preceding depolarizations shows that (a) the tail currents are activated by pulses as short as 10 ms, and reach a maximum for pulse durations of 100-200 ms, (b) the rate of decay of the tail current gradually increases as the activating depolarizations are prolonged, and (c) the tails cannot be due to deactivation of calcium currents, in agreement with other studies in frog heart. 4. When the mean level of [Ca2+]i is raised following inhibition of the Na(+)-K+ pump by strophanthidin (10(-5) M) or reductions in [K+]o (0.5 mM), the slow inward tail grows in size prior to the onset of a contracture or other signs of calcium-induced toxicity. 5. In a number of different preparations, replacement of [Ca2+]o with BaCl2 markedly or completely inhibits the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, whereas Sr2+ replacement does not have this effect. In myocytes from rabbit ventricle the slow inward tails are reduced significantly and decay more slowly in 0.5-2.2 mM-BaCl2 Tyrode solution, while in 2.2 mM SrCl2 these tails are not altered. 6. The slow inward tail also shows a dependence on [K+]o, corresponding to previous data on Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in other tissues. Increasing [K+]o in the Tyrode solution to a final concentration of 10-15 mM results in a marked inhibition of the slow tails. This effect cannot be accounted for by changes in the inwardly rectifying potassium current, IK1. 7. The slow tail currents were changed significantly by increasing the temperature of the superfusing Tyrode solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2621605

Giles, W; Shimoni, Y

1989-01-01

157

On the shape of the Geomagnetic Tail at Lunar distances: Preliminary Resuts from Artemis Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic tail is one of the least investigated regions of the magnetosphere behind the Earth owing to the limited number of spacecraft and observations. It is the region where the geomagnetic dipole field lines of the Earth are organized by the solar wind stretching. The characteristics of the geomagnetic tail and its response to IMF were studied by the missions, ISEE-3, IMP-8, Wind, Geotail, visited geomagnetic tail at different distances. The structure of the geomagnetic tail is controlled by the IMF orientation and its own internal dynamics. Geomagnetic tail has different regions where the plasma and magnetic field characteristics are largely depend on the IMF orientation. These characteristics show differences at different tail distances. For example it is determined that the tail twists as result of the reconnection with IMF By and this twist is higher as one move away from the Earth toward the distant tail. Like a windsock, it is expected that the IMF control will increase toward the distant tail. Twisting also displaces the north and south lobes on the dawn and dusk sides. Tail length and the shape are also different for different IMF orientations. Flattening of the geomagnetic tail cross-section occurs during the strong IMF Bys. It becomes an ellipse in the yz plane as the IMF By stress causes the tail to be flattened on the top and bottom. Models estimate that the geomagnetic tail length can be 165 Re while Pioneer spacecraft detected geomagnetic tail as long as 100 Re. These findings are based on the very limited data from brief geomagnetic tail encounters of the spacecraft. Since August 2011, with the repositioning of the two of THEMIS spacecraft pair, ARTEMIS is giving a new opportunity to study the geomagnetic tail at the lunar distances, 60 Re. Using these observations, we will investigate the geomagnetic field shape and its IMF dependence at 60 Re. Based on the magnetopause locations at 60 Re, we will study the shape of the tail on the xy-plane. Available analytical models and the numerical model results will be tested and used to find the best model at lunar distances. In this study, we will present our preliminary results and compare our findings with those from the earlier studies in the literature.

Gencturk Akay, Iklim; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Sibeck, David G.

2013-04-01

158

Curved tails in polymerization-based bacterial motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curved actin ``comet-tail'' of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a visually striking signature of actin polymerization-based motility. Similar actin tails are associated with Shigella flexneri, spotted-fever Rickettsiae, the Vaccinia virus, and vesicles and microspheres in related in vitro systems. We show that the torque required to produce the curvature in the tail can arise from randomly placed actin filaments pushing the bacterium or particle. We find that the curvature magnitude determines the number of actively pushing filaments, independent of viscosity and of the molecular details of force generation. The variation of the curvature with time can be used to infer the dynamics of actin filaments at the bacterial surface.

Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Grant, Martin

2001-08-01

159

Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in the bore waters is extremely low (usually < 1 ppb). The /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratio measured in the bore waters differs by more than a factor of 100 from that in the tailings dam and shows no evidence of lead derived from a significant uranium accumulation. It may be possible to distinguish between lead from the tailings dam and that derived from a nearby uranium ore body.

Gulson, B.L.; Mizon, K.J.; Korsch, M.J.; Noller, B.N.

1989-03-01

160

A quantitative and humane tail bleeding assay for efficacy evaluation of antihaemophilic factors in haemophilia A mice.  

PubMed

The tail bleeding model using haemophilic mice has been used as one of the standard assays for efficacy evaluation of novel antihaemophilic therapies at the preclinical level. A number of different configurations and endpoints have been proposed in the literature for this model, hindering interlaboratory comparisons. A particular configuration, known as the tail bleeding survival assay (TBS), adopted by several groups, involves measuring the ability of conscious haemophilic mice to survive exsanguination following tail transection. Major limitations to this configuration include ethical constraints and impaired quantitative determinations. The aim of this study was to standardize and validate a quantitative haemostatic assay for evaluation of antihaemophilic therapies employing an alternative to TBS, which involves a more humane endpoint associated with stable clot formation. Haemophilic mice were treated with vehicle or different doses of two antihaemophilic reference products licensed in Brazil. The haemostatic response was evaluated by our quantitative tail bleeding haemostatic assay (qTBA) over a period of 120 min and then quantified by dose-response modelling. We demonstrate that our qTBA method allows a direct relationship between the number of animals which achieved full haemostatic response and the dosage of both antihaemophilic factors evaluated over 120 min. In addition, the method sensitivity is suitable to demonstrate the conversion from a severe to a moderate haemophilia phenotype. Our proposed qTBA is easy to implement and constitutes an alternative and more ethical endpoint, which could be effectively used as a surrogate to the commonly employed survival endpoint, allowing quantitative haemostatic response evaluation associated with stable clot formation. PMID:24975823

Molina, E S; Fujita, A; Sogayar, M C; Demasi, M A

2014-11-01

161

Quantitative Trait Loci Involved in Sex Determination and Body Growth in the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) through Targeted Genome Scan  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, teleost fish exhibit a considerably wide range of sex determination patterns that may be influenced by extrinsic parameters. However even for model fish species like the zebrafish Danio rerio the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination have not been studied extensively. The zebrafish, a gonochoristic species, is lacking discernible sex chromosomes and the sex of juvenile fish is difficult to determine. Sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species provide distinct determination of the gender and allow studying the sex determination process by looking at the mechanism of sex reversal. This is the first attempt to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation for sex determination and body weight in a sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). This work demonstrates a fast and efficient strategy for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) detection in the gilthead sea bream, a non-model but target hermaphrodite fish species. Therefore a comparative mapping approach was performed to query syntenies against two other Perciformes, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a gonochoristic species and the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) a protandrous hermaphrodite. In this manner two significant QTLs, one QTL affecting both body weight and sex and one QTL affecting sex, were detected on the same linkage group. The co-segregation of the two QTLs provides a genomic base to the observed genetic correlation between these two traits in sea bream as well as in other teleosts. The identification of QTLs linked to sex reversal and growth, will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the complex nature of sex determination in S. aurata where most individuals reverse to the female sex at the age of two years through development and maturation of the ovarian portion of the gonad and regression of the testicular area. [Genomic sequences reported in this manuscript have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers HQ021443–HQ021749.] PMID:21304996

Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Sarropoulou, Elena; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.; Batargias, Costas; Magoulas, Antonios; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Kotoulas, Georgios

2011-01-01

162

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kidd Creek Cu-Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low hydraulic conductivity, and a tension-saturated zone above the water table up to 5 to 6 m thick. These characteristics provide benefits over conventionally disposed tailings with respect to tailings management. The thick tension-saturated zone within the tailings limits the thickness of unsaturated tailings that are susceptible to rapid sulfide oxidation. The conical shape of the deposit results in the formation of a recharge area near the centre of the impoundment and discharge in the peripheral areas. In contrast, the elevated nature of many conventional, unthickened tailings impoundments results in recharge over most of the surface of the impoundment, with discharge occurring outside the impoundment through large containment dykes. Three-dimensional pore water flow modelling suggests that approximately 90% of the total discharge from the thickened tailings occurs within the tailings impoundment. When discharge is confined within the impoundment, there is improved control over low-quality effluent, and an opportunity to design passive control measures to reduce treatment costs and minimize environmental impacts.

Al, Tom A.; Blowes, David W.

1999-06-01

163

Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens. PMID:25288944

Sumayo, Marilyn; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2013-01-01

164

Identification of regions interacting with ovo{sup D} mutations: Potential new genes involved in germline sex determination or differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Only a few Drosophila melanogaster germline sex determination genes are known, and there have been no systematic screens to identify new genes involved in this important biological process. The ovarian phenotypes produced by females mutant for dominant alleles of the ovo gene are modified in flies with altered doses of other loci involved in germline sex determination in Drosophila (Sex-lethal{sup +}, snas fille{sup +} and ovarian tumor{sup +}). This observation constitutes the basis for a screen to identify additional genes required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity. We tested 300 deletions, which together cover {approximately}58% of the euchromatic portion of the genome, for genetic interactions with ovo{sup D}. Hemizygosity for more than a dozen small regions show interactions that either partially suppress or enhance the ovarian phenotypes of females mutant for one or more of the three dominant ovo mutations. These regions probably contain genes whose products act in developmental heirarchies that include ovo{sup +} protein. 40 refs, 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Pauli, D.; Oliver, B.; Mahowald, A.P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

165

Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

Not Available

1994-09-01

166

Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

2008-01-01

167

Electron Ageing and Polarization in Tailed Radio Galaxies  

E-print Network

High-frequency observations of the tailed radio galaxies IC 310, NGC 1265, 3C 129, and 3C 465 have been performed with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. For the radio galaxies IC 310, NGC 1265 and 3C 465, radio data obtained at low frequencies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are also available. These new radio data allow us to map the extended structure of the radio galaxies and obtain spectral and polarization information in the outermost regions. The multi-frequency spectra were used to study the synchrotron ageing of relativistic electrons with increasing distance from the active nucleus. We found that the spectrum in each radio galaxy progressively steepens with distance, and at each location it is steeper at high frequencies. The spectra are fitted by models involving synchrotron energy losses and the critical frequency is obtained at increasing distance from the core. Assuming that the magnetic field is the equipartition value, we obtain the radiating electron lifetimes and consequently their drift velocities. Our results imply the existence of reacceleration processes or bulk motions along the tails. The polarization data at 10.6 GHz give information on the intrinsic degree of polarized flux and the orientation of the magnetic field. We find that the polarization percentage increases along the tails, reflecting an increase of the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. The magnetic field in the tails is longitudinal.

L. Feretti; G. Giovannini; U. Klein; K. -H. Mack; L. G. Sijbring; G. Zech

1997-12-03

168

The hydrogeology of a tailings impoundment formed by central discharge of thickened tailings: implications for tailings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kidd Creek Cu–Zn sulfide mine is located near Timmins, Ontario. Mill tailings are thickened and deposited as a slurry in a circular impoundment with an area of approximately 1200 ha. Deposition of tailings as a thickened slurry from a central discharge ramp results in a conical-shaped tailings deposit with low perimeter dykes, a uniform grain-size distribution, uniform and low

Tom A Al; David W Blowes

1999-01-01

169

Detection of massive tidal tails around the globular cluster Pal 5 with SDSS commissioning data  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of two well-defined tidal tails emerging from the sparse remote globular cluster Palomar 5. These tails stretch out symmetrically to both sides of the cluster in the direction of constant Galactic latitude and subtend an angle of 2.6 degrees on the sky. The tails have been detected in commissioning data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), providing deep five-color photometry in a 2.5 degrees wide band along the equator. The stars in the tails make up a substantial part (~1/3) of the current total population of cluster stars in the magnitude interval 19.5 tails provides an important key for the determination of the cluster's Galactic orbit.

M. Odenkirchen; E. K. Grebel; C. M. Rockosi; W. Dehnen; R. Ibata; H. -W. Rix; A. Stolte; C. Wolf; J. E. Anderson; N. A. Bahcall; J. Brinkmann; I. Csabai; G. Hennessy; R. B. Hindsley; Z. Ivezic; R. H. Lupton; J. A. Munn; J. R. Pier; C. Stoughton; D. G. York

2000-12-14

170

Geophysical Characterization of Inactive Mine Tailings: A First Step for Economical Design of Vegetative Covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to sustain native vegetation on inactive mine tailings mitigates numerous environmental issues such as mass movement due to wind and water, leaching of hazardous chemicals, as well as aesthetic concerns. Mine tailings commonly exhibit a gradient of narrow particle size distributions similar to river delta sediment patterns, which result in poor plant water availability. To develop strategies for optimizing hydrological conditions in mine tailings in the arid Southwest we conducted an electromagnetic induction (EMI)surface survey and applied electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) along selected transects of an inactive tailings site. EMI and ERI data were applied in conjunction with geostatistical analysis to determine contrasting locations for core sampling and installation of time domain transmission (TDT) sensors for long- term monitoring of profile water status. The obtained subsurface maps will be used in combination with numerical modeling to propose cost-efficient designs for vegetative tailings covers.

Berger, P. A.; Heinse, R.; Abdu, H.; Tuller, M.; Jones, S. B.; Schaap, M. G.; Artiola, J. F.

2008-12-01

171

The C-terminal unique region of desmoglein 2 inhibits its internalization via tail–tail interactions  

PubMed Central

Desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins, make up the adhesive core of intercellular junctions called desmosomes. A critical determinant of epithelial adhesive strength is the level and organization of desmosomal cadherins on the cell surface. The Dsg subclass of desmosomal cadherins contains a C-terminal unique region (Dsg unique region [DUR]) with unknown function. In this paper, we show that the DUR of Dsg2 stabilized Dsg2 at the cell surface by inhibiting its internalization and promoted strong intercellular adhesion. DUR also facilitated Dsg tail–tail interactions. Forced dimerization of a Dsg2 tail lacking the DUR led to decreased internalization, supporting the conclusion that these two functions of the DUR are mechanistically linked. We also show that a Dsg2 mutant, V977fsX1006, identified in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy patients, led to a loss of Dsg2 tail self-association and underwent rapid endocytosis in cardiac muscle cells. Our observations illustrate a new mechanism desmosomal cadherins use to control their surface levels, a key factor in determining their adhesion and signaling roles. PMID:23128240

Chen, Jing; Nekrasova, Oxana E.; Patel, Dipal M.; Klessner, Jodi L.; Godsel, Lisa M.; Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Desai, Bhushan V.

2012-01-01

172

Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in Purkinje cell dendrites: Evidence that factors other than binding to microtubules are involved in determining its cytoplasmic distribution  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the distribution of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the Purkinje cell dendrites of rats whose cerebella were exposed to X-irradiation during the second postnatal week. The Purkinje cells of such animals have abnormally elongated apical primary processes that branch in the other molecular layer rather than close to the cell body as in normal tissue. The results show that in these distorted dendrites the MAP2 distribution is shifted distally relative to the normal pattern, in which MAP2 is distributed evenly throughout the dendritic tree. Tubulin and other microtubule-associated proteins, such as MAP1, are not affected and remain evenly distributed throughout the dendritic tree despite the anatomical distortion. We conclude that the distribution of MAP2 in Purkinje cells is not determined solely by its binding to tubulin. Other factors must be involved and these appear to be related to dendritic morphology and possibly to branching.

Matus, A.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J. (Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

1990-07-15

173

Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos.  

PubMed

Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J

2008-03-18

174

Tests for the Elimination of Tail Flutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On various low-wing monoplanes the horizontal tail surfaces flutter in flight at large angles of attack and occasionally in curvilinear flight. This flutter leads to torsional vibrations of the rear end of the fuselage, as manifested by vibrations of the control stick. According to the earlier DVL investigations tail flutter is due to the influence, on horizontal tail surfaces, of eddies or vortices shed at large angles of attack by the upper surface of the wing root. The cause of tail flutter on a low-wing monoplane and the means of preventing it are investigated in the present report.

Biechteler, Curt

1933-01-01

175

Mineralogical characterization of arsenic in uranium mine tailings precipitated from iron-rich hydrometallurgical solutions.  

PubMed

Arsenic-rich uranium mine tailings from the Rabbit Lake in-pit tailings management facility (RLITMF) in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, were investigated to determine the mineralogy and long-term stability of secondary arsenic precipitates formed from iron-rich hydrometallurgical solutions. Total arsenic and iron concentrations in six iron-rich samples of the mine tailings ranged from 56 to 6,000 microg/g and from 12 600 to 30 200 microg/g, respectively (Fe/As molar ratios of 5.3-303). On the basis of stability field diagrams generated from pH, Eh, and temperature measurements on tailings samples (mean values of 9.79, +162 mV, and 2.8 degrees C, respectively), it was concluded that arsenic and iron in the tailings were stable as As5+ and Fe3+. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of tailings samples, fresh mill precipitates, and reference compounds showed that the arsenic in iron-rich areas of the tailings existed as the stable As5+ and was adsorbed to 2-line ferrihydrite through inner-sphere bidentate linkages. Furthermore, under the conditions in the RLITMF, the 2-line ferrihydrite did not undergo any measurable conversion to more crystalline goethite or hematite, even in tailings discharged to the RLITMF 10 yr prior to sampling. PMID:12666915

Moldovan, Brett J; Jiang, D T; Hendry, M Jim

2003-03-01

176

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

177

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

Not Available

1981-10-01

178

On Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

Greene, Michael B.

179

Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is still poorly understood. Recent insights into the structure of complex I by X-ray crystallography have shown that iron-sulfur cluster N2, the immediate electron donor for ubiquinone, resides about 30Å above the membrane domain and mutagenesis studies suggested that the active site for the hydrophobic substrate is located next to this redox-center. To trace the path for the hydrophobic tail of ubiquinone when it enters the peripheral arm of complex I, we performed an extensive structure/function analysis of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica monitoring the interaction of site-directed mutants with five ubiquinone derivatives carrying different tails. The catalytic activity of a subset of mutants was strictly dependent on the presence of intact isoprenoid moieties in the tail. Overall a consistent picture emerged suggesting that the tail of ubiquinone enters through a narrow path at the interface between the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. Most notably we identified a set of methionines that seems to form a hydrophobic gate to the active site reminiscent to the M-domains involved in the interaction with hydrophobic targeting sequences with the signal recognition particle of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, two of the amino acids critical for the interaction with the ubiquinone tail are different in bovine complex I and we could show that one of these exchanges is responsible for the lower sensitivity of Y. lipolytica complex I towards the inhibitor rotenone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22484275

Angerer, Heike; Nasiri, Hamid R; Niedergesäß, Vanessa; Kerscher, Stefan; Schwalbe, Harald; Brandt, Ulrich

2012-10-01

180

Sequential determination of metabolites involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids after ultrasound-assisted extraction from plants and reverse LC separation.  

PubMed

A dual method is proposed for the determination of metabolites involved in the shikimate pathway which are biomarkers of the effects of glyphosate action on plants exposed to this herbicide. Extraction of the target metabolites (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and shikimic acid) from a wheat model plant was accelerated by ultrasound energy. After centrifugation and micro-filtration, 1 ?L of extract was injected into the chromatograph in an isocratic regime for 4 min to determine shikimate by absorption at 254 nm. In the mean time, a 130 ?L aliquot of extract was subjected to derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol for 1 min, the reaction stopped and 1 ?L of the solution chromatographied in a gradient regime prior to laser-induced fluorescence detection of the derivatized amino acids. The characterization of the dual method provided limits of detection around 0.03 ?g mL(-1) for the aromatic amino acids and 1.52 ?g mL(-1) for shikimate, whereas the limits of quantitation ranged between 0.084 and 0.093 ?g mL(-1) for amino acids and was of 4.56 ?g mL(-1) for shikimate. The suitability of the method was checked by application to Triticum aestivum (wheat) plants grown under controlled conditions, sprayed with different doses of glyphosate and collected at different times after exposition to the herbicide. PMID:23598041

Alcaide-Molina, Miguel; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

2013-02-15

181

The genetics of colour in fat-tailed sheep: a review.  

PubMed

Fat-tailed sheep come in various colours-most are either brown (tan) or black. In some, most of the body is white with the tan or black colour restricted to the front portion of the body or to just around the eyes, muzzle and parts of the legs. The Karakul breed is important for the production of lamb skins of various colours for the fashion industry. As well as the black and tan colours there are Karakuls bred for grey or roan shades, a white colour or one of the numerous Sur shades. In the Sur shades, the base of the birthcoat fibre is one of a number of dark shades and the tip a lighter or white shade. All these colours and many others are the result of the interaction of various genes that determine the specifics of the coat colour of the sheep. A number of sets of nomenclature and symbols have been used to represent the various loci and their alleles that are involved. In the 1980s and 1990s, a standardised set, based closely on those of the mouse and other species was developed. Using this as the framework, the alleles of the Extension, Agouti, Brown, Spotting, Pigmented Head and Roan loci are described using fat-tailed sheep (mainly Damara, Karakul and Persian) as examples. Further discussion includes other types of "white markings," the Ticking locus and the Sur loci. PMID:21544704

Lundie, Roger S

2011-10-01

182

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

183

A generalized female bias for long tails in a short-tailed widowbird.  

PubMed Central

Tail elongation in the polygynous widowbirds (Euplectes spp.) has evoked both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations. Female choice has been shown in the three longest tailed species (20-50 cm), whereas an agonistic function was proposed for a medium-tailed (10 cm) widowbird. To test the generality and directionality of sexual selection on tail length in widowbirds, we experimentally investigated selection in the relatively short-tailed (7 cm) red-shouldered widowbirds (E. axillaris). Prior to territory establishment, males were assigned to four tail-treatment groups; control, short, long and supernormal (similar to a sympatric long-tailed congener). No effects on male competition were detected as the groups were equally successful in acquiring territories of similar size and quality. However, mating success among the 92 territorial males was strongly skewed in favour of supernormal-tailed males (62% of active nests; 5.2 +/- 1.3 nests per territory). Long-tailed males also acquired more nests (1.9 +/- 0.7) than control (0.7 +/- 0.5) and short-tailed (0.5 +/- 0.3) males, while the latter two groups did not differ significantly. These results support a general, open-ended female preference for long tails in widowbirds and may represent a receiver bias that arose early in their divergence from the short-tailed weaverbirds (Ploceinae). PMID:12396489

Pryke, Sarah R; Andersson, Staffan

2002-01-01

184

Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates.

Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

1981-12-01

185

DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the DNA sequence of the bacteriophage P2 tail genes G and H, which code for polypeptides of 175 and 669 residues, respectively. Gene H probably codes for the distal part of the P2 tail fiber, since the deduced sequence of its product contains regions similar to tail fiber proteins from phages Mu, P1, lambda, K3, and T2. The similarities of the carboxy-terminal portions of the P2, Mu, ann P1 tail fiber proteins may explain the observation that these phages in general have the same host range. The P2 H gene product is similar to the products of both lambda open reading frame (ORF) 401 (stf, side tail fiber) and its downstream ORF, ORF 314. If 1 bp is inserted near the end of ORF 401, this reading frame becomes fused with ORF 314, creating an ORF that may represent the complete stf gene that encodes a 774-amino-acid-long side tail fiber protein. Thus, a frameshift mutation seems to be present in the common laboratory strain of lambda. Gene G of P2 probably codes for a protein required for assembly of the tail fibers of the virion. The entire G gene product is very similar to the products of genes U and U' of phage Mu; a region of these proteins is also found in the tail fiber assembly proteins of phages TuIa, TuIb, T4, and lambda. The similarities in the tail fiber genes of phages of different families provide evidence that illegitimate recombination occurs at previously unappreciated levels and that phages are taking advantage of the gene pool available to them to alter their host ranges under selective pressures. PMID:1531648

Haggård-Ljungquist, E; Halling, C; Calendar, R

1992-01-01

186

Dewatering of coal plant tailings: Flocculation followed by filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable alternative to tailings dam disposal of coal refuse is mechanical dewatering of tailings, which provides fast production of dry solids and water reuse. In this study, flocculation followed by filtration of coal plant tailings, a new concept in tailings dewatering is investigated in detail. This paper focuses on the effect of preconditioning tailings with varying flocculants and dosages

Naureen Alam; Orhan Ozdemir; Marc A. Hampton; Anh V. Nguyen

2011-01-01

187

Large-scale phosphotyrosine proteomic profiling of rat renal collecting duct epithelium reveals predominance of proteins involved in cell polarity determination  

PubMed Central

Although extensive phosphoproteomic information is available for renal epithelial cells, previous emphasis has been on phosphorylation of serines and threonines with little focus on tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we have carried out large-scale identification of phosphotyrosine sites in pervanadate-treated native inner medullary collecting ducts of rat, with a view towards identification of physiological processes in epithelial cells that are potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The method combined antibody-based affinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides coupled with immobilized metal ion chromatography to enrich tyrosine phosphopeptides, which were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 418 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 273 proteins were identified. A large fraction of these sites have not been previously reported on standard phosphoproteomic databases. All results are accessible via an online database: http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/iPY/. Analysis of surrounding sequences revealed four overrepresented motifs: [D/E]xxY*, Y*xxP, DY*, and Y*E, where the asterisk symbol indicates the site of phosphorylation. These motifs plus contextual information, integrated using the NetworKIN tool, suggest that the protein tyrosine kinases involved include members of the insulin- and ephrin-receptor kinase families. Analysis of the gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways whose protein elements are overrepresented in our data set point to structures involved in epithelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions (“adherens junction,” “tight junction,” and “focal adhesion”) and to components of the actin cytoskeleton as major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. In general, these findings mesh well with evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in epithelial polarity determination. PMID:21940666

Zhao, Boyang; Chou, Chung-Lin; Pisitkun, Trairak

2012-01-01

188

Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. Application to a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed for the first time for the determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. The method involved solid phase extraction of the compounds and the internal standard (fluorescein) from the two matrices using OasisHLB columns. LC separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XD8 C8 column (5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing 0.02% (v/v) trimethylamine and 2mM ammonium formate buffer. MS data were acquired in single ion monitoring mode at m/z 311.2, 297.2 and 332.5 for ibogaine, noribogaine and fluorescein, respectively. The drug/internal standard peak area ratios were linked via a quadratic relationship to plasma (0.89-179 microg/l for ibogaine; 1-200 microg/l for noribogaine) and to whole blood concentrations (1.78-358 microg/kg for ibogaine; 2-400 microg/kg for noribogaine). Precision ranged from 4.5 to 13% and accuracy was 89-102%. Dilution of the samples had no influence on the performance of the method. Extraction recoveries were > or =94% in plasma and > or =57% in whole blood. The lower limits of quantitation were 0.89 microg/l for ibogaine and 1 microg/l for noribogaine in plasma, and 1.78 microg/kg for ibogaine and 2 microg/kg for noribogaine in whole blood. In frozen plasma samples, the two drugs were stable for at least 1 year. In blood, ibogaine and noribogaine were stable for 4h at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and 2 months at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully used for the analysis of a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root. PMID:16798116

Kontrimavici?te, Violeta; Breton, Hélène; Mathieu, Olivier; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-Claude; Bressolle, Françoise M M

2006-11-01

189

VARIATION IN THE SHARP-TAILED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic

STEVE N. G. HOWELL; DAVID A. SIBLEY

1998-01-01

190

Modeling river flows with heavy tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in time series analysis provide alternative models for river flows in which the innovations have heavy tails, so that some of the moments do not exist. The probability of large fluctuations is much larger than for standard models. We survey some recent theoretical developments for heavy tail time series models and illustrate their practical application to river flow

Paul L. Anderson; Mark M. Meerschaert

1998-01-01

191

Tail and pelvis pathologies of ankylosaurian dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankylosaurid dinosaurs had modified distal caudal vertebrae (the handle) and large terminal caudal osteoderms (the knob), which together form the tail club. The tail club may have been used as a weapon. Ankylosaur pelvic and caudal elements were surveyed for evidence of healing wounds that may indicate traumatic injury, and which could support clubbing behaviour. No pathologies were found in

Victoria M. Arbour; Philip J. Currie

2011-01-01

192

Artificial Inoculation—Perspectives in Tailings Phytostabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive mining and processing activities worldwide resulted in the generation of huge amounts of waste (tailings), generally characterized as toxic, radioactive, and\\/or hazardous. The exposure potential and, hence, the risk posed by such wastes is enhanced by a general lack of vegetation. Phytostabilization has proven to be efficient in reducing this risk. However, establishing vegetation on tailing dumps may be

Ioana G. Petrisor; Smaranda Dobrota; Kostas Komnitsas; Ioan Lazar; J. Michael Kuperberg; Mihai Serban

2004-01-01

193

Groundwater pollution due to a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Oman Mining Company (OMC) commenced copper mining and smelting operations in the area of Sohar (Wadi Suq), Sultanate of Oman. Seawater was used for mining operations until 1993. During this period, 11 million tonnes of tailings had been deposited behind an unlined tailings dam. This has resulted in a major groundwater pollution problem.This paper presents results from

R. S Sharma; T. S Al-Busaidi

2001-01-01

194

On tail estimation: An improved method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A step is described toward better statistical treatment of data for tail estimation. The classical extreme value theory together with its practical inefficiency for tail inference are discussed briefly. The threshold method that utilizes available information in a more efficient manner is described, and its relation to extreme value theory is mentioned. Some comparison is also made using two sets

G. R. Dargahi-Noubary

1989-01-01

195

Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballesca, Jose Luis; Ramalho-Santos, Joao; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

196

Role of differential cell proliferation in the tail bud in aberrant mouse neurulation.  

PubMed

In the mouse mutant curly tail, the phenotypes spina bifida and curled tail result from a delay in closure of the posterior neuropore (PNP). At the developmental stage when this delay can first be recognized, the caudal region of the embryo demonstrates a transiently enhanced curvature of the body axis which likely inhibits elevation, convergence, and fusion of the neural folds. The enhanced curvature is thought to be the result of a decreased proliferation in the ventrally located gut endoderm and notochord, together with a normal proliferation of the overlying neuroepithelium of the PNP. However, the proliferation defect and the enhanced curvature were originally demonstrated at the same developmental stage, while it is expected that reduced proliferation should precede enhanced curvature and delayed PNP closure. The caudal region originates from the tail bud and we therefore propose that the enhanced curvature is induced by a disturbed dorso-ventral proliferation pattern in the tail bud. Using flow cytometry, proliferation patterns were determined separately for the dorsal and ventral halves of the tail bud of curly tail and of control embryos as well as of recombinant embryos having the curly tail phenotype with a genetic background which is matched to the BALB/c control strain. In general, it appeared that about half of the cell cycle duration in tail bud cells was occupied by S phase, about 40% by G0/G1 and the rest by G2/M. For the control embryos, no dorso-ventral differences in relative phase duration were demonstrated. However, curly tail and recombinant embryos at the 21-25 somite stage, prior to the onset of enhanced curvature, exhibited ventrally a higher proportion of G0/G1 phase cells than dorsally, and a complementary relationship for S phase cells. We interpret these observations as indicating a prolonged G1 phase at the ventral side of the tail bud, resulting in a prolongation of the cell cycle and thus a decreased proliferation. In 26-30 somite stage embryos, prior to the normalization of curvature in curly tail embryos, the dorso-ventral proliferation balance was re-established. We conclude that a reduced proliferation in the ventral part of the tail bud of the curly tail embryo precedes both the onset of enhanced curvature and the previously observed reduction in proliferation of the hindgut and notochord, and is a likely candidate for an early event in the pathogenetic sequence leading to the curly tail phenotype. PMID:9566957

Peeters, M C; Schutte, B; Lenders, M H; Hekking, J W; Drukker, J; Van Straaten, H W

1998-04-01

197

Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Falls City site, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Falls City site in order to update the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranum mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrolgy and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,700,000 for stabilization in place, to about $35,100,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Falls City tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The tailings piles are presently being rewashed for uranium recovery by Solution Engineering, Inc. The cost for further reprocessing would be about $250/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive for the foreseeable future.

none,

1981-10-01

198

Research on Biology Ceramsite's Preparation and Performance with Tungsten Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study on Tungsten tailings, slag, pulverized coal ash, clay and so on, prepares one porous living thing ceramists through the method of roasting. Determines its physics performance parameter through the modern technology method is: Granule density 1.5~2.5 g\\/cm3. stack density 0.65~1.3 g\\/cm3, compared to surface area 7.2~13.5 m2\\/g, the acid may dissolve rate <0.3%, the alkali may dissolve rate

Feng Xiujuan; Tao Tao; Du Li

2009-01-01

199

On the flaring of cometary plasma tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming that hypersonic pressure balance with the solar wind governs the shape of plasma tails, it is found that the gas pressure of tail ions and the magnetic field strength at the flanks of the ionopause control the flaring state. The gas pressure exhibits the larger effect: for constant pressures above a certain critical value, the tail flares essentially without limit, while for smaller values the tail flares only near the head (becoming cylindrical at greater distances). The influence of the magnetic field is that the tail flares to larger distances the higher the field strength at the flanks of the ionopause. The observed variability in flaring (and the implied differences in gas pressure and magnetic field) are throught to be the result of changes in the position and shape of the sunward cometary ionopause. Insertion of reasonable comet and solar wind parameters into the pressure balance equations is found to give good agreement with the observations.

Ershkovich, A. I.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.; Brandt, J. C.

1982-01-01

200

The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears gsim350'' (2.5 × 108 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 ?m and a combined mass ~3 × 105 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

2013-07-01

201

Improved visualization of the pancreatic tail after maximum distension of the stomach  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-two computed tomography examinations through the region of the pancreas were retrospectively analyzed to determine if marked stomach distension influenced the visualization of the pancreatic tail. Of the 29 patients who had marked stomach distension, 25 (86%) had displacement of small bowel loops away from the ventral surface of the pancreatic tail. With moderate or minimal stomach distension, there was bowel loop displacement in 37% and 0% of cases, respectively. Marked stomach distension appears to be an effective means of improving visualization of the pancreatic tail.

Stuck, K.J.; Kuhns, L.R.

1981-08-01

202

Experimental study of tail-span effects on a canard-controlled missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on a cruciform canard-controlled missile configuration to determine the effects of tail span/canard span ratio on controllability. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.75 to 3.50. Reductions of tail span/canard span ratio produced lower static margins and higher trim angle of attack. Results show that canard controls can provide pitch and yaw control as well as roll control by proper selection of the tail span/canard span ratio.

Blair, A. B., Jr.; Dillon, James L.; Watson, Carolyn B.

1993-09-01

203

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Washington, DC (USA)); Rice, G. (Sergent, Hauskins and Beckwith (USA))

1984-12-01

204

Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

2014-05-01

205

Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

Liontos, Lynn Balster

1992-01-01

206

A powerful truncated tail strength method for testing multiple null hypotheses in one dataset.  

PubMed

In microarray analysis, medical imaging analysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we often need to test an overall null hypothesis involving a large number of single hypotheses (usually larger than 1000) in one dataset. A tail strength statistic (Taylor and Tibshirani, 2006) and Fisher's probability method are useful and can be applied to measure an overall significance for a large set of independent single hypothesis tests with the overall null hypothesis assuming that all single hypotheses are true. In this paper we propose a new method that improves the tail strength statistic by considering only the values whose corresponding p-values are less than some pre-specified cutoff. We call it truncated tail strength statistic. We illustrate our method using a simulation study and two genome-wide datasets by chromosome. Our method not only controls type one error rate quite well, but also has significantly higher power than the tail strength method and Fisher's method in most cases. PMID:21295595

Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao; Zuo, Yijun; Kang, Guolian

2011-05-21

207

Transcriptomic Analysis of Tail Regeneration in the Lizard Anolis carolinensis Reveals Activation of Conserved Vertebrate Developmental and Repair Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies. PMID:25140675

Hutchins, Elizabeth D.; Markov, Glenn J.; Eckalbar, Walter L.; George, Rajani M.; King, Jesse M.; Tokuyama, Minami A.; Geiger, Lauren A.; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J.; Allen, April N.; Siniard, Ashley L.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F.; Rawls, J. Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro

2014-01-01

208

Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.  

PubMed

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies. PMID:25140675

Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Markov, Glenn J; Eckalbar, Walter L; George, Rajani M; King, Jesse M; Tokuyama, Minami A; Geiger, Lauren A; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J; Allen, April N; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Fisher, Rebecca E; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F; Rawls, J Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro

2014-01-01

209

NPS6, Encoding a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, Is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes[W  

PubMed Central

NPS6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (Zea mays) pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to H2O2. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, and the Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to H2O2. Introduction of the NPS6 ortholog from the saprobe Neurospora crassa to the ?nps6 strain of C. heterostrophus restored wild-type virulence to maize and tolerance to H2O2, demonstrating functional conservation in filamentous ascomycete phytopathogens and saprobes. Increased sensitivity to iron depletion was identified as a conserved phenotype of ?nps6 strains. Exogenous application of iron enhanced the virulence of ?nps6 strains of C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola to each host. NPS6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores by C. heterostrophus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola. Application of the extracellular siderophore of A. brassicicola restored wild-type virulence of the ?Abnps6 strain to Arabidopsis. It is proposed that the role of extracellular siderophores in fungal virulence to plants is to supply an essential nutrient, iron, to their producers in planta and not to act as phytotoxins, depriving their hosts of iron. PMID:17056706

Oide, Shinichi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Krasnoff, Stuart; Gibson, Donna; Haas, Hubertus; Yoshioka, Keiko; Turgeon, B. Gillian

2006-01-01

210

Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.  

PubMed

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

2013-01-01

211

Notochord-derived hedgehog is essential for tail regeneration in Xenopus tadpole  

PubMed Central

Background Appendage regeneration in amphibians is regulated by the combinatorial actions of signaling molecules. The requirement of molecules secreted from specific tissues is reflected by the observation that the whole process of regeneration can be inhibited if a certain tissue is removed from the amputated stump. Interestingly, urodeles and anurans show different tissue dependencies during tail regeneration. The spinal cord is essential for tail regeneration in urodele but not in anuran larva, whereas the notochord but not the spinal cord is essential for tail regeneration in anuran tadpoles. Sonic hedgehog is one of the signaling molecules responsible for such phenomenon in axolotl, as hedgehog signaling is essential for overall tail regeneration and sonic hedgehog is exclusively expressed in the spinal cord. In order to know whether hedgehog signaling is involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the inconsistent tissue dependency for tail regeneration between anurans and urodeles, we investigated expression of hedgehog signal-related genes in the regenerating tail of Xenopus tadpole and examined the effect of the hedgehog signal inhibitor, cyclopamine, on the tail regeneration. Results In Xenopus, sonic hedgehog is expressed exclusively in the notochord but not in the spinal cord of the regenerate. Overall regeneration was severely impaired in cyclopamine-treated tadpoles. Notochord maturation in the regenerate, including cell alignment and vacuolation, and myofiber formation were inhibited. Proliferation of spinal cord cells in the neural ampulla and of mesenchymal cells was also impaired. Conclusion As in the axolotl, hedgehog signaling is required for multiple steps in tail regeneration in the Xenopus tadpole, although the location of the Shh source is quite different between the two species. This difference in Shh localization is the likely basis for the differing tissue requirement for tail regeneration between urodeles and anurans. PMID:24941877

2014-01-01

212

Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft-tail configurations for 2 wing planforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations were compared in tests on a general research model (generic fuselage without canopy, inlets, or vertical tails) at Mach 1.60 and 2.00 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two uncambered wing planforms (trapezoidal with 44 deg leading edge sweep and delta with 60 deg leading edge sweep) were tested for each configuration. The relative merits of the configurations were also determined theoretically, to evaluate the capabilities of a linear theory code for such analyses. The canard and aft tail configurations have similar measured values for lift curve slope, maximum lift drag ratio, and zero lift drag. The stability decrease as Mach number increases is greatest for the tailless configuration and least for the canard configuration. Because of very limited accuracy in predicting the aerodynamic parameter increments between configurations, the linear theory code is not adequate for determining the relative merits of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations.

Covell, P. F.

1985-01-01

213

A qualitative study on student attitudes towards a controversial species, the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study determined the attitudes held by high school students toward a controversial, yet keystone, species of the Great Plains, the black-tailed prairie dog. Black-tailed prairie dogs have declined dramatically over the past century as a result of large scale poisoning programs, plague, shooting, and habitat loss. The eradication programs put forth were primarily the result of strongly held

Lynne Fox-Parrish

2006-01-01

214

Helicopter main rotor\\/tail rotor noise radiation characteristics from scaled model rotor experiments in the DNW  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind tunnel study was performed to investigate the noise characteristics and directivity pattern of a 40 percent scaled helicopter rotor system (BO 105 main\\/tail rotor model). The major objectives of the study were to establish the importance of the tail rotor with respect to the overall noise radiation and to determine the noise reduction potential of aerodynamically improved blade

K.-J. Schultz; W. R. Splettstoesser

1992-01-01

215

Relationship between altered axial curvature and neural tube closure in normal and mutant (curly tail) mouse embryos.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects, including spina bifida, develop in the curly tail mutant mouse as a result of delayed closure of the posterior neuropore at 10.5 days of gestation. Affected embryos are characterized by increased ventral curvature of the caudal region. To determine whether closure of the neuropore could be affected by this angle of curvature, we experimentally enhanced the curvature of non-mutant embryos. The amnion was opened in 9.5 day embryos; after 20 h of culture, a proportion of the embryos exhibited a tightly wrapped amnion with enhanced curvature of the caudal region compared with the control embryos in which the opened amnion remained inflated. Enhanced curvature correlated with a higher frequency of embryos with an open posterior neuropore, irrespective of developmental stage within the range, 27-32 somites. Thus, within this somite range, caudal curvature is a more accurate determinant for normal spinal neurulation than the exact somite stage. Enhanced ventral curvature of the curly tail embryo correlates with an abnormal growth difference between the neuroepithelium and ventral structures (the notochord and hindgut). We experimentally corrected this imbalance by culturing under conditions of mild hyperthermia and subsequently determined whether the angle of curvature would also be corrected. The mean angle of curvature and length of the posterior neuropore were both reduced in embryos cultured at 40.5 degrees C by comparison with control embryos cultured at 38 degrees C. We conclude that the sequence of morphogenetic events leading to spinal neural tube defects in curly tail embryos involves an imbalance of growth rates, which leads to enhanced ventral curvature that, in turn, leads to delayed closure of the posterior neuropore. PMID:8742053

Peeters, M C; Shum, A S; Hekking, J W; Copp, A J; van Straaten, H W

1996-02-01

216

HABITAT SELECTION BY THE AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverious) AND RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteojamaicensis) WINTERING IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection by the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) in Madison County, Kentucky, was determined for the winter of 1980-81. Results showed that there was significant non-random use of 6 habitat types (Kestrels: X 2 = 629.5, P  0.05, d.f. = 5; Red-tailed Hawks: X 2 = 124.8, P  0.05, d.f. = 5) with

217

Social organization of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: kinship and spatial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus L. are cooperative breeders in which breeders that have failed in their own breeding attempt become helpers at the nest of relatives. We investigated the effects of kinship on the spatial dynamics of non-breeding flocks of long-tailed tits in order to determine the information available on the kinship of other members of the population

B. J. HATCHWELL; C. ANDERSON; D. J. ROSS; M. K. FOWLIE; P. G. BLACKWELL

2001-01-01

218

Parent Involvement  

E-print Network

To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

219

Flight investigation of the effect of tail boom strakes on helicopter directional control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint U.S. Army/NASA flight investigation was conducted utilizing a single-rotor helicopter to determine the effectiveness of horizontally mounted tail boom strakes on directional controllability and tail rotor power during low-speed, crosswind operating conditions. Three configurations were investigated: (1) baseline (strakes off), (2) single strake (strake at upper shoulder on port side of boom), and (3) double strake (upper strake plus a lower strake on same side of boom). The strakes were employed as a means to separate airflow over the tail boom and change fuselage yawing moments in a direction to improve the yaw control margin and reduce tail rotor power. Crosswind data were obtained in 5-knot increments of airspeed from 0 to 35 knots and in 30 deg increments of wind azimuth from 0 deg to 330 deg. At the most critical wind azimuth and airspeed in terms of tail rotor power, the strakes improved the pedal margin by 6 percent of total travel and reduced tail rotor power required by 17 percent. The increase in yaw control and reduction in tail rotor power offered by the strakes can expand the helicopter operating envelope in terms of gross weight and altitude capability. The strakes did not affect the flying qualities of the vehicle at airspeeds between 35 and 100 knots.

Kelly, Henry L.; Crowell, Cynthia A.; Yenni, Kenneth R.; Lance, Michael B.

1993-01-01

220

Lifting-surface-theory aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for full-span elevators on horizontal tail surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited number of lifting-surface-theory solutions for wings with chordwise loadings resulting from angle of attack, parabolic-ac camber, and flap deflection are now available. These solutions were studied with the purpose of determining methods of extrapolating the results in such a way that they could be used to determine lifting-surface-theory values of the aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for both angle-of-attack and flap-deflection-type loading that could be used to predict the characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces from section data with sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes. Such a method was devised for horizontal tail surfaces with full-span elevators. In spite of the fact that the theory involved is rather complex, the method is simple to apply and may be applied without any knowledge of lifting-surface theory. A comparison of experimental finite-span and section value and of the estimated values of the lift and hinge-moment parameters for three horizontal tail surfaces was made to provide an experimental verification of the method suggested. (author)

Swanson, Robert S; Crandall, Stewart M

1948-01-01

221

Constraining dark halos with tidal tails  

E-print Network

Massive and extended dark halos can inhibit the formation of long tidal tails in galaxy collisions. We examine this effect using an extensive survey of simulations with different dark halo potentials to constrain halo properties of interacting galaxies. These constraints are compared to other observational limits and theoretical predictions of halo structure. The dark halos predicted by $\\Omega=1$ cosmological models like CDM are too massive and extended to produce the long tidal tails seen in nearby galaxy collisions. There is also a conflict with the halo potentials inferred from satellite kinematics; such halos would likewise inhibit tail formation in galaxy collisions.

John Dubinski; Chris Mihos; Lars Hernquist

1997-12-08

222

Versatility and Stereotypy of Free-Tailed Bat Songs  

PubMed Central

In mammals, complex songs are uncommon and few studies have examined song composition or the order of elements in songs, particularly with respect to regional and individual variation. In this study we examine how syllables and phrases are ordered and combined, ie “syntax”, of the song of Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat. Specifically, we test whether phrase and song composition differ among individuals and between two regions, we determine variability across renditions within individuals, and test whether phrases are randomly ordered and combined. We report three major findings. First, song phrases were highly stereotyped across two regions, so much so that some songs from the two colonies were almost indistinguishable. All males produced songs with the same four types of syllables and the same three types of phrases. Second, we found that although song construction was similar across regions, the number of syllables within phrases, and the number and order of phrases in songs varied greatly within and among individuals. Last, we determined that phrase order, although diverse, deviated from random models. We found broad scale phrase-order rules and certain higher order combinations that were highly preferred. We conclude that free-tailed bat songs are composed of highly stereotyped phrases hierarchically organized by a common set of syntactical rules. However, within global species-specific patterns, songs male free-tailed bats dynamically vary syllable number, phrase order, and phrase repetitions across song renditions. PMID:19707550

Bohn, Kirsten M.; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Schwartz, Christine; Smotherman, Michael; Pollak, George D.

2009-01-01

223

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The sources of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief flybys certainly include Mercury’s proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet’s lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute. In particular, Mercury’s very brief Dungey cycle, ~ 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation, allows for very rapid transitions to new equilibrium states. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury’s magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury’s tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, J. A.

2010-12-01

224

A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.

225

Tail Reconnection Triggering Substorm Onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on simultaneous magnetotail measurements by THEMIS at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset, which occured on Feb 26, 2008. Evidence for reconnection including bipolar magnetic field, inflow towards the neutral sheet and counterstreaming electrons was observed at P1 and P2, suggesting that the reconnection site was at 20 Re. Evidence for current disruption, including dipolarization, turbulence and plasma heating were observed at P3 and P4 at ~11Re. Remote sensing of the current disruption region onset was not possible but particle distributions suggest that the plasma had started moving Earthward ahead of the dipolarization, i.e., point towards a source tailward of the P3, P4 satellites. Auroral brightening and poleward expansion was observed after reconnection onset and before dipolarization onset, suggesting that this event was triggered by reconnection around 20Re. Observations from a number of similar events show that a consistent picture of onset is starting to emerge from the first tail season. We discuss implications for substorm models and for auroral particle acceleration.

Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J.; Larson, D.; Carlson, C.; Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Phan, T.; Sibeck, D.; Glassmeier, K.; Auster, U.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Rae, J.; Russell, C.; Runov, A.; Zhou, X.; Kepko, L.

2008-12-01

226

Analysis of stability contributions of high dihedral V-tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of four analytical methods (empirical, modified empirical, vortex-lattice, and an inviscid, three dimensional, potential flow, wing body program) to estimate the lateral and longitudinal static stability characteristics of an isolated V-tail wind tunnel model. The experimental tests were conducted in the V/STOL tunnel at a Mach number of 0.18. Angle-of-attack data were obtained from -12 deg to 8 deg at 0 deg sideslip. Sideslip sweeps from -5 deg to 10 deg were made at angles of attack of 4 deg, 0 deg and -4 deg. The V-tail dihedral angles were 45 deg, 50 deg, 55 deg, and 60 deg.

Freeman, C. E.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

1978-01-01

227

Size-partitioning of an urban aerosol to identify particle determinants involved in the proinflammatory response induced in airway epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of air particles in human cardio-respiratory diseases has been enlightened by several epidemiological studies. However the respective involvement of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles in health effects is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine which size fraction from a chemically characterized background aerosol has the most important short term biological effect and to decipher the determinants of such a behaviour. Results Ambient aerosols were collected at an urban background site in Paris using four 13-stage low pressure cascade impactors running in parallel (winter and summer 2005) in order to separate four size-classes (PM0.03–0.17 (defined here as ultrafine particles), PM0.17–1 (fine), PM1–2.5(intermediate) and PM2.5–10 (coarse)). Accordingly, their chemical composition and their pro-inflammatory potential on human airway epithelial cells were investigated. Considering isomass exposures (same particle concentrations for each size fractions) the pro-inflammatory response characterized by Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) release was found to decrease with aerosol size with no seasonal dependency. When cells were exposed to isovolume of particle suspensions in order to respect the particle proportions observed in ambient air, the GM-CSF release was maximal with the fine fraction. In presence of a recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein, the GM-CSF release induced by particles is reduced for all size-fractions, with exception of the ultra-fine fraction which response is not modified. The different aerosol size-fractions were found to display important chemical differences related to the various contributing primary and secondary sources and aerosol age. The GM-CSF release was correlated to the organic component of the aerosols and especially its water soluble fraction. Finally, Cytochrome P450 1A1 activity that reflects PAH bioavailability varied as a function of the season: it was maximal for the fine fraction in winter and for the ultrafine fraction in summer. Conclusion In the frame of future regulations, a particular attention should thus be paid to the ultrafine/fine (here referred to as PM1) fraction due to their overwhelming anthropogenic origin and predominance in the urban aerosol and their pro-inflammatory potential. PMID:19302717

Ramgolam, Kiran; Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Helene; Gaudichet, Annie; Marano, Francelyne; Martinon, Laurent; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

2009-01-01

228

Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock Site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of the stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and(c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

none,

1981-07-01

229

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

230

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

none,

1981-10-01

231

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions.

none,

1981-09-01

232

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

none,

1981-09-01

233

The Distant Sodium Tail of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the sodium atmosphere of Mercury predict the possible existence of a cornet-like sodium tail. Detection and mapping of the predicted sodium tail would provide quantitative data on the energy of the process that produces sodium atoms from the planetary surface. Previous efforts to detect the sodium tail by means of observations done during daylight hours have been only partially successful because scattered sunlight obscured the weak sodium emissions in the tail. However, at greatest eastern elongation around the March equinox in the northern hemisphere, Mercury can be seen as an evening star in astronomical twilight. At this time, the intensity of scattered sunlight is low enough that sodium emissions as low as 500 Rayleighs can be detected. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

2001-01-01

234

Physical space and long-tail markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is known to have had a powerful impact on on-line retailer strategies in markets characterised by long-tail distribution of sales [C. Anderson, Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Hyperion, New York, 2006]. Such retailers can exploit the long tail of the market, since they are effectively without physical limit on the number of choices on offer. Here we examine two extensions of this phenomenon. First, we introduce turnover into the long-tail distribution of sales. Although over any given period such as a week or a month, the distribution is right-skewed and often power law distributed, over time there is considerable turnover in the rankings of sales of individual products. Second, we establish some initial results on the implications for shelf-space and physical retailers in such markets.

Bentley, R. Alexander; Madsen, Mark E.; Ormerod, Paul

2009-03-01

235

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

236

ATS Claus tail gas cleanup at Table Rock Tail Gas Plant. [Ammonium thiosulfate  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Table Rock Processing Plant which consists of four major parts: the treating plant, the dew point control plant, a sulfur plant, and the tail gas plant. The tail gas plant uses the ammonium thiosulfate process to convert about 4 tons per day of sulfur to 60 tons per day of ATS. The brief discussion is presented under headings: the tail gas process; chemistry (chemical reaction and equipment); plant performance. 7 refs.

White, S.P.

1981-01-01

237

Generalized processor sharing with light-tailed and heavy-tailed input  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic flows are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing, have emerged as an important mechanism for achieving service differentiation in integrated networks. We derive the asymptotic workload behavior of the light-tailed traffic flow

Sem C. Borst; Michel Mandjes; Miranda van Uitert

2003-01-01

238

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2013-09-10

239

The sodium tail of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping “hot” component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience

M. Matta; S. Smith; J. Baumgardner; J. Wilson; C. Martinis; M. Mendillo

2009-01-01

240

Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail  

SciTech Connect

Chromodomains are modules implicated in the recognition of lysine-methylated histone tails and nucleic acids. CHD (for chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding) proteins regulate ATP-dependent nucleosome assembly and mobilization through their conserved double chromodomains and SWI2/SNF2 helicase/ATPase domain. The Drosophila CHD1 localizes to the interbands and puffs of the polytene chromosomes, which are classic sites of transcriptional activity. Other CHD isoforms (CHD3/4 or Mi-2) are important for nucleosome remodelling in histone deacetylase complexes. Deletion of chromodomains impairs nucleosome binding and remodelling by CHD proteins. Here we describe the structure of the tandem arrangement of the human CHD1 chromodomains, and its interactions with histone tails. Unlike HP1 and Polycomb proteins that use single chromodomains to bind to their respective methylated histone H3 tails, the two chromodomains of CHD1 cooperate to interact with one methylated H3 tail. We show that the human CHD1 double chromodomains target the lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail (H3K4me), a hallmark of active chromatin. Methylammonium recognition involves two aromatic residues, not the three-residue aromatic cage used by chromodomains of HP1 and Polycomb proteins. Furthermore, unique inserts within chromodomain 1 of CHD1 block the expected site of H3 tail binding seen in HP1 and Polycomb, instead directing H3 binding to a groove at the inter-chromodomain junction.

Flanagan, John F.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Cymborowski, Marcin; Clines, Katrina L.; Kim, Youngchang; Minor, Wladek; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh (ANL/SBC); (UV)

2010-07-19

241

Calculation of the number of cancer deaths prevented by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.  

PubMed

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project has completed remedial action at 22 uranium mill tailings sites and about 5,000 properties ("vicinity properties") where tailings were used in construction, at a total cost of $1.45 billion. This paper uses existing data from Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessments, and vicinity property calculations, to determine the total number of cancer deaths averted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The cost-effectiveness of remediating each site, the vicinity properties, and the entire project is calculated. The cost per cancer death averted was four orders of magnitude higher at the least cost-effective site than at the most cost-effective site. PMID:10201569

Miller, M L; Cornish, R E; Pomatto, C B

1999-05-01

242

The Pressure Distribution over the Horizontal Tail Surfaces of an Airplane II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the results obtained upon model tail surfaces can be used to accurately predict loads upon the full-sized tail; and also to find the distribution of load when large elevator angles are used, as the loads from such angles can not be obtained readily in free flight. The method consisted in using a metal horizontal tail surface inside of which small air passages, connecting with a series of holes in the surface, led the pressure off from the tail in rubber tubes. In this way the pressure at each of these holes was measured by a manometer at several angles of attack and several to the loading under similar conditions in the full-sized airplane and the manner of distribution is quite similar in the two cases when there is no slip stream.

Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

1921-01-01

243

MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Nittler, Larry R.; Raines, Jim M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Starr, Richard D.; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

244

Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

none,

1981-09-01

245

Involving people.  

PubMed

A suite of resources from National Voices, the leading coalition of health and social care charities in England, aims to support commissioners and providers to access, understand and make use of the best evidence for various approaches to involving people in their own health and health care. PMID:25167121

2014-08-28

246

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

247

A Field and Modeling Study of Windblown Particles from a Uranium Mill Tailings Pile  

SciTech Connect

An extensive field study whose primary objective was to obtain knowledge and understanding of the nature and quantity of windblown particles from uranium mill tailings piles was conducted in the Ambrosia Lake District of New Mexico. The following major field tasks were undertaken: determination of physical, chemical, and radioactivity characteristics of mill tailings particles; an investigation of the nature and quantity of tailings particles in soil in the vicinity of tailings piles; and the determination of the nature and flux of particles being transported by wind as a function of wind speed and height. Results of the field study are presented. Particle size distributions and associated radioactivity were measured. Radioactivity relationships showed uranium daughters in mill tailings to be in essential radioactive equilibrium for the carbonate leach process but thorium-230 tends to be leached into the slurry water for the acid process mill tailings. One objective of the study was to relate windblown particle concentrations, fluxes, and particle sizes to wind speed. Hundreds of samples were taken and analyses were performed, but relationships between wind speed, airborne particle sizes and concentrations were found to be vague and inconclusive. A resuspension, deposition, and transport model was developed and applied using site meteorology. Ground deposition patterns predicted were similar to those found.

Schwendiman, L. C.; Sehmel, G. A.; Horst, T. W.; Thomas, C. W.; Perkins, R. W.

1980-06-01

248

High-Efficiency Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) for Determination of a Highly Degenerated Prophage WO Genome in a Wolbachia Strain Infecting a Fig Wasp Species  

PubMed Central

Temperate bacteriophage WO is a model system for studying tripartite interactions among viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes, especially investigations of the genomic stability of obligate intracellular bacteria. Few WO genomes exist because of the difficulty in isolating viral DNA from eukaryotic hosts, and most reports are by-products of Wolbachia sequencing. Only one partial genome of a WO phage has been determined directly from isolated particles. We determine the complete genome sequence of prophage WO (WOSol) in Wolbachia strain wSol, which infects the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), by high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. The genome of WOSol is highly degenerated and disrupted by a large region (14,267 bp) from Wolbachia. Consistent with previous molecular studies of multiple WO genomes, the genome of WOSol appears to have evolved by single nucleotide mutations and recombinations. PMID:24077701

Wang, Guan-Hong; Xiong, Tuan-Lin; Li, Zi; Murphy, Robert W.

2013-01-01

249

Reinforced terraced fields method for fine tailings disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

New mining technologies can exploit low-grade ores but they produce high volumes of waste, such as tailings. Further, current mineral processing techniques produce more and more fine tailings. How to dispose of these tailings is a key issue in the sustainable operation of a mine. A traditional method is to construct a settling or tailings pond for storage. Such a

Zuoan Wei; Guangzhi Yin; Guangzhi Li; J. G. Wang; Ling Wan; Louyan Shen

2009-01-01

250

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) ........................... 13-1 13.1 Introduction virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

251

WHAM Observations of the Extended Lunar Sodium Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moon is known to possess an extended tail of lunar sodium atoms that is presumably formed when high-energy solar wind particles and meteorites liberate sodium atoms from the lunar surface with velocities greater than the lunar escape velocity. These atoms are propelled outward in the anti-solar direction by radiation pressure in a process similar to that of a comet. Our early observations determined that the average radial velocity of the lunar sodium tail in the vicinity of the anti-lunar point (i.e., looking down the lunar tail as it moves beyond the Earth, along the Sun-Moon-Earth line) is 12.5 km/s. We recently used the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM) to map the intensity and velocity distribution of this emission over a 15 by 15 degree region on the sky near the anti-lunar point. In this poster we present spatial maps obtained over four nights centered on new moon in October 2007. These maps indicate that the spatial distribution of the sodium atoms is elongated along the ecliptic with the location of the peak intensity drifting 3 degrees east along the ecliptic per night. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grants ATM-0228465 and ATM-0535433 and through a University of Wisconsin Hilldale award for undergraduate research.

Line, Michael R.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.

2007-12-01

252

Determinants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and Stephanie Fitchett of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to explore the properties of determinants of matrices and to develop an important theoretical formula. This is part of a larger collection of material hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Fitchett, Stephanie

2010-05-19

253

Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

Not Available

1987-06-01

254

Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population growth combined with the recalcitrant dispersal behavior of this social

John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

2002-01-01

255

ATS Claus tail gas cleanup at Table Rock Tail Gas Plant. [Ammonium thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Table Rock Processing Plant which consists of four major parts: the treating plant, the dew point control plant, a sulfur plant, and the tail gas plant. The tail gas plant uses the ammonium thiosulfate process to convert about 4 tons per day of sulfur to 60 tons per day of ATS. The brief discussion is presented

1981-01-01

256

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers: Star Formation Efficiency in the Western Tail of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios ratio of ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{\\alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({\\Sigma}SFR) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed ...

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf; Wehner, Elizabeth; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L1

2012-01-01

257

On Splitting the Tails Unequally: A New Perspective on One-versus Two-Tailed Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controversy regarding the admissibility of one-tailed tests of hypotheses was examined. Rather than taking a stand with regard to whether the one-or the two-tailed test is the most seriously flawed, a procedure is developed which can capitalize on the advantages of each. (RC)

Braver, Sanford L.

1975-01-01

258

Effect of tail size reductions on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a three surface F-15 model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical tail size reductions on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified F-15 model with canards and 2-D convergent-divergent nozzles. Quantifying the drag decrease at low angles of attack produced by tail size reductions was the primary focus. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 0.40, 0.90, and 1.20 over an angle of attack of -2 degree to 10 degree. The nozzle exhaust flow was simulated using high pressure air at nozzle pressure ratios varying from 1.0 (jet off) to 7.5. Data were obtained on the baseline configuration with and without tails as well as with reduced horizontal and/or vertical tail sizes that were 75, 50, and 25 percent of the baseline tail areas.

Frassinelli, Mark C.; Carson, George T., Jr.

1990-01-01

259

Mating success of male bushy-tailed woodrats: when bigger is not always better  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors that regulate mating opportunities of male bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), we used stepwise multiple regression on measurable morphological and behavioral traits. DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the paternity of juveniles, allowing mating success (the number of females mated with), and reproductive success (the number of offspring fathered) to be quantified. Both measures of male success

Michael G. Topping; John S. Millar

1999-01-01

260

Establishment and Growth of Two Willow Species in a Riparian Zone Impacted by Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fi eld study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fl uvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an eff ect on successful establishment of

Melody M. Bourret; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger

2009-01-01

261

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

262

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characterization of a sulphide-bearing carbonate-rich gold-mine tailings impoundment, Joutel, Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an integrated geochemical and mineralogical study conducted at the Agnico-Eagle gold-mine tailings impoundment, Joutel, Québec, are correlated with bacterial populations determined from an enumeration of 3 groups of Thiobacilli. The tailings were determined to contain approximately 5wt.% sulphide–S, predominantly as pyrite, and up to 30wt.% carbonate minerals, chiefly as dolomite–ankerite and siderite. The objective of the study

David W. Blowes; John L. Jambor; Christine J. Hanton-Fong; Lyne Lortie; W. Douglas Gould

1998-01-01

263

THE DUST TAIL OF ASTEROID (3200) PHAETHON  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears {approx}>350'' (2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius {approx}1 {mu}m and a combined mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures ({approx}1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Li Jing [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

2013-07-10

264

Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

1988-01-01

265

Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.

Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt

1998-01-01

266

Breeding biology and nest-site selection of red-tailed hawks in an altered desert grassland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) have expanded their range as trees have invaded formerly-open grasslands. Desert grasslands of southern Arizona have been invaded by mesquite trees (Prosopis velutina) since Anglo-American settlement and now support a large population of Red-tailed Hawks. We studied a population of Red-tailed Hawks in an altered desert grassland in southern Arizona. Our objectives were to determine what environmental characteristics influence Red-tailed Hawk habitat selection in mesquite-invaded desert grasslands and to evaluate the habitat quality of these grasslands for Red-tailed Hawks based on nesting density, nest success, and productivity. Red-tailed Hawks had 86% (95% C.I. = 73-99) nest success and 1.82 young per breeding pair (95% C.I. = 1.41-2.23). Nesting density was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08-0.21) breeding pairs/km2 and the mean nearest-neighbor distance was 1.95 km (95% C.I. = 1.74-2.16). Red-tailed Hawks selected nest-sites with taller nest-trees and greater tree height and cover than were available at random. Mesquite trees in desert grasslands provide abundant potential nesting structures for Red-tailed Hawks. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Hobbs, R.J.; DeStefano, S.; Halvorson, W.L.

2006-01-01

267

Mixing of propagules from discrete sources at long distance: comparing a dispersal tail to an exponential  

PubMed Central

Background Rare long distance dispersal events impact the demography and the genetic structure of populations. When dispersal is modelled via a dispersal kernel, one possible characterisation of long-distance dispersal is given by the shape of the tail of the kernel, i.e. its type of decay. This characteristic is known to directly act on the speed and pattern of colonization, and on the spatial structure of genetic diversity during colonization. In particular, colonization waves behave differently depending on whether the kernel decreases faster or slower than an exponential (i.e. is thin-tailed vs. fat-tailed). To interpret and extend published results on the impact of long-distance dispersal on the genetic structure of populations, we examine a classification of dispersal kernels based on the shape of their tails and formally demonstrate qualitative differences among them that can influence the predicted diversity of a propagule pool sampled far from two distinct sources. Results We show that a fat-tailed kernel leads asymptotically to a diverse propagule pool containing a balanced mixing of the propagules from the two sources, whereas a thin-tailed kernel results in all propagules originating from the closest source. We further show that these results hold for biologically relevant distances under certain circumstances, and in particular if the number of propagules is large enough, as would be the case for pollen or seeds. Conclusion To understand the impact of long-distance dispersal on the structure and dynamics of a metapopulation, it might be less important to precisely estimate an average dispersal distance than to determine if the tail of the dispersal kernel is fatter or thinner than that of an exponential function. Depending solely on this characteristic, a metapopulation will behave similarly to an island model with a diverse immigrant pool or to a stepping-stone model with migrants from closest populations. Our results further help to understand why thin-tailed dispersal kernels lead to a colonization wave of constant speed, whereas fat-tailed dispersal kernels lead to a wave of increasing speed. Our results also suggest that the diversity of the pollen cloud of a mother plant should increase with increasing isolation for fat-tailed kernels, whereas it should decrease for thin-tailed kernels. PMID:16504013

Klein, Etienne K; Lavigne, Claire; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

2006-01-01

268

Static strain and vibration characteristics of a metal semimonocoque helicopter tail cone of moderate size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of an analytic and experimental research program involving a Sikorsky S-55 helicopter tail cone directed ultimately to the improved structural analysis of airframe substructures typical of moderate sized helicopters of metal semimonocoque construction. Experimental static strain and dynamic shake-testing measurements are presented. Correlation studies of each of these tests with a PC-based finite element analysis (COSMOS/M) are described. The tests included static loadings at the end of the tail cone supported in the cantilever configuration as well as vibrational shake-testing in both the cantilever and free-free configurations.

Bielawa, Richard L.; Hefner, Rachel E.; Castagna, Andre

1991-01-01

269

Estimation of mercury content in tailings of the gold mine area of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

As in many other parts of the world, gold is produced in the surface mining region of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil, using mercury. The goal of this investigation was to estimate the amount of mercury in certain tailings and to determine the area of the land that has been contaminated by the gold mining operations. Mercury concentrations from 2 to 495 ng/g (dw) were determined in the tailing materials. It was observed that only isolated sites were acting as central points of contamination. Using digital Landsat satellite data (The-matic Mapper) and aerial photos, the sites degraded by the mining were classified, and their total area was estimated to be 12.3 km(2) in the region of Poconé. It was estimated, that 4.9 km(2) were occupied by the contaminated tailings. The mean height of the pile slags was determined to be 4.5 m. From the experimentally calculated average density of the material in the tailings, 2.01 g/cm(3), the total mercury content in the piles of tailings was estimated to be 1600 ± 350 kg. PMID:24234691

von Tümpling, W; Zeilhofer, P; Ammer, U; Einax, J; Wilken, R D

1995-07-01

270

Reducing radon exhalation from covered tailings: optimization or cost effectiveness?  

PubMed

Reduction of radon exhalation from uranium tailings as a function of the number of radon diffusion lengths in cover materials is discussed, based on dimensionless mathematical functions. Cost effectiveness is examined to determine the least expensive cover with a preselected number of radon diffusion lengths (i.e., a preselected level of radiation protection), and to find the maximum attainable reduction in radon flux with a predetermined cost (i.e., a fixed amount of money). Cost effectiveness rather than optimization through cost benefit analysis can be used advantageously in these cases. PMID:3936174

Paschoa, A S; Torrey, J A; Wrenn, M E

1985-10-01

271

Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

Blus, L.J.

1978-01-01

272

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat K.; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat K.

2013-06-01

273

Plasma irregularities in the comet's tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scintillation theory is invoked to explain fluctuations in radio intensity observed during occultation of the extragalactic radio source PKS 2025-15 by the plasma tail of comet 1973 XII on Jan. 5, 1975. Plasma irregularities and turbulence in the tail of the comet (Kohoutek 1973f) are fitted to a Gaussian spectrum and to a Kolmogorov power-law spectrum in analyzing the scintillation data. The rms fluctuation of electron density in the cometary tail is reported at 80 electrons per cu mm, the inner scale of the fluctuation at 800 km, and the largest scale of fluctuation at possibly 400,000 km. A hump in the comet power-law spectrum is noted. Use of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations to predict the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations for irregularities associated with hydromagnetic turbulence is recommended.

Lee, L. C.

1976-01-01

274

Chemistry and biology of solid wastes, dredge materials and mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

This book examines in 12 chapters the chemical and mineralogical trace element characteristics of dredged sediments and mine tailings, and the chemical and biological processes that determine the fate of trace elements from these two sources in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. This volume is the first of two, the second entitled Environmental Management of Dredged Material and Mine Tailings. The specific subject matter of this book is prefaced by three review chapters on the chemical and biological processes that determine trace element environmental fate. The remaining nine chapters can be classified into two types: case histories and assessment methodology.

Salomons, W.; Forstner, U. (eds.)

1988-01-01

275

The retroperitoneal resection margin and vessel involvement are important factors determining survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is still poor. We analysed the factors that have a major influence\\u000a on the survival of patients. Surgical specimens from 51 patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas were\\u000a examined for tumour size, histological type, grade and local extension. In 7 patients the retroperitoneal resection margin\\u000a was involved either

J. Lüttges; Ilka Vogel; Martin Menke; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Günter Klöppel

1998-01-01

276

Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a 7 Million event data sample of 600 GeV/c single track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. They build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4 x 10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as velocity spectrometer for high precision searches of the K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

Morelos, A.; Mata, J.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Aguilera-Servin, J.L.; /San Luis Potosi U. /Fermilab

2005-01-01

277

Through the tail of a comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation, trajectory, and missions of the ISEE-3 spacecraft being sent to observe Comet Giacobini-Zimmer (GZ) are described. Originally parked at a libration point to observe the solar wind, ISEE-3 was directed to perform a complex series of flybys of the earth and the moon to move to a trajectory that will intersect the GZ tail in 1985. Renamed ICE, the spacecraft will record magnetic field and charged particle data on the interaction of the cometary tail with the solar wind.

Mclaughlin, W. I.

1984-01-01

278

Plasma irregularities in the Comet's tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluctuations in the intensity of radio source PKS 2025-15 during its occultation by Comet Kohoutek (1973f) on January 5, 1974, can be interpreted as scintillations due to the turbulent plasma in the Comet's tail. It was found that the rms fluctuation of the electron density in the Comet's tail is about 200 electrons/cu cm, the inner scale of the fluctuation is about 8 x 10 to the 7th power cm and the largest scale of fluctuation may reach 6 x 10 to the 10th power cm.

Lee, L. C.

1976-01-01

279

Significance of microbial communities and interactions in safeguarding reactive mine tailings by ecological engineering.  

PubMed

Pyritic mine tailings (mineral waste generated by metal mining) pose significant risk to the environment as point sources of acidic, metal-rich effluents (acid mine drainage [AMD]). While the accelerated oxidative dissolution of pyrite and other sulfide minerals in tailings by acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes has been widely reported, other acidophiles (heterotrophic bacteria that catalyze the dissimilatory reduction of iron and sulfur) can reverse the reactions involved in AMD genesis, and these have been implicated in the "natural attenuation" of mine waters. We have investigated whether by manipulating microbial communities in tailings (inoculating with iron- and sulfur-reducing acidophilic bacteria and phototrophic acidophilic microalgae) it is possible to mitigate the impact of the acid-generating and metal-mobilizing chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that are indigenous to tailing deposits. Sixty tailings mesocosms were set up, using five different microbial inoculation variants, and analyzed at regular intervals for changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters for up to 1 year. Differences between treatment protocols were most apparent between tailings that had been inoculated with acidophilic algae in addition to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and those that had been inoculated with only pyrite-oxidizing chemolithotrophs; these differences included higher pH values, lower redox potentials, and smaller concentrations of soluble copper and zinc. The results suggest that empirical ecological engineering of tailing lagoons to promote the growth and activities of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria could minimize their risk of AMD production and that the heterotrophic populations could be sustained by facilitating the growth of microalgae to provide continuous inputs of organic carbon. PMID:21965397

Nancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D Barrie

2011-12-01

280

Three-dimensional architecture of actin filaments in Listeria monocytogenes comet tails.  

PubMed

The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of remodelling the actin cytoskeleton of its host cells such that "comet tails" are assembled powering its movement within cells and enabling cell-to-cell spread. We used cryo-electron tomography to visualize the 3D structure of the comet tails in situ at the level of individual filaments. We have performed a quantitative analysis of their supramolecular architecture revealing the existence of bundles of nearly parallel hexagonally packed filaments with spacings of 12-13 nm. Similar configurations were observed in stress fibers and filopodia, suggesting that nanoscopic bundles are a generic feature of actin filament assemblies involved in motility; presumably, they provide the necessary stiffness. We propose a mechanism for the initiation of comet tail assembly and two scenarios that occur either independently or in concert for the ensuing actin-based motility, both emphasizing the role of filament bundling. PMID:24306931

Jasnin, Marion; Asano, Shoh; Gouin, Edith; Hegerl, Reiner; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Villa, Elizabeth; Cossart, Pascale; Baumeister, Wolfgang

2013-12-17

281

Mechanism by which a LINE protein recognizes its 3? tail RNA  

PubMed Central

LINEs mobilize their own copies via retrotransposition. LINEs can be divided into two types. One is a stringent type, which constitutes a majority of LINEs. The other is a relaxed type. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of retrotransposition, we used here two different zebrafish LINEs belonging to the stringent type. By using retrotransposition assays, we demonstrated that proteins (ORF2) encoded by an individual LINE recognize the cognate 3? tail sequence of the LINE RNA strictly. By conducting in vitro binding assays with a variety of ORF2 proteins, we demonstrated that the region between the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains in ORF2 is the site at which the proteins bind the stem-loop structure of the 3? tail RNA, showing that the strict recognition of the stem-loop structure by the cognate ORF2 protein is an important step in retrotransposition. This recognition can be bipartite, involving the general recognition of the stem by cTBR (conserved tail-binding region) of ORF2 and the specific recognition of the loop by vTBR (variable tail-binding region). This is the first report that clearly characterized the RNA-binding region in ORF2, providing the generality for the recognition mechanism of the RNA tail by the ORF2 protein encoded by LINEs. PMID:25143533

Hayashi, Yoshinori; Kajikawa, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Okada, Norihiro

2014-01-01

282

Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.  

PubMed

Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. PMID:25153822

Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

2014-11-01

283

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  

PubMed

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

2009-06-01

284

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

2009-01-01

285

Spin-Tunnel Investigation of the Spinning Characteristics of Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Airplane Designs. 1. Low-Wing Model A: Effects of Tail Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail design on spin and recovery were investigated in a spin tunnel. A 1/11-scale model of a research airplane which represents a typical low-wing, single engine, light general aviation airplane was used. A tail design criterion for satisfactory spin recovery for light airplanes was evaluated. The effects of other geometric design features on the spin and recovery characteristics were also determined. Results indicate that the existing tail design criterion for light airplanes, which uses the tail damping power factor as a parameter, cannot be used to predict spin-recovery characteristics.

Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

1977-01-01

286

Stability and control characteristics of a monoplannar missile configuration with two low-profile tail arrangements at Mach numbers from 1.70 to 2.86  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental wind tunnel investigation has been made to determine the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability and control characteristics of two tail fin arrangements of a monowing missile model. Both a conventional cruciform and a low profile tail arrangement were tested. The results indicate that the tail surfaces of both configurations were effective in producing pitch control. It was also concluded that both are effective in producing roll and yaw control that is accompanied by proverse yaw and roll, respectively. The conventional cruciform tail produces the most roll and yaw control.

Blair, A. B., Jr.

1977-01-01

287

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

1992-01-01

288

Magnetic field controls carbon arc tail flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polarity of two electromagnets placed near the exhaust flue cancels out a high carbon-arc field. The arc tail flame is correctly drawn to the exhaust flue and contamination is diverted. This device should reduce maintenance cycles on any arc-powered illuminator.

1965-01-01

289

VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2008-01-18

290

The Long Tail Takes Over Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former software developer and independent musician Jonathan Coulton has forged a following and a living wage by leveraging the Internet, and he's still pondering how the new business model for the music industry will emerge. However, the music business's very foundation is antithetical to long-tail economics.

Greg Goth

2007-01-01

291

Disturbance propagation times to the far tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous data collection by IMP 8 in the near-Earth solar wind and Geotail in the distant tail make possible the correlation of solar wind disturbances with their effects in the distant tail. This paper discusses some of the possible propagation times between the two spacecrafts and compares them with observed times for a particular disturbance when Geotail was near the magnetopause. The best fit matches very closely with the solar wind velocity. Several other propagation mechanisms also match the observed delay times within the observational error. The conversion processes operating across the bow shock, through the magnetosheath, and through the tail tend to maintain the net propagation speed constant, which accounts for the empirical finding that the direct solar wind transit time between IMP 8 and Geotail works pretty well. There is little if any effect of a significant delay resulting from the flow slowing down in the subsonic dayside magnetosheath. The event cannot discriminate between a windsock response of the tail to the solar wind disturbance and a standing wave response without further quantitative modeling.

Kaymaz, Z.; Petschek, H. E.; Siscoe, G. L.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Paterson, W. R.

1995-12-01

292

Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

293

Estimating Bivariate Tails Elena Di Bernardino  

E-print Network

Estimating Bivariate Tails Elena Di Bernardino Universit´e de Lyon, Universit´e Lyon 1, ISFA, Laboratoire SAF. E-mail : elena.di-bernardino@univ-lyon1.fr V´eronique Maume-Deschamps Universit´e de Lyon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Heavy Tails in Insurance Sren Asmussen  

E-print Network

distribution models used in fire, wind­storm or flood insurance and mention some insurance applications in insurance data, for instance in fire, wind­storm or flood insurance (collectively known as catastropheeqf21/008 Heavy Tails in Insurance Søren Asmussen Vicky Fasen and Claudia Klüppelberg Abstract

295

TAIL-MOUNTED RADIO TRANSMITTERS FOR WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that

JEAN-FRANCOIS GIROUX; DAVID V. BELL; STEVE PERCIVAL; RON W. SUMMERS

296

Molasses Tail in Dense Hard Core Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long slow decaying potential part of the shear-stress autocorrelation function has been called the ``molasses tail'' to differentiate it from the hydrodynamic origin of the long time tail in the velocity autocorrelation function and to emphasize its relation to the highly viscous glassy state [1]. Some twenty years ago, the molasses tail in dense liquids near the solid-fluid transition point was speculated to be due to transient crystal nuclei formation [2].This slow decaying process of the OACF and its decomposition (pair, triplet, and quadruplet) is a key factor in understanding the onset of the glass transition. With additional computer power, we are now investigating the origin of the molasses tail using a modern fast algorithm based on event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation.We confirm the non-algebraic decay (stretched exponential) at intermediate times corresponding to the existence of various cluster sizes a solid cluster at high densities. The decay in dense systems thus consists of a three stage relaxation process, which are the kinetic regime, the molasses regime and the diffusional power regime[3]. [1] B. J. Alder, in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Statistical-mechanical Systems, G. Ciccotti and W. G. Hoover, eds.(North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) 66. [2] A. J. C. Ladd, and B. J. Alder, J. Stat. Phys. 57, 473 (1989). [3] M. Isobe and B. J. Alder, Mol. Phys., 107, 609 (2009).

Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

2010-03-01

297

Approximating Tail Areas of Probability Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method for approximating tail areas is developed through an extension of the methodology of Andrews. This extension is applied to both continuous and discrete distributions. Examples of the approximations are given for the standard normal, $t$, and chi-square distributions in the continuous case and for the Poisson and binomial distributions in the discrete case. Errors of the approximations

Alan J. Gross; David W. Hosmer

1978-01-01

298

Investigation of environmental impacts of tailings dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining has been one of the key sectors for industrialisation of the world for centuries. As the mining activities enlarge, the amount of waste materials readily increases. Storage of waste materials or tailings disposal has become a serious matter for the mining industry due to its enlargement especially for the last 30 years. During the beneficiation of valuable metals and

Safak Ozkan; Bedri Ipekoglu

2002-01-01

299

A TALE OF FOUR UPSTREAM TAILINGS DAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation and performance of four upstream-constructed tailings dams in South America are presented. All four dams were constructed beginning in the 1990's. The juxtaposition of the same design to four sites, each with unique site and operating conditions, led not surprisingly to four different outcomes. These outcomes ranged from outright failure, to construction of a toe buttress, slope flattening,

T. E. Martin; E. C. McRoberts; M. P. Davies

300

Study Of Helicopter-Tail-Rotor Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes findings of experiment in generation of impulsive noise and fluctuating blade loads by helicopter tail rotor interacting with vortexes from main rotor. Experiment used model rotor and isolated vortex and designed to isolate blade/vortex interaction noise from other types of rotor noise.

Ahmadi, Ali R.; Beranek, Bolt

1988-01-01

301

New Mixed Tail Triphenylene Discotic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new mixed tail triphenylene discotic liquid crystals having three alkoxy and three alkanoyloxy chains have been prepared and characterized. Effects of unsymmetrical substitution by virtue of different alkyl chains in the periphery and their attachment to the core were studied. The synthesis was carried out by esterification of the symmetrical and unsymmetrical trihydroxy-tripentyloxytriphenylenes with various acid chlorides. All the

M. Manickam; Sandeep Kumar

1999-01-01

302

Determination of trace elements in metals by atomic-absorption spectrometry with the introduction of solid samples into furnaces: an investigation involving aqueous standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To ascertain whether calibration graphs constructed with aqueous standards can be employed for the determination of volatile trace elements in metals at concentrations µg\\/g, calibration graphs have been produced for bismuth, lead, silver and tellurium by introducing milligram masses of standard steels, nickel-base alloys and coppers, or microlitre volumes of aqueous standards, into either an induction furnace or a

J. B. Headridge; I. M. Riddington

1982-01-01

303

Histone H3 tail clipping regulates gene expression  

PubMed Central

Induction of gene expression in yeast and human cells involves changes in histone modifications associated with promoters. Here we identify a histone H3 endopeptidase activity in S. cerevisiae that may regulate these events. The endopeptidase cleaves H3 after alanine 21, generating a histone lacking the first 21 residues and displays a preference for H3 tails carrying repressive modifications. In vivo, the H3 N-terminus is clipped, specifically within the promoter of genes following the induction of transcription. H3 clipping precedes the process of histone eviction seen when genes become fully active. A truncated H3 product is not generated in yeast carrying a mutation of the endopeptidase recognition site (H3 Q19L20->AA) and the gene induction is defective in these cells. These findings identify clipping of H3 tails as a novel modification of promoter-bound nucleosomes, which may result in the localised clearing of repressive signals during the induction of gene expression. PMID:19079264

Santos-Rosa, Helena; Kirmizis, Antonis; Nelson, Christopher; Bartke, Till; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques; Kouzarides, Tony

2012-01-01

304

Velocity Resolved Observations of the Extended Lunar Sodium Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently obtained the first velocity resolved sodium D2 (5889.950 Å) line profile observations of the extended lunar sodium tail observed in the anti-lunar direction within 2-18 hours from new Moon. These observations were made in March, April, and September, 2006 from Pine Bluff (WI) Observatory (PBO) with a double etalon Fabry Perot spectrometer. The PBO Fabry-Perot is coupled to a siderostat with a circular 1.5 degree field-of-view on the sky, and samples a 75 km/s spectral interval with 3.5 km/s spectral resolution at 5890 Å. The average observed radial velocity of the lunar sodium tail in the vicinity of the anti lunar point was 12 km/s from geocentric zero; the average Doppler width of a single Gaussian fit to the emission line was 8 km/s. Our current work involves mapping the spatial distribution of this emission over an 8 degree field on the sky using a grid of observations with steps of 6 minutes in right ascension (?) and 1.5 degrees in declination (?). In this poster we will present recent data and a series of channel maps which highlight the kinematic distribution of the 5889.950 Å emission in 4 km/s velocity slices. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grants ATM-0228465 and ATM-0535433.

Line, Michael R.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Haffner, L. M.; Oliversen, R. J.

2006-12-01

305

Roles for the troponin tail domain in thin filament assembly and regulation. A deletional study of cardiac troponin T.  

PubMed

Striated muscle contraction is regulated by Ca2+ binding to troponin, which has a globular domain and an elongated tail attributable to the NH2-terminal portion of the bovine cardiac troponin T (TnT) subunit. Truncation of the bovine cardiac troponin tail was investigated using recombinant TnT fragments and subunits TnI and TnC. Progressive truncation of the troponin tail caused progressively weaker binding of troponin-tropomyosin to actin and of troponin to actin-tropomyosin. A sharp drop-off in affinity occurred with NH2-terminal deletion of 119 rather than 94 residues. Deletion of 94 residues had no effect on Ca2+-activation of the myosin subfragment 1-thin filament MgATPase rate and did not eliminate cooperative effects of Ca2+ binding. Troponin tail peptide TnT1-153 strongly promoted tropomyosin binding to actin in the absence of TnI or TnC. The results show that the anchoring function of the troponin tail involves interactions with actin as well as with tropomyosin and has comparable importance in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Residues 95-153 are particularly important for anchoring, and residues 95-119 are crucial for function or local folding. Because striated muscle regulation involves switching among the conformational states of the thin filament, regulatory significance for the troponin tail may arise from its prominent contribution to the protein-protein interactions within these conformations. PMID:10066775

Hinkle, A; Goranson, A; Butters, C A; Tobacman, L S

1999-03-12

306

Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea  

PubMed Central

Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ?10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

Pietila, Maija K.; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

307

Discovery, identification and sequence analysis of RNAs selected for very short or long poly A tail in immature bovine oocytes.  

PubMed

A major challenge in applying genomics to oocyte physiology is that many RNAs are present but will not be translated into proteins, making it difficult to draw conclusions from RNAseq and array data. Oocyte maturation and early embryo development rely on maternal storage of specific RNAs with a short poly(A) tail, which must be elongated for translation. To resolve the role of key genes during that period, we aimed to characterize both extremes of mRNA: deadenylated RNA and long polyA tails mRNA population in immature bovine oocytes. Using magnetic beads coupled to oligodT, we isolated deadenylated (A-, 20-50 adenosines) from polyadenylated (A+, up to 200 adenosines) RNAs. After transcriptomic analysis, we observed that A+ candidates are associated with short-term processes required for immediate cell survival (translation or protein transport) or meiotic resumption, while several A- candidates are involved in processes (chromatin modification, gene transcription and post-transcriptional modifications) that will be extremely important in the development of the early embryo. In addition to a list of candidates probably translated early or late, sequence analysis revealed that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) and U(3)GU(3) were enriched in A- sequences. Moreover, a motif associated with polyadenylation signals (MAPS, U(5)CU(2)) appeared to be enriched in 3'untranslated regions (UTR) with CPE or U(3)GU(3) sequences in bovine but also in zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis. To further validate our methodology, we measured specific tail length of known candidates (AURKA, PTTG1, H2A1) but also determined the poly(A) tail length of other candidate RNAs (H3F3A, H1FOO, DAZAP2, ATF1, ATF2, KAT5, DAZL, ELAVL2). In conclusion, we have reported a methodology to isolate deadenylated from polyadenylated RNAs in samples with small total RNA quantities such as mammals. Moreover, we identified deadenylated RNAs in bovine oocytes that may be stored for the long-term process of early embryo development and described a conserved motif enriched in the 3'UTR of deadenylated RNAs. PMID:24233545

Gohin, Maella; Fournier, Eric; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André

2014-02-01

308

Tail and Ionospheric Signatures of Tail Fast Flows Associated with PBIs and with Substorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthward convection of the tail plasma sheet is often organized in bursts of fast ion flows restricted in azimuthally narrow channels. It has been shown that Auroral Poleward Boundary Intensifications (PBIs) are often the ionospheric signature of such fast flow channels in the midtail. Equatorward flow bursts have been observed in the ionosphere, and have been shown to be the ionospheric mapping of the tail fast flow channels in few case studies. We focus on identifying such ionospheric signatures and understanding the physics of this magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction via conjunctions of the THEMIS probes with the Sondrestrom radar. We find fundamental differences between the tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets and those associated with PBIs, as well as between their respective ionospheric flow signatures. The tail fast flows that produce PBIs are observed in the midtail. They do not typically penetrate to the inner magnetosphere and they are accompanied by plasma sheet expansion signatures in the mid tail. No dipolarization signatures are observed in the inner magnetosphere. The ionospheric signatures associated with such tail flows are PBI- type aurora and substantially enhanced equatorward flows. Tail fast flows that are associated with substorm onsets are typically observed only by the inner magnetosphere probes, only occasionally being seen also in the midtail. Clear dipolarizations are seen with such flows in the inner magnetosphere but not in the midtail. The ionospheric flow associated with such tail fast flows is far distinct, enhanced westward flows being occasionally seen at the higher latitude part of the Sondrestrom field of view with enhanced eastward flows observed at the lower latitudes. Enhanced equatorward flows are not seen.

Shi, Y.; Zesta, E.; Lyons, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Glassmeier, K.; Mende, S.

2009-05-01

309

Effect of Tail Dihedral on Lateral Control Effectiveness at High Subsonic Speeds of Differentially Deflected Horizontal-Tail Surfaces on a Configuration having a Thin Highly Tapered Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests have been conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the effect of tail dihedral on lateral control effectiveness of a complete-model configuration having differentially deflected horizontal-tail surfaces. Limited tests were made to determine the lateral characteristics as well as the longitudinal characteristics in sideslip. The wing had an aspect ratio of 3, a taper ratio of 0.14, 28.80 deg sweep of the quarter-chord line with zero sweep at the 80-percent-chord line, and NACA 65A004 airfoil sections. The test Mach number range extended from 0.60 to 0.92. There are only small variations in the roll effectiveness parameter C(sub iota delta) with negative tail dihedral angle. The tail size used on the test model, however, is perhaps inadequate for providing the roll rates specified by current military requirements at subsonic speeds. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics were essentially constant throughout the range of sideslip angle from 12 deg to -12 deg. A general increase in yawing moment was noted with increased negative dihedral throughout the Mach number range.

Fournier, Paul G.

1959-01-01

310

Structure and stability of the lamin A tail domain and HGPS mutant  

PubMed Central

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging syndrome caused by the expression and accumulation of a mutant form of lamin A, ?50 lamin A. As a component of the cell's nucleoskeleton, lamin A plays an important role in the mechanical stabilization of the nuclear envelope and in other nuclear functions. It is largely unknown how the characteristic 50 amino acid deletion affects the conformation of the mostly intrinsically disordered tail domain of lamin A. Here we perform replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the tail domain and determine an ensemble of semi-stable structures. Based on these structures we show that the ZMPSTE 24 cleavage site on the precursor form of the lamin A tail domain orients itself in such a way as to facilitate cleavage during the maturation process. We confirm our simulated structures by comparing the thermodynamic properties of the ensemble structures to in vitro stability measurements. Using this combination of techniques, we compare the size, heterogeneity of size, thermodynamic stability of the Ig-fold, as well as the mechanisms of force-induced denaturation. Our data shows that the ?50 lamin A tail domain is more compact and displays less heterogeneity than the mature lamin A tail domain. Altogether these results suggest that the altered structure and stability of the tail domain can explain changed protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and may represent an etiology of the disease. Also, this study provides the first molecular structure(s) of the lamin A tail domain, which is confirmed by thermodynamic tests. PMID:21635954

Qin, Zhao; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Dahl, Kris Noel; Buehler, Markus J.

2011-01-01

311

Monticello Mill Tailings Site environmental report for calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information pertaining to environmental activities conducted during calendar year 1992 at and near the inactive uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah. Environmental activities conducted at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS) during 1992 included those associated with remedial action and compliance monitoring. Compliance monitoring consisted of both radiological and nonradiological monitoring of air, surface water, and ground water. Radiological and nonradiological air monitoring at the MMTS included measurements of atmospheric radon, particulate matter, and gamma radiation. Air particulate monitoring for radiological and nonradiological constituents was conducted at one location on and two locations off the millsite with high-volume particulate samplers. The maximum airborne concentrations of radium-226, thorium-230, and total uranium at all locations were several orders of magnitude below the regulatory limits specified by DOE Order 5400.5. Surface water monitoring included water quality measurements within Montezuma Creek. During 1992, maximum levels of selenium; gross alpha, gross beta, total dissolved solids, and iron exceeded their respective state standards in one or more samples collected from upstream, on-site, and downstream locations. Ground-water monitoring was conducted for two aquifers underlying the millsite. The shallow aquifer is contaminated by leached products of uranium mill tailings. During 1992, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act and state of Utah ground-water standards for arsenic, barium, nitrate, chromium, lead, selenium, molybdenum, uranium-234 and -238, gross alpha particle activity, and radium-226 and -228 were exceeded in one or more alluvial wells. This well will continue to be sampled to determine if the presence of these constituents was anomalous or if the measurements represented contamination in the aquifer.

Not Available

1993-05-01

312

Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.  

PubMed

In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services. PMID:21629992

Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

2011-10-01

313

Ion mobility based on column leaching of South African gold tailings dam with chemometric evaluation.  

PubMed

New column leaching experiments were designed and used as an alternative rapid screening approach to element mobility assessment. In these experiments, field-moist material was treated with an extracting solution to assess the effects of acidification on element mobility in mine tailings. The main advantage of this version of column leaching experiments with partitioned segments is that they give quick information on current element mobility in conditions closely simulating field conditions to compare with common unrepresentative air-dried, sieved samples used for column leaching experiments. Layers from the tailings dump material were sampled and packed into columns. The design of columns allows extracting leachates from each layer. The extracting solutions used were natural (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 4.2) rainwater. Metals and anions were determined in the leachates. The concentrations of metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Cu) in sample leachates were determined using ICP OES. The most important anions (NO3-, Cl-, and SO4(2)-) were determined using the closed system izotacophoresis ITP analyser. The chemical analytical data from tailings leaching and physico-chemical data from field measurements (including pH, conductivity, redox potential, temperature) were used for chemometric evaluation of element mobility. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was used to evaluate ions mobility from different layers of tailings dump arising from varied pH and redox conditions. It was found that the results from the partitioned column leaching illustrate much better complex processes of metals mobility from tailings dump than the total column. The chemometric data analysis (PFA) proofed the differences in the various layers leachability that are arising from physico-chemical processes due to chemical composition of tailings dump deposit. PMID:15109878

Cukrowska, Ewa M; Govender, Koovila; Viljoen, Morris

2004-07-01

314

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

315

The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

Fredrickson, J. E.

1989-01-01

316

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer

317

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of  

E-print Network

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

Cai, Long

318

REMEDIATION OF ACID MINE TAILINGS AND RECOVERY OF COPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary team of students from New Mexico State University has developed a solution to Task I of the 1998 WERC Environmental Design Contest. The proposed process addresses the treatment of mine tailings which generate acid and the recovery of metals contained in the tailings. The objective of the design is to recover and transport the mine tailings in a

Ali Al-Matar; Jennifer Alwin; David Rockstraw

319

Environmental desulphurization of four Canadian mine tailings using froth flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental desulphurization is an attractive alternative for management of acid generating tailings. This process placed at the end of the primary process treatment circuit will reduce a large amount of the problematic tailings by concentrating the sulphide fraction. To produce desulphurized tailings, non-selective froth flotation is the most adapted method. The desulphurization level is fixed by the sulphide content of

M Benzaazoua; B Bussière; M Kongolo; J McLaughlin; P Marion

2000-01-01

320

IMPACT PREDICTION OF THE REACTIVATION OF AN UNUSED TAILINGS DAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent occurrence in areas with a long history of mining is the reactivation of mine residue deposits. This paper presents an impact prediction study conducted for the reactivation of a gold tailings dam. Two phases of new tailings deposition are proposed. The objective of the study was to assess the potential impact on downstream groundwater quality. The tailings dam

TERRY HARCK; BERNADETTE AZZIE; CATRIONA COYLE; TALITA GERMISHUYSE; RAVI VADAPALLI; ALBERT VAN ZYL

321

Management and Conservation Immobilization of White-Tailed Deer With  

E-print Network

and effective alternative for immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). During a 2-stage Society. KEY WORDS anesthesia, ketamine, Odocoileus virginianus, telazol, tolazoline, white-tailed deer and Wilson 2002). Currently, few drug combinations meet these criteria for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

322

Population Ecology Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

323

Research Article Spotlight Surveys for White-Tailed Deer  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Many monitoring programs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on both private and public, Odocoileus virginianus, spot- light surveys, variance components, white-tailed deer. One of the primary the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). A suite of approaches have been used to look at deer

Ditchkoff, Steve

324

Theoretical lift due to wing incidence of slender wing-body-tail combinations at zero angle of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical lift of a cylindrical afterbody at zero angle of attack due to incidence of the wing is calculated by means of slender-body theory. It is assumed that the vortex sheet becomes fully rolled up ahead of the tail, and the vortex paths in the presence of the body are determined analytically. The total lift of a variety of slender wing-body-tail combinations due to wing incidence is also calculated.

Sacks, Alvin H

1956-01-01

325

Linkage analysis of the genetic determinants of high density lipoprotein concentrations and composition: evidence for involvement of the apolipoprotein AII and cholesteryl ester transfer protein loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested for evidence of linkage between the genetic loci determining concentrations and composition of plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) with the genes for the major apolipoproteins and enzymes participating in lipoprotein metabolism. These genes include those encoding various apolipoproteins (apo), including apoA-I, apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoB, apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, and apo(a), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), HDL-binding protein,

Xiangdong Bu; Craig H. Warden; Yu-Rong Xia; Cynthia De Meester; Donald L. Puppione; Scott Teruya; Beth Lokensgard; Siamac Daneshmand; Jane Brown; Richard J. Gray; Jerome I. Rotter; Aldons J. Lusis

1994-01-01

326

Involvement of the periaqueductal grey matter and spinal 5-hydroxytryptaminergic pathways in morphine analgesia  

PubMed Central

1 Electrolytic lesions of the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) were made in rats. The analgesia produced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine (10 and 20 mg/kg), tested by the tail flick and hot plate methods, was substantially reduced in the lesioned rats. Baseline pain thresholds were unaffected by the lesions. 2 The lesion effects were not due to damage to the dorsal raphé nucleus. The extent of histologically determined damage to the dorsal raphé and the resulting decrease in striatal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations did not correlate with the reduction in morphine analgesia produced by the lesion. Furthermore, microinjections of 5, 6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT) into the dorsal raphé nucleus produced a similar fall in 5-HIAA levels but had no effect on morphine analgesia. 3 Selective destruction of the periventricular catecholamine system produced by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) caused a slight decrease in morphine analgesia, thus raising the possibility that catecholamines may be involved in the action of morphine in the PAG. 4 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine-induced lesions of the spinal cord 5-hydroxytryptaminergic pathways reduced cord 5-HT concentration by 70% and markedly attenuated morphine analgesia as determined by the tail flick test. 5 These experiments provide additional evidence that the PAG is a major site of action of opiates in producing analgesia. Furthermore, they have demonstrated the probable involvement of spinal 5-hydroxytryptaminergic pathways in the mediation of opiate analgesic effects. PMID:206302

Deakin, J.F.W.; Dostrovsky, J.O.

1978-01-01

327

Multiresidue determination of 256 pesticides in lavandin essential oil by LC/ESI/sSRM: advantages and drawbacks of a sampling method involving evaporation under nitrogen.  

PubMed

The determination of 256 multiclass pesticides in lavandin essential oil has been performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using the scheduled selected reaction monitoring mode available on a quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. With the aim of improving the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the target molecules, a sampling step based on evaporation of the essential oil under a nitrogen flow assisted by controlled heating was tested. The LOQs determined in this case were compared with the values obtained with the classic dilution preparation method. With sampling by dilution, 247 pesticides were detected and quantified at low concentration, with 74 % of the pesticides having LOQs of 10 ?g L(-1) or less. With the evaporation method, a global improvement of the LOQs was observed, with lower LOQs for 92 active substances and LOQs of 10 ?g L(-1) or less for 82.8 % of the pesticides. Almost twice as many active substances had an LOQ of 1 ?g L(-1) or less when the evaporation method was used. Some pesticides exhibited poor recovery or high variance caused by volatilization or degradation during the evaporation step. This behavior was evidenced by the case of thiophanate-methyl, which is degraded to carbendazim. PMID:24366405

Fillâtre, Yoann; Rondeau, David; Daguin, Antoine; Jadas-Hecart, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves

2014-02-01

328

Capsid size determination by Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 involves specific incorporation of SaPI1 proteins into procapsids  

PubMed Central

The Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 carries the gene for the toxic shock syndrome toxin TSST-1 and can be mobilized by infection with S. aureus helper phage 80?. SaPI1 depends on the helper phage for excision, replication and genome packaging. The SaPI1 transducing particles are comprised of proteins encoded by the helper phage, but have a smaller capsid commensurate with the smaller size of the SaPI1 genome. Previous studies identified only 80?-encoded proteins in mature SaPI1 virions, implying that the presumptive SaPI1 capsid size determination function(s) must act transiently during capsid assembly or maturation. In this study, 80? and SaPI1 procapsids were produced by induction of phage mutants lacking functional 80? or SaPI1 small terminase subunits. By cryo-electron microscopy, these procapsids have a rounded shape and an internal scaffolding core. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify all 80?-encoded structural proteins in 80? and SaPI1 procapsids, including several that had not previously been found in the mature capsids. In addition, SaPI1 procapsids contained at least one SaPI1-encoded protein that has been implicated genetically in capsid size determination. MS on full-length phage proteins showed that the major capsid protein and the scaffolding protein are N-terminally processed in both 80? and SaPI1 procapsids. PMID:18565341

Poliakov, Anton; Chang, Jenny R.; Spilman, Michael S.; Damle, Priyadarshan K.; Christie, Gail E.; Mobley, James A.; Dokland, Terje

2008-01-01

329

Genetic studies on capsid-length determination in bacteriophage T4. II. Genetic evidence that specific protein-protein interactions are involved.  

PubMed Central

A bacteriophage T4 mutation (ptg19-80c) located in gene 23, which encodes the major structural protein of the T4 capsid, results in the production of capsids of abnormal length. Mutations outside gene 23 which partially suppress ptg19-80c have been described in the accompanying paper (D. H. Doherty, J. Virol. 43:641-654, 1982). Characterization of these suppressors was extended. A complementation test suggested that the suppressors were in genes 22 and 24. These genes coded for the major component of the morphogenetic core of the capsid precursor and the vertex protein of the capsid, respectively. The suppressor mutations were found to have no obvious phenotype in the absence of ptg19-80c. Suppression was shown to be allele specific: other ptg mutations at different sites in gene 23 were not suppressed by the suppressors of ptg19-80c. These results indicated that specific interactions among the three proteins gp22, gp23, and gp24 may play a role in the regulation of T4 capsid-length determination. Current models for capsid-length determination are considered in the light of these results. PMID:7109035

Doherty, D H

1982-01-01

330

137 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 8:2 (2002) Traditional approaches for studying white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

(DelGiudice, Mech, Seal & Karns 1987). K:C ratios have potential as an indi- cator of food intake where indices to determine temporal and regional patterns in nutri- tional status of white-tailed deer):creatinine (C), an index of nutri- tional status, and potassium (K):creatinine (C), an index of forage intake

Ditchkoff, Steve

331

DYNAMICS OF MATERNAL ANTIBODIES TO HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUSES (REOVIRIDAE: ORBIVIRUS) IN WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzootic stability, potentially associated with acquired resistance and subsequent transfer of maternal antibodies, innate resistance, or both, has been hypothesized to explain the lack of reports of hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Texas. The objectives of this research were to determine the following: how long maternal anti- bodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT)

Joseph K. Gaydos; David E. Stallknecht; Darrell Kavanaugh; Robert J. Olson; Eugene R. Fuchs

332

Spectral extrema and Lifshitz tails for non monotonous alloy type models  

E-print Network

In the present note, we determine the ground state energy and study the existence of Lifshitz tails near this energy for some non monotonous alloy type models. Here, non monotonous means that the single site potential coming into the alloy random potential changes sign. In particular, the random operator is not a monotonous function of the random variables.

Frédéric Klopp; Shu Nakamura

2008-04-25

333

Multiple Measures of Hand-Use Lateralization in the Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated a free-ranging matriline of 13 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from videotaped records for lateralized hand use with 2 tasks and 4 measures: food reaching, feeding posture, duration of food holding, and manipulation of food between mouth and hand while eating. Binomial z scores determined 7 lemurs to be left preferent in reaching, 3 right, and 3 ambipreferent. Ideographic analyses

Garrett W. Milliken; Chris Forsythe; Jeanette P. Ward

1989-01-01

334

Effect of sublethal lead exposure on gastric motility of red-tailed hawks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the effects of low level lead exposure on gastric motility in raptors, strain gage transducers were surgically implanted on the serosal surface of the muscular stomach of three red-tailed hawks. The frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions during ingestion and early digestion were monitored for 1 week under control conditions and for 3 weeks while the

Ellen M. Lawler; Gary E. Duke; Patrick T. Redigt

1991-01-01

335

Uranium and thorium content in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis L.).  

PubMed

Concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in liver, breast muscle, leg muscle, stomach and heart of long-tailed ducks wintering in Gda?sk Bay during 1980-81. The highest concentration of uranium and thorium was found in stomach, and the lowest in breast muscle. PMID:6635654

Szefer, P; Falandysz, J

1983-08-01

336

Estimation of Presettlement Populations of the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Reply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the historical distribution and abundance of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicanus) is important as a component of the science underlying decisions on the future management of this species. Clearly, we differ from Knowles and colleagues (2002) in our interpretation of those data (see below). In addition, Knowles et al. (2002) introduce other lines of evidence rather than

Dallas Virchow; Scott E. Hygnstrom

2002-01-01

337

An Hour-Ahead Prediction Model for Heavy-Tailed Spot Prices  

E-print Network

that determines the price uctuation in the short term is heavy-tailed and di¢ - cult to predict, i.e., it is di¢ cult to compute its expected value. The analysis presented in this paper implies that 1

Powell, Warren B.

338

Destruction of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide in tailings slurries from low bearing sulphidic gold ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness and kinetics of hydrogen peroxide in destroying cyanide in the tailings slurry from a gold mine with low sulphide and heavy metal content. The impacts of catalyst (Cu) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, temperature and pH on the extent and rate of weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide destruction were investigated.

M. Kitis; A. Akcil; E. Karakaya; N. O. Yigit

2005-01-01

339

Prediction of cyanide recovery from silver leaching tailings with AVR using multivariable regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the tailings of the silver leaching plant, Eti Gumus AS, Turkey, containing high amounts of cyanide were tested to determine optimum recovery of cyanide, using packed columns for volatilization stage of AVR (acidification, volatilization or stripping, reneutralization). All recovery tests were performed in a pilot plant constructed using random packing with column internals and practised for mass

Huseyin Vapur; Oktay Bayat

2007-01-01

340

EXPERIMENTAL CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MULE DEER, WHITE-TAILED DEER, PRONGHORN AND WAPITI1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ocis cana- densis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species devel- oped mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly

William R. Lance; Charles P. Hibler; James DeMartini

341

Evaluation of an electrified mat as a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose economic and safety problems for agricultural and transportation industries. We tested an electronic mat to determine if it would reduce deer crossing through fence openings. We measured deer intrusions and corn consumption at five sites with charged mats and five sites with non-charged mats. Weekly intrusions at treated sites decreased an average of 95% from

Thomas W. Seamans; David A. Helon

2008-01-01

342

Ion imaging during axolotl tail regeneration in vivo.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that endogenous ion currents are involved in a wide range of biological processes from single cell and tissue behavior to regeneration. Various methods are used to assess intracellular and local ion dynamics in biological systems, e.g., patch clamping and vibrating probes. Here, we introduce an approach to detect ion kinetics in vivo using a noninvasive method that can electrophysiologically characterize an entire experimental tissue region or organism. Ion-specific vital dyes have been successfully used for live imaging of intracellular ion dynamics in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that cellular pH, cell membrane potential, calcium, sodium and potassium can be monitored in vivo during tail regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) using ion-specific vital dyes. Thus, we suggest that ion-specific vital dyes can be a powerful tool to obtain electrophysiological data during crucial biological events in vivo. PMID:20549718

Ozkucur, Nurdan; Epperlein, Hans-Henning; Funk, Richard H W

2010-07-01

343

Optical absorption tail in InP:Mn from surface photovoltage measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady-state surface photovoltage technique was used to determine the optical absorption tail of InP:Mn, by extrapolation from the above-band-gap absorption spectrum. Reabsorbed recombination radiation is shown to have no effect on this procedure although it does raise the effective minority-carrier diffusion length. The tail absorption coefficient of InP:Mn increases with hole density in the range of 4.1×1014 cm to 5.3×1016 cm-3. In the 1016 cm-3 range, the absorption coefficient appears to rise also with the density of dislocations.

Chiang, C. L.; Wagner, S.; Ballman, A. A.

1983-12-01

344

Determination of expression and activity of genes involved in starch metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum A6 during fermentation of a cereal-based gruel.  

PubMed

Traditional fermented gruels prepared from cereals are widely used for complementary feeding of young children in Africa and usually have a low energy density. The amylase activity of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) helps increase the energy content of gruels through partial hydrolysis of starch, thus enabling the incorporation of more starchy material while conserving the desired semi-liquid consistency for young children. Even if this ability is mainly related to the production of alpha-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1), in a recent molecular screening, genes coding for enzymes involved in starch metabolism were detected in the efficient amylolytic LAB Lactobacillus plantarum A6: alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20), neopullulanase (E.C. 3.2.1.135), amylopectin phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.1) and maltose phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.8). The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of these genes in a model of starchy fermented food made from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses were performed during the 18-h fermentation period. Liquefaction was mainly caused by an extracellular alpha amylase encoded by the amyA gene specific to the A6 strain among L. plantarum species and found in both Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus manihotivorans. The second most active enzyme was neopullulanase. Other starch metabolizing enzymes were less often detected. The dynamic detection of transcripts of gene during starch fermentation in pearl millet porridge suggests that the set of genes we investigated was not expressed continuously but transiently. PMID:24950021

Humblot, Christèle; Turpin, Williams; Chevalier, François; Picq, Christian; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2014-08-18

345

Mass number and prompt neutron emission of individual fission fragments as functions of nuclear charge, both involving parameters determinable from radiochemical data  

SciTech Connect

We lack an equation relating fission fragment mass before prompt neutron emission to the mass of the resulting fission product. It is shown that by using conveniently defined auxiliary functions and partly neglecting fine structure effects, expressions may be derived for mass number, charge density, and prompt neutron yields of individual fission fragments. All expressions involve parameters which can be evaluated from radiochemical fission product yield data, without recourse to any physical measurement whatsoever. The expressions for neutron yields from individual fragments reproduce the well-known saw-tooth curve. The fragment mass number as a function of charge is composed of two parallel straight lines with a simple discontinuity at symmetric charge division. Similarly, the fragment charge density versus charge has two branches extending in the heavy and light fragment regions, respectively. The corresponding relationship is a homographic function of charge, and is discontinuous at symmetric charge division, where Dirichlet's theorem applies. In the fission of /sup 238/U, the two branches come closer together at symmetric charge division as excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus increases. The expressions mentioned above have been applied to nine different low excitation energy (< or =14 MeV) fission processes for which selected recommended data are available. CompThe expression predicted by the liquid drop model for mass asymmetry of fission is shown to be identically valid for charge and neutron asymmetry also. Two new identities are also reported. In addition, two quantities are defined, namely, the proton dilution number with respect to nucleons and that with respect to neutrons. It is shown that the arithmetic mean of either of these quantities for the average light and heavy fragments equals the corresponding quantity for the fissioning nucleus, and that this equality holds true with notable accuracy in all low-energy fission processes considered.

Talat-Erben, M.; Tokay, R.K.

1981-09-01

346

The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity.  

PubMed

Changes in skin blood and sweating are the primary mechanisms for heat loss in humans. A hot, humid environment concomitant with dehydration limits the ability to increase skin blood flow for the purpose of transferring heat from the body core to skin surface and evaporate sweat to maintain core temperature within safe limits during exercise. Adequate hydration improves thermoregulation by maintaining blood volume to support skin blood flow and sweating. Humans rely on fluid intake to maintain total body water and blood volume, and have developed complex mechanisms to sense changes in the amount and composition of fluid in the body. This paper addresses the interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status involved in body water and temperature regulation during exercise. In the controlled setting of a research laboratory, investigators are able to investigate the contributions of volume and tonicity of fluid in the plasma to body water and temperature regulation during exercise and recovery. For example, laboratory studies have shown that tonicity in a rehydration beverage maintains the thirst mechanism (and stimulates drinking), and contributes to the ongoing stimulation of renal fluid retention hormones, ultimately leading to a more complete rehydration. Research in the field cannot control the environment precisely, but these studies provide a natural, 'real-life' setting to study fluid and temperature regulation during exercise. The conditions encountered in the field are closest to the environment during competition, and data collected in the field can have an immediate impact on performance and safety during exercise. There is an important synergy between these two methods of collecting data that support performance and protect athletes from harm during training and improve performance during competition. PMID:24791921

Stachenfeld, Nina S

2014-05-01

347

Animal model of simulated microgravity: a comparative study of hindlimb unloading via tail versus pelvic suspension  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare physiological effects of hindlimb suspension (HLS) in tail- and pelvic-HLS rat models to determine if severe stretch in the tail-HLS rats lumbosacral skeleton may contribute to the changes traditionally attributed to simulated microgravity and musculoskeletal disuse in the tail-HLS model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into suspended and control-nonsuspended groups were subjected to two separate methods of suspension and maintained with regular food and water for 2 weeks. Body weights, food and water consumption, soleus muscle weight, tibial bone mineral density, random plasma insulin, and hindlimb pain on pressure threshold (PPT) were measured. X-ray analysis demonstrated severe lordosis in tail- but not pelvic-HLS animals. However, growth retardation, food consumption, and soleus muscle weight and tibial bone density (decreased relative to control) did not differ between two HLS models. Furthermore, HLS rats developed similar levels of insulinopenia and mechanical hyperalgesia (decreased PPT) in both tail- and pelvic-HLS groups. In the rat-to-rat comparisons, the growth retardation and the decreased PPT observed in HLS-rats was most associated with insulinopenia. In conclusion, these data suggest that HLS results in mild prediabetic state with some signs of pressure hyperalgesia, but lumbosacral skeleton stretch plays little role, if any, in these pathological changes. PMID:24303103

Chowdhury, Parimal; Long, Ashley; Harris, Gabrielle; Soulsby, Michael E; Dobretsov, Maxim

2013-01-01

348

Physical modeling of marginally stable tailings dams using centrifuge simulation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The stability of a marginally stable tailings dam is investigated using centrifuge simulations and flow and stability analyses. The centrifuge simulations are conducted on Sandia's large radius machine using tailings from a coal mine. Pore pressure measurements and photographic coverage of the phreatic surface permit the determination of the flow field developed in the dam. The simulations investigate the effects of packing density and particle size distribution on the stability of a dam. The results illustrate that an increase in packing density can increase the stability of the embankment and that the addition of slurried fines to the embankment affects stability by changing the properties of the tailings used to construct the dam and by limiting the discharge of water from the reservoir through the dam. For the tailings studied here, the increase in packing density and fines increases the stability of the dam by changing the material properties of the tailings. However, these changes also restrict the flow through the embankment and thereby reduce the stability of the dam by raising the level of both the reservoir and the phreatic surface. The addition of fines into the reservoir dramatically lowers the position of the phreatic surface by restricting the flow of water into the dam. The effect of this decreased flow is to increase the stability of the embankment, if over-topping of the dam does not occur. 14 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

Sutherland, H.J.; Rechard, R.P.; Heckes, A.A.

1984-02-01

349

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Lakeview site, Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The three alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I) and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II and III). Cost estimates range from about $6,000,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $7,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 10 miles. Three alternatives for reprocessing the Lakeview tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $450/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and hence reprocessing is not economical.

none,

1981-10-01

350

Testing for small bias of tail index estimators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the joint asymptotic normality of kernel and weighted least-squares estimators of the upper tail index of a regularly varying distribution when each estimator is a bivariate function of two parameters: the tuning parameter is motivated by possible underlying second-order behavior in regular variation, while no such behavior is assumed, and the fraction parameter determines that upper portion of the sample on which the estimator is based. Under the hypothesis that the scaled asymptotic biases of the estimators vanish uniformly in the parameter points considered, these results imply joint asymptotic normality for deviations of ratios of the estimators from 1, which in turn yield asymptotic chi-square tests for checking the small-bias hypothesis, equivalent to the constructibility of asymptotic confidence intervals. The test procedure suggests adaptive choices of the tuning and fraction parameters: data-driven (t)estimators.

Csorgo, Sandor; Viharos, Laszlo

2006-02-01

351

Capsid size determination by Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 involves specific incorporation of SaPI1 proteins into procapsids.  

PubMed

The Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPI1 carries the gene for the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and can be mobilized by infection with S. aureus helper phage 80alpha. SaPI1 depends on the helper phage for excision, replication and genome packaging. The SaPI1-transducing particles comprise proteins encoded by the helper phage, but have a smaller capsid commensurate with the smaller size of the SaPI1 genome. Previous studies identified only 80alpha-encoded proteins in mature SaPI1 virions, implying that the presumptive SaPI1 capsid size determination function(s) must act transiently during capsid assembly or maturation. In this study, 80alpha and SaPI1 procapsids were produced by induction of phage mutants lacking functional 80alpha or SaPI1 small terminase subunits. By cryo-electron microscopy, these procapsids were found to have a round shape and an internal scaffolding core. Mass spectrometry was used to identify all 80alpha-encoded structural proteins in 80alpha and SaPI1 procapsids, including several that had not previously been found in the mature capsids. In addition, SaPI1 procapsids contained at least one SaPI1-encoded protein that has been implicated genetically in capsid size determination. Mass spectrometry on full-length phage proteins showed that the major capsid protein and the scaffolding protein are N-terminally processed in both 80alpha and SaPI1 procapsids. PMID:18565341

Poliakov, Anton; Chang, Jenny R; Spilman, Michael S; Damle, Priyadarshan K; Christie, Gail E; Mobley, James A; Dokland, Terje

2008-07-11

352

Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

353

H? Kinematics of Tidal Tails in Interacting Systems: Projection Effects and Dark Matter in TDGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several interacting systems exhibit at the tip of their long tidal tails massive condensations of atomic hydrogen, which may be the progenitors of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies. Because, quite often, these tails are observed edge-on, projection effects have been claimed to account for the large HI column densities measured there. Here we show that determining the velocity field all along the tidal features, one may disentangle projection effects along the line of view from real bound structures. Due to its large field of view, high spectral and 2D spatial resolutions, Fabry-Perot observations of the ionized gas are well adapted to detect a kinematical signature of either streaming motions along a bent tidal tail or of infalling/rotating material associated with a forming TDG. Spectroscopic observations also allow to measure the dynamical masses of the TDGs that are already relaxed and check their dark matter content.

Amram, P.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.

2004-06-01

354

Experimental parametric studies of transonic T-tail flutter. [wind tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests of the T-tail of a wide-body jet airplane were made at Mach numbers up to 1.02. The model consisted of a 1/13-size scaled version of the T-tail, fuselage, and inboard wing of the airplane. Two interchangeable T-tails were tested, one with design stiffness for flutter-clearance studies and one with reduced stiffness for flutter-trend studies. Transonic antisymmetric-flutter boundaries were determined for the models with variations in: (1) fin-spar stiffness, (2) stabilizer dihedral angle (-5 deg and 0 deg), (3) wing and forward-fuselage shape, and (4) nose shape of the fin-stabilizer juncture. A transonic symmetric-flutter boundary and flutter trends were established for variations in stabilizer pitch stiffness. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

Ruhlin, C. L.; Sandford, M. C.

1975-01-01

355

MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, a series of 2-3 minute long enhancements of the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail were observed. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approximately 10 times less and the durations are 1 hr. These observations of extreme loading imply that the relative intensity of substorms at Mercury must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail enhancements and the calculated approximately 2 min Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere, suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles. Such signatures are puzzlingly absent from the MESSENGER flyby measurements.

Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Nittler, Larry R.; Raines, Jim M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Starr, Richard D.; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

356

Head-tail instability and Landau damping in bunches with space charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Head-tail modes in bunches with space charge are studied using particle tracking simulations. The eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of transverse coherent oscillations in a Gaussian bunch are determined and compared with theories. A model for an airbag distribution in a barrier potential gives good predictions for the head-tail spectrum and for eigenfunctions in bunches with space charge. Using numerical simulations, space-charge induced Landau damping in a bunch is demonstrated. The damping rates are quantified for different modes and space-charge tune shifts. Finally, the head-tail instability with space charge is studied for the resistive-wall impedance below the mode coupling threshold. Results demonstrate that space-charge induced damping can suppress the instability for moderately strong space charge; instability growth rates saturate at strong space charge, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

Kornilov, V.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

2010-11-01

357

Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

358

The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis.  

PubMed

The tail of the earliest known articulated fully skeletonized vertebrate, the arandaspid Sacabambaspis from the Ordovician of Bolivia, is redescribed on the basis of further preparation of the only specimen in which it is most extensively preserved. The first, but soon discarded, reconstruction, which assumed the presence of a long horizontal notochordal lobe separating equal sized dorsal and ventral fin webs, appears to have considerable merit. Although the ventral web is significantly smaller than the dorsal one, the presence of a very long notochordal lobe bearing a small terminal web is confirmed. The discrepancy in the size of the ventral and dorsal webs rather suggests that the tail was hypocercal, a condition that would better accord with the caudal morphology of the living agnathans and the other jawless stem gnathostomes. PMID:17443969

Pradel, Alan; Sansom, Ivan J; Gagnier, Pierre-Yves; Cespedes, Ricardo; Janvier, Philippe

2007-02-22

359

Long-tail liability law reform.  

PubMed

There is a need for the law to evolve so that corporations are obliged to make proper provision for liabilities to unascertained future creditors. However, implementation of long-tail liabilities is far from straightforward and has many repercussions for both corporations and personal injury law. In October 2005 the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasurer requested the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee to consider a "referred proposal" designed to achieve comprehensive and principled law reform. Analysis of the referred proposal reveals many shortcomings, a number of which have been addressed by the Committee in its June 2007 Discussion Paper, Long-Tail Liabilities: The Treatment of Unascertained Future Personal Injury Claims. This editorial urges further and reflective analysis of the referred proposal and of the Committee's tentative suggestions in order to achieve a balance among the entitlements of unascertained future creditors, other known creditors, shareholders, corporations' financial viability, and the conceptual integrity of corporations law. PMID:18035836

Freckelton, Ian

2007-10-01

360

Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

361

Wind-tunnel investigation at supersonic speeds of a remote-controlled canard missile with a free-rolling-tail brake torque system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers 1.70, 2.16, and 2.86 to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics of a cruciform canard-controlled missile with fixed or free rolling tailfin afterbodies. Mechanical coupling effects of the free-rolling-tail afterbody were investigated by using an electronic electromagnetic brake system providing arbitrary tail-fin brake torques with continuous measurements of tail-to-mainframe torque and tail roll rate. Remote-controlled canards were deflected to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. Results indicate that the induced rolling moment coefficients due to canard yaw control are reduced and linearized for the free-rolling-tail (free-tail) configuration. The canards of the latter provide conventional roll control for the entire angle-of-attack test range. For the free-tail configuration, the induced rolling moment coefficient due to canard yaw control increased and the canard roll control decreased with increases in brake torque, which simulated bearing friction torque. It appears that a compromise in regard to bearing friction, for example, low-cost bearings with some friction, may allow satisfactory free-tail aerodynamic characteristics that include reductions in adverse rolling-moment coefficients and lower tail roll rates.

Blair, A. B., Jr.

1985-01-01

362

Prone view ultrasonography for pancreatic tail neoplasms.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography was performed in the prone and supine positions in six patients with neoplasms in the tail of the pancreas. The masses were either not apparent (three cases) or less well visualized on the supine scans. The value and indications of the prone position in the ultrasonic evaluation of masses in this portion of the pancreas are documented. Prone scanning is particularly useful when malignant ascites interferes with pancreatic visualization in the supine position. PMID:98000

Goldstein, H M; Katragadda, C S

1978-08-01

363

RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)

WILLIAM A. DEGRAw; N. C. CLAMPITT

364

Relativistic electrons in the magnetospheric tail during solar activity minima  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of energetic particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere at large distances from the Earth (10 Re and more) are still sparse, and registering instruments usually have high background, that does not permit to determine low particle fluxes accurately, in particular those of subrelativistic electrons. Information on these fluxes and their dynamics are very important for understanding the structure of the magnetosphere, direction of particle drifts, mechanisms of the penetration of solar particles into the magnetosphere and other details of particle-field interaction. The orbit and instrumentation of the Earth satellite IMP-8 allows to fill up this gap to some extent. IMP-8 had a nearly circular orbit with a radius of about 35 Re. The orbital period was 12 days, of which 4 days was spent in the magnetospheric tail. The fluxes of 0.2-10 MeV electrons between 1974 and 2001 are analyzed in different parts of the IMP-8 orbit: at the entrance-exit from the magnetosphere, outside of the magnetosphere and in the near- magnetospheric space. It is shown that during quite periods of solar activity, even during solar minima, electron flux enhancements in the magnetospheric tail were observed due to acceleration mechanisms in the magnetosphere, penetration of solar particles and electrons from the Jovian magnetosphere.

Daibog, Elena; Kecskemety, Karoly; Logachev, Yurii

365

The Sulften System - Advanced tail gas treating  

SciTech Connect

The Sulften System is an advanced tail gas treating process that maximizes sulfur recovery efficiency by the combination of new and unique reaction and absorption technologies. The principal feature of the Sulften System is its ability to produce a sulfur plant vent gas effluent with a hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) concentration of less than 10 ppm on a dry and oxygen-free basis. Conventional tail gas treating processes typically produce a vent stream containing 100 to 250 ppm H/sub 2/S. The primary goal of the Sulften System is to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) requirement that direct discharge of H/sub 2/S be limited to concentrations of less than 10 ppm. The resultant benefits of this technological breakthrough are a reduction in total sulfur discharge and incinerator thermal pollution, virtual elimination of incinerator fuel cost, reduction in tail gas treating unit (TGTU) operating cost, and potential reduction in incinerator capital investment for a grassroots unit, while providing the operating ease characteristic of amine-based TGTU processes.

Kroop, L.; Sigmund, P.W.; Taggart, G.W.

1985-01-01

366

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

367

Multi-contrast late enhancement CMR determined gray zone and papillary muscle involvement predict appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial infarct heterogeneity indices including peri-infarct gray zone are predictors for spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias events after ICD implantation in patients with ischemic heart disease. In this study we hypothesize that the extent of peri-infarct gray zone and papillary muscle infarct scores determined by a new multi-contrast late enhancement (MCLE) method may predict appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol included LV functional parameter assessment and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR using the conventional method and MCLE post-contrast. The proportion of peri-infarct gray zone, core infarct, total infarct relative to LV myocardium mass, papillary muscle infarct scores, and LV functional parameters were statistically compared between groups with and without appropriate ICD therapy during follow-up. Results Twenty-five patients with prior myocardial infarct for planned ICD implantation (age 64±10 yrs, 88% men, average LVEF 26.2±10.4%) were enrolled. All patients completed the CMR protocol and 6–46 months follow-up at the ICD clinic. Twelve patients had at least one appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmias at follow-up. Only the proportion of gray zone measured with MCLE and papillary muscle infarct scores demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P?

2013-01-01

368

Active Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation on a Twin-Tail Fighter Configuration in a Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and other aerodynamic devices, and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the control effectors, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

Moses, Robert W.

1997-01-01

369

Genetic linkage analysis using pooled DNA and infrared detection of tailed STRP primer patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of a disease locus to a specific chromosomal region is an important step in the eventual isolation and analysis of a disease causing gene. Conventional mapping methods analyze large multiplex families and/or smaller nuclear families to find linkage between the disease and a chromosome marker that maps to a known chromosomal region. This analysis is time consuming and tedious, typically requiring the determination of 30,000 genotypes or more. For appropriate populations, we have instead utilized pooled DNA samples for gene mapping which greatly reduces the amount of time necessary for an initial chromosomal screen. This technique assumes a common founder for the disease locus of interest and searches for a region of a chromosome shared between affected individuals. Our analysis involves the PCR amplification of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP) to detect these shared regions. In order to reduce the cost of genotyping, we have designed unlabeled tailed PCR primers which, when combined with a labeled universal primer, provides for an alternative to synthesizing custom labeled primers. The STRP pattern is visualized with an infrared fluorescence based automated DNA sequencer and the patterns quantitated by densitometric analysis of the allele pattern. Differences in the distribution of alleles between pools of affected and unaffected individuals, including a reduction in the number of alleles in the affected pool, indicate the sharing of a region of a chromosome. We have found this method effective for markers 10 - 15 cM away from the disease locus for a recessive genetic disease.

Oetting, William S.; Wildenberg, Scott C.; King, Richard A.

1996-04-01

370

Effect of measured material properties on the finite element analysis of an OH-58 composite tail boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static and dynamic finite element analysis is conducted on a U.S. Army OH-58 composite tail boom and compared with test data. The tail boom is a filament-wound graphite/epoxy monocoque structure. The structural design of the composite tail boom skin is based on 50-percent graphite fiber volume. However, material tests on representative samples of the tail boom skin reveal that the graphite fiber-volume fraction varied from 44.6 to 49.3 percent. To determine the effect of using measured material properties, static and dynamic finite element analyses are conducted for three fiber-volume conditions of 45, 48, and 50 percent. The static and dynamic model with the 45-percent fiber-volume graphite skins gives the closest agreement with test data.

Bowman, L. M.

1985-01-01

371

Comparison of the lateral tail vein and the retro-orbital venous sinus routes of antibody administration in pharmacokinetic studies.  

PubMed

In pharmacokinetic studies, intravenous (i.v.) administration of antibodies to mice is usually done via the lateral tail vein. This approach can cause stress to the mice and has a high rate of failure because it is challenging to perform correctly. Administration via the retro-orbital venous sinus has been suggested as a good alternative to tail vein i.v. administration of antibodies. Evidence is still needed, however, to determine whether the route of administration has an effect on the absorption or the pharmacokinetic activity of the injected antibody. The authors compared serum concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of a therapeutic antibody administered via tail vein injection or via retro-orbital injection. The findings suggest that there is no difference in the absorption or pharmacokinetic activity of therapeutic antibodies when administered via the lateral tail vein versus the retro-orbital venous sinus. PMID:24552915

Schoch, Angela; Thorey, Irmgard S; Engert, Julia; Winter, Gerhard; Emrich, Thomas

2014-03-01

372

The Effect of Plasma on Tail Regeneration of Tadpoles Xenopus Laevis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy wounds require a balanced combination of nutrients and growth factors for healing and tissue regeneration. Nitric oxide, (NO), is also crucial in wound healing processes and linked with production of several cytokines, interaction with other free radicals and influence on microcirculation. Hypothesize is that exposure to plasma will affect wound healing and tail regeneration in tadpoles Xenopus laevis and plasma induced endogenous NO production may have an important role to play at the cellular level. Tail amputation was immediately followed by exposure of the wound to the helium plasma. For histological features, blastema (growing regenerate) was fixed in 4% neutral buffer formalin for paraffin sections. In situ staining for NO was carried out 5 days post amputation. The rate of the regenerating tail was proportional to the plasma exposure time at the expense of metamorphic rate. Histological features show that the tadpoles exposed to the plasma had a higher level of cellular proliferation and microvasculature in blastema. In situ staining for NO indicated its increased endogenous production compared to the control. These findings suggest that accelerated wound healing and tail regeneration following exposure to the plasma may be due to its direct effect on cell proliferation and increased NO production which may be involved in microvascularization.

June, Joyce; Amadi, Chima; Menon, Jaishri; Martus, Kevin

2013-03-01

373

The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE`s UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996.

Smythe, C. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01

374

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.  

PubMed

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

2011-09-01

375

Changes in Zinc Speciation with Mine Tailings Acidification in a Semiarid Weathering Environment  

SciTech Connect

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg{sup -1}) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg{sup -1}) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn{sub 0.8}talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn{sub adsFeOx}), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}), hemimorphite (Zn{sub 4}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

Hayes, Sarah M.; O’ Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon (UCM); (SLAC); (Ariz)

2012-10-09

376

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

377

Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining.  

PubMed

Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial (226)Ra content, (228)Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO(4)) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any. PMID:17350147

Leopold, Karsten; Michalik, Boguslaw; Wiegand, Jens

2007-01-01

378

Tail thrust of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix at different buoyancies, speeds, and swimming angles.  

PubMed

1. The tail thrust of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix was measured using a body accelerometer at different water speeds, buoyancies, and angles of water flow to determine the contribution of tail thrust in overcoming parasitic drag, induced drag, and weight directed along the track. The lengths and weights of the fish averaged 0.52 m and 1.50 kg respectively. 2. The tail thrust overcoming parasitic drag in Newtons, as measured during neutral buoyancy, was: 0.51 x speed + 0.15, with a standard error of estimate of 0.09 N. 3. When buoyancy was altered by the introduction or removal of air from a balloon implanted in the swim bladder, the tail thrust was altered by an amount of the same order as the value calculated for the induced drag of the pectoral fins. 4. The component of weight directed backward along the track was the weight in water multiplied by the sine of the angle of the swimming tunnel relative to horizontal. When this force was added to the calculated induced drag and tail thrust measured at neutral buoyancy, the rearward force equal to the tail thrust, at 45 ml negative buoyancy, 0.5 m s-1, and 15 degrees head up, was 0.12 N due to weight + 0.05 N due to induced drag + 0.40 N due to parasitic drag = 0.57 N total rearward force. 5. The conditions required for gliding were not achieved in our bluefish because the drag exceeded the component of the weight in water directed forward along the track at speeds above the stalling speed of the pectoral fins. PMID:7108430

Ogilvy, C S; DuBois, A B

1982-06-01

379

Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground.

Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born.

The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light.

This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

2005-01-01

380

CRITERIA USED TO IDENTIFY THE RISKS OF MAJOR ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION FOR THE WATERS OF THE TAILING DAMS IN ROMANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of the recently amended Seveso II Directive, which relates to the prevention of major accidents involving hazardous substances, brings additional uncertainties, due to the lack of a certain assessment of the risks and record data gathered at European level in regards to specific risk sources, as well as tailings dams containing hazardous chemicals. This document identifies major advantages

Septimius Mara; Mihai Tanasescu; Alexandru Ozunu; Serban-Nicolae Vlad

381

Centrifuge modeling of coal tailing embankments  

SciTech Connect

Centrifuge model studies were conducted on eight homogeneous dams with 1.75:1 slopes using coal tailings (waste coal, shale, fine sand, silt, and clay) to obtain experience on the behavior of this low-strength material in a laboratory setting and, further, to examine the accuracy of predictions of embankment failure by the simplified Bishop limit equilibrium method. The failure of four of the model embankments simulated typical features of slope failures observed in the field. Centrifuge modeling verified that the simplified Bishop method using standard measurements of soil strength properly indexed the dam safety but did not accurately locate the embankment failure surface. 20 refs.

Rechard, R.P.; Sutherland, H.J.; Heckes, A.A.

1986-03-01

382

Structural roles of amphiphilic peptide tails on silica biomineralization.  

PubMed

De novo synthesized amphiphilic peptides can be easily designed to form various nanostructures. Natural biomineralization creates the most intricately stunning inorganic structures, such as diatoms and shells, in which peptides play an important role. Here, we present the biomineralization of three designed amphiphilic peptides, which have different types of hydrophobic tails. By changing the hydrophobic tails from a phenylalanine-serine tail to an alkyl-serine tail or a serine-only tail, the conformations of peptides varied from type II ?-turn to ?-helix or random coil, which gave rise to the silica biomineralization nanostructures with nanoribbons, nanofibers and hollow nanospheres, respectively. Figuring out the structural roles of hydrophobic tails of amphiphilic peptides can improve strategies toward the bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials as well as peptide scaffold engineering. PMID:25146521

Huang, Zhehao; Jin, Haiying; Che, Shunai

2014-10-14

383

The head-tail radio galaxy B1610-605  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio galaxy B1610-605 within the Abell cluster A3627 has a low-brightness tail extending at least 26 arcmin from the nucleus of the 14.5m galaxy. The structure of this tail has been explored using observations with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We present details of the brightness, width and alignment of the tail. The single tail expands and brightens rapidly within 2 arcmin of the nucleus. Confinement by the pressure of the cluster medium maintains a low but constant brightness for the tail between 10 and 25 arcmin. There are indications of turbulence down the tail but the position of the ridge remains within 1.6 arcmin of the initial alignment throughout its length.

Jones, Paul A.; McAdam, W. Bruce

1994-04-01

384

Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from black- and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and Cynomys leucurus) in central and southeast Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces collected from live-trapped black- (Cynomys ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) from central and southeastern Wyoming were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of eimerian species. Six species (Eimeria adaensis [black-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 33%, white-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 51%], Eimeria beecheyi [8%, 28%], Eimeria callosper-mophili [64%, 71%], Eimeria lateralis [3%, 7%], Eimeria morainensis [19%, 8%], and Eimeria spermophili [2%, 1%]) were identified from both host species. Eimeria pseudospermophili was found infecting only black-tailed (prevalence = 1%) and Eimeria bilamellata only in white-tailed prairie dogs (2%). Reinfections in individual hosts were observed with E. callospermophili and E. adaensis. Comparison of these results with the published literature suggests that the host genera Cynomys and Spermophilus share a common guild of eimerians and that members of this guild have a long evolutionary association with these hosts, or host switching, or both, is common between these groups. PMID:9057719

Seville, R S

1997-02-01

385

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

NONE

1995-11-01

386

Suprema of compound Poisson processes with light tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that if the Lévy measure of a Lévy process X(t),0?t?1, is “heavy tailed”, then the right tails of sup0?t?1X(t) and X(1) are of the same rate of decay. One of the results of this note is a description of a class of compound Poisson processes with negative drift and “light” tails (which is a subclass of Lévy

Michael Braverman

2000-01-01

387

Geotechnical Characteristics of Copper Mine Tailings: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management issue in mining industry has become increasingly important. In this regard, construction of tailings dams\\u000a plays a major role. Most of the tailings dams require some kinds of remedial actions during their operational lifetime, among\\u000a which heightening is the most common. In the first stage of the remedial provisions for Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex tailings\\u000a dam in Iran, it

Abolfazl Shamsai; Ali Pak; S. Mohyeddin Bateni; S. Amir Hossein Ayatollahi

2007-01-01

388

Regulation of lipid droplet and membrane biogenesis by the acidic tail of the phosphatidate phosphatase Pah1p  

PubMed Central

Lipins are evolutionarily conserved phosphatidate phosphatases that perform key functions in phospholipid, triglyceride, and membrane biogenesis. Translocation of lipins on membranes requires their dephosphorylation by the Nem1p-Spo7p transmembrane phosphatase complex through a poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the carboxy-terminal acidic tail of the yeast lipin Pah1p as an important regulator of this step. Deletion or mutations of the tail disrupt binding of Pah1p to the Nem1p-Spo7p complex and Pah1p membrane translocation. Overexpression of Nem1p-Spo7p drives the recruitment of Pah1p in the vicinity of lipid droplets in an acidic tail–dependent manner and induces lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic analysis shows that the acidic tail is essential for the Nem1p-Spo7p–dependent activation of Pah1p but not for the function of Pah1p itself once it is dephosphorylated. Loss of the tail disrupts nuclear structure, INO1 gene expression, and triglyceride synthesis. Similar acidic sequences are present in the carboxy-terminal ends of all yeast lipin orthologues. We propose that acidic tail–dependent binding and dephosphorylation of Pah1p by the Nem1p-Spo7p complex is an important determinant of its function in lipid and membrane biogenesis. PMID:23657815

Karanasios, Eleftherios; Barbosa, Antonio Daniel; Sembongi, Hiroshi; Mari, Muriel; Han, Gil-Soo; Reggiori, Fulvio; Carman, George M.; Siniossoglou, Symeon

2013-01-01

389

Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.org; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

390

Why do male snakes have longer tails than females?  

PubMed Central

In most snake species, males have longer tails than females of the same body length. The adaptive significance of this widespread dimorphism has attracted much speculation, but few tests. We took advantage of huge mating aggregations of red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in southern Manitoba to test two (non-exclusive) hypotheses about the selective forces responsible for this dimorphism. Our data support both hypotheses. First, relative tail length affects the size of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes). Males with longer tails relative to body length have longer hemipenes, presumably because of the additional space available (the hemipenes are housed inside the tail base). Second, relative tail length affects male mating success. Males with partial tail loss (due to predation or misadventure) experienced a threefold reduction in mating success. Among males with intact tails, we detected strong stabilizing selection on relative tail length in one of the two years of our study. Thus, our data support the notion that sex divergence in tail length relative to body length in snakes reflects the action of sexual selection for male mating success.

Shine, R.; Olsson, M. M.; Moore, I. T.; LeMaster, M. P.; Mason, R. T.

1999-01-01

391

A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control  

PubMed Central

Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

2011-01-01

392

Hydrogen-bond rich ionic liquids with hydroxyl cationic tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate if the amphiphilic feature exhibited in ionic liquids (ILs) with nonpolar cationic tails still exists in ILs with polar tails, by performing molecular dynamics simulations for 1-(8-hydroxyoctyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (COH) and 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate (C8), we found that, in COH, cationic tail groups can no longer aggregate to form separated nonpolar tail domains, instead hydroxyl groups form a rich number of hydrogen bonds with other groups, indicating that the hydroxyl substituent changes the IL system from an amphiphilic liquid to a polar liquid. Due to the large amount of hydrogen bonds, COH has slower dynamics than C8.

Deng, Li; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

2013-02-01

393

Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

1983-01-01

394

Tail loss and thermoregulation in the common lizard Zootoca vivipara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tail autotomy in lizards is an adaptive strategy that has evolved to reduce the risk of predation. Since tail loss reduces body mass and moving ability—which in turn are expected to influence thermal balance—there is potential for a trade-off between tail autotomy and thermoregulation. To test this hypothesis, we studied a common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) population at high latitude, inhabiting a high-cost thermal environment. Z. vivipara is a small, non-territorial lizard known as a very accurate thermoregulator. We made two predictions: (1) the reduced body weight due to tail loss results in faster heating rate (a benefit), and (2) the reduction in locomotor ability after tail loss induces a shift to the use of thermally poorer microhabitats (a cost), thus decreasing the field body temperatures of active lizards. We did not find any effect of tail loss on heating rate in laboratory experiments conducted under different thermal conditions. Likewise, no significant relationship between tail condition and field body temperatures, or between tail condition and thermal microhabitat use, were detected. Thus, our results suggest that tail autotomy does not influence the accuracy of thermoregulation in small-bodied lizards.

Herczeg, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, Tamás; Török, János; Korsós, Zoltán; Merilä, Juha

2004-10-01

395

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

396

Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration.  

PubMed

Neutrophils and macrophages, as key mediators of inflammation, have defined functionally important roles in mammalian tissue repair. Although recent evidence suggests that similar cells exist in zebrafish and also migrate to sites of injury in larvae, whether these cells are functionally important for wound healing or regeneration in adult zebrafish is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC(+), mpo(+)) and macrophages (mpeg1(+)) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed conserved elements of the inflammatory cell response with mammals. Next, we used transgenic zebrafish in which we could selectively ablate macrophages, which allowed us to investigate whether macrophages were required for tail fin regeneration. We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. Moreover, we also sought to detail molecular regulators of inflammation in adult zebrafish and identified Wnt/?-catenin as a signaling pathway that regulates the injury microenvironment, inflammatory cell migration and macrophage phenotype. These results provide a cellular and molecular link between components of the inflammation response and regeneration in adult zebrafish. PMID:24961798

Petrie, Timothy A; Strand, Nicholas S; Tsung-Yang, Chao; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Moon, Randall T

2014-07-01

397

INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS  

SciTech Connect

Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: ishiguro@snu.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2011-11-15

398

Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils and macrophages, as key mediators of inflammation, have defined functionally important roles in mammalian tissue repair. Although recent evidence suggests that similar cells exist in zebrafish and also migrate to sites of injury in larvae, whether these cells are functionally important for wound healing or regeneration in adult zebrafish is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC+, mpo+) and macrophages (mpeg1+) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed conserved elements of the inflammatory cell response with mammals. Next, we used transgenic zebrafish in which we could selectively ablate macrophages, which allowed us to investigate whether macrophages were required for tail fin regeneration. We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. Moreover, we also sought to detail molecular regulators of inflammation in adult zebrafish and identified Wnt/?-catenin as a signaling pathway that regulates the injury microenvironment, inflammatory cell migration and macrophage phenotype. These results provide a cellular and molecular link between components of the inflammation response and regeneration in adult zebrafish. PMID:24961798

Petrie, Timothy A.; Strand, Nicholas S.; Tsung-Yang, Chao; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S.; Moon, Randall T.

2014-01-01

399

Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters.

Gulley, J.R. [Suncor Inc., Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada). Oil Sands Group; Hamilton, H.R.; Taylor, B. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

400

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

401

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

402

Altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of tail-pipe burning with a Westinghouse X24C-4B axial-flow turbojet engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust augmentation of an axial-flow type turbojet engine by burning fuel in the tail pipe has been investigated in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The performance was determined over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel flows. The engine tail pipe was modified for the investigation to reduce the gas velocity at the inlet of the tail-pipe combustion chamber and to provide an adequate seat for the flame; four such modifications were investigated. The highest net-thrust increase obtained in the investigation was 86 percent with a net thrust specific fuel consumption of 2.91 and a total fuel-air ratio of 0.0523. The highest combustion efficiencies obtained with the four configurations ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. With three of the tail-pipe burners, for which no external cooling was provided, the exhaust nozzle and the rear part of the burner section were bright red during operation at high tail-pipe fuel-air ratios. With the tail-pipe burner for which fuel and water cooling were provided, the outer shell of the tail-pipe burner showed no evidence of elevated temperatures at any operating condition.

Fleming, William A; Wallner, Lewis E

1948-01-01

403

Critical Role of the Fusion Protein Cytoplasmic Tail Sequence in Parainfluenza Virus Assembly  

PubMed Central

Interactions between viral glycoproteins, matrix protein and nucleocapsid sustain assembly of parainfluenza viruses at the plasma membrane. Although the protein interactions required for virion formation are considered to be highly specific, virions lacking envelope glycoprotein(s) can be produced, thus the molecular interactions driving viral assembly and production are still unclear. Sendai virus (SeV) and human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) are highly similar in structure, however, the cytoplasmic tail sequences of the envelope glycoproteins (HN and F) are relatively less conserved. To unveil the specific role of the envelope glycoproteins in viral assembly, we created chimeric SeVs whose HN (rSeVhHN) or HN and F (rSeVh(HN+F)) were replaced with those of hPIV1. rSeVhHN grew as efficiently as wt SeV or hPIV1, suggesting that the sequence difference in HN does not have a significant impact on SeV replication and virion production. In sharp contrast, the growth of rSeVh(HN+F) was significantly impaired compared to rSeVhHN. rSeVh(HN+Fstail) which expresses a chimeric hPIV1 F with the SeV cytoplasmic tail sequence grew similar to wt SeV or rSeVhHN. Further analysis indicated that the F cytoplasmic tail plays a critical role in cell surface expression/accumulation of HN and F, as well as NP and M association at the plasma membrane. Trafficking of nucelocapsids in infected cells was not significantly affected by the origin of F, suggesting that F cytoplasmic tail is not involved in intracellular movement. These results demonstrate the role of the F cytoplasmic tail in accumulation of structural components at the plasma membrane assembly sites. PMID:23593451

Stone, Raychel; Takimoto, Toru

2013-01-01

404

Investigations of trace metals in long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis L.) from the Gda?sk Bay.  

PubMed

The determination of iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, cadmium, cobalt and nickel was carried out on liver, breast muscle, heart, stomach and feathers of 50 male and 40 female long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis L.) staying in their winter quarters in Gda?sk Bay during 1980-81. There were no significant differences in the concentration of metals between male and female long-tailed ducks. The correlation coefficients between the concentration of metals in the liver and breast muscle were determined. PMID:6635653

Szefer, P; Falandysz, J

1983-08-01

405

Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

Not Available

1993-12-01

406

Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

2002-01-01

407

Survey of major histocompatibility complex class II diversity in pig-tailed macaques.  

PubMed

Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) serve as important models for human infectious disease research. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are important to this research since they present peptides to CD4+ T cells. Despite the importance of characterizing the MHC-II alleles expressed in model species like pig-tailed macaques, to date, less than 150 MHC-II alleles have been named for the six most common classical class II loci (DRA, DRB, DQA, DQB, DPA, and DPB) in this population. Additionally, only a small percentage of these alleles are full-length, making it impossible to use the known sequence for reagent development. To address this, we developed a fast, high-throughput method to discover full-length MHC-II alleles and used it to characterize alleles in 32 pig-tailed macaques. By this method, we identified 128 total alleles across all six loci. We also performed an exon 2-based genotyping assay to validate the full-length sequencing results; this genotyping assay could be optimized for use in determining MHC-II allele frequencies in large cohorts of pig-tailed macaques. PMID:25129472

Karl, Julie A; Heimbruch, Katelyn E; Vriezen, Claire E; Mironczuk, Cassandra J; Dudley, Dawn M; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H

2014-11-01

408

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation.

Not Available

1981-10-01

409

Identification of phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of the ?-opioid receptor  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation is considered a key event in the signalling and regulation of the ? opioid receptor (MOPr). Here we used mass spectroscopy to determine the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal tail of the rat MOPr expressed in HEK-293 cells. Under basal conditions, MOPr is phosphorylated on Ser363 and Thr370, while in the presence of morphine or [D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), the COOH-terminus is phosphorylated at three additional residues, Ser356, Thr357, and Ser375. Using N-terminal Glutathione S Transferase (GST) fusion proteins of the cytoplasmic, C-terminal tail of MOPr and point mutations of the same, we show that, in vitro, purified G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates Ser375, PKC phosphorylates Ser363 whilst CaMKII phosphorylates Thr370. Phosphorylation of the GST fusion protein of the C-terminal tail of MOPr enhanced its ability to bind arrestin-2 and -3. Hence, our study identifies both the basal and agonist-stimulated phospho-acceptor sites in the C-terminal tail of MOPr, and suggests that the receptor is subject to phosphorylation and hence regulation by multiple protein kinases. PMID:23106126

Chen, Ying-Ju; Oldfield, Sue; Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Saxena, Kunal; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn

2012-01-01

410

Myxofibrosarcoma: prevalence and diagnostic value of the "tail sign" on magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective Myxofibrosarcoma frequently shows curvilinear extensions of high T2 signal that also enhance on magnetic resonance imaging; these “tails” represent fascial extension of tumor at histopathological examination. This study was performed to determine whether the tail sign is helpful in distinguishing myxofibrosarcoma from other myxoid-containing neoplasms. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 44 patients with pathologically proven myxofibrosarcoma; the control group consisted of 52 patients with a variety of other myxoid-predominant tumors. Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently evaluated T2-weighted (and/or short-tau inversion recovery) and post-contrast MR images for the presence of one or more enhancing, high-signal intensity, curvilinear projections from the primary mass. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma were calculated for each reader. Interobserver variability was assessed with kappa statistic and percentage agreement. Results A tail sign was deemed present in 28, 30, and 34 cases of myxofibrosarcoma and in 11, 9, and 5 of the controls for the three readers respectively, yielding a sensitivity of 64–77 % and a specificity of 79–90 %. The interobserver agreement was moderate-to-substantial (kappa= 0.626). Conclusion The tail sign at MRI is a moderately specific and sensitive sign for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma relative to other myxoid-containing tumors. PMID:23318907

Landa, Jonathan; Hwang, Sinchun; Zabor, Emily C.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Panicek, David M.

2014-01-01

411

Power-law tails in nonstationary stochastic processes with asymmetrically multiplicative interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider stochastic processes where randomly chosen particles with positive quantities x,y(>0) interact and exchange the quantities asymmetrically by the rule x'=c{(1-a)x+by} , y'=d{ax+(1-b)y} (x?y) , where (0?)a,b(?1) and c,d(>0) are interaction parameters. Noninteger power-law tails in the probability distribution function of scaled quantities are analyzed in a similar way as in inelastic Maxwell models. A transcendental equation to determine the growth rate ? of the processes and the exponent s of the tails is derived formally from moment equations in Fourier space. In the case c=d or a+b=1(a?0,1) , the first-order moment equation admits a closed form solution and ? and s are calculated analytically from the transcendental equation. It becomes evident that at c=d , exchange rate b of small quantities is irrelevant to power-law tails. In the case c?d and a+b?1 , a closed form solution of the first-order moment equation cannot be obtained because of asymmetry of interactions. However, the moment equation for a singular term formally forms a closed solution and possibility for the presence of power-law tails is shown. Continuity of the exponent s with respect to parameters a,b,c,d is discussed. Then numerical simulations are carried out and campared with the theory. Good agreement is achieved for both ? and s .

Fujihara, Akihiro; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

2004-09-01

412

THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE H? TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627  

SciTech Connect

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ?2 L{sub *} late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (?>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (?3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ?1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ?1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (?0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ?21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (?12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ?23° and starting at a distance of ?7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ?2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed.

Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ji, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Sarazin, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, E. [Germany Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M., E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: mingsun.cluster@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-11-10

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Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.  

PubMed

Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of