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1

Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

2013-01-01

2

Variation in Salamander Tail Regeneration Is Associated with Genetic Factors That Determine Tail Morphology  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander’s tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66–68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site. PMID:23843997

Voss, Gareth J.; Kump, D. Kevin; Walker, John A.; Voss, S. Randal

2013-01-01

3

Experimental determination of the distribution of tail states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A transient photocurrent analysis  

SciTech Connect

Recent experimental developments have cast doubt on the validity of the common assumption that the distribution of tail states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon exhibits a single exponential functional form. The authors employ transient photocurrent decay measurements to determine this distribution of tail states. In their approach, however, they determine the distribution of tail states directly from the experimental data, without assuming, a priori, a specific functional form. It is found that these experimental results are consistent with other more recent experimental determinations of the distribution of tail states, suggesting the possibility of deviations from a single exponential distribution of tail states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

Webb, D.P.; Chan, F.Y.M.; Zou, X.C.; Chan, Y.C.; Lam, Y.W.; Lin, S.H.; O'Leary, S.K.; Lim, P.K.

1997-07-01

4

Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation software applied to ion beam analysis use the main scattering event (MSE) approximation. This approximation consist in generating ion trajectories in different directions, making the detection rate independent of the cross-section dependence on the scattering angle, therefore speeding up calculations by a factor 104-106. The event generated bear a probability weight proportional to the cross-section, so in the case of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), events generated with a small scattering angle bear a very large weight, sometimes producing few events with a very large amplitude in the spectrum. They are avoided by setting a cut-off angle, but the signal they represent is in fact an actual contribution to the background signal. Here, it is shown that experimental spectra that include a significant contribution from several wide-angle scattering, such as tails or background signal in heavy ion RBS can be reproduced by a combination of two simulations: one featuring at least one wide-angle scattering, simulated accurately within the MSE approximation, and a background signal part, corresponding to trajectories featuring a series of small-angle scattering, simulated without the MSE approximation; this second simulation is achieved in a few minutes by increasing the detector size and mean free path by large factors, typically 100 each. The events included from the two parts of the simulation are discriminated by the minimum angle of the MSE.

Schiettekatte, François

2014-08-01

5

Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

1978-01-01

6

Evidence for the involvement of receptors for fibronectin in the promotion of chick tail segmentation.  

PubMed

In the chick embryo the paraxial mesoderm forms about 50-53 pairs of somites, the precise number depending on the extent to which segmentation proceeds along the tail. However, the terminal mesoderm of the tail fails to segment despite the fact that it appears to contain a reservoir of potential somites. Why does this mesoderm not segment? Some clues can be obtained by comparing this non-segmenting region with the segmental plate in the trunk. We and others have shown that in the trunk region of the chick, cell adhesion plays a major role in somitogenesis and that this increased cell adhesion is associated with compaction of segments of mesoderm immediately prior to segmentation. This compaction can be brought about prematurely by fibronectin and by the specific adhesion peptide GRGDS. The terminal mesoderm in the tail resembles the segmental plate mesoderm in the trunk in undergoing compaction in response to fibronectin and GRGDS. The tail mesoderm differs from the segmental plate mesoderm in that it can also respond to peptides closely related to GRGDS. The response suggests that, whereas the integrin receptors for fibronectin and GRGDS appear to be specific in the presomitic trunk mesoderm, responding only to the specific adhesion-peptide GRGDS, the tail mesoderm may contain more heterogeneous sets of receptors within the integrin/VLA family that respond to a wider variety of ligands. Coincident with these differences is the phenomenon of regional cell death in the tail bud mesoderm. All of these factors are thought to play a role in the extent of segmentation in the paraxial mesoderm of the embryonic chick. PMID:2149808

Mills, C L; Ariyo, O; Yamada, K M; Lash, J W; Bellairs, R

1990-01-01

7

Microbial community and potential functional gene diversity involved in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis in an oil sands tailings pond.  

PubMed

Oil sands tailings ponds harbor large amounts of tailings resulting from surface mining of bitumen and consist of water, sand, clays, residual bitumen, and hydrocarbon diluent. Oxygen ingress in these ponds is limited to the surface layers, causing most hydrocarbon degradation to be catalyzed by anaerobic, methanogenic microbial communities. This causes the evolution of large volumes of methane of up to 10(4) m(3)/day. A pyrosequencing survey of 16S rRNA amplicons from 10 samples obtained from different depths indicated the presence of a wide variety of taxa involved in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis, including the phyla Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes. Metagenomic sequencing of DNA isolated from one of these samples indicated a more diverse community than indicated by the 16S rRNA amplicon survey. Both methods indicated the same major phyla to be present. The metagenomic dataset indicated the presence of genes involved in the three stages of anaerobic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, including genes for enzymes of the peripheral (upper), the central (lower), and the methanogenesis pathways. Upper pathway genes showed broad phylogenetic affiliation (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria), whereas lower pathway genes were mostly affiliated with the Deltaproteobacteria. Genes for both hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogenesis were also found. The wide variety of taxa involved in initial hydrocarbon degradation through upper pathways may reflect the variety of residual bitumen and diluent components present in the tailings pond. PMID:24237342

An, Dongshan; Brown, Damon; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Ramos-Padron, Esther; Wilson, Sandra; Bordenave, Sylvain; Caffrey, Sean M; Gieg, Lisa M; Sensen, Christoph W; Voordouw, Gerrit

2013-10-01

8

Newt tail regeneration: a model for gravity-dependent morphogenesis and clues to the molecular mechanisms involved.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity alterations are widely recognized to influence living systems. They may cause temporary or permanent effects on physiology and development at different levels, from gene expression to morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are often unclear, and adequate model systems to study them are required. To address this problem we developed a new experimental model of how gravity affects morphogenesis during tail regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltl. The effects of increased gravity on newt tail morphogenesis were first documented in two joint Russian-US NASA spaceflight experiments in the Russian Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) missions. In these experiments the shape of newt tail regenerate was found to depend on the gravity level, being dorso-ventrally symmetrical in microgravity and in neutrally-buoyant aquarium controls, versus hook-like and bent downward in 1g controls. These 1g controls were conducted in spaceflight habitats using a water-saturated PVA sponge mat. These results were reproducible in multiple spaceflight, and ground laboratory studies, both in the US at NASA ARC and in Russia at IDB RAS, and were characterized in detail using morphometry and histology approaches. The role of hypergravity in shaping morphogenesis was confirmed at NASA ARC with an experiment in the ISS Testbed 8-foot diameter centrifuge operating at 2g. Animals that experienced two-week centrifugation (the period of time used in the Foton flights) developed the same hook-like regenerates as 1g controls, and morphometric analysis revealed no significant difference between 1g and 2g groups, however both were significantly different from aquarium controls. We hypothesize that exposure to 1g or 2g during tail morphogenesis constitutes excessive loading for newts that are adapted to microgravity-like conditions in their aquatic habitat. Because Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced molecules that respond to a broad variety of factors and are expressed during development, we hypothesized they may play a role newt tail regenerative morphogenesis under altered g-levels. Specifically there is increasing evidence for HSPs expression changes as a result of hyper-and microgravity. HSPs are also expressed throughout regeneration, rather than just after surgery. To test this hypothesis we performed heat shock on intact and regenerating newts and collected tail tissues. In these experiments we observed that some tails had uplifted tips while others mimicked hook-like regenerates at 1g or 2g. These findings suggest that heat shock, and HSPs induction, may be involved in the mechanism responsible for gravity effects on morphogenesis, or at least interact with them. Current work underway is focused on analyzing the expression of mRNA and localization of proteins for two members of the group, Hsp70 and Hsp90. In summary, we developed and characterized a new practical animal model in which gravity mechanostimulation at 1g, versus unloading in aquaria, causes prominent effects on newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. This model can be achieved without the use of a centrifuge, significantly simplifying its research applications. Initial results using this model suggest that induction of HSPs may be involved in gravity regulation of newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. Further research based on this simple model may help to unravel mechanisms of gravity influence relevant not only to newt tail regeneration, but also to a broad range of other biological processes in amphibian models.

Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora

9

Mass distribution of a probable tail-length-determining protein in bacteriophage T4  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of dark-field scanning transmission electron micrographs of unstained freeze-dried specimens established that the interior of the intact bacteriophage T4 tail tube contains extra density that is missing in tubes artificially emptied by treatment with 3 M guanidine hydrochloride. The mass of the tail tube is 3.1 x 10W daltons, and the central channel is 3.2 nm in diameter. Quantitative analysis of the density data is consistent with the presence of up to six strands of a protein molecule in the central channel that could serve as the template or ruler structure that determines the length of the bacteriophage tail and that could be injected into the cell with the phage DNA.

Duda, R.L.; Wall, J.S.; Hainfeld, J.F.; Sweet, R.M.; Eiserling, F.A.

1985-08-01

10

A Dibasic Motif in the Tail of a Class XIV Apicomplexan Myosin Is an Essential Determinant of Plasma Membrane Localization  

PubMed Central

Obligate intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa exhibit gliding motility, a unique form of substrate-dependent locomotion essential for host cell invasion and shown to involve the parasite actin cytoskeleton and myosin motor(s). Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to express three class XIV myosins, TgM-A, -B, and -C. We identified an additional such myosin, TgM-D, and completed the sequences of a related Plasmodium falciparum myosin, PfM-A. Despite divergent structural features, TgM-A purified from parasites bound actin in an ATP-dependent manner. Isoform-specific antibodies revealed that TgM-A and recombinant mycTgM-A were localized right beneath the plasma membrane, and subcellular fractionation indicated a tight membrane association. Recombinant TgM-D also had a peripheral although not as sharply defined localization. Truncation of their respective tail domains abolished peripheral localization and tight membrane association. Conversely, fusion of the tails to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was sufficient to confer plasma membrane localization and sedimentability. The peripheral localization of TgM-A and of the GFP-tail fusion did not depend on an intact F-actin cytoskeleton, and the GFP chimera did not localize to the plasma membrane of HeLa cells. Finally, we showed that the specific localization determinants were in the very C terminus of the TgM-A tail, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed two essential arginine residues. We discuss the evidence for a proteinaceous plasma membrane receptor and the implications for the invasion process. PMID:10749937

Hettmann, Christine; Herm, Angelika; Geiter, Ariane; Frank, Bernd; Schwarz, Eva; Soldati, Thierry; Soldati, Dominique

2000-01-01

11

EllisMonaghan Page 14 5/20/98 and tails, then Q is completely determined by its action on cycles and tails (the subHopf  

E-print Network

Ellis­Monaghan Page 14 5/20/98 and tails, then Q is completely determined by its action on cycles ÷ + + + - - = å 2 2 0 #12; Ellis­Monaghan Page 15 5/20/98 Step 2. There are then several cases to consider v F j k ( ( , ), , ) is an expression in ( ) s n w , . #12; Ellis­Monaghan Page 16 5/20/98 Use

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna

12

Determinants of Pair-Living in Red-Tailed Sportive Lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus).  

PubMed

Pair-living and a monogamous mating strategy are rare and theoretically unexpected among mammals. Nevertheless, about 10% of primate species exhibit such a social system, which is difficult to explain in the absence of paternal care. In this study, we investigated the two major hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of monogamy in mammals, the female defence hypothesis (FDH) and the resource defence hypothesis (RDH), in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), a nocturnal primate from Madagascar. We analysed behavioural data from eight male-female pairs collected during a 24-mo field study to illuminate the determinants of pair-living in this species. Male and female L. ruficaudatus were found to live in dispersed pairs, which are characterised by low cohesion and low encounter rates within a common home range. Social interactions between pair partners were mainly agonistic and characterised by a complete absence of affiliative interactions - body contact was only observed during mating. During the short annual mating season, males exhibited elevated levels of aggression towards mates, as well as extensive mate guarding and increased locomotor activity. In addition, males were exclusively responsible for the maintenance of proximity between pair partners during this period, and they defended their territories against neighbouring males but not against females. Together, these results point towards the importance of female defence in explaining pair-living in L. ruficaudatus. We discuss the spatial and temporal distribution of receptive females in relation to the female defence strategies of males and suggest possible costs that prevent male red-tailed sportive lemurs from defending more than one female. PMID:23144523

Hilgartner, Roland; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M; Zinner, Dietmar

2012-05-01

13

Determinants of Pair-Living in Red-Tailed Sportive Lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus)  

PubMed Central

Pair-living and a monogamous mating strategy are rare and theoretically unexpected among mammals. Nevertheless, about 10% of primate species exhibit such a social system, which is difficult to explain in the absence of paternal care. In this study, we investigated the two major hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of monogamy in mammals, the female defence hypothesis (FDH) and the resource defence hypothesis (RDH), in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), a nocturnal primate from Madagascar. We analysed behavioural data from eight male–female pairs collected during a 24-mo field study to illuminate the determinants of pair-living in this species. Male and female L. ruficaudatus were found to live in dispersed pairs, which are characterised by low cohesion and low encounter rates within a common home range. Social interactions between pair partners were mainly agonistic and characterised by a complete absence of affiliative interactions – body contact was only observed during mating. During the short annual mating season, males exhibited elevated levels of aggression towards mates, as well as extensive mate guarding and increased locomotor activity. In addition, males were exclusively responsible for the maintenance of proximity between pair partners during this period, and they defended their territories against neighbouring males but not against females. Together, these results point towards the importance of female defence in explaining pair-living in L. ruficaudatus. We discuss the spatial and temporal distribution of receptive females in relation to the female defence strategies of males and suggest possible costs that prevent male red-tailed sportive lemurs from defending more than one female. PMID:23144523

Hilgartner, Roland; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M; Zinner, Dietmar

2012-01-01

14

DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

15

Distribution of black-tailed jackrabbit habitat determined by GIS in southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a multivariate description of black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) habitat associations from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) signatures surrounding known jackrabbit locations in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA), in southwestern Idaho. Habitat associations were determined for characteristics within a 1-km radius (approx home range size) of jackrabbits sighted on night spotlight surveys conducted from 1987 through 1995. Predictive habitat variables were number of shrub, agriculture, and hydrography cells, mean and standard deviation of shrub patch size, habitat richness, and a measure of spatial heterogeneity. In winter, jackrabbits used smaller and less variable sizes of shrub patches and areas of higher spatial heterogeneity when compared to summer observations (P 0.05), differed significantly between high and low population phase. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to rank all 50-m cells in a 440,000-ha region relative to the multivariate mean habitat vector. On verification surveys to test predicted models, we sighted jackrabbits in areas ranked close to the mean habitat vector. Areas burned by large-scale fires between 1980 and 1992 or in an area repeatedly burned by military training activities had greater Mahalanobis distances from the mean habitat vector than unburned areas and were less likely to contain habitats used by jackrabbits.

Knick, Steven T.; Dyer, D.L.

1997-01-01

16

SRY and human sex determination: the basic tail of the HMG box functions as a kinetic clamp to augment DNA bending.  

PubMed

Human testis-determining factor SRY contains a high-mobility-group (HMG) box, an alpha-helical DNA-binding domain that binds within an expanded minor groove to induce DNA bending. This motif is flanked on the C-terminal end by a basic tail, which functions both as a nuclear localization signal and accessory DNA-binding element. Whereas the HMG box is broadly conserved among otherwise unrelated transcription factors, tails differ in sequence and mode of DNA binding. Contrasting examples are provided by SRY and lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF-1): whereas the SRY tail remains in the minor groove distal to the HMG box, the LEF-1 tail binds back across the center of the bent DNA site. The LEF-1 tail relieves electrostatic repulsion that would otherwise be incurred within the compressed major groove to enable sharp DNA bending with high affinity. Here, we demonstrate that the analogous SRY tail functions as a "kinetic clamp" to regulate the lifetime of the bent DNA complex. As in LEF-1, partial truncation of the distal SRY tail reduces specific DNA affinity and DNA bending, but these perturbations are modest: binding is reduced by only 1.8-fold, and bending by only 7-10 degrees . "Tailed" and truncated SRY complexes exhibit similar structures (as probed by NMR) and distributions of long-range conformational substates (as probed by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer). Surprisingly, however, the SRY tail retards dissociation of the protein-DNA complex by 20-fold. The marked and compensating changes in rates of association and dissociation observed on tail truncation, disproportionate to perturbations in affinity or structure, suggest that this accessory element functions as a kinetic clamp to regulate the lifetime of the SRY-DNA complex. We speculate that the kinetic stability of a bent DNA complex is critical to the assembly and maintenance of a sex-specific transcriptional pre-initiation complex. PMID:16504207

Phillips, Nelson B; Jancso-Radek, Agnes; Ittah, Varda; Singh, Rupinder; Chan, Ging; Haas, Elisha; Weiss, Michael A

2006-04-21

17

Social Capital and Determinants of Immigrant Family Educational Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family educational involvement has been identified as a particularly beneficial practice for the achievement and behavioral outcomes of all students, including ethnic-minority students from families who have low levels of income, education, and English language proficiency. Despite the associated benefits, however, not all families are involved in…

Tang, Sandra

2015-01-01

18

A twist in the tail: SHAPE mapping of long-range interactions and structural rearrangements of RNA elements involved in HCV replication  

PubMed Central

The RNA structure and long-range interactions of the SL9266 cis-acting replication element located within the NS5B coding region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension. Marked differences were found in the long-range interactions of SL9266 when the two widely used genotype 2a JFH-1 (HCVcc) and genotype 1b Con1b sub-genomic replicon systems were compared. In both genomes, there was evidence for interaction of the sub-terminal bulge loop of SL9266 and sequences around nucleotide 9110, though the replication phenotype of genomes bearing mutations that disrupted this interaction was fundamentally different. In contrast, a ‘kissing loop’ interaction between the terminal loop of SL9266 and sequences in the 3?-untranslated X-tail was only detectable in JFH-1-based genomes. In the latter, where both long-range interactions are present, they were independent, implying that SL9266 forms the core of an extended pseudoknot. The presence of the ‘kissing loop’ interaction inhibited the formation of SL9571 in the 3?-X-tail, an RNA structure implicated in genome replication. We propose that, SL9266 may contribute a switch function that modulates the mutually incompatible translation and replication events that must occur for replication of the positive-strand RNA genome of HCV. PMID:22561372

Tuplin, Andrew; Struthers, Madeleine; Simmonds, Peter; Evans, David J.

2012-01-01

19

HIPAA Procedure 5032 PR.1 Determining Whether "Human Subject Research" Activity Involves Use/Disclosure  

E-print Network

HIPAA Procedure 5032 PR.1 Determining Whether "Human Subject Research" Activity Involves Use ............................................................................................................................ 2 Purpose To determine which "human subject research" activities involve Protected Health or disclosed as part of a human subject research activity, no HIPAA research authorization, waiver

20

Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.  

PubMed

The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) ?-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. PMID:25461511

Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

2015-02-01

21

The Determinants of Paternal Involvement in Primiparous Swedish Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mothers and fathers of 138 firstborn Swedish children were interviewed when their children averaged 16 months of age and again 12 months later. Questions focused on demographic characteristics, employment characteristics, division of paid and unpaid parental leave, amount of paternal involvement in the weeks preceding the two assesssment phases, division of parental responsibilities, and the child's parental preferences. Analyses

Michael E. Lamb; Carl-Philip Hwang; Anders Broberg; Fred L. Bookstein; Gunilla Hult; Majt Frodi

1988-01-01

22

Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1) is involved in pathogen defense  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically determined process in all multicellular organisms. Plant PCD is effected by a unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases (CysEP) with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP). KDEL CysEPs can be stored as pro-enzymes in ER-derived endomembrane compartments and are released as mature CysEPs in the final stages of organelle disintegration. KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated hydroxyprolines of the extensins that form the basic scaffold of the cell wall. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3) are expressed. Cell- and tissue-specific activities of these three genes suggest that KDEL CysEPs participate in the abscission of flower organs and in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD as well as in developmental tissue remodeling. We observed that AtCEP1 is expressed in response to biotic stress stimuli in the leaf. atcep1 knockout mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum. A translational fusion protein of AtCEP1 with a three-fold hemaglutinin-tag and the green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous AtCEP1 promoter (PCEP1::pre-pro-3xHA-EGFP-AtCEP1-KDEL) rescued the pathogenesis phenotype demonstrating the function of AtCEP1 in restriction of powdery mildew. The spatiotemporal AtCEP1-reporter expression during fungal infection together with microscopic inspection of the interaction phenotype suggested a function of AtCEP1 in controlling late stages of compatible interaction including late epidermal cell death. Additionally, expression of stress response genes appeared to be deregulated in the interaction of atcep1 mutants and E. cruciferarum. Possible functions of AtCEP1 in restricting parasitic success of the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungus are discussed. PMID:24605116

Höwing, Timo; Huesmann, Christina; Hoefle, Caroline; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Gietl, Christine

2014-01-01

23

Using behavior theory to investigate individual-level determinants of employee involvement in TQM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much has been written about total quality management and employee involvement, little attention has been paid to individual-level determinants of employee's involvement in total quality management. The use of behaviour theory to formulate propositions regarding the determinants is especially scare in the total quality management and employee involvement literature. The major objective of the present research was to isolate

Zhongjun Tang; Xiaohong Chen; Zhengwen Wu

2010-01-01

24

The food habits of white-tailed deer on the cattle stocked, liveoak-mesquite ranges of the King Ranch, as determined by analyses of deer rumen contents  

E-print Network

THE FOOD HABITS OF WHITE-TAILED DEFR ON THE CATTLE STOCKED, LIVEOAK-MESQUITE RAN"ES OF THE KIN RANCH, AS DETERMINED BY ANALYSES OP DEER RUMEN CONTENTS. Richard Bratton Davis A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural..., AS DETERMINED BY ANALYSES OF DEER RUMEN CONTENTS. Richard Bratton Davis Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Page Zt& tl Development of the Problem- Previous Work? Study Areas- Sampling Procedures...

Davis, Richard Bratton

2012-06-07

25

Effects of intragastric nutrients upon simultaneously determined plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin\\/glucagon ratios and glucose in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis gmelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Short-term effects (120 min) of an orally intubated amino-acid mixture upon simultaneously-determined plasma insulin, glucagon, I\\/G ratios and glucose levels were studied in five (nonsexed) 24-hr-fasted adults and two immature red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin. For control and comparative purposes the effects of isosmotic saline, free fatty acids (FFA) or mouse pureé (MP) were also determined. 2. Mean preintubation

Merlyn C. Minick; Gary E. Duke; Susan W. Fishman; Rodney B. Harvey

1996-01-01

26

A polar-localized iron-binding protein determines the polar targeting of Burkholderia?BimA autotransporter and actin tail formation.  

PubMed

Intracellular bacterial pathogens including Shigella, Listeria, Mycobacteria, Rickettsia and Burkholderia spp. deploy a specialized surface protein onto one pole of the bacteria to induce filamentous actin tail formation for directional movement within host cytosol. The mechanism underlying polar targeting of the actin tail proteins is unknown. Here we perform a transposon screen in Burkholderia thailandensis and identify a conserved bimC that is required for actin tail formation mediated by BimA from B.?thailandensis and its closely related pathogenic species B.?pseudomallei and B.?mallei. bimC is located upstream of bimA in the same operon. Loss of bimC results in even distribution of BimA on the outer membrane surface, where actin polymerization still occurs. BimC is targeted to the same bacterial pole independently of BimA. BimC confers polar targeting of BimA prior to BimA translocation across bacterial inner membrane. BimC is an iron-binding protein, requiring a four-cysteine cluster at the carboxyl terminus. Mutation of the cysteine cluster disrupts BimC polar localization. Truncation analyses identify the transmembrane domain in BimA being responsible for its polar targeting. Consistently, BimC can interact with BimA transmembrane domain in an iron binding-dependent manner. Our study uncovers a new mechanism that determines the polar distribution of bacteria-induced actin tail in infected host cells. PMID:25293534

Lu, Qiuhe; Xu, Yue; Yao, Qing; Niu, Miao; Shao, Feng

2014-10-01

27

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

28

Determination and evaluation of an optimal dosage of carfentanil and xylazine for the immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an iteration method, optimal hand-injected immobilization dosages of carfentanil\\/xylazine (CAR\\/XYL) were determined for 13 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were temporarily restrained in a squeeze chute and were repeatedly immobilized one to four times at 2–5-wk intervals from December 2002 to March 2003. A fixed ratio of 1 mg CAR:10 mg XYL intramuscularly was used, increasing or decreasing

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; Nancy Zagaya; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2005-01-01

29

Determination of thermodynamic and transport parameters of naphthenic acids and organic process chemicals in oil sand tailings pond water.  

PubMed

Oil sand tailings pond water contains naphthenic acids and process chemicals (e.g., alkyl sulphates, quaternary ammonium compounds, and alkylphenol ethoxylates). These chemicals are toxic and can seep through the foundation of the tailings pond to the subsurface, potentially affecting the quality of groundwater. As a result, it is important to measure the thermodynamic and transport parameters of these chemicals in order to study the transport behavior of contaminants through the foundation as well as underground. In this study, batch adsorption studies and column experiments were performed. It was found that the transport parameters of these chemicals are related to their molecular structures and other properties. The computer program (CXTFIT) was used to further evaluate the transport process in the column experiments. The results from this study show that the transport of naphthenic acids in a glass column is an equilibrium process while the transport of process chemicals seems to be a non-equilibrium process. At the end of this paper we present a real-world case study in which the transport of the contaminants through the foundation of an external tailings pond is calculated using the lab-measured data. The results show that long-term groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport at the oil sand mining site may be necessary to avoid chemicals from reaching any nearby receptors. PMID:23736740

Wang, Xiaomeng; Robinson, Lisa; Wen, Qing; Kasperski, Kim L

2013-07-01

30

Comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy): Orbit Determination, Outbursts, Disintegration of Nucleus, Dust-tail Morphology, and Relationship to New Cluster of Bright Sungrazers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the physical and orbital properties of C/2011 W3. After surviving perihelion passage, the comet was observed to undergo major physical changes. The permanent loss of the nuclear condensation and the formation of a narrow spine tail were observed first at Malargue, Argentina, on December 20 and then systematically at Siding Spring, Australia. The process of disintegration culminated with a terminal fragmentation event on December 17.6 UT. The postperihelion dust tail, observed for ~3 months, was the product of activity over <2 days. The nucleus' breakup and crumbling were probably caused by thermal stress due to the penetration of the intense heat pulse deep into the nucleus' interior after perihelion. The same mechanism may be responsible for cascading fragmentation of sungrazers at large heliocentric distances. The delayed response to the hostile environment in the solar corona is at odds with the rubble-pile model, since the residual mass of the nucleus, estimated at ~1012 g (equivalent to a sphere 150-200 m across) just before the terminal event, still possessed nontrivial cohesive strength. The high production rates of atomic oxygen, observed shortly after perihelion, are compatible with a subkilometer-sized nucleus. The spine tail—the product of the terminal fragmentation—was a synchronic feature, whose brightest part contained submillimeter-sized dust grains, released at velocities of up to 30 m s-1. The loss of the nuclear condensation prevented an accurate orbital-period determination by traditional techniques. Since the missing nucleus must have been located on the synchrone, whose orientation and sunward tip have been measured, we compute the astrometric positions of this missing nucleus as the coordinates of the points of intersection of the spine tail's axis with the lines of forced orbital-period variation, derived from the orbital solutions based on high-quality preperihelion astrometry from the ground. The resulting orbit gives 698 ± 2 yr for the osculating orbital period, showing that C/2011 W3 is the first member of the expected new, 21st-century cluster of bright Kreutz-system sungrazers, whose existence was predicted by these authors in 2007. From the spine tail's evolution, we determine that its measured tip, populated by dust particles 1-2 mm in diameter, receded antisunward from the computed position of the missing nucleus. The bizarre appearance of the comet's dust tail in images taken only hours after perihelion with the coronagraphs on board the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft is readily understood. The disconnection of the comet's head from the tail released before perihelion and an apparent activity attenuation near perihelion have a common cause—sublimation of all dust at heliocentric distances smaller than about 1.8 solar radii. The tail's brightness is strongly affected by forward scattering of sunlight by dust. From an initially broad range of particle sizes, the grains that were imaged the longest had a radiation-pressure parameter ? ~= 0.6, diagnostic of submicron-sized silicate grains and consistent with the existence of the dust-free zone around the Sun. The role and place of C/2011 W3 in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system and its genealogy via a 14th-century parent suggest that it is indirectly related to the celebrated sungrazer X/1106 C1, which, just as the first-generation parent of C/2011 W3, split from a common predecessor during the previous return to perihelion.

Sekanina, Zdenek; Chodas, Paul W.

2012-10-01

31

COMET C/2011 W3 (LOVEJOY): ORBIT DETERMINATION, OUTBURSTS, DISINTEGRATION OF NUCLEUS, DUST-TAIL MORPHOLOGY, AND RELATIONSHIP TO NEW CLUSTER OF BRIGHT SUNGRAZERS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the physical and orbital properties of C/2011 W3. After surviving perihelion passage, the comet was observed to undergo major physical changes. The permanent loss of the nuclear condensation and the formation of a narrow spine tail were observed first at Malargue, Argentina, on December 20 and then systematically at Siding Spring, Australia. The process of disintegration culminated with a terminal fragmentation event on December 17.6 UT. The postperihelion dust tail, observed for {approx}3 months, was the product of activity over <2 days. The nucleus' breakup and crumbling were probably caused by thermal stress due to the penetration of the intense heat pulse deep into the nucleus' interior after perihelion. The same mechanism may be responsible for cascading fragmentation of sungrazers at large heliocentric distances. The delayed response to the hostile environment in the solar corona is at odds with the rubble-pile model, since the residual mass of the nucleus, estimated at {approx}10{sup 12} g (equivalent to a sphere 150-200 m across) just before the terminal event, still possessed nontrivial cohesive strength. The high production rates of atomic oxygen, observed shortly after perihelion, are compatible with a subkilometer-sized nucleus. The spine tail-the product of the terminal fragmentation-was a synchronic feature, whose brightest part contained submillimeter-sized dust grains, released at velocities of up to 30 m s{sup -1}. The loss of the nuclear condensation prevented an accurate orbital-period determination by traditional techniques. Since the missing nucleus must have been located on the synchrone, whose orientation and sunward tip have been measured, we compute the astrometric positions of this missing nucleus as the coordinates of the points of intersection of the spine tail's axis with the lines of forced orbital-period variation, derived from the orbital solutions based on high-quality preperihelion astrometry from the ground. The resulting orbit gives 698 {+-} 2 yr for the osculating orbital period, showing that C/2011 W3 is the first member of the expected new, 21st-century cluster of bright Kreutz-system sungrazers, whose existence was predicted by these authors in 2007. From the spine tail's evolution, we determine that its measured tip, populated by dust particles 1-2 mm in diameter, receded antisunward from the computed position of the missing nucleus. The bizarre appearance of the comet's dust tail in images taken only hours after perihelion with the coronagraphs on board the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft is readily understood. The disconnection of the comet's head from the tail released before perihelion and an apparent activity attenuation near perihelion have a common cause-sublimation of all dust at heliocentric distances smaller than about 1.8 solar radii. The tail's brightness is strongly affected by forward scattering of sunlight by dust. From an initially broad range of particle sizes, the grains that were imaged the longest had a radiation-pressure parameter {beta} {approx_equal} 0.6, diagnostic of submicron-sized silicate grains and consistent with the existence of the dust-free zone around the Sun. The role and place of C/2011 W3 in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system and its genealogy via a 14th-century parent suggest that it is indirectly related to the celebrated sungrazer X/1106 C1, which, just as the first-generation parent of C/2011 W3, split from a common predecessor during the previous return to perihelion.

Sekanina, Zdenek; Chodas, Paul W., E-mail: Zdenek.Sekanina@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Paul.W.Chodas@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2012-10-01

32

Molecular players involved in temperature-dependent sex determination and sex differentiation in Teleost fish.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination and differentiation are conserved and diversified. In fish species, temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation seem to be ubiquitous and molecular players involved in these mechanisms may be conserved. Although how the ambient temperature transduces signals to the undifferentiated gonads remains to be elucidated, the genes downstream in the sex differentiation pathway are shared between sex-determining mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent advances on the molecular players that participate in the sex determination and differentiation in fish species, by putting emphasis on temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation, which include temperature-dependent sex determination and genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. Application of temperature-dependent sex differentiation in farmed fish and the consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal are discussed. PMID:24735220

Shen, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Han-Ping

2014-01-01

33

Safety of Tailings Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains information on different aspects of tailings dams; tailings dam properties, disasters, failure modes, slurry waves, stability analysis, and safe tailings disposal. Also includes a slope stability calculator and a tailings flow slide calculator.

2008-08-25

34

The C-terminal tail of CRTH2 is a key molecular determinant that constrains Galphai and downstream signaling cascade activation.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin D(2) activation of the seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2 regulates numerous cell functions that are important in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. Despite its disease implication, no studies to date aimed at identifying receptor domains governing signaling and surface expression of human CRTH2. We tested the hypothesis that CRTH2 may take advantage of its C-tail to silence its own signaling and that this mechanism may explain the poor functional responses observed with CRTH2 in heterologous expression systems. Although the C terminus is a critical determinant for retention of CRTH2 at the plasma membrane, the presence of this domain confers a signaling-compromised conformation onto the receptor. Indeed, a mutant receptor lacking the major portion of its C-terminal tail displays paradoxically enhanced Galpha(i) and ERK1/2 activation despite enhanced constitutive and agonist-mediated internalization. Enhanced activation of Galpha(i) proteins and downstream signaling cascades is probably due to the inability of the tail-truncated receptor to recruit beta-arrestin2 and undergo homologous desensitization. Unexpectedly, CRTH2 is not phosphorylated upon agonist-stimulation, a primary mechanism by which GPCR activity is regulated. Dynamic mass redistribution assays, which allow label-free monitoring of all major G protein pathways in real time, confirm that the C terminus inhibits Galpha(i) signaling of CRTH2 but does not encode G protein specificity determinants. We propose that intrinsic CRTH2 inhibition by its C terminus may represent a rather unappreciated strategy employed by a GPCR to specify the extent of G protein activation and that this mechanism may compensate for the absence of the classical phosphorylation-dependent signal attenuation. PMID:19010788

Schröder, Ralf; Merten, Nicole; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Martini, Lene; Kruljac-Letunic, Anamarija; Krop, Friederike; Blaukat, Andree; Fang, Ye; Tran, Elizabeth; Ulven, Trond; Drewke, Christel; Whistler, Jennifer; Pardo, Leonardo; Gomeza, Jesús; Kostenis, Evi

2009-01-01

35

Study of decays involving kaons, spectral functions and determination of the strange quark mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   All ALEPH measurements of branching ratios of decays involving kaons are summarized including a combination of results obtained with and detection. The decay dynamics are studied, leading to the determination of contributions from vector and , and axial-vector and resonances. Agreement with isospin symmetry is observed among the different final states. Under the hypothesis of the conserved\\u000a vector current,

D. Decamp; P. Ghez; C. Goy; J P Lees; E Merle; M N Minard; B Pietrzyk; R Alemany; M P Casado; M Chmeissani; J M Crespo; E Fernández; M Fernández-Bosman; L Garrido; E Graugès-Pous; A Juste; M Martínez; G Merino; R Miquel; L M Mir; A Pacheco; I C Park; I Riu; A Colaleo; D Creanza; M De Palma; G Gelao; Giuseppe Iaselli; G Maggi; M Maggi; S Nuzzo; A Ranieri; G Raso; F Ruggieri; G Selvaggi; L Silvestris; P Tempesta; A Tricomi; G Zito; X Huang; J Lin; Q Ouyang; T Wang; Y Xie; R Xu; S Xue; J Zhang; L Zhang; W Zhao; D Abbaneo; U Becker; G Boix; M Cattaneo; V Ciulli; G Dissertori; H Drevermann; Roger W Forty; M Frank; A W Halley; J B Hansen; J Harvey; P Janot; B Jost; Ivan Lehraus; O Leroy; P Mato; Adolf G Minten; A Moutoussi; F Ranjard; Luigi Rolandi; D Rousseau; W D Schlatter; M Schmitt; O Schneider; W Tejessy; F Teubert; I R Tomalin; E Tournefier; Ziad J Ajaltouni; F Badaud; G Chazelle; O Deschamps; A Falvard; C Ferdi; P Gay; C Guicheney; P Henrard; J Jousset; B Michel; S Monteil; J C Montret; D Pallin; P Perret; F Podlyski; J D Hansen; P H Hansen; B S Nilsson; B Rensch; A Wäänänen; G Daskalakis; A Kyriakis; C Markou; Errietta Simopoulou; I Siotis; Anna Vayaki; A Blondel; G R Bonneaud; J C Brient; A Rougé; M Rumpf; M Swynghedauw; M Verderi; H L Videau; E Focardi; G Parrini; K Zachariadou; R J Cavanaugh; M Corden; C H Georgiopoulos; A Antonelli; G Bencivenni; G Bologna; F Bossi; P Campana; G Capon; F Cerutti; V Chiarella; P Laurelli; G Mannocchi; F Murtas; G P Murtas; L Passalacqua; M Pepé-Altarelli; L Curtis; J G Lynch; P Negus; V O'Shea; C Raine; P Teixeira-Dias; A S Thompson; O L Buchmüller; S Dhamotharan; C Geweniger; P Hanke; G Hansper; V Hepp; E E Kluge; A Putzer; J Sommer; K Tittel; S Werner; M Wunsch; R Beuselinck; David M Binnie; W Cameron; Peter J Dornan; M Girone; S M Goodsir; E B Martin; N Marinelli; J K Sedgbeer; P Spagnolo; E Thomson; M D Williams; V M Ghete; P Girtler; E Kneringer; D Kuhn; G Rudolph; A P Betteridge; C K Bowdery; P G Buck; P Colrain; G Crawford; A J Finch; F Foster; G Hughes; R W L Jones; N A Robertson; I Giehl; C Hoffmann; K Jakobs; K Kleinknecht; G Quast; B Renk; E Rohne; H G Sander; P Van Gemmeren; H W Wachsmuth; C Zeitnitz; Jean-Jacques Aubert; C Benchouk; A Bonissent; J Carr; P Coyle; F Etienne; A Ealet; F Motsch; P Payre; M Talby; M Thulasidas; M Aleppo; M Antonelli; F Ragusa; R Berlich; V Büscher; H Dietl; G Ganis; K Hüttmann; G Lütjens; C Mannert; W Männer; H G Moser; S Schael; Ronald Settles; H C J Seywerd; H Stenzel; W Wiedenmann; G Wolf; J Boucrot; O Callot; S Chen; A Cordier; M Davier; L Duflot; J F Grivaz; P Heusse; A Höcker; A Jacholkowska; D W Kim; F R Le Diberder; J Lefrançois; A M Lutz; M H Schune; J J Veillet; I Videau; D Zerwas; P Azzurri; G Bagliesi; S Bettarini; T Boccali; C Bozzi; G Calderini; R Dell'Orso; R Fantechi; I Ferrante; L Foà; A Giassi; A Gregorio; F Ligabue; A Lusiani; P S Marrocchesi; A Messineo; Fabrizio Palla; G Rizzo; G Sanguinetti; A Sciabà; G Sguazzoni; Roberto Tenchini; C Vannini; A Venturi; P G Verdini; G A Blair; J T Chambers; G D Cowan; M G Green; T Medcalf; J A Strong; J H Von Wimmersperg-Töller; David R Botterill; R W Clifft; T R Edgecock; P R Norton; J C Thompson; A E Wright; B Bloch-Devaux; P Colas; S Emery; Witold Kozanecki; E Lançon; M C Lemaire; E Locci; P Pérez; J Rander; J F Renardy; A Roussarie; J P Schuller; J Schwindling; A Trabelsi; B Vallage; S N Black; J H Dann; R P Johnson; H Y Kim; N P Konstantinidis; A M Litke; M A McNeil; G Taylor; C N Booth; S L Cartwright; F Combley; M S Kelly; M H Lehto; L F Thompson; K Affholderbach; A Böhrer; S Brandt; J Foss; Claus Grupen; G Prange; L Smolik; F Stephan; G Giannini; B Gobbo; J E Rothberg; S R Wasserbaech; S R Armstrong; E Charles; P Elmer; D P S Ferguson; Y Gao; S González; T C Greening; O J Hayes; H Hu; S Jin; G Mamier; P A McNamara; J M Nachtman; J Nielsen; W Orejudos; Y B Pan; Y Saadi; I J Scott; M Vogt; J Walsh; Wu Sau Lan; X Wu; G Zobernig

1999-01-01

36

Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.  

PubMed

The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

2005-10-01

37

Involvement of androgen receptor in sex determination in an amphibian species.  

PubMed

In mice and humans, the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located on the X chromosome, is not known to be involved in sex determination. In the Japanese frog Rana rugosa the AR is located on the sex chromosomes (X, Y, Z and W). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AR on the X chromosome (X-AR) of the Korean R. rugosa is basal and segregates into two clusters: one containing W-AR of Japanese R. rugosa, the other containing Y-AR. AR expression is twice as high in ZZ (male) compared to ZW (female) embryos in which the W-AR is barely expressed. Higher AR-expression may be associated with male sex determination in this species. To examine whether the Z-AR is involved in sex determination in R. rugosa, we produced transgenic (Tg) frogs carrying an exogenous Z-AR. Analysis of ZW Tg frogs revealed development of masculinized gonads or 'ovotestes'. Expression of CYP17 and Dmrt1, genes known to be activated during normal male gonadal development, were up-regulated in the ZW ovotestis. Testosterone, supplied to the rearing water, completed the female-to-male sex-reversal in the AR-Tg ZW frogs. Here we report that Z-AR is involved in male sex-determination in an amphibian species. PMID:24826887

Fujii, Jun; Kodama, Maho; Oike, Akira; Matsuo, Yasuki; Min, Mi-Sook; Hasebe, Takashi; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko; Kawakami, Koichi; Nakamura, Masahisa

2014-01-01

38

Involvement of Androgen Receptor in Sex Determination in an Amphibian Species  

PubMed Central

In mice and humans, the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located on the X chromosome, is not known to be involved in sex determination. In the Japanese frog Rana rugosa the AR is located on the sex chromosomes (X, Y, Z and W). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AR on the X chromosome (X-AR) of the Korean R. rugosa is basal and segregates into two clusters: one containing W-AR of Japanese R. rugosa, the other containing Y-AR. AR expression is twice as high in ZZ (male) compared to ZW (female) embryos in which the W-AR is barely expressed. Higher AR-expression may be associated with male sex determination in this species. To examine whether the Z-AR is involved in sex determination in R. rugosa, we produced transgenic (Tg) frogs carrying an exogenous Z-AR. Analysis of ZW Tg frogs revealed development of masculinized gonads or ‘ovotestes’. Expression of CYP17 and Dmrt1, genes known to be activated during normal male gonadal development, were up-regulated in the ZW ovotestis. Testosterone, supplied to the rearing water, completed the female-to-male sex-reversal in the AR-Tg ZW frogs. Here we report that Z-AR is involved in male sex-determination in an amphibian species. PMID:24826887

Oike, Akira; Matsuo, Yasuki; Min, Mi-Sook; Hasebe, Takashi; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko; Kawakami, Koichi; Nakamura, Masahisa

2014-01-01

39

Determination of factors involved in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. bud abscission  

E-print Network

is that individual flowers may lasi, only one day (104). This is compensated for by the abundance and rhis thesis o lowe the style of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. frequency of flowers on the plant during the flowering season... OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject, : Horticulture DETERMINATION OF FACTORS INVOLVED IN HIBISCUS ROSA-SIA'ENSIS L. BUD ABSCISSION A Thesis bv DONNA REESE THAXTON Approved as to style and content by: John W. Kelly ') (C-Ch p ) H, Bren t Pember ton...

Thaxton, Donna Reese

2012-06-07

40

A Dibasic Motif in the Tail of a Class XIV Apicomplexan Myosin Is an Essential Determinant of Plasma Membrane Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obligate intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa exhibit gliding motility, a unique form of substrate-dependent locomotion essential for host cell invasion and shown to involve the parasite actin cytoskeleton and myosin motor(s). Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to express three class XIV myosins, TgM-A, -B, and -C. We identified an additional such myosin, TgM-D, and completed the sequences of a

Christine Hettmann; Angelika Herm; Ariane Geiter; Bernd Frank; Eva Schwarz; Thierry Soldati; Dominique Soldati

2000-01-01

41

Involvement of the globus pallidus in behavioral goal determination and action specification.  

PubMed

Multiple loop circuits interconnect the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and each part of the cortico-basal ganglia loops plays an essential role in neuronal computational processes underlying motor behavior. To gain deeper insight into specific functions played by each component of the loops, we compared response properties of neurons in the globus pallidus (GP) with those in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC and dlPFC) while monkeys performed a behavioral task designed to include separate processes for behavioral goal determination and action selection. Initially, visual signals instructed an abstract behavioral goal, and seconds later, a choice cue to select an action was presented. When the instruction cue appeared, GP neurons started to reflect visual features as early as vlPFC neurons. Subsequently, GP neurons began to reflect goals informed by the visual signals no later than neurons in the PMd, vlPFC, and dlPFC, indicating that the GP is involved in the early determination of behavioral goals. In contrast, action specification occurred later in the GP than in the cortical areas, and the GP was not as involved in the process by which a behavioral goal was transformed into an action. Furthermore, the length of time representing behavioral goal and action was shorter in the GP than in the PMd and dlPFC, indicating that the GP may play an important role in detecting individual behavioral events. These observations elucidate the involvement of the GP in goal-directed behavior. PMID:23966686

Arimura, Nariko; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Tomoko; Tanji, Jun; Hoshi, Eiji

2013-08-21

42

Identification of the C/EBP? C-terminal tail residues involved in the protein interaction with GABP and their potency in myeloid differentiation of K562 cells.  

PubMed

The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is the member of a family of related basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and is critical for granulopoiesis. We previously demonstrated that C/EBP? interacts with the ETS domain of widely expressed GABP?, which leads to cooperative transcriptional activation of the myeloid-specific promoter for human FCAR encoding the Fc receptor for IgA (Fc?R, CD89) in part by facilitating recruitment of C/EBP? to the promoter. The C/EBP? molecule contains transactivation domains (TADs) at its N-terminus and a DNA-binding and dimerization bZIP structure at its C-terminus. We demonstrate here that GABP? interacts with the last 18 residues of the C/EBP? C-terminus beyond the bZIP DNA-binding and dimerizing region. Deletion of this C-terminus resulted in loss of GABP? interaction but not affecting its DNA binding ability, indicating that it is not required for homodimer formation. Moreover, the C-terminus confers the ability to functionally synergize with GABP on a heterologous TAD when fused to the C-terminus of the VP16 TAD. We identified a three-amino acid stretch (amino acids 341-343) that is important for both functional and protein interactions with GABP. Ectopic expression in K562 cells of C/EBP? mutant incapable of interacting with GABP? does not induce expression of granulocytic differentiation markers including CD15, CD11b, GCSF-R and C/EBP?, and does not inhibit proliferation, whereas wild type does. These results demonstrate the functional importance of the C/EBP? C-terminus beyond the bZIP DNA-binding and dimerization region, which may mediate cooperative activation by C/EBP? and GABP of myeloid-specific genes involved in C/EBP?-dependent granulopoiesis. PMID:24076158

Shimokawa, Toshibumi; Nunomura, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ra, Chisei

2013-11-01

43

Determination of the Failure Surface Geometry in Quick Slides Using Balanced Cross Section Techniques - Application to Aznalcóllar Tailings Dam Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a landslide investigation, the location of the failure surface is a difficult task when measures of subsurface displacement are lacking, as it occurs in old landslides or in recent but quick ones. The subsurface geological data and ground surface displacement data may not be enough to formulate a unique interpretation of the failure surface. However, an accurate determination of the failure surface is possible when balanced cross section techniques are applied to preliminary interpretations. The former is proved by means of the example of Aznalcóllar dam failure (Seville, Spain).

Moya, José

44

A bioinformatics approach to the determination of genes involved in endophytic behavior in Burkholderia spp.  

PubMed

The vast majority of plants harbor endophytic bacteria that colonize a portion of the plant's interior tissues without harming the plant. Like plant pathogens, endophytes gain entry into their plants hosts through various mechanisms. Bacterial endophytes display a broad range of symbiotic interactions with their host plants. The molecular bases of these plant-endophyte interactions are currently not fully understood. In the present study, a set of genes possibly responsible for endophytic behavior for genus Burkholderia was predicted and then compared and contrasted with a number (nine endophytes from different genera) of endophytes by comparative genome analysis. The nine endophytes included Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, Burkholderia spp. strain JK006, Azospirillum lipoferum 4B, Enterobacter cloacae ENHKU01, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Pseudomonas putida W619, Enterobacter spp. 638, Azoarcus spp. BH72, and Serratia proteamaculans 568. From the genomes of the analyzed bacterial strains, a set of bacterial genes orthologs was identified that are predicted to be involved in determining the endophytic behavior of Burkholderia spp. The genes and their possible functions were then investigated to establish a potential connection between their presence and the role they play in bacterial endophytic behavior. Nearly all of the genes identified by this bioinformatics procedure encode function previously suggested in other studies to be involved in endophytic behavior. PMID:24513137

Ali, Shimaila; Duan, Jin; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R

2014-02-21

45

Roadmap to determine the point mutations involved in cardiomyopathy disorder: a Bayesian approach.  

PubMed

Determining the deleterious non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), that might be involved in inducing disease-associated phenomena, is now among the most important field of computational genomic research. The rapid evolution in sequencing technologies has now outranged the limit of available sequence databases and has out-fledged the amount of SNP data that are yet to be characterized. In this article we have performed a comprehensive analysis of deleterious nsSNPs in MyH7 gene associated with cardiomyopathy cases using a set of computational platforms. We implemented a set of computational SNP analysis platforms along with the Bayesian calculations in order to filter the most likely mutation that might be associated with cardiomyopathy associated disorders. The Bayesian calculation depicted 27 fold rises in the likelihood score for causing cardiomyopathy disorder when MyH7 gene mutations were compiled. Furthermore, we reported E466Q mutation in MyH7 motor domain that showed increase in the amyloid propensity of protein, as well as a significant level of pathogenicity was also observed. The prediction roadmap followed in this article has showed a notable range of accuracy and can be used for determining cardiomyopathy associated nsSNPs for other candidate genes. PMID:23403236

Kumar, Ambuj; Rajendran, Vidya; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Purohit, Rituraj

2013-04-25

46

Ergonomic determinants of back pain in physiotherapists involved in paediatric neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapists working with children are due to the failure to apply the principles of ergonomics in their daily practice, which is often caused by the necessity of working in forced positions. Health hazards are even bigger because of the disproportion of body weight and height between the patient and the therapist. The aim of the study was to evaluate positions of the spine at work among physiotherapists involved in child neurorehabilitation and their impact on the occurrence of back pain. Material and methods. The study enrolled 84 physiotherapists between the ages of 28-55 years involved in child neurorehabilitation whose seniority in the profession ranged from 2 to 33 years. The physiotherapists were interviewed about their work and its negative consequences. The 6-degree Jackson and Moskowitz scale was used to determine the level of pain intensity. Three-dimensional positions of the spine were recorded under natural working conditions using a SonoSens Monitor 8 ultrasonic measuring system. The recorded data was compared with the so-called "profile for ergonomic operation of the spine". The idea behind the study was to find the relation between pain intensity, duration and location on the one hand, and working positions of the spine and other data from the interview on the other. The statistical analysis was based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, analysis of variance with single classification, post hoc analysis (Tukey test) and the chi-square test (%2). The level of statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. Results. All subjects reported 1-4° pain. The intensity of pain increased with age, profession seniority, duration of the history of pain and duration of a sense of fatigue persisting after work. Pain intensity correlated with the length of time the spine was placed in unergonomic positions - especially in excessive lateral flexion in the thoracic segment and rotation in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments. Conclusions. 1. Positions of the spine in physiotherapists involved in neurorehabilitation of children are unergonomic and back pain is common in these therapists. 2 There is a correlation between working techniques and the prevalence of pain in physiotherapists. PMID:25404630

Czupryna, Krzysztof; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Nowotny, Janusz

2014-08-28

47

Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories  

E-print Network

The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

McQueen, Kelvin J

2015-01-01

48

Evidence that apoptotic signalling in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes is determined by mitochondrial pathways involving protein kinase C?.  

PubMed

1. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays an important role in the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. Hyper-trophic cardiomyocytes show an increased susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli, but the mechanisms remain unclear. 2. We hypothesized that activated protein kinase C? (PKC?) associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy could move from the cytoplasm to mitochondria, and subsequently trigger the apoptotic signalling pathway. 3. Hypertrophy was induced in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes using endothelin-1 (ET-1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), thyroid hormone (T(3) ) or angiotensin-II (AngII). AngII at high concentrations (1 and 10 nmol/L) also induced apoptosis. Hypertrophic cells were then treated with AngII with or without specific inhibitors of the angiotensin receptors AT(1) and AT(2) (losartan and PD123319, respectively), endothelin receptor A (BQ-123) and PKC? (rottlerin). ET-1 plus AngII had a threefold and significant increase in apoptosis in the hypertrophic cultures compared with AngII alone. In association with the increase in apoptosis, this treatment also promoted mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, and increased expression of cleaved caspase 9 and activity of caspase 3. All of these increases were modulated by concurrent use of the PKC? inhibitor, rottlerin. 4. The results suggest that apoptotic signalling in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes is determined by mitochondrial pathways involving PKC?. PMID:20880184

Xie, Man-Jiang; Chang, Hui; Wang, Yun-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Song, Zhen; Guo, Wan-Gang; Wang, Tao; Che, Hong-Lei; Yu, Zhi-Bin

2010-12-01

49

Length of Magnetospheric Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that hydromagnetic waves, through the action of radiation pressure, can prevent the tail of the magnetosphere from closing near the earth. It is argued that the tail of the magnetosphere may be 20 to 50 AU long. The tail can close at such heliocentric distances in the charge-exchange boundary shell where the solar wind is terminated and

A. J. Dessler

1964-01-01

50

Genetically Determined Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Mice Causally Involves Accelerated and Enhanced Recruitment of Granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical twin studies and recent linkage analyses of African populations have revealed a potential involve- ment of host genetic factors in susceptibility or resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In order to identify the candidate genes involved and test their causal implication, we capitalized on the mouse model of tuberculosis, since inbred mouse strains also differ substantially in their susceptibility to

Christine Keller; Reinhard Hoffmann; Roland Lang; Sven Brandau; Corinna Hermann; Stefan Ehlers

2006-01-01

51

8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fear determinations, and the immigration judges have exclusive jurisdiction to review such determinations. Prior to January 1, 2015, an alien present in or arriving in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is ineligible to apply...

2010-01-01

52

Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have

Jonas von Hofsten; Per-Erik Olsson

2005-01-01

53

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Copulas  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Tail Densities of Toronto, May 27 2014 Haijun Li Tail Densities of Copulas University of Toronto, May 27 2014 1 / 22 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks Let X = (X1

Li, Haijun

54

The Power Principle and Tail-Fatness Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

When insurance claims are governed by fat-tailed distributions, gross uncertainty about the value of the tail-fatness index is virtually inescapable. In this paper a new premium principle (the power principle) analogous to the exponential principle for thin-tailed claims, is discussed. Pareto premiums determined under the principle have a transparent ratio structure, cater convincingly for uncertainty in the tail-fatness index, and

Roger Gay

2004-01-01

55

Determination and evaluation of an optimal dosage of carfentanil and xylazine for the immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Using an iteration method, optimal hand-injected immobilization dosages of carfentanil/xylazine (CAR/XYL) were determined for 13 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were temporarily restrained in a squeeze chute and were repeatedly immobilized one to four times at 2-5-wk intervals from December 2002 to March 2003. A fixed ratio of 1 mg CAR:10 mg XYL intramuscularly was used, increasing or decreasing the dosage until the optimal dosage (defined by an induction time < 3 min and PaCO(2)< 60 mmHg) was reached for each animal. Inductions were video-recorded and reviewed by observers blinded to drugs and dosages, who rated qualitative aspects of each induction. There were significant (P < 0.05) dosage-dependent decreases in induction time, time to first effect, PaO(2), SaO(2), and arterial pH, and significant dosage-dependent increases in PaCO(2) and quality ratings. The median optimal dosage (mOD) was 0.03 (range, 0.015-0.06) mg/kg CAR+0.3 (range, 0.15-0.6) mg/kg XYL. Induction times using the mOD were rapid (median 3.0 min [range, 1.8-10.0]), but quality ratings were considered undesirable for nine of 13 deer. Increased rectal body temperatures of 40.6+/-0.5 C (mean +/- SD) were noted in all deer and hyperthermia (T > 41 C) was noted in three. There was a positive correlation between body temperature and induction time (r=0.44). Heart rates significantly decreased from 5 to 15 min postinduction and remained decreased at the 20-min reading; there was occasional bradycardia. There was a significant increase in pH from 10 to 20 min postinduction, but metabolic acidemia (pH<7.3) persisted throughout the immobilization periods for all deer. Possible hypoxemia (SaO(2) and SpO(2)<90 mmHg but PaO(2)>60 mmHg) was present after induction, while hypercapnea (PaCO(2) > 60 mmHg) did not occur. Reversal times with naltrexone and yohimbine were rapid (mean 3.7+/-1.5 min) and uneventful, with no evidence of renarcotization. Although the median optimal dosage produced rapid inductions, no respiratory depression, complete reversal after antagonist administration, and no renarcotization, negative attributes included elevated body temperatures, acidemia, and undesirable induction qualities. PMID:16244066

Storms, Timothy N; Schumacher, Juergen; Zagaya, Nancy; Osborn, David A; Miller, Karl V; Ramsay, Edward C

2005-07-01

56

Effect of Fuselage and Tail Surfaces on Low-speed Yawing Characteristics of a Swept-wing Model as Determined in Curved-flow Test Section of Langley Stability Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation made to determine the influence of the fuselage and tail surfaces on the rotary derivatives in yawing flight of a transonic-airplane configuration having 45 degrees sweptback wing and tail surfaces. The tests were run in the curved-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.07 X 10 to the sixth power and consisted of balance measurements throughout the angle-of-attack range for several flight-path radii of curvature. The results are compared with data from forced-oscillation and free-oscillation tests, and a description of testing techniques used is included.

Bird, John D; Jaquet, Byron M; Cowan, John W

1951-01-01

57

Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage. So far no predictors for tail damage have been found. Predictors

Johan J. Zonderland; Johan W. van Riel; Marc B. M. Bracke; Bas Kemp; Leo A. den Hartog; Hans A. M. Spoolder

2009-01-01

58

Response of Candidate Sex-Determining Genes to Changes in Temperature Reveals Their Involvement  

E-print Network

-dependent sex determina- tion (TSD). For the first time, we report the regula- tion of FoxL2, Wnt4, Dmrt1-specific role in development, whereas Wnt4 appears to be involved in both testis and ovary formation. Dmrt1 gonadogenesis include FoxL2, Wnt4, Dax1, Dmrt1, and Mis. While the expression of some of these factors has been

Crews, David

59

Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform  

E-print Network

Promoting self-determination has become ‘best practice’ in the education of students with disabilities. We synthesize the decade's work in this area as a foundation for considering issues pertaining to promoting ...

Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Field, Sharon; Doren, Bonnie; Jones, Bonnie; Mason, Christine

2004-01-01

60

8 CFR 208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...credible fear interview determines that the alien is unable to participate effectively in the interview because of illness, fatigue, or other impediments, the officer may reschedule the interview. (2) At the time of the interview, the asylum...

2014-01-01

61

Comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy): Orbit Determination, Outbursts, Disintegration of Nucleus, Dust-Tail Morphology, and Relationship to New Cluster of Bright Sungrazers  

E-print Network

We describe the physical and orbital properties of C/2011 W3. After surviving perihelion, the comet underwent major changes (permanent loss of nuclear condensation, formation of spine tail). The process of disintegration culminated with an outburst on December 17.6 (T+1.6 d) and this delayed response is inconsistent with the rubble pile model. Probable cause was thermal stress from the heat pulse into the nucleus after perihelion, which could also produce fragmentation of sungrazers far from the Sun. The spine tail was a synchronic feature, made up of dust released at <30 m/s. Since the nucleus would have been located on the synchrone, we computed the astrometric positions of the missing nucleus as the coordinates of the points of intersection of the spine tail's axis with lines of forced orbital-period variation, derived from orbital solutions based on preperihelion astrometry from the ground. The resulting osculating orbital period was 698+/-2 years, which proves that C/2011 W3 is the first major member ...

Sekanina, Zdenek

2012-01-01

62

Mineralogic variations in fluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings as determined from AVIRIS data, Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of imaging spectrometry in mineralogic mapping of natural terrains indicates that the technology can also be used to assess the environmental impact of human activities in certain instances. Specifically, this paper describes an investigation into the use of data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mapping the spread of, and assessing changes in, the mineralogic character of tailings from a major silver and base metal mining district. The area under investigation is the Coeur d'Alene River Valley in northern Idaho. Mining has been going on in and around the towns of Kellogg and Wallace, Idaho since the 1880's. In the Kellogg-Smelterville Flats area, west of Kellogg, mine tailings were piled alongside the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Until the construction of tailings ponds in 1968 much of these waste materials were washed directly into the South Fork. The Kellogg-Smelterville area was declared an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site in 1983 and remediation efforts are currently underway. Recent studies have demonstrated that sediments in the Coeur d'Alene River and in the northern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, into which the river flows, are highly enriched in Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, and Sb. These trace metals have become aggregated in iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals and/or mineraloids. Reflectance spectra of iron-rich tailing materials are shown. Also shown are spectra of hematite and goethite. The broad bandwidth and long band center (near 1 micron) of the Fe(3+) crystal-field band of the iron-rich sediment samples combined with the lack of features on the Fe(3+) -O(2-) charge transfer absorption edge indicates that the ferric oxide and/or oxyhydroxide in these sediments is poorly crystalline to amorphous in character. Similar features are seen in poorly crystalline basaltic weathering products (e.g., palagonites). The problem of mapping and analyzing the downriver occurrences of iron rich tailings in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Valley using remotely sensed data is complicated by the full vegetation cover present in the area. Because exposures of rock and soil were sparse, the data processing techniques used in this study were sensitive to detecting materials at subpixel scales. The methods used included spectral mixture analysis and a constrained energy minimization technique.

Farrand, W. H.; Harsanyi, Joseph C.

1995-01-01

63

Determinants of Parental Authorization for Involvement of Newborn Infants in Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Parents have the right to de- cide on behalf of their infants whether to enroll them in controlled clinical trials. We determined the degree to which such parental decisions are influenced by risk and benefit considerations compared with other factors. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Participants. Parents who had recently given or de- clined consent to one of three controlled trials

John A. F. Zupancic; Pat Gillie; David L. Streiner; John L. Watts; Barbara Schmidt

2010-01-01

64

Tails of Lorenz curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lorenz dominance criterion is the centre piece of inequality analysis. Yet, the appeal of this criterion, which requires considering Lorenz curves in their entirety, is undermined by the practical problem that many sample Lorenz curves intersect in the tails. The commonly used inferential methods, based on central limit theorem arguments, do not apply to the tails since these contain

Christian Schluter; Mark Trede

2002-01-01

65

Ratios of bottom meson branching fractions involving J/? mesons and determination of b quark fragmentation fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a measurement of the ratios of the decay rates of the B+, B0, and B0s mesons into exclusive final states containing a J/? meson. The final states were selected from 19.6 pb-1 of pp¯ collisions recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. These data are interpreted to determine the b quark fragmentation fractions fu, fd, and fs. We also determine the branching fractions for the decay modes B+-->J/?K+, B+-->J/?K*(892)+, B0-->J/?K0, B0-->J/?K*(892)0, and B0s-->J/??(1020). We discuss the implications of these measurements to B meson decay models.

Abe, F.; Akimoto, H.; Akopian, A.; Albrow, M. G.; Amendolia, S. R.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Aota, S.; Apollinari, G.; Asakawa, T.; Ashmanskas, W.; Atac, M.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bagdasarov, S.; Bailey, M. W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J. P.; Berryhill, J.; Bertolucci, S.; Bevensee, B.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolla, G.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Breccia, L.; Bromberg, C.; Bruner, N.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cauz, D.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chang, P. S.; Chang, P. T.; Chao, H. Y.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.-T.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Chiou, C. N.; Christofek, L.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A. G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Crane, D.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Culbertson, R.; Cunningham, J. D.; Daniels, T.; Dejongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; dell'agnello, S.; dell'orso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P. F.; Devlin, T.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; Done, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dunn, A.; Eddy, N.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J. E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G. W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Fuess, T. A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gay, C.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Groer, L.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guillian, G.; Guo, R. S.; Haber, C.; Hafen, E.; Hahn, S. R.; Hamilton, R.; Handler, R.; Hans, R. M.; Hara, K.; Hardman, A. D.; Harral, B.; Harris, R. M.; Hauger, S. A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hayashi, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hohlmann, M.; Holck, C.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hölscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Ikeda, H.; Incagli, M.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iwai, J.; Iwata, Y.; Jensen, H.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R. W.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambara, H.; Kamon, T.; Kaneko, T.; Karr, K.; Kasha, H.; Kato, Y.; Keaffaber, T. A.; Keeble, L.; Kelley, K.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kephart, R.; Kesten, P.; Kestenbaum, D.; Keup, R. M.; Keutelian, H.; Keyvan, F.; Kharadia, B.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kirsch, L.; Koehn, P.; Kondo, K.; Konigsberg, J.; Kopp, S.; Kordas, K.; Korytov, A.; Koska, W.; Kovacs, E.; Kowald, W.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuwabara, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuns, E.; Laasanen, A. T.; Labanca, N.; Lammel, S.; Lamoureux, J. I.; Lecompte, T.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limon, P.; Lindgren, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lockyer, N.; Long, O.; Loomis, C.; Loreti, M.; Lu, J.; Lucchesi, D.; Lukens, P.; Lusin, S.; Lys, J.; Maeshima, K.; Maghakian, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Mangano, M.; Mansour, J.; Mariotti, M.; Marriner, J. P.; Martin, A.; Matthews, J. A.; Mattingly, R.; McIntyre, P.; Melese, P.; Menzione, A.; Meschi, E.; Metzler, S.; Miao, C.; Miao, T.; Michail, G.; Miller, R.; Minato, H.; Miscetti, S.; Mishina, M.; Mitsushio, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Miyashita, S.; Moggi, N.; Morita, Y.; Mueller, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, T.; Murat, P.; Nakada, H.; Nakano, I.; Nelson, C.; Neuberger, D.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Ninomiya, M.; Nodulman, L.; Oh, S. H.; Ohl, K. E.; Ohmoto, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Oishi, R.; Okabe, M.; Okusawa, T.; Oliveira, R.; Olsen, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Paoletti, R.; Papadimitriou, V.; Pappas, S. P.; Park, S.; Parri, A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Perazzo, A.; Pescara, L.; Peters, M. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pillai, M.; Pitts, K. T.; Plunkett, R.; Pondrom, L.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ragan, K.; Ribon, A.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robertson, W. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rolli, S.; Romano, J.; Rosenson, L.; Roser, R.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Saltzberg, D.; Sansoni, A.; Santi, L.; Sato, H.; Scarpine, V.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Scribano, A.; Segler, S.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sganos, G.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shaw, N. M.; Shen, Q.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Siegrist, J.; Sill, A.; Sinervo, P.; Singh, P.; Skarha, J.; Sliwa, K.; Snider, F. D.; Song, T.; Spalding, J.; Speer, T.; Sphicas, P.; Spinella, F.; Spiropulu, M.; Spiegel, L.; Stanco, L.; Steele, J.; Stefanini, A.; Strahl, K.

1996-12-01

66

Determination of Adrenergic and Imidazoline Receptor Involvement in Augmentation of Morphine and Oxycodone Analgesia by Clonidine and BMS182874  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Numerous agents have been demonstrated to potentiate morphine analgesia, including clonidine (?2-adrenergic and I1-imidazoline receptor agonist) and BMS182874 (endothelin-A, ETA, receptor antagonist). ET has been shown to affect pharmacological actions of clonidine. The present study was conducted to determine whether ?2-adrenergic and\\/or I1-imidazoline receptors are involved in the augmentation of morphine and oxycodone analgesia by clonidine and BMS182874. Methods:

Anil Gulati; Shaifali Bhalla; George Matwyshyn; Zhong Zhang; Shridhar V. Andurkar

2009-01-01

67

Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu

2011-01-01

68

Helicopter tail rotor noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

1986-01-01

69

Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles involved in malarial peptide bonds determine sterile protective immunity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles determine sterile protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified peptide's tendency to assume a regular conformation related to a PPII{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural modifications in mHABPs induce Ab and protective immunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mHABP backbone atom's interaction with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} is stabilised by H-bonds. -- Abstract: Modified HABP (mHABP) regions interacting with HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules have a more restricted conformation and/or sequence than other mHABPs which do not fit perfectly into their peptide binding regions (PBR) and do not induce an acceptable immune response due to the critical role of their {Phi} and {Psi} torsion angles. These angle's critical role was determined in such highly immunogenic, protection-inducing response against experimental malaria using the conformers (mHABPs) obtained by {sup 1}H-NMR and superimposed into HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator }-like Aotus monkey molecules; their phi ({Phi}) and psi ({Psi}) angles were measured and the H-bond formation between these molecules was evaluated. The aforementioned mHABP propensity to assume a regular conformation similar to a left-handed polyproline type II helix (PPII{sub L}) led to suggesting that favouring these conformations according to their amino acid sequence would lead to high antibody titre production and sterile protective immunity induction against malaria, thereby adding new principles or rules for vaccine development, malaria being one of them.

Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)] [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

2012-12-07

70

Involvement of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the regulation of epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Cell fate determination is a basic developmental process during the growth of multicellular organisms. Trichomes and root hairs of Arabidopsis are both readily accessible structures originating from the epidermal cells of the aerial tissues and roots respectively, and they serve as excellent models for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling cell fate determination and cell morphogenesis. The regulation of trichome and root hair formation is a complex program that consists of the integration of hormonal signals with a large number of transcriptional factors, including MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors. Studies during recent years have uncovered an important role of C2H2 type zinc finger proteins in the regulation of epidermal cell fate determination. Here in this minireview we briefly summarize the involvement of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the control of trichome and root hair formation in Arabidopsis. PMID:24862531

Yan, An; Wu, Minjie; Zhao, Yongqin; Zhang, Aidong; Liu, Bohan; Schiefelbein, John; Gan, Yinbo

2014-12-01

71

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

72

Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

1987-01-01

73

[Tail Plane Icing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second multi-phase research program for tailplane icing (TIP II) to develop test methodologies and tailplane performance and handling qualities evaluation tools. The main objectives of this new NASA/Industry/Academia collaborative research programs were: (1) define and evaluate a sub-scale wind tunnel test methodology for determining tailplane performance degradation due to icing. (2) develop an experimental database of tailplane aerodynamic performance with and without ice contamination for a range of tailplane configurations. Wind tunnel tests were planned with representative general aviation aircraft, i.e., the Learjet 45, and a twin engine low speed aircraft. This report summarizes the research performed during the first year of the study, and outlines the work tasks for the second year.

1997-01-01

74

Determinants of male involvement in maternal and child health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services. This is especially so where prevention strategies to decrease Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are sought. This study aims to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in MCH activities, focusing specifically on HIV prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Literature review was conducted using the following data bases: Pubmed/MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; COCHRANE; Psych INFORMATION and the websites of the International AIDS Society (IAS), the International AIDS Conference and the International Conference on AIDS in Africa (ICASA) 2011. Results We included 34 studies in this review, which reported on male participation in MCH and PMTCT services. The majority of studies defined male participation as male involvement solely during antenatal HIV testing. Other studies defined male involvement as any male participation in HIV couple counseling. We identified three main determinants for male participation in PMTCT services: 1) Socio-demographic factors such as level of education, income status; 2) health services related factors such as opening hours of services, behavior of health providers and the lack of space to accommodate male partners; and 3) Sociologic factors such as beliefs, attitudes and communication between men and women. Conclusion There are many challenges to increase male involvement/participation in PMTCT services. So far, few interventions addressing these challenges have been evaluated and reported. It is clear however that improvement of antenatal care services by making them more male friendly, and health education campaigns to change beliefs and attitudes of men are absolutely needed. PMID:23171709

2012-01-01

75

Responses to Tail Docking in Calves and Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of tail banding and atrophy using rubber rings 2 to 4 mo before first parturition in dairy heifers either with or without the use of epidural anesthesia. The secondary objective was to determine behavioral responses to tail banding using rubber rings in calves 7 to 42

D. A. Schreiner; P. L. Ruegg

2002-01-01

76

Long distance seed dispersal by wind: measuring and modelling the tail of the curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and shape of the tail of the seed dispersal curve is important in determining the spatial dynamics of plants, but\\u000a is difficult to quantify. We devised an experimental protocol to measure long-distance dispersal which involved measuring\\u000a dispersal by wind from isolated individuals at a range of distances from the source, but maintaining a large and constant\\u000a sampling intensity

James M. Bullock; Ralph T. Clarke

2000-01-01

77

Acetyl-L-carnitine suppresses thyroid hormone-induced and spontaneous anuran tadpole tail shortening.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamorphosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for ?-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The ladder-like DNA profile and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 indicative of apoptosis in the tails of T3 -treated tadpoles were found to be suppressed by the addition of acetyl-L-carnitine. Likewise, acetyl-L-carnitine was found to inhibit thyroid hormone regulated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis tadpoles, accompanied by decreases in caspase and phospholipase A2 activity, as well as non-ladder-like DNA profiles. These findings support our previous conclusion that elevated levels of FFAs initiate MPT and activate the signaling pathway controlling apoptotic cell death in tadpole tails during anuran metamorphosis. PMID:23489246

Hanada, Hideki; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Masanao; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Katsu, Kenjiro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Junzo; Inoue, Masayasu; Utsumi, Kozo

2013-02-01

78

Morphogenetic changes occurring in the regenerating newt tail under changed gravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that gravity greatly affects animal physiology, development, and alters gene expression. Recently it became apparent that it can also affect tissue morphogenesis. In our work, we developed special laboratory conditions that allow us to produce the gravity-dependent alterations in tail regenerates of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. We examined the dynamic morphogenetic changes during 50-day tail regeneration using computer morphometric analysis. Changes that we observed under these conditions were comparable with those found earlier in our spaceflight experiments. The newts kept in aquarium deep water (low g) after 1/3 tail amputation developed normal lanceolate regenerates. In contrast, the animals that stayed on the moist mat (1g) developed tail regenerates curved ventrally, with tips almost touching the mat. The similar results were obtained with a 12-day centrifugation at 2g. The study of the regenerate morphology in low g, 1g, and 2g animal groups allowed us to determine the stage at which the morphological changes in regenerates become apparent, and to detect the main morphological events associated with the development of tail curve, such as bending of ependymal tube and reorientation of the forming cartilage. We describe cellular processes foregoing observed tissue morphogenetic changes, such as cell migration, condensation in cell population, and unequal proliferation in different areas of epidermis and blastema. Cell proliferation in epidermis and blastema of tails regenerated under the conditions of different gravitational load was evaluated by BrdU assay. In 1g newts, cell proliferation increased within the dorso-apical region of the regenerates compared with that in low g group. These results provide us with a valuable insight into the regenerative tissue homostasis that involves cell division, cell death, and migration in the newt regenerating tail. In addition, these findings could provide us with better understanding of the mechanisms mediating morphogenetic response of regenerating tissues to the modified gravity vector.

Radugina, Elena A.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Almeida, Eduardo

2012-07-01

79

Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p<0.05) between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

2013-01-01

80

Human tail: nature's aberration.  

PubMed

Human tail refers to a congenital cutaneous appendix protruding from the lumbosacral region. It is usually associated with an underlying spina bifida occulta, a form of spinal dysraphism. A contiguous fibrolipoma can sometimes be seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. Management of such lesions includes complete neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Early diagnosis and microsurgical intervention can prevent development or progression of severe neurologic defects in later life. PMID:22241711

Kumar, Dipti; Kapoor, Akshay

2012-07-01

81

Recombinants of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and genetic determinants of BCMV involved in overcoming resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) exists as a complex of strains classified by reactions to resistance genes found in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); seven BCMV pathotypes have been distinguished thus far, numbered I to VII. Virus genetic determinants involved in pathogenicity interactions with resistance genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel field isolates of BCMV that helped to narrow down these genetic determinants interacting with specific P. vulgaris resistance factors. Based on a biological characterization on common bean differentials, both isolates were classified as belonging to pathotype VII, similar to control isolate US10, and both isolates exhibited the B serotype. The whole genome was sequenced for both isolates and found to be 98 to 99% identical to the BCMV isolate RU1 (pathotype VI), and a single name was retained: BCMV RU1-OR. To identify a genetic determinant of BCMV linked to the BCMV pathotype VII, the whole genome was also sequenced for two control isolates, US10 and RU1-P. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV RU1-OR and US10 (both pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV (RU1-P, RU1-D, and RU1-W, all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1-OR originated through a series of recombination events between US10 and an as-yet-unidentified BCMV parental genome, resulting in changes in virus pathology. The data obtained suggest that a fragment of the RU1-OR genome between positions 723 and 1,961 nucleotides that is common to US10 and RU1-OR in the P1-HC-Pro region of the BCMV genome may be responsible for the ability to overcome resistance in bean conferred by the bc-2(2) gene. This is the first report of a virus genetic determinant responsible for overcoming a specific BCMV resistance gene in common bean. PMID:24915430

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Nikolaeva, Olga V; Myers, James R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

82

Structural Insight into Recognition of Methylated Histone Tails by Retinoblastoma-binding Protein 1*  

PubMed Central

Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1), also named AT-rich interaction domain containing 4A (ARID4A), is a tumor and leukemia suppressor involved in epigenetic regulation in leukemia and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes. Although the involvement in epigenetic regulation is proposed to involve its chromobarrel and/or Tudor domains because of their potential binding to methylated histone tails, the structures of these domains and their interactions with methylated histone tails are still uncharacterized. In this work, we first found that RBBP1 contains five domains by bioinformatics analysis. Three of the five domains, i.e. chromobarrel, Tudor, and PWWP domains, are Royal Family domains, which potentially bind to methylated histone tails. We further purified these domains and characterized their interaction with methylated histone tails by NMR titration experiments. Among the three Royal Family domains, only the chromobarrel domain could recognize trimethylated H4K20 (with an affinity of ?3 mm), as well as recognizing trimethylated H3K9, H3K27, and H3K36 (with lower affinities). The affinity could be further enhanced up to 15-fold by the presence of DNA. The structure of the chromobarrel domain of RBBP1 determined by NMR spectroscopy has an aromatic cage. Mutagenesis analysis identified four aromatic residues of the cage as the key residues for methylated lysine recognition. Our studies indicate that the chromobarrel domain of RBBP1 is responsible for recognizing methylated histone tails in chromatin remodeling and epigenetic regulation, which presents a significant advance in our understanding of the mechanism and relationship between RBBP1-related gene suppression and epigenetic regulation. PMID:22247551

Gong, Weibin; Zhou, Tao; Mo, Jinjin; Perrett, Sarah; Wang, Jinfeng; Feng, Yingang

2012-01-01

83

Crocodile Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The crocodile is a reptile that has a long and narrow skeleton. The backbone (a gliding joint) of this animal extends into a powerful tail, allowing it to swim through water. The ribs of the crocodile are small and serve to protect its inner organs.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

84

Dolphin Skeleton - Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

85

"Tails" of Linguistic Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relatively short history of computerized corpora of spoken language, it is not surprising that few diachronic studies have been done on the grammatical features recently highlighted by the analysis of such corpora. This article, however, does take a diachronic perspective on one such feature: the syntactic feature of "tails" (Dik 1978).…

Timmis, Ivor

2010-01-01

86

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

87

Stand Still, a Drosophila Gene Involved in the Female Germline for Proper Survival, Sex Determination and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

We identified a new gene, stand still (stil), required in the female germline for proper survival, sex determination and differentiation. Three strong loss-of-function alleles were isolated. The strongest phenotype exhibited by ovaries dissected from adult females is the complete absence of germ cells. In other ovaries, the few surviving germ cells frequently show a morphology typical of primary spermatocytes. still is not required either for fly viability or for male germline development. The gene was cloned and found to encode a novel protein. still is strongly expressed in the female germ cells. Using P[stil(+)] transgenes, we show that stil and a closely localized gene are involved in the modification of the ovarian phenotypes of the dominant alleles of ovo caused by heterozygosity of region 49 A-D. The similarity of the mutant phenotypes of stil to that of otu and ovo suggests that the three genes function in a common or in parallel pathways necessary in the female germline for its survival, sex determination and differentiation. PMID:9093851

Pennetta, G.; Pauli, D.

1997-01-01

88

HGMS of tin ore tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of Bolivian tin ore tailings have been subjected to High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) for the purpose of increasing the tin content, and reducing the iron content which interferes with smelting. The Colavi mine tailing was the discarded product of a froth flotation process and contains about 0.7% by weight of valuable tin. The Atoroma tailing was the

M. Arellano; D. Kelland

1979-01-01

89

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal  

E-print Network

Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density of Mathematics Washington State University Munich, May 2011 Haijun Li A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail

Li, Haijun

90

Fragility versus excessive crash involvement as determinants of high death rates per vehicle-mile of travel among older drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using multiple national data systems, the roles of fragility (susceptibility to injury) versus excessive crash involvement in the increased fatality risk of older drivers per vehicle-mile of travel (VMT) were estimated. For each age and gender group, deaths per driver involved in a crash (a marker of fragility) and drivers involved in crashes per VMT (a marker of excessive crash

Guohua Li; Elisa R. Braver; Li-Hui Chen

2003-01-01

91

An unbiased approach to identify genes involved in development in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination  

PubMed Central

Background Many reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The initial cue in TSD is incubation temperature, unlike genotypic sex determination (GSD) where it is determined by the presence of specific alleles (or genetic loci). We used patterns of gene expression to identify candidates for genes with a role in TSD and other developmental processes without making a priori assumptions about the identity of these genes (ortholog-based approach). We identified genes with sexually dimorphic mRNA accumulation during the temperature sensitive period of development in the Red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a turtle with TSD. Genes with differential mRNA accumulation in response to estrogen (estradiol-17?; E2) exposure and developmental stages were also identified. Results Sequencing 767 clones from three suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries yielded a total of 581 unique sequences. Screening a macroarray with a subset of those sequences revealed a total of 26 genes that exhibited differential mRNA accumulation: 16 female biased and 10 male biased. Additional analyses revealed that C16ORF62 (an unknown gene) and MALAT1 (a long noncoding RNA) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation at the male producing temperature relative to the female producing temperature during embryonic sexual development. Finally, we identified four genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, and NFIB) that exhibited a stage effect and five genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, NFIB and NOTCH2) showed a response to E2 exposure. Conclusions Here we report a survey of genes identified using patterns of mRNA accumulation during embryonic development in a turtle with TSD. Many previous studies have focused on examining the turtle orthologs of genes involved in mammalian development. Although valuable, the limitations of this approach are exemplified by our identification of two genes (MALAT1 and C16ORF62) that are sexually dimorphic during embryonic development. MALAT1 is a noncoding RNA that has not been implicated in sexual differentiation in other vertebrates and C16ORF62 has an unknown function. Our results revealed genes that are candidates for having roles in turtle embryonic development, including TSD, and highlight the need to expand our search parameters beyond protein-coding genes. PMID:22793670

2012-01-01

92

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High  

E-print Network

Research Note Winter Forage Selection in White-Tailed Deer at High Density: Balsam Fir is the Best forage selection by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada, using spruce, white-tailed deer, winter diet. Forage selection by wild herbivores may be determined

Laval, Université

93

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

D. Aaron Haines Student Projects Fecal Testing, Baiting & White-tailed Deer January 2013 ­ Present Due to the potential negative impacts of baiting on white­tailed deer, and the philosophy of fair as internationally. The objective of this study is to determine whether baiting activity on white-tailed deer can

Boal, Jean

94

The effects of hardpan layers on the water chemistry from the leaching of pyrrhotite-rich tailings material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column leaching experiments were used to determine the effects of an iron-rich hardpan layer, on the rate of tailings oxidation and the composition of leachate waters, from the Renison Bell tailings dams in western Tasmania, Australia. One-meter-long PVC columns, filled with tailings, cover material (Cassiterite Flotation Tailings) and hardpan samples from the tailings dams, were leached over a period of

S. E. Gilbert; D. R. Cooke; P. Hollings

2003-01-01

95

Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

2011-11-01

96

Floods from tailings dam failures.  

PubMed

This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

2008-06-15

97

Ionospheric Signatures of Plasmaspheric Tails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct comparisons between GPS maps of total electron content (TEC) over the North American continent with Millstone Hill radar observations of storm enhanced density and low and high-altitude satellite measurements of the perturbation of the outer plasmasphere during the March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storm. We find that storm enhanced density (SED) [Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1675, 1993] and plumes of greatly-elevated TEC result from the erosion of the outer plasmasphere by penetration jet electric fields. Boundaries of the SED/TEC plumes identified at low altitude map directly onto the magnetospheric determination of the boundaries of the plasmapause and plasmaspheric tail determined by EUV imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. Ground-based GPS observations and radar scans are used to present 2-D snapshots of the ionospheric SED, while DMSP overflights identify the magnetospheric boundaries and mechanisms which contribute to these events. During this event, sunward-convecting plumes of high-TEC plasmaspheric material span the continent from New England to the Canadian Yukon and are responsible for significant ionospheric space weather effects including steep TEC gradients [Vo and Foster, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 21555, 2001] and the occurrence of mid-latitude radio scintillation. Characteristics of the SED/TEC plumes/tails for the March 31, 2001 event are. TEC ~100 TECu; F-region (300 km - 1000 km altitude) sunward velocity ~1000 m/s; sunward flux ~ 5*E24 ions s-1. Total transport to dayside magnetopause/merging region (3-hr event) is ~ 5*E28 ions.

Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Goldstein, J.; Rich, F. J.

2002-05-01

98

Migration of arsenic from old tailings ponds--a case study on the King Edward Mine, Cornwall, UK.  

PubMed

A methodology is presented to study the physico-chemical processes in old tailings ponds using an array of analytical-physical chemistry approaches. A case study was conducted on the sorption/desorption behaviour of arsenic in tailings pond 2406, at the King Edward Mine (KEM) in Cornwall, UK. The tailings pond was in operation from approximately 1907 to 1921. The methodology involves two principal stages: (1) sequential extraction followed by subsequent arsenic species determination to characterise the material with regards to the association of arsenic with soil phases and identification of As (III/V) in the easily accessible soil phase; (2) batch contacting/equilibrating the tailings pond material with As(III/V), followed by a similar procedure as in stage 1 to establish the material's As(III/V) phase distribution kinetics/thermodynamics. By extrapolating the data from present day samples we infer past and future elemental mobility. From this study it is concluded that adsorption and desorption from tailings material is a rapid process for the most unstable soil phases (non-specific and specific) and a slow process for the more stable phases (poorly crystalline and well crystalline). The hypothetical application of this conclusion to the tailings from dam 2406 is that, during the initial phases of the dam's creation (ca. 100 years ago), when arsenic was both in solution and bound to mineralogical components, arsenic must have dispersed into the environment as a result of slow As(V) adsorption/phase distribution processes. Aging of the tailings material sees the movement of the arsenic to the more stable soil phases, producing a situation that is seen at present day. PMID:18639871

Beeston, Michael Philip; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Glass, Hylke Jan

2008-09-01

99

The geomagnetic tail  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

Birn, J. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

100

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

101

Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

Harling, R; Dietz, O

1954-01-01

102

The Earth and Comets' Tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN spite of the unreserved predictions of astronomers, the earth did not pass through the tail of Halley's comet on May 18-19, nor subsequently. The tail as seen in the morning sky, previous to the transit of the comet across the sun's disc, appeared like a long and straight beam of light stretching from the horizon to Aquila. It was

R. T. A. Innes

1910-01-01

103

Analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling stability derivatives of complete airplane configurations is made by calculating the angularity of the air stream at the vertical tail due to rolling and determining the resulting forces and moments. Some of the important factors which affect the resultant angularity on the vertical tail are wing aspect ratio and sweepback, vertical-tail span, and considerations associated with angle of attack and airplane geometry. Some calculated sidewash results for a limited range of plan forms and vertical-tail sizes are presented. Equations taking into account the sidewash results are given for determining the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives. Comparisons of estimated and experimental results indicate that a consideration of wing interference effects improves the estimated values of the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives and that fair agreement with available experimental data is obtained.

Michael, William H , Jr

1952-01-01

104

Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

Mineck, R. E.

1977-01-01

105

Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

1985-11-01

106

Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

2011-01-01

107

From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution.  

PubMed

A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events. PMID:25621146

Rashid, Dana J; Chapman, Susan C; Larsson, Hans Ce; Organ, Chris L; Bebin, Anne-Gaelle; Merzdorf, Christa S; Bradley, Roger; Horner, John R

2014-01-01

108

From dinosaurs to birds: a tail of evolution  

PubMed Central

A particularly critical event in avian evolution was the transition from long- to short-tailed birds. Primitive bird tails underwent significant alteration, most notably reduction of the number of caudal vertebrae and fusion of the distal caudal vertebrae into an ossified pygostyle. These changes, among others, occurred over a very short evolutionary interval, which brings into focus the underlying mechanisms behind those changes. Despite the wealth of studies delving into avian evolution, virtually nothing is understood about the genetic and developmental events responsible for the emergence of short, fused tails. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the signaling pathways and morphological events that contribute to tail extension and termination and examine how mutations affecting the genes that control these pathways might influence the evolution of the avian tail. To generate a list of candidate genes that may have been modulated in the transition to short-tailed birds, we analyzed a comprehensive set of mouse mutants. Interestingly, a prevalent pleiotropic effect of mutations that cause fused caudal vertebral bodies (as in the pygostyles of birds) is tail truncation. We identified 23 mutations in this class, and these were primarily restricted to genes involved in axial extension. At least half of the mutations that cause short, fused tails lie in the Notch/Wnt pathway of somite boundary formation or differentiation, leading to changes in somite number or size. Several of the mutations also cause additional bone fusions in the trunk skeleton, reminiscent of those observed in primitive and modern birds. All of our findings were correlated to the fossil record. An open question is whether the relatively sudden appearance of short-tailed birds in the fossil record could be accounted for, at least in part, by the pleiotropic effects generated by a relatively small number of mutational events.

2014-01-01

109

Simulation of pyrite oxidation in fresh mine tailings under near-neutral conditions.  

PubMed

Sulphidic residual products from ore processing may produce acid rock drainage, when exposed to oxygen and water. Predictions of the magnitude of ARD and sulphide oxidation rates are of great importance in mine planning because they can be used to minimize or eliminate ARD and the associated economic and environmental costs. To address the lack of field data of sulphide oxidation rate in fresh sulphide-rich tailings under near-neutral conditions, determination and simulation of the rate was performed in pilot-scale at Kristineberg, northern Sweden. The quality of the drainage water was monitored, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The chemical composition of the solid tailings was also determined. The field data were compared to predictions from simulations of pyrite oxidation using a 1-D numerical model. The simulations' estimates of the amount of Fe and S released over a seven year period (52 kg and 178 kg, respectively) were in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by analysing the tailings (34 kg and 155 kg, respectively). The discrepancy is probably due to the formation of secondary precipitates such as iron hydroxides and gypsum; which are not accounted for in the model. The observed mass transport of Fe and S (0.05 and 1.0 kg per year, respectively) was much lower than expected on the basis of the simulations and the core data. Neutralization reactions involving carbonates in the tailings result in a near-neutral pH at all depths except at the oxidation front (pH < 5), indicating that the dissolution of carbonates was too slow for the acid to be neutralized, which instead neutralized deeper down in the tailings. This was also indicated by the reduced abundance of solid Ca at greater depths and the high levels of carbon dioxide both of which are consistent with the dissolution of carbonates. It could be concluded that the near-neutral pH in the tailings has no decreasing effect on the rate of sulphide oxidation, but does reduce the concentrations of dissolved elements in the drainage water due to the formation of secondary minerals. This means that sulphide oxidation rates may be underestimated if determined from drainage alone. PMID:22777533

Alakangas, Lena; Lundberg, Angela; Nason, Peter

2012-08-01

110

The Pressure Distribution over the Wings and Tail Surfaces of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation to determine (1) the magnitude and distribution of aerodynamic loads over the wings and tail surfaces of a pursuit-type airplane in the maneuvers likely to impose critical loads on the various subassemblies of the airplane structure. (2) To study the phenomenon of center of pressure movement and normal force coefficient variation in accelerated flight, and (3) to measure the normal accelerations at the center of gravity, wing-tip, and tail, in order to determine the nature of the inertia forces acting simultaneously with the critical aerodynamic loads. The results obtained throw light on a number of important questions involving structural design. Some of the more interesting results are discussed in some detail, but in general the report is for the purpose of making this collection of airplane-load data obtained in flight available to those interested in airplane structures.

Rhode, Richard

1931-01-01

111

The Pressure Distribution Over the Horizontal Tail Surfaces of an Airplane I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work was undertaken to determine as completely as possible the distribution of pressure over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane, and to analyze the relation of this pressure to the structural loads and the longitudinal stability. The investigation is divided into three parts, of which this the first. The first part of the investigation is for the purpose of determining the pressure distribution over two horizontal tail surfaces in uniform free flight; the second part to conduct tests of similar tail planes in the wind tunnel; and the third part to determine the pressure distribution on the horizontal tail surfaces during accelerated flight on the full-size airplane.

Norton, F H

1923-01-01

112

Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

1952-01-01

113

Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

1986-01-01

114

Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

Slavin, James A.

2010-01-01

115

Improved Tail-Current Representation in the Rice Field Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rice Field Model (RFM) represents the magnetic field of the steady-state open magnetosphere. In order to improve the mapping of field lines in the near Earth region, the simple Harris-sheet field representing the cross-tail current is replaced near the Earth by a more flexible tail current model developed by Hilmer and Voigt In the far-tail region the tail current and expansion fan fields are modified to allow for variations in the IMF and the interconnection field down the tail. The new tail-current is completely shielded by the magnetopause current system. The effects of time-dependent IMF on the polar cap potential pattern are explored by propagating a Northward turning down the tail. To evaluate the new tail-current in the near Earth region, magnetometer data from the GOES-8 satellite (in geosynchronous orbit) for the period of March 9-17, 1998 is compared to model predictions. The combination of RFM shielding with the Hilmer-Voigt tail-current proves significantly more accurate in determining the magnetic field at GEO than either of the two models alone. Ding, C., T. W. Hill, and F. R. Toffoletto. Improvement of the Toffoletto-Hill Open Magnetospheric Model, in Physics of Space Plasmas (1995): Proceedings of the 1995 Cambridge Syposium/Workshop in Geoplasma Physics on "Multiscale Phenomena in Space Plasmas", edited by T. Chang, and J.R. Jasperse, pp. 639-644, MIT Center for Theoretical Geo/Cosmo Plasma Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996.

Naehr, S.; Toffoletto, F. R.

2001-05-01

116

A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

2006-01-01

117

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk  

E-print Network

Tail Risk Measures Heavy-Tail Asymptotics: Regular Variation Multivariate Risks Concluding Remarks Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University Humboldt Univ-Berlin Haijun Li Regularly Varying Asymptotics for Tail Risk Humboldt Univ-Berlin 1 / 26 #12

Li, Haijun

118

A variable region on the chlorovirus CVK2 genome contains genes possibly involved in the host range determination.  

PubMed

A 22.6-kbp variable region near the left end of the chlorovirus CVK2 genome which was characterized. This region contained a tandem array of 5 gene copies for Vp260-like protein, a viral surface glycoprotein. The authentic 104-kDa Vp260 was encoded at another site on the genome and contained 13 internally located, tandem repeats of 61-65 amino acids like the prominent Rickettsia surface antigen. By Northern and Western blot analyses, these genes were demonstrated to be expressed late in infection and the proteins were incorporated into virions. These results implied that the extra copies of Vp260-like proteins may be involved in host range in the natural environment. PMID:12836266

Chuchird, N; Nishida, K; Kawasaki, T; Yamada, T

2001-01-01

119

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

120

Identification of Regions Interacting with Ovo(d) Mutations: Potential New Genes Involved in Germline Sex Determination or Differentiation in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Only a few Drosophila melanogaster germline sex determination genes are known, and there have been no systematic screens to identify new genes involved in this important biological process. The ovarian phenotypes produced by females mutant for dominant alleles of the ovo gene are modified in flies with altered doses of other loci involved in germline sex determination in Drosophila (Sex-lethal(+), sans fille(+) and ovarian tumor(+)). This observation constitutes the basis for a screen to identify additional genes required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity. We tested 300 deletions, which together cover ~58% of the euchromatic portion of the genome, for genetic interactions with ovo(D). Hemizygosity for more than a dozen small regions show interactions that either partially suppress or enhance the ovarian phenotypes of females mutant for one or more of the three dominant ovo mutations. These regions probably contain genes whose products act in developmental hierarchies that include ovo(+) protein. PMID:7713427

Pauli, D.; Oliver, B.; Mahowald, A. P.

1995-01-01

121

Sex Differences in the Right Tail of Cognitive Abilities: A 30 Year Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One factor in the debate surrounding the underrepresentation of women in science technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) involves male-female mathematical ability differences in the extreme right tail (top 1% in ability). The present study provides male-female ability ratios from over 1.6 million 7th grade students in the right tail (top 5%…

Wai, Jonathan; Cacchio, Megan; Putallaz, Martha; Makel, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

122

Theseus Tail Being Unloaded  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

123

Experimental study of main rotor tip geometry and tail rotor interactions in hover. Volume 1. Text and figures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. The test showed that overall the tail rotor effects on the advanced tip configurations tested are not substantially different from the effects on conventional tips.

Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.

1985-01-01

124

Experimental study of main rotor tip geometry and tail rotor interactions in hover. Volume 2: Run log and tabulated data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model Rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The existence of mutual interference between hovering main rotor and a tail rotor was acknowledged in the test. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. This volume contains the test run log and tabulated data.

Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.

1985-01-01

125

Cleavage by signal peptide peptidase is required for the degradation of selected tail-anchored proteins  

PubMed Central

The regulated turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–resident membrane proteins requires their extraction from the membrane lipid bilayer and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain provides an attractive mechanism to facilitate protein dislocation but has never been shown for endogenous substrates. To determine whether intramembrane proteolysis, specifically cleavage by the intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl protease signal peptide peptidase (SPP), is involved in this pathway, we generated an SPP-specific somatic cell knockout. In a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture–based proteomics screen, we identified HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, as a novel SPP substrate. Intramembrane cleavage by catalytically active SPP provided the primary proteolytic step required for the extraction and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of HO-1, an ER-resident tail-anchored protein. SPP-mediated proteolysis was not limited to HO-1 but was required for the dislocation and degradation of additional tail-anchored ER-resident proteins. Our study identifies tail-anchored proteins as novel SPP substrates and a specific requirement for SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage in protein turnover. PMID:24958774

Boname, Jessica M.; Bloor, Stuart; Wandel, Michal P.; Nathan, James A.; Antrobus, Robin; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Thurston, Teresa L.; Smith, Duncan L.; Smith, James C.; Randow, Felix

2014-01-01

126

Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

2014-04-01

127

Note on late-time tails of spherical nonlinear waves  

SciTech Connect

We consider the longtime behavior of small amplitude solutions of the semilinear wave equation ()squarelg(){phi}={phi}{sup p} in odd d{>=}5 spatial dimensions. We show that for the quadratic nonlinearity (p=2) the tail has an anomalously small amplitude and fast decay. The extension of the results to more general nonlinearities involving first derivatives is also discussed.

Bizon, Piotr; Rostworowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Chmaj, Tadeusz [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

2008-07-15

128

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

SciTech Connect

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

129

Determinants involved in subtype-specific functions of rat trace amine-associated receptors 1 and 4  

PubMed Central

Aims The trace amine-associated receptor (Taar) family displays high species- and subtype-specific pharmacology. Several trace amines such as ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA), p-tyramine and tryptamine are agonists at TA1 but poorly activate rat and mouse Taar4. Principal Results Using rat TA1 and Taar4 chimera, we identified determinants in transmembrane helices 3 and 6, which, when replaced by the corresponding portion of rat TA1, can rescue cell surface expression of rat Taar4. When expressed at the cell surface, rat Taar4 pharmacology was very similar to that of TA1 and coupled to the G?s-protein/AC pathway. Our data suggest that binding pockets of Taar for surrogate agonists overlap between paralogs. Conclusions This implicates that the repertoire of Taar ensures functional redundancy, tissue- and cell-specific expression and/or different downstream signalling rather than different agonist specificity. PMID:23072560

Stäubert, C; Bohnekamp, J; Schöneberg, T

2013-01-01

130

Mine tailings composition in a historic site: implications for ecological restoration.  

PubMed

Ecological restoration, using tolerant plant species and nutrient additions, is a low-cost option to decrease environmental risks associated with mine tailings. An attempt was previously made to establish such a vegetation cover on an abandoned tailings facility in Southern Ireland. Historically, the tailings site has been prone to dusting and is a potential source of contamination to the surrounding environment. The site was examined to determine the success of the previous restoration plan used to revegetate the site and to determine its suitability for further restoration. Three distinct floristic areas were identified (grassland, poor grassland and bare area) based on herbage compositions and elemental analysis. Surface and subsurface samples were taken to characterise tailings from within these areas of the tailings site. The pH of bare surface tailings (pH, 2.7) was significantly more acidic (p < 0.5) than in other areas. Additionally, negligible net neutralising potential resulted in the tailings being hostile to plant growth. Total metal concentrations in tailings were high (c. 10,000 mg kg(-1) for Pb and up to 20,000 mg kg(-1) for Zn). DTPA-extractable Zn and Pb were 16 and 11 % of the total amount, respectively. Metal content in grasses growing on some areas of the tailings were elevated and demonstrated the inability of the tailings to support sustainable plant growth. Due to the inherently hostile characteristics of these areas, future restoration work will employ capping with a barrier layer. PMID:22699431

Courtney, R

2013-02-01

131

Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the primary structure of white-tailed deer myoglobin (Mb). White-tailed deer Mb was isolated from cardiac muscles employing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation. Sequence analyses of intact Mb as well as tryptic- and cyanogen bromide-peptides yielded the complete primary structure of white-tailed deer Mb, which shared 100% similarity with red deer Mb. White-tailed deer Mb consists of 153 amino acid residues and shares more than 96% sequence similarity with myoglobins from meat-producing ruminants, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Similar to sheep and goat myoglobins, white-tailed deer Mb contains 12 histidine residues. Proximal (position 93) and distal (position 64) histidine residues responsible for maintaining the stability of heme are conserved in white-tailed deer Mb. PMID:22608832

Joseph, Poulson; Suman, Surendranath P; Li, Shuting; Fontaine, Michele; Steinke, Laurey

2012-10-01

132

Tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel to determine the spin and spin-recovery characteristics of a 1/11-scale model of a low-wing general aviation airplane with a horizontal tail modified with variable-size gaps to allow ventilation of the vertical stabilizer and rudder. Erect spins at symmetric loadings were tested with varying gap sizes on either or both sides of the horizontal tail. The model results indicate that the basic airplane (with no gaps) exhibits a fast, flat spin from which no recoveries can be obtained. The airplane with the modified tail has either a fast, flat spin from which no recoveries or poor recoveries may be made, or a slower, steeper spin from which fair to excellent recoveries may be obtained, depending on the size and orientation of the tail gaps. The major contribution to spin recovery was from the gap on the leeward side of the tail. Gap widths of 15-25 percent of the tail semispan were needed to produce satisfactory recovery from the flat spin.

Stough, H. P., III; Whipple, Raymond D.; Fremaux, C. M.

1991-01-01

133

Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

1983-01-01

134

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

NONE

1995-08-01

135

Myosin-II Tails Confer Unique Functions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Characterization of a Novel Myosin-II Tail  

PubMed Central

Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two myosin-IIs, Myo2p and Myp2p, which both concentrate in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. We studied the phenotype of mutant myosin-II strains to examine whether these myosins have overlapping functions in the cell. myo2+ is essential. myp2+ cannot rescue loss of myo2+ even at elevated levels of expression. myp2+ is required under specific nutritional conditions; thus myo2+ cannot rescue under these conditions. Studies with chimeras show that the tails rather than the structurally similar heads determine the gene-specific functions of myp2+ and myo2+. The Myo2p tail is a rod-shaped coiled-coil dimer that aggregates in low salt like other myosin-II tails. The Myp2p tail is monomeric in high salt and is insoluble in low salt. Biophysical properties of the full-length Myp2p tail and smaller subdomains indicate that two predicted coiled-coil regions fold back on themselves to form a rod-shaped antiparallel coiled coil. This suggests that Myp2p is the first type II myosin with only one head. The C-terminal two-thirds of Myp2p tail are essential for function in vivo and may interact with components of the salt response pathway. PMID:10637292

Bezanilla, Magdalena; Pollard, Thomas D.

2000-01-01

136

Evidence for involvement of 3'-untranslated region in determining angiotensin II receptor coupling specificity to G-protein.  

PubMed Central

The mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of many genes has been identified as an important regulator of the mRNA transcript itself as well as the translated product. Previously, we demonstrated that Chinese-hamster ovary-K1 cells stably expressing angiotensin receptor subtypes (AT(1A)) with and without 3'-UTR differed in AT(1A) mRNA content and its coupling with intracellular signalling pathways. Moreover, RNA mobility-shift assay and UV cross-linking studies using the AT(1A) 3'-UTR probe identified a major mRNA-binding protein complex of 55 kDa in Chinese-hamster ovary-K1 cells. In the present study, we have determined the functional significance of the native AT(1A) receptor 3'-UTR in rat liver epithelial (WB) cell lines by co-expressing the AT(1A) 3'-UTR sequence 'decoy' to compete with the native receptor 3'-UTR for its mRNA-binding proteins. PCR analysis using specific primers for the AT(1A) receptor and [(125)I]angiotensin II (AngII)-binding studies demonstrated the expression of the native AT(1A) receptors in WB (B(max)=2.7 pmol/mg of protein, K(d)=0.56 nM). Northern-blot analysis showed a significant increase in native receptor mRNA expression in 3'-UTR decoy-expressing cells, confirming the role of 3'-UTR in mRNA destabilization. Compared with vehicle control, AngII induced DNA and protein synthesis in wild-type WB as measured by [(3)H]thymidine and [(3)H]leucine incorporation respectively. Activation of [(3)H]thymidine and [(3)H]leucine correlated with a significant increase in cell number (cellular hyperplasia). In these cells, AngII stimulated GTPase activity by AT(1) receptor coupling with G-protein alpha i. We also delineated that functional coupling of AT(1A) receptor with G-protein alpha i is an essential mechanism for AngII-mediated cellular hyperplasia in WB by specifically blocking G-protein alpha i activation. In contrast with wild-type cells, stable expression of the 3'-UTR 'decoy' produced AngII-stimulated protein synthesis and cellular hypertrophy as demonstrated by a significant increase in [(3)H]leucine incorporation and no increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cell number. Furthermore, [(125)I]AngII cross-linking and immunoprecipitation studies using specific G-protein alpha antibodies showed that in wild-type cells, the AT(1A) receptor coupled with G-protein alpha i, whereas in cells expressing the 3'-UTR 'decoy', the AT(1A) receptor coupled with G-protein alpha q. These findings indicate that the 3'-UTR-mediated changes in receptor function may be mediated in part by a switch from G-protein alpha i to G-protein alpha q coupling of the receptor. Our results suggest that the 3'-UTR-mediated post-transcriptional modification of the AT(1A) receptor is critical for regulating tissue-specific receptor functions. PMID:12431186

Thekkumkara, Thomas J; Linas, Stuart L

2003-01-01

137

Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

Fayer, M J

1985-02-01

138

The tail of integrin activation  

PubMed Central

Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D

2010-01-01

139

Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?  

PubMed Central

Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to develop hydro-geochemically stable and biologically functional root zones, which can facilitate the recovery of the microbial community and ecological linkages with revegetated plant communities. PMID:22648878

Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

2012-01-01

140

Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective flow just prior to onset, suggesting the active role of the ionosphere in the onset process, and adding credibility to the ballooning instability theory of substorm onset. This grant also supported a number of other substorm studies and reviews. These are represented by the list of publications and meeting presentations resulting out of this grant.

Hughes, W. Jeffrey

1998-01-01

141

Oxidation of sulphide in abandoned mine tailings by ferrate.  

PubMed

In this study, Fe(VI) was applied to treat three mine tailings containing different amounts of sulphides and heavy metals. Oxidation of sulphides by Fe(VI) was studied at pH 9.2 with variation of solid to solution ratio, Fe(VI) concentration and injection number of Fe(VI) solution. The major dissolved products from the treatment of mine tailings with Fe(VI) solution were sulphate and arsenic. Oxidation efficiency of sulphides was evaluated by reduction efficiency of Fe(VI) as well as by measurement of dissolved sulphate concentration. Even though inorganic composition of three mine tailings was different, reduction fraction of Fe(VI) was quite similar. This result can suggest that Fe(VI) was involved in several other reactions in addition to oxidation of sulphides. Oxidation of sulphides in mine tailing was greatly dependent on the total amount of sulphides as well as kinds of sulphides complexed with metals. Over the five consecutive injections of Fe(VI) solution, dissolved sulphate concentration was greatly decreased by each injection and no more dissolved sulphate was observed at the fifth injection. While dissolved arsenic was decreased lineally up to the fifth injection. Sulphate generation was slightly increased for all mine tailings as Fe(VI) concentration was increased; however, enhancement of oxidation efficiency of sulphides was not directly proportional to the initial Fe(VI) concentration. PMID:25413120

Lee, Yong-Hoon; Yu, Mok-Ryun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Kang, Seon-Hong; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2015-01-01

142

Quantitative Trait Loci Involved in Sex Determination and Body Growth in the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) through Targeted Genome Scan  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, teleost fish exhibit a considerably wide range of sex determination patterns that may be influenced by extrinsic parameters. However even for model fish species like the zebrafish Danio rerio the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination have not been studied extensively. The zebrafish, a gonochoristic species, is lacking discernible sex chromosomes and the sex of juvenile fish is difficult to determine. Sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species provide distinct determination of the gender and allow studying the sex determination process by looking at the mechanism of sex reversal. This is the first attempt to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation for sex determination and body weight in a sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). This work demonstrates a fast and efficient strategy for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) detection in the gilthead sea bream, a non-model but target hermaphrodite fish species. Therefore a comparative mapping approach was performed to query syntenies against two other Perciformes, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a gonochoristic species and the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) a protandrous hermaphrodite. In this manner two significant QTLs, one QTL affecting both body weight and sex and one QTL affecting sex, were detected on the same linkage group. The co-segregation of the two QTLs provides a genomic base to the observed genetic correlation between these two traits in sea bream as well as in other teleosts. The identification of QTLs linked to sex reversal and growth, will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the complex nature of sex determination in S. aurata where most individuals reverse to the female sex at the age of two years through development and maturation of the ovarian portion of the gonad and regression of the testicular area. [Genomic sequences reported in this manuscript have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers HQ021443–HQ021749.] PMID:21304996

Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Sarropoulou, Elena; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.; Batargias, Costas; Magoulas, Antonios; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Kotoulas, Georgios

2011-01-01

143

Flight Studies of the Horizontal-Tail Loads Experienced by a Fighter Airplane in Abrupt Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field measurements were made on a fighter airplane to determine the approximate magnitude of the horizontal tail loads in accelerated flight. In these flight measurements, pressures at a few points were used as an index of the tail loads by correlating these pressures with complete pressure-distribution data obtained in the NACA full-scale tunnel. In addition, strain gages and motion pictures of tail deflections were used to explore the general nature and order of magnitude of fluctuating tail loads in accelerated stalls.

1944-01-01

144

The tail sheath structure of bacteriophage T4: a molecular machine for infecting bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The contractile tail of bacteriophage T4 is a molecular machine that facilitates very high viral infection efficiency. Its major component is a tail sheath, which contracts during infection to less than half of its initial length. The sheath consists of 138 copies of the tail sheath protein, gene product (gp) 18, which surrounds the central non-contractile tail tube. The contraction of the sheath drives the tail tube through the outer membrane, creating a channel for the viral genome delivery. A crystal structure of about three quarters of gp18 has been determined and was fitted into cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the tail sheath before and after contraction. It was shown that during contraction, gp18 subunits slide over each other with no apparent change in their structure.

Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Leiman, Petr G.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Kostyuchenko, Victor A.; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Rossmann, Michael G.; (SOIBC); (Purdue)

2009-07-22

145

Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens. PMID:25288944

Sumayo, Marilyn; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2013-01-01

146

Secondary structures of the core histone N-terminal tails: their role in regulating chromatin structure.  

PubMed

The core histone N-terminal tails dissociate from their binding positions in nucleosomes at moderate salt concentrations, and appear unstructured in the crystal. This suggested that the tails contributed minimally to chromatin structure. However, in vitro studies have shown that the tails were involved in a range of intra- and inter-nucleosomal as well as inter-fibre contacts. The H4 tail, which is essential for chromatin compaction, was shown to contact an adjacent nucleosome in the crystal. Acetylation of H4K16 was shown to abolish the ability of a nucleosome array to fold into a 30 nm fibre. The application of secondary structure prediction software has suggested the presence of extended structured regions in the histone tails. Molecular Dynamics studies have further shown that sections of the H3 and H4 tails assumed ?-helical and ?-strand content that was enhanced by the presence of DNA, and that post-translational modifications of the tails had a major impact on these structures. Circular dichroism and NMR showed that the H3 and H4 tails exhibited significant ?-helical content, that was increased by acetylation of the tail. There is thus strong evidence, both from biophysical and from computational approaches, that the core histones tails, particularly that of H3 and H4, are structured, and that these structures are influenced by post-translational modifications. This chapter reviews studies on the position, binding sites and secondary structures of the core histone tails, and discusses the possible role of the histone tail structures in the regulation of chromatin organization, and its impact on human disease. PMID:23150245

du Preez, Louis L; Patterton, Hugh-G

2013-01-01

147

INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN WHITE-TAILED, FALLOW , RED, AND ROE DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a series of studies in the Dobríš Forest, Czech Republic, to determine whether competitio n between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianu s) and sympatric cervid species could limit expansion of the whit e - tail population. We used grazing time among species as an indication of potential interspecific competition an d predicted that grazing time on an open pasture

KARL V. MILLER; Daniel B. Warnell

148

Quantitative arsenic speciation in mine tailings using X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to determine arsenic (As) oxidation state, local coordination (to a radius of 7Aaround As), and the relative proportion of different As species in model compounds and three California mine wastes: fully oxidized tailings (Ruth Mine), partially oxidized tailings (Argonaut Mine), and roast- ed sulfide ore (Spenceville Mine). Mineralogy was characterized by Rietveld

ANDREA L. FOSTER; GORDON E. BROWN JR; TRACY N. TINGLE; GEORGE A. PARKS

149

PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES IN MODEL CURRENT SHEETS. 2. APPLICATIONS TO AURORAS USING A GEOMAGNETIC TAIL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual particle trajectories are determined analytically and numerically in two possible configurations of electric and magnetic fields in the geomagnetic tail. The models are based on reconnection models incorporating a neutral point with associated neutral or current sheet and on the observed neutral sheet in the geomagnetic tail. Both models contain magnetic field lines oppositely directed on either side of

T. W. Speiser

1967-01-01

150

The Crystal Structure of Bacteriophage HK97 gp6: Defining a Large Family of Head?Tail Connector Proteins  

SciTech Connect

The final step in the morphogenesis of long-tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages is the joining of the DNA-filled head to the tail. The connector is a specialized structure of the head that serves as the interface for tail attachment and the point of egress for DNA from the head during infection. Here, we report the determination of a 2.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of gp6 of bacteriophage HK97. Through structural comparisons, functional studies, and bioinformatic analysis, gp6 has been determined to be a component of the connector of phage HK97 that is evolutionarily related to gp15, a well-characterized connector component of bacteriophage SPP1. Whereas the structure of gp15 was solved in a monomeric form, gp6 crystallized as an oligomeric ring with the dimensions expected for a connector protein. Although this ring is composed of 13 subunits, which does not match the symmetry of the connector within the phage, sequence conservation and modeling of this structure into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the SPP1 connector indicate that this oligomeric structure represents the arrangement of gp6 subunits within the mature phage particle. Through sequence searches and genomic position analysis, we determined that gp6 is a member of a large family of connector proteins that are present in long-tailed phages. We have also identified gp7 of HK97 as a homologue of gp16 of phage SPP1, which is the second component of the connector of this phage. These proteins are members of another large protein family involved in connector assembly.

Cardarelli, Lia; Lam, Robert; Tuite, Ashleigh; Baker, Lindsay A.; Sadowski, Paul D.; Radford, Devon R.; Rubinstein, John L.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Chirgadze, Nickolay; Maxwell, Karen L.; Davidson, Alan R. (UHN); (Toronto); (Hauptman)

2010-08-17

151

Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

1999-01-01

152

Descending from infinity: Convergence of tailed distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relaxation of long-tailed distributions under stochastic dynamics that do not support such tails. Linear relaxation is found to be a borderline case in which long tails are exponentially suppressed in time but not eliminated. Relaxation stronger than linear suppresses long tails immediately, but may lead to strong transient peaks in the probability distribution. We also find that a ? -function initial distribution under stronger than linear decay displays not one but two different regimes of diffusive spreading.

Van den Broeck, Christian; Harbola, Upendra; Toral, Raul; Lindenberg, Katja

2015-01-01

153

BREEDING-RANGE EXPANSION OF THE SCISSOR-TAILED  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE breeding range of the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Muscivora forficata) has in the past been limited to the southern section of the grassland biome and adjacent ecotones. However, it has become evident that the range has been expanding, principally northeastward. The main objective of this study was to determine the status of this species as a breeding bird, and its distribution,

ALEXANDER CARL WARNER

154

Analysis of Imp-C data from the magnetospheric tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite magnetic field measurements in the geomagnetic tail current sheet are analyzed to determine the normal field component, and other CS parameters such as thickness, motion, vector current density, etc., and to make correlations with auroral activity as measured by the A sub e index. The satellite data used in the initial part of this study were from Explorer 28 and Explorer 34 satellites.

Speiser, T. W.

1973-01-01

155

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white- tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Robert F. Massung; Joshua W. Courtney; Shannon L. Hiratzka; Virginia E. Pitzer; Gary Smith; Richard L. Dryden

156

An acceleration mechanism for cometary plasma tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cometary plasma tail formation by the interaction between the solar wind plasma flow and the plasma at the head of the coma is discussed using the unipolar electric generation theory. The plasma in the 'plasma tail' is almost directly accelerated from the cometary ionopause along the sun-nucleus line where the tail current flows. For steady state solar wind conditions, the

Shigeyuki Minami; R. S. White

1986-01-01

157

On the shape of the Geomagnetic Tail at Lunar distances: Preliminary Resuts from Artemis Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic tail is one of the least investigated regions of the magnetosphere behind the Earth owing to the limited number of spacecraft and observations. It is the region where the geomagnetic dipole field lines of the Earth are organized by the solar wind stretching. The characteristics of the geomagnetic tail and its response to IMF were studied by the missions, ISEE-3, IMP-8, Wind, Geotail, visited geomagnetic tail at different distances. The structure of the geomagnetic tail is controlled by the IMF orientation and its own internal dynamics. Geomagnetic tail has different regions where the plasma and magnetic field characteristics are largely depend on the IMF orientation. These characteristics show differences at different tail distances. For example it is determined that the tail twists as result of the reconnection with IMF By and this twist is higher as one move away from the Earth toward the distant tail. Like a windsock, it is expected that the IMF control will increase toward the distant tail. Twisting also displaces the north and south lobes on the dawn and dusk sides. Tail length and the shape are also different for different IMF orientations. Flattening of the geomagnetic tail cross-section occurs during the strong IMF Bys. It becomes an ellipse in the yz plane as the IMF By stress causes the tail to be flattened on the top and bottom. Models estimate that the geomagnetic tail length can be 165 Re while Pioneer spacecraft detected geomagnetic tail as long as 100 Re. These findings are based on the very limited data from brief geomagnetic tail encounters of the spacecraft. Since August 2011, with the repositioning of the two of THEMIS spacecraft pair, ARTEMIS is giving a new opportunity to study the geomagnetic tail at the lunar distances, 60 Re. Using these observations, we will investigate the geomagnetic field shape and its IMF dependence at 60 Re. Based on the magnetopause locations at 60 Re, we will study the shape of the tail on the xy-plane. Available analytical models and the numerical model results will be tested and used to find the best model at lunar distances. In this study, we will present our preliminary results and compare our findings with those from the earlier studies in the literature.

Gencturk Akay, Iklim; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Sibeck, David G.

2013-04-01

158

Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

Latkovich, J.M. (comp.)

1982-05-01

159

A Phenotypic Screen in Zebrafish Identifies a Novel Small-Molecule Inducer of Ectopic Tail Formation Suggestive of Alterations in Non-Canonical Wnt/PCP Signaling  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive model for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active small molecules of natural origin. We carried out a zebrafish-based phenotypic screen of over 3000 plant-derived secondary metabolite extracts with the goal of identifying novel small-molecule modulators of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways. One of the bioactive plant extracts identified in this screen – Jasminum gilgianum, an Oleaceae species native to Papua New Guinea – induced ectopic tails during zebrafish embryonic development. As ectopic tail formation occurs when BMP or non-canonical Wnt signaling is inhibited during the tail protrusion process, we suspected a constituent of this extract to act as a modulator of these pathways. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out on the basis of this zebrafish phenotype, identifying para-coumaric acid methyl ester (pCAME) as the active compound. We then performed an in-depth phenotypic analysis of pCAME-treated zebrafish embryos, including a tissue-specific marker analysis of the secondary tails. We found pCAME to synergize with the BMP-inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in inducing ectopic tails, and causing convergence-extension defects in compound-treated embryos. These results indicate that pCAME may interfere with non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Jnk, a downstream target of Wnt/PCP signaling (via morpholino antisense knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with the kinase inhibitor SP600125) phenocopied pCAME-treated embryos. However, immunoblotting experiments revealed pCAME to not directly inhibit Jnk-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun, suggesting additional targets of SP600125, and/or other pathways, as possibly being involved in the ectopic tail formation activity of pCAME. Further investigation of pCAME’s mechanism of action will help determine this compound’s pharmacological utility. PMID:24349481

Gebruers, Evelien; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Gray, Alexander I.; Clements, Carol; Harvey, Alan L.; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; de Witte, Peter A. M.; Crawford, Alexander D.; Esguerra, Camila V.

2013-01-01

160

The Effect of Competitive Outcome and Task-Involving, Ego-Involving, and Cooperative Structures on the Psychological Well-Being of Individuals Engaged in a CoOrdination Task: A Self-Determination Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differing task and motivational characteristics of the competitive setting (viz., task-involving\\/ego-involving climates, cooperative\\/individual, and win\\/loss competitive outcome) were explored in relation to need satisfaction and subjective well-being (SWB). Participants, one-on-one or in pairs, were required to participate in a physical co-ordination task. Results revealed participants exposed to a task-involving condition and those who worked in cooperation to report higher levels

Martyn Standage; Joan L. Duda; Anne Marte Pensgaard

2005-01-01

161

Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in Purkinje cell dendrites: Evidence that factors other than binding to microtubules are involved in determining its cytoplasmic distribution  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the distribution of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the Purkinje cell dendrites of rats whose cerebella were exposed to X-irradiation during the second postnatal week. The Purkinje cells of such animals have abnormally elongated apical primary processes that branch in the other molecular layer rather than close to the cell body as in normal tissue. The results show that in these distorted dendrites the MAP2 distribution is shifted distally relative to the normal pattern, in which MAP2 is distributed evenly throughout the dendritic tree. Tubulin and other microtubule-associated proteins, such as MAP1, are not affected and remain evenly distributed throughout the dendritic tree despite the anatomical distortion. We conclude that the distribution of MAP2 in Purkinje cells is not determined solely by its binding to tubulin. Other factors must be involved and these appear to be related to dendritic morphology and possibly to branching.

Matus, A.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J. (Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

1990-07-15

162

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

163

Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated hydraulic conductivity after transient drainage, eventually the amount of moisture leaving the tailings has a negligible effect on groundwater quality. Although some of the UMTRA sites are not in compliance with the groundwater standards, the explanation may be legacy contamination from mining, or earlier higher fluxes from the tailings or unlined processing ponds. Investigation of other legacy sources at the UMTRA sites may help explain persistent groundwater contamination. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

164

Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

Not Available

1994-09-01

165

A multi-purpose flow manifold for the spectrophotometric determination of sulphide, sulphite and ethanol involving gas diffusion: application to wine and molasses analysis.  

PubMed

A simple and rugged flow set up was designed for spectrophotometric determination of sulphide, sulphite and ethanol aiming at quality assessment of wines, control of industrial fermentation, and selection of yeast strain. The different assays involved gas diffusion through a Teflon planar membrane and were carried out after minor modifications in the manifold, namely reagent composition and total flow rate. Main figures of merit: linear analytical curves=0.50-6.0 mg L(-1)S(2-), 2.5-20.0 mg L(-1) SO3(-) and 5.0-25.0% (v/v) of ethanol; detection limits (3?)=0.035 mg L(-1)S(2-), 0.2 mg L(-1) SO3(-) and 0.18% (v/v) of ethanol; peak height r.s.d.=2.18% for 4.03 mg L(-1)S(2-) spiked molasses, 2.21% for a 9.82 mg L(-1) SO3(-) wine and 2.07% for a typical wine (12.53% v/v of ethanol), sampling rate=15, 57 and 29 h(-1), reagent consumptions=1.9 µmol of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, 1.68 µg of Malachite green and 0.68 mmol Cr(VI) per determination, respectively. PMID:23708632

Silva, Claudineia R; Gomes, Taciana F; Barros, Valdemir A F; Zagatto, Elias A G

2013-09-15

166

Genetics of experimental lupus nephritis: non-H-2 factors determine susceptibility for renal involvement in murine chronic graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed Central

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was induced in (C57BL/10 x DBA/2)F1 and (B10.S x DBA/2)F1 hybrids by injection of DBA/2 lymphocytes. All of the animals developed GvHD. Renal disease and proteinuria occurred in all of the (C57BL/10 x DBA/2)F1 hybrids, but only in 54% of the (B10.S x DBA/2)F1. The type of renal lesion was similar in all diseased animals of both strains, i.e., immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN) with deposition of antibodies and complement in glomeruli. To find out whether H-2 haplotype or other factors, such as non-H-2 linked genes, determine the susceptibility for renal involvement in GvHD, we produced (B10 x B10.S)F1 x DBA/2 mice, determined their H-2 genotype serologically, and separated them into H-2b/d and H-2s/d groups. These two groups did not differ with respect to susceptibility to renal disease in the course of GvHD, which indicates that H-2 is not the decisive genetic factor. We conclude that factors not linked with H-2 exert a major influence on susceptibility to GvHD-related renal disease in these mice. PMID:2758697

Bruijn, J A; Van Elven, E H; Corver, W E; Oudshoorn-Snoek, M; Fleuren, G J

1989-01-01

167

Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

2008-01-01

168

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

169

Cassini/CAPS observations of duskside tail dynamics at Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

properties of Saturn's premidnight tail region are surveyed using Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion observations from 2010. Only low-latitude (|lat| < 6°) intervals in which the CAPS viewing was roughly symmetric inward and outward around the corotation direction are used. Our numerical moments algorithm returns nonzero ion density for 70% (999) of the intervals selected. Of these, 642 had detectable water-group ion densities, and the remainder were dominantly, if not entirely, light ions. The derived plasma parameters are similar to those found in an earlier study for the postmidnight tail region, except that we find little evidence for the systematic outflows identified in that study, and we do find numerous significant inflow events. One such inflow is identified as a dipolarization event, the first reported plasma properties of such a structure at Saturn. A second, long-lasting event may be evidence for the existence at times of a quasi-steady reconnection region in the premidnight tail. The large majority of the plasma flows are found to be within 20° of the corotation direction, though with flow speeds significantly lower than full corotation. While the inflow events represent plausible evidence for internally driven mass loss in the premidnight region, the absence of significant outflow events suggests that in the region surveyed here, tail reconnection has not yet proceeded to involve lobe field lines, so the disconnected plasma continues its general motion in the corotation direction.

Thomsen, M. F.; Wilson, R. J.; Tokar, R. L.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Jackman, C. M.

2013-09-01

170

Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. PMID:25528133

Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

2015-02-01

171

Flight Investigation of Effect of Various Vertical-Tail Modifications on the Directional Stability and Control Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the results of preliminary flight tests had indicated. the P-63A-1 airplane possessed insufficient directional stability, the NACA and the manufacturer (Bell Aircraft Corporation) suggested three vertical-tail modifications to remedy the deficiencies in the directional characteristics. These modifications included an enlarged vertical tail formed by adding a tip extension to the original vertical tail, a large sharp-edge ventral fin, and a small dorsal fin. The enlarged vertical tail involved only a slight increase in total vertical-tail area from 23.73 to 26.58 square feet but a relatively much larger increase in geometric aspect ratio from 1.24 to 1.73 based on height and area above the horizontal tail. At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were made to determine the effect of these modifications and of some combinations of these modifications on the directional stability and control characteristics of the airplane, In all, six different vertical-tail. configurations were investigated to determine the lateral and directional oscillation characteristics of the airplane, the sideslip characteristics, the yaw due to ailerons in rudder-fixed rolls from turns and pull-outs, the trim changes due to speed changes; and the trim changes due to power changes. Results of the tests showed that the enlarged vertical tail approximately doubled the directional stability of the airplane and that the pilots considered the directional stability provided by the enlarged vertical tail to be satisfactory. Calculations based on sideslip data obtained at an indicated airspeed of 300 miles per hour showed that the directional stability of the airplane with the original vertical tail corresponded to a value of 0(sub n beta) of -0.00056 whereas for the enlarged vertical tail the estimated va1ue of C(sub n beta) was -0.00130, The ventral fin was found to increase by a moderate amount the directional stability of the airplane with the original vertical tail for smal1 sides1ip angles at low speeds but little consistent change in directional stability was effected by the ventral fin at higher speeds, The effectiveness of the ventral fin was generally much less when used with the enlarged vertical tail than when used with the original vertical tail. The ventral and dorsal fins were found to be very effective in eliminating rudder-force reversals which occurred in low-speed, high-engine-power, sideslipped conditions of flight . Sideslip tests at two altitudes for approximately the sane engine power and indicated airspeed showed that a small decrease in static directional stability occurred with increasing altitude and this decrease in stability was attributed to the increased propeller blade angles required at high altitudes. The variations of rudder pedal force with indicated airspeed using normal rated power and a constant rudder tab setting through the speed range were desirably small for all the configurations tested. The rudder pedal force changed by about 50 pounds for a power change from engine idling power, to normal rated power and this pedal force change was largely independent of airspeed or of vertical-tail configuration for the various configurations tested.

Johnson, Harold I.

1946-01-01

172

Enhancing the safety of tailings management facilities  

SciTech Connect

Unsafe tailings management facilities (TMFs) have caused serious accidents in Europe threatening human health/life and the environment. While advanced design, construction and management procedures are available, their implementation requires greater emphasis. An integrated research project funded by the European Union was carried out between 2002 and 2005 with the overall goal of improving the safety of TMFs (Sustainable Improvement in Safety of Tailings Facilities - TAILSAFE, http://www.tailsafe.com/). The objective of TAILSAFE was to develop and apply methods of parameter evaluation and measurement for the assessment and improvement of the safety state of tailings facilities, with particular attention to the stability of tailings dams and slurries, the special risks inherent when such materials include toxic or hazardous wastes, and authorization and management procedures for tailings facilities. Aspects of tailings facilities design, water management and slurry transport, non-destructive and minimally intrusive testing methods, monitoring and the application of sensors, intervention and remediation options were considered in TAILSAFE. A risk reduction framework (the TAILSAFE Parameter Framework) was established to contribute to the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and hazards from tailings facilities. Tailings from the mining and primary processing of metals, minerals and coal were included within the scope of TAILSAFE. The project focused on the avoidance of hazards by developing procedures and methods for investigating and improving the stability of tailings dams and tailings bodies.

Meggyes, T.; Niederleithinger, E.; Witt, K.J.; Csovari, M.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Engels, J.; McDonald, C.; Roehl, K.E. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Institute for Material Research & Testing

2008-07-01

173

Tail Biting in Pigs: Blood Serotonin and Fearfulness as Pieces of the Puzzle?  

PubMed Central

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n?=?480) were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B) or in straw-enriched (E) pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket) test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only) revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled ‘Early life exploration’, ‘Near bucket’, ‘Cortisol’, ‘Vocalizations & standing alert’, and ‘Back test activity’. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor ‘Near bucket’, possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting. PMID:25188502

Ursinus, Winanda W.; Van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

2014-01-01

174

Variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae with tail reduction in Old World monkeys.  

PubMed

Tail length in primates can vary greatly between species or even between local conspecific populations, and the tail is markedly reduced in several lineages. In Old World monkeys, tail length is considered as an important feature reflecting their phylogeny and adaptations. The number of caudal vertebrae is one of the important factors which determine tail length, and it is known that this number varies with tail length. Caudal vertebrae can be divided into two types (proximal and distal), and tail mobility and function are considered to be different in these two regions. Though the number of vertebrae in each region is important for understanding tail length evolution in Old World monkeys, there have been few attempts to investigate this matter. This study focused only on the proximal caudal vertebrae, which are more easily preserved than the distal ones, and tested if there is variation in their number with tail length or phylogenic differences. As a result, two important findings were obtained: (1) the variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae was different among the phylogenic groups, and (2) especially in Papionini, there was a great variation in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae, and it correlated strongly with relative tail length [RTL = (tail length/head and body length (sitting height)) × 100%]. I speculate that these variations in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae were possibly caused by a change of the embryonic developmental mechanism of tail morphogenesis, a common mechanism of morphological evolution. To clarify the mechanisms and evolutionary trends of the variation in the proximal caudal vertebrae, not only morphological approaches but also developmental biological approaches will be necessary in the future. PMID:24908079

Tojima, Sayaka

2014-10-01

175

Groundwater leaching of neutralized and untreated acid-leached uranium-mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

Tailings neutralization was examined to determine the effect of neutralization on contaminant release. Column leaching of acid extracted uranium mill tailings from Exxon Highland Mill, Wyoming, Pathfinder Gas Hills Mill, Wyoming, and the Dawn Midnite Mill, Washington, resulted in the flushing of high concentrations of salts in the first four pore volumes of leachate, followed by a steady decrease to the original groundwater salt concentrations. Neutralization decreased the concentration of salts and radionuclides leaching from the tailings and decreased the volume of solution required to return the solution to the groundwater pH and EC. Radium-226 and uranium-238 leached quickly from the tailings in the initial pore volumes of both neutralized and unneutralized tailings, and then decreased significantly. 6 figures, 5 tables.

Gee, G.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Begej, C.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Sauter, N.N.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

1981-01-01

176

Investigation of contamination of earthen covers on inactive uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The upward migration of contaminants into earthen covers on uranium mill tailings was evaluated from chemical and isotopic analysis of samples from 5--10 cm intervals through the cover and into the tailings at three locations on the Riverton pile. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project elected to determine the significance of migration of salts and contaminants into earthen covers emplaced on tailings by funding this investigation of the migration which has occurred through an earthen cover since the time of emplacement on an inactive uranium mill tailings pile. The Riverton tailings pile, covered with 20 to 40 cm of local sandy soil, was chosen for the study. The objectives of the study were to: determine vertical distributions of concentrations of salts, trace metals, and radionuclides through the cover and into the tailings; determine the concentrations of salts and contaminants in the cover from chemical migration; relate the migration of salts to the contaminants; model the mechanisms responsible for promoting and retarding migration; and evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the cover influencing migration. 20 refs., 35 figs., 10 tabs.

Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

1983-01-01

177

Weathering in coal mine rejects and tailings - variation with respect to depth  

SciTech Connect

Acid production or acid drainage is a major environmental issue that also has negative implications on the aquifer system surrounding the mine tailings area. The approach to controlling acid mine drainage involves physical and geochemical characterization that affect acid production. The material permeability determines the availability of oxygen, which is paramount in acid production in coal rejects, and varies with depth. In this paper the author presents the variation in oxidized pyrite/acid production with depth in black coal mine washery wastes. Chemical kinetic parameters and the diffusive parameters have been used to obtain the variation in oxygen content and the oxidized pyrite content with respect to the depth and time. Its dependence on porosity and moisture content is illustrated.

Devasahayam, S.

2007-02-15

178

Identification of Tail Genes in the Temperate Phage 16-3 of Sinorhizobium meliloti 41 ?  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding the tail proteins of the temperate phage 16-3 of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 41 have been identified. First, a new host range gene, designated hII, was localized by using missense mutations. The corresponding protein was shown to be identical to the 85-kDa tail protein by determining its N-terminal sequence. Electron microscopic analysis showed that phage 16-3 possesses an icosahedral head and a long, noncontractile tail characteristic of the Siphoviridae. By using a lysogenic S. meliloti 41 strain, mutants with insertions in the putative tail region of the genome were constructed and virion morphology was examined after induction of the lytic cycle. Insertions in ORF017, ORF018a, ORF020, ORF021, the previously described h gene, and hII resulted in uninfectious head particles lacking tail structures, suggesting that the majority of the genes in this region are essential for tail formation. By using different bacterial mutants, it was also shown that not only the RkpM and RkpY proteins but also the RkpZ protein of the host takes part in the formation of the phage receptor. Results for the host range phage mutants and the receptor mutant bacteria suggest that the HII tail protein interacts with the capsular polysaccharide of the host and that the tail protein encoded by the original h gene recognizes a proteinaceous receptor. PMID:20081029

Deák, Veronika; Lukács, Rita; Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Pálvölgyi, Adrienn; Papp, Péter P.; Orosz, László; Putnoky, Péter

2010-01-01

179

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of uranium mill tailings by high-temperature sintering (>1050°C) has been investigated as a means of controlling the release of ²²²Rn and leachable contaminants. Thermal stabilization in laboratory trials at 1200°C reduced the radon emanation of various tailings by factors ranging from 37 to 1400 depending on the mineralogy of the tailings. The leachability of most contaminants (e.g., Al,

David R. Dreesen; Edward J. Cokal; Lawrence E. Wangen; Joel M. Williams; Edward F. Thode

1984-01-01

180

Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is still poorly understood. Recent insights into the structure of complex I by X-ray crystallography have shown that iron-sulfur cluster N2, the immediate electron donor for ubiquinone, resides about 30Å above the membrane domain and mutagenesis studies suggested that the active site for the hydrophobic substrate is located next to this redox-center. To trace the path for the hydrophobic tail of ubiquinone when it enters the peripheral arm of complex I, we performed an extensive structure/function analysis of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica monitoring the interaction of site-directed mutants with five ubiquinone derivatives carrying different tails. The catalytic activity of a subset of mutants was strictly dependent on the presence of intact isoprenoid moieties in the tail. Overall a consistent picture emerged suggesting that the tail of ubiquinone enters through a narrow path at the interface between the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. Most notably we identified a set of methionines that seems to form a hydrophobic gate to the active site reminiscent to the M-domains involved in the interaction with hydrophobic targeting sequences with the signal recognition particle of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, two of the amino acids critical for the interaction with the ubiquinone tail are different in bovine complex I and we could show that one of these exchanges is responsible for the lower sensitivity of Y. lipolytica complex I towards the inhibitor rotenone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22484275

Angerer, Heike; Nasiri, Hamid R; Niedergesäß, Vanessa; Kerscher, Stefan; Schwalbe, Harald; Brandt, Ulrich

2012-10-01

181

Wean-Tail Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

182

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

183

Using comet plasma tails to study the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma tails of comets have been used as probes of the solar wind for many years, and well before direct solar wind measurements. Now, analyses utilizing the much greater regularity and extent of comet tails imaged from space detail outward solar wind flow much better than was previously possible. These analyses mark the location of the solar wind flow in three-dimensions over time much as do in-situ measurements. Data from comet plasma tails using coronagraphs and heliospheric white-light imagers provide a view closer to the Sun than where spacecraft have ventured to date. These views show that this flow is chaotic and highly variable, and not the benign regular outward motion of a quiescent plasma. While this is no surprise to those who study and characterize the solar wind in situ or use remotely-sensed interplanetary scintillation (IPS) techniques, these spacecraft images provide a visualization of this as never-before possible. Here we summarize the results of an analysis that determines solar wind velocity from multiple comet tails that were observed by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and also by the inner Heliospheric Imager (HI) on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREOA) spacecraft. Finally, we present results using a similar analysis that measures this same behavior using coronagraph observations in the low corona.

Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.

2013-06-01

184

Shake a Tail Feather: The Evolution of the Theropod Tail into a Stiff Aerodynamic Surface  

PubMed Central

Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail’s morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves). Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds), dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail’s aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph birds. Hence, these capabilities should have been present in the early Cretaceous, with incipient tail-fanning capacity in the earliest pygostylian birds. PMID:23690987

Pittman, Michael; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.

2013-01-01

185

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement  

E-print Network

A Dog Tail for Utility Robots Exploring Affective Properties of Tail Movement Ashish Singh, James E}@cs.umanitoba.ca Abstract. We present a dog-tail interface for utility robots, as a means of com- municating high-level robotic state through affect. This interface leverages peo- ple's general knowledge of dogs

186

The Urbach tail in silica glass from first principles  

SciTech Connect

We present density-functional theory calculations of the optical absorption spectra of silica glass for temperatures up to 2400K. The calculated spectra exhibit exponential tails near the fundamental absorption edge that follow the Urbach rule, in quantitative agreement with experiments. We discuss the accuracy of our results by comparing to hybrid exchange correlation functionals. We derive a simple relationship between the exponential tails of the absorption coefficient and the electronic density-of-states, and thereby establish a direct link between the photoemission and the absorption spectra near the absorption edge. We use this relationship to determine the lower bound to the Urbach frequency regime. We show that in this frequency interval, the optical absorption is Poisson distributed with very large statistical fluctuations. We determine the upper bound to the Urbach frequency regime by identifying the frequency at which transition to Poisson distribution takes place.

Sadigh, B; Erhart, P; Aberg, D; Trave, A; Schwegler, E; Bude, J

2010-06-15

187

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 13 Columbian White-tailed Deer #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.0 Columbian White-tailed............................................................................. 13-20 #12;COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER III, 13-1 May 2004 13.0 Columbian White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) 13.1 Introduction The Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus

188

Human Sperm Tail Proteome Suggests New Endogenous Metabolic Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Proteomic studies are contributing greatly to our understanding of the sperm cell, and more detailed descriptions are expected to clarify additional cellular and molecular sperm attributes. The aim of this study was to characterize the subcellular proteome of the human sperm tail and, hopefully, identify less concentrated proteins (not found in whole cell proteome studies). Specifically, we were interested in characterizing the sperm metabolic proteome and gaining new insights into the sperm metabolism issue. Sperm were isolated from normozoospermic semen samples and depleted of any contaminating leukocytes. Tail fractions were obtained by means of sonication followed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was confirmed via various techniques. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry of isolated sperm tail peptides resulted in the identification of 1049 proteins, more than half of which had not been previously described in human sperm. The categorization of proteins according to their function revealed two main groups: proteins related to metabolism and energy production (26%), and proteins related to sperm tail structure and motility (11%). Interestingly, a great proportion of the metabolic proteome (24%) comprised enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including enzymes for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Unexpectedly, we also identified various peroxisomal proteins, some of which are known to be involved in the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Analysis of our data using Reactome suggests that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal pathways might indeed be active in sperm, and that the use of fatty acids as fuel might be more preponderant than previously thought. In addition, incubation of sperm with the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir resulted in a significant decrease in sperm motility. Contradicting a common concept in the literature, we suggest that the male gamete might have the capacity to obtain energy from endogenous pools, and thus to adapt to putative exogenous fluctuations. PMID:23161514

Amaral, Alexandra; Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, José Luís; Ramalho-Santos, João; Oliva, Rafael

2013-01-01

189

Size-partitioning of an urban aerosol to identify particle determinants involved in the proinflammatory response induced in airway epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of air particles in human cardio-respiratory diseases has been enlightened by several epidemiological studies. However the respective involvement of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles in health effects is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine which size fraction from a chemically characterized background aerosol has the most important short term biological effect and to decipher the determinants of such a behaviour. Results Ambient aerosols were collected at an urban background site in Paris using four 13-stage low pressure cascade impactors running in parallel (winter and summer 2005) in order to separate four size-classes (PM0.03–0.17 (defined here as ultrafine particles), PM0.17–1 (fine), PM1–2.5(intermediate) and PM2.5–10 (coarse)). Accordingly, their chemical composition and their pro-inflammatory potential on human airway epithelial cells were investigated. Considering isomass exposures (same particle concentrations for each size fractions) the pro-inflammatory response characterized by Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) release was found to decrease with aerosol size with no seasonal dependency. When cells were exposed to isovolume of particle suspensions in order to respect the particle proportions observed in ambient air, the GM-CSF release was maximal with the fine fraction. In presence of a recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein, the GM-CSF release induced by particles is reduced for all size-fractions, with exception of the ultra-fine fraction which response is not modified. The different aerosol size-fractions were found to display important chemical differences related to the various contributing primary and secondary sources and aerosol age. The GM-CSF release was correlated to the organic component of the aerosols and especially its water soluble fraction. Finally, Cytochrome P450 1A1 activity that reflects PAH bioavailability varied as a function of the season: it was maximal for the fine fraction in winter and for the ultrafine fraction in summer. Conclusion In the frame of future regulations, a particular attention should thus be paid to the ultrafine/fine (here referred to as PM1) fraction due to their overwhelming anthropogenic origin and predominance in the urban aerosol and their pro-inflammatory potential. PMID:19302717

Ramgolam, Kiran; Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Gaudichet, Annie; Marano, Francelyne; Martinon, Laurent; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

2009-01-01

190

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Washington, DC (USA)); Rice, G. (Sergent, Hauskins and Beckwith (USA))

1984-12-01

191

VARIATION IN THE SHARP-TAILED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, following Greenlaw (1993), the AOU split the Sharp-tailed Sparrow into two species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sharp-tailed Sparrows. The former breeds in coastal saltmarshes of the central East Coast, the latter in the northern interior, around the southern coast of Hudson Bay, and along the northeastern seaboard. Both species winter along the southern Atlantic

STEVE N. G. HOWELL; DAVID A. SIBLEY

1998-01-01

192

Switching axial progenitors from producing trunk to tail tissues in vertebrate embryos.  

PubMed

The vertebrate body is made by progressive addition of new tissue from progenitors at the posterior embryonic end. Axial extension involves different mechanisms that produce internal organs in the trunk but not in the tail. We show that Gdf11 signaling is a major coordinator of the trunk-to-tail transition. Without Gdf11 signaling, the switch from trunk to tail is significantly delayed, and its premature activation brings the hindlimbs and cloaca next to the forelimbs, leaving extremely short trunks. Gdf11 activity includes activation of Isl1 to promote formation of the hindlimbs and cloaca-associated mesoderm as the most posterior derivatives of lateral mesoderm progenitors. Gdf11 also coordinates reallocation of bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors from the anterior primitive streak to the tail bud, in part by reducing the retinoic acid available to the progenitors. Our findings provide a perspective to understand the evolution of the vertebrate body plan. PMID:23763947

Jurberg, Arnon Dias; Aires, Rita; Varela-Lasheras, Irma; Nóvoa, Ana; Mallo, Moisés

2013-06-10

193

Transcriptomic Analysis of Tail Regeneration in the Lizard Anolis carolinensis Reveals Activation of Conserved Vertebrate Developmental and Repair Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies. PMID:25140675

Hutchins, Elizabeth D.; Markov, Glenn J.; Eckalbar, Walter L.; George, Rajani M.; King, Jesse M.; Tokuyama, Minami A.; Geiger, Lauren A.; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J.; Allen, April N.; Siniard, Ashley L.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F.; Rawls, J. Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro

2014-01-01

194

Effect of Apex Flap Deflection on Vertical Tail Buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational study of the effect of vortex breakdown location on vertical tail buffeting is conducted. The position of the breakdown is modified by employing an apex flap deflected by an experimentally determined optimal angle. The delayed breakdown flow and buffeting response is then compared to the nominal undeflected case. This multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially for the fluid flow, the elastic tail deformations and the grid displacements. The fluid flow is simulated by time accurately solving the unsteady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme. The elastic vibrations of the tails are modeled by uncoupled bending and torsion beam equations. These equations are solved accurately in time using the Galerkin method and a five-stage Runge-Kutta-Verner scheme. The grid for the fluid dynamics calculations is continuously deformed using interpolation functions to disperse the displacements smoothly throughout the computational domain. An angle-of-attack of 35 deg.is chosen such that the wing primary-vortex cores experience vortex breakdown and the resulting turbulent wake flow impinges on tile vertical tails. The dimensions and material properties of the vertical tails are chosen such that the deflections are large enough to insure interaction with the flow, and the natural frequencies are high enough to facilitate a practical computational solution. Results are presented for a baseline uncontrolled buffeting case and a delayed breakdown case in which the apex flap has been deflected 15 deg. The flap was found to be very effective in delaying the breakdown, increasing the location from 50%c to 94%c, which resulted in a 6% increase in lift coefficient and pitching moment. However, the integrated buffet loads and tip responses were roughly equivalent for the two cases.

Massey, Steven J.; Kandil, Osama A.

1998-01-01

195

Determining \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A loss of passivity in the face of certain frequency dynamics (eg: high frequency dynamics) given an otherwise passive system leads to the notion of a “mixed” system. A “mixed” system is one that has a concept of small gain associated with it over those frequency intervals where passivity is lost. In this paper, a test for determining “mixedness” for

Wynita M. Griggs; Brian D. O. Anderson; Robert N. Shorten

2010-01-01

196

Determinants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lewis Blake and Stephanie Fitchett of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to explore the properties of determinants of matrices and to develop an important theoretical formula. This is part of a larger collection of material hosted by Duke University.

Blake, Lewis; Fitchett, Stephanie

2010-05-19

197

Arsenic mobility in soils impacted by tailings at Zimapán, México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zimapán mining zone, in Central México is one of the worldwide sites known for As contamination. For more than 20 years and until recently, As-rich groundwater, mainly due to mineralization in a limestone aquifer, was an important source of As exposure to the inhabitants. In addition, decades of ore processing have produced hazardous wastes (tailings), many of them settled in the town outskirts. Although mineralogical and chemical differences exist among the various deposits; every one has high As contents (up to several thousands mg/kg) and other toxic elements that may be released to the nearby soils. To assess As mobility in soils impacted by tailings, total and sequential fractionation determinations were performed in 120 superficial and 40 cm depth samples collected at various distances near three of the impoundments. Higher total As concentrations were measured in the dry (up to 51,534 mg/kg) with respect to the rainy season (up to 23,570 mg/kg) indicating the occurrence of As wash off by rain. Although concentrations were lower in the deep regarding the superficial samples at most sites, As contents reached several thousands mg/kg at 40 cm depth indicating also its vertical transport that may reach the shallow aquifer. Sequential extractions showed differences between soils impacted by highly oxidized (red) tailings and low oxidized (gray) deposits. Most of the As occurs in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction (up to 92%) followed by the organic matter and sulfides fraction (up to 52 %) in soils close to red tailings, while organic matter and sulfide fraction contain most of the As (up to 95%) in soil samples close to low-oxidized deposits. Arsenic proportion in the residual fraction increased with distance from oxidized tailings. Low pH values (from 2.0 to 2.5) in superficial soils revealed the influence of acid mine drainage at distances up to 40 m from the red deposit. In contrast, the lowest pH was 7.1 in soils impacted by low-oxidized deposits, reflecting the limestone environment. Arsenic airborne transport was evidenced by the presence of a total As concentration of 30,780 mg/kg in soils collected at 120 m in front of the tailings crossing a ravine. Although sequential extraction showed that most of the As is present in relatively low-mobility fractions, total As concentrations indicate that tailings impoundments constitute another source of environmental As exposure.

Aurora Armienta, M.; Resendiz, Isabel; Múgica, Violeta; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra; Ceniceros, Nora

2014-05-01

198

A qualitative study on student attitudes towards a controversial species, the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study determined the attitudes held by high school students toward a controversial, yet keystone, species of the Great Plains, the black-tailed prairie dog. Black-tailed prairie dogs have declined dramatically over the past century as a result of large scale poisoning programs, plague, shooting, and habitat loss. The eradication programs put forth were primarily the result of strongly held

Lynne Fox-Parrish

2006-01-01

199

Assessment of computational prediction of tail buffeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessments of the viability of computational methods and the computer resource requirements for the prediction of tail buffeting are made. Issues involved in the use of Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in modeling vortex-dominated and buffet flows are discussed and the requirement for sufficient grid density to allow accurate, converged calculations is stressed. Areas in need of basic fluid dynamics research are highlighted: vorticity convection, vortex breakdown, dynamic turbulence modeling for free shear layers, unsteady flow separation for moderately swept, rounded leading-edge wings, vortex flows about wings at high subsonic speeds. An estimate of the computer run time for a buffeting response calculation for a full span F-15 aircraft indicates that an improvement in computer and/or algorithm efficiency of three orders of magnitude is needed to enable routine use of such methods. Attention is also drawn to significant uncertainties in the estimates, in particular with regard to nonlinearities contained within the modeling and the question of the repeatability or randomness of buffeting response.

Edwards, John W.

1990-01-01

200

Investigation of the Influence of Fuselage and Tail Surfaces on Low-speed Static Stability and Rolling Characteristics of a Swept-wing Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation to determine influence of the fuselage and tail on static stability and rotary derivatives in roll of a model having 45 degrees sweptback wing and tail surfaces. The wing alone and the model without the horizontal tail showed marginal longitudinal stability near maximum lift. The longitudinal stability of the complete model was satisfactory. The vertical tail produced larger increments of rate of change of lateral-force and yawing-moment coefficients with wing-tip helix angle than the fuselage or the horizontal tail.

Bird, John D; Lichtenstein, Jacob H; Jaquet, Byron M

1952-01-01

201

Notochord-derived hedgehog is essential for tail regeneration in Xenopus tadpole  

PubMed Central

Background Appendage regeneration in amphibians is regulated by the combinatorial actions of signaling molecules. The requirement of molecules secreted from specific tissues is reflected by the observation that the whole process of regeneration can be inhibited if a certain tissue is removed from the amputated stump. Interestingly, urodeles and anurans show different tissue dependencies during tail regeneration. The spinal cord is essential for tail regeneration in urodele but not in anuran larva, whereas the notochord but not the spinal cord is essential for tail regeneration in anuran tadpoles. Sonic hedgehog is one of the signaling molecules responsible for such phenomenon in axolotl, as hedgehog signaling is essential for overall tail regeneration and sonic hedgehog is exclusively expressed in the spinal cord. In order to know whether hedgehog signaling is involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the inconsistent tissue dependency for tail regeneration between anurans and urodeles, we investigated expression of hedgehog signal-related genes in the regenerating tail of Xenopus tadpole and examined the effect of the hedgehog signal inhibitor, cyclopamine, on the tail regeneration. Results In Xenopus, sonic hedgehog is expressed exclusively in the notochord but not in the spinal cord of the regenerate. Overall regeneration was severely impaired in cyclopamine-treated tadpoles. Notochord maturation in the regenerate, including cell alignment and vacuolation, and myofiber formation were inhibited. Proliferation of spinal cord cells in the neural ampulla and of mesenchymal cells was also impaired. Conclusion As in the axolotl, hedgehog signaling is required for multiple steps in tail regeneration in the Xenopus tadpole, although the location of the Shh source is quite different between the two species. This difference in Shh localization is the likely basis for the differing tissue requirement for tail regeneration between urodeles and anurans. PMID:24941877

2014-01-01

202

Lifting-surface-theory aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for full-span elevators on horizontal tail surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited number of lifting-surface-theory solutions for wings with chordwise loadings resulting from angle of attack, parabolic-ac camber, and flap deflection are now available. These solutions were studied with the purpose of determining methods of extrapolating the results in such a way that they could be used to determine lifting-surface-theory values of the aspect-ratio corrections to the lift and hinge-moment parameters for both angle-of-attack and flap-deflection-type loading that could be used to predict the characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces from section data with sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes. Such a method was devised for horizontal tail surfaces with full-span elevators. In spite of the fact that the theory involved is rather complex, the method is simple to apply and may be applied without any knowledge of lifting-surface theory. A comparison of experimental finite-span and section value and of the estimated values of the lift and hinge-moment parameters for three horizontal tail surfaces was made to provide an experimental verification of the method suggested. (author)

Swanson, Robert S; Crandall, Stewart M

1948-01-01

203

Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).  

PubMed

Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. PMID:23152195

Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

2013-01-01

204

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...

2012-01-01

205

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and (2) The supporting...the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to...

2014-01-01

206

HABITAT SELECTION BY THE AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverious) AND RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteojamaicensis) WINTERING IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat selection by the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) in Madison County, Kentucky, was determined for the winter of 1980-81. Results showed that there was significant non-random use of 6 habitat types (Kestrels: X 2 = 629.5, P  0.05, d.f. = 5; Red-tailed Hawks: X 2 = 124.8, P  0.05, d.f. = 5) with

207

Structural determinants in the second intracellular loop of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor are involved in G(s) protein activation.  

PubMed

In the present study, we analyzed the structural determinants present in the second intracellular loop (IL-2) of the human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (R) involved in G(s) protein-mediated signal transduction. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells, stably expressing wild-type (Wt) human FSHR (HEK-293((+))), were transiently transfected with plasmids containing cDNAs encoding the entire IL-2 or several IL-2 sequences mutated in R467 (a residue located at the center of the conserved ERW motif in the glycoprotein hormone receptors), T470 (a potential site for phosphorylation by protein kinase-A and -C) or L477 (a residue conserved in all glycoprotein hormone receptors). Expression of the IL-2 Wt in HEK-293((+)) cells reduced the maximum FSH-stimulated cAMP production significantly by approximately 40%; similar results were observed with the R467A and R467K IL-2 mutants. The IL-2(R467H), IL-2(T470A), the triple R467A/T470A/L477A IL-2 mutant and the IL-2 of the oxytocin receptor (G(q/11)-coupled) had no effects on Wt FSHR-mediated intracellular signaling whereas the L477A mutation provoked a higher ( approximately 55%) inhibition of FSH-stimulated cAMP than the free, Wt IL-2. These results suggested a specific role of IL-2 residues in FSHR function. Site directed mutagenesis of the FSHR and the expression of resulting mutants in HEK-293 cells were performed in order to corroborate the effects of these substitutions. Expression of FSHR(R467H), FSHR(R467A) and FSHR(T470A) failed to mediate ligand-provoked G(s) protein activation, whereas the R467K mutant behaved as the Wt receptor. Interestingly, the expression of L477A, L477D and L477P FSHR mutants conferred elevated basal cAMP levels to HEK-293 cells. This study indicates that the IL-2 of the human FSHR possesses amino acid residues that are important for both coupling the receptor to the G(s) protein (R467 and T470) and maintaining the receptor molecule in an inactive conformation (L477). It appears that this particular intracellular domain may act as a conformational switch to produce the activation of G proteins as has been reported for the IL-2 of other G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:12039074

Timossi, Carlos; Maldonado, David; Vizcaíno, Andrea; Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Conn, P Michael; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

2002-03-28

208

75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 330 (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice...

2010-10-08

209

Contribution of histone N-terminal tails to the structure and stability of nucleosomes???  

PubMed Central

Histones are the protein components of the nucleosome, which forms the basic architecture of eukaryotic chromatin. Histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are composed of two common regions, the “histone fold” and the “histone tail”. Many efforts have been focused on the mechanisms by which the post-translational modifications of histone tails regulate the higher-order chromatin architecture. On the other hand, previous biochemical studies have suggested that histone tails also affect the structure and stability of the nucleosome core particle itself. However, the precise contributions of each histone tail are unclear. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of four mutant nucleosomes, in which one of the four histones, H2A, H2B, H3, or H4, lacked the N-terminal tail. We found that the deletion of the H2B or H3 N-terminal tail affected histone–DNA interactions and substantially decreased nucleosome stability. These findings provide important information for understanding the complex roles of histone tails in regulating chromatin structure. PMID:24251097

Iwasaki, Wakana; Miya, Yuta; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takehiko; Kagawa, Wataru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

210

Flight investigation of the effect of tail boom strakes on helicopter directional control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint U.S. Army/NASA flight investigation was conducted utilizing a single-rotor helicopter to determine the effectiveness of horizontally mounted tail boom strakes on directional controllability and tail rotor power during low-speed, crosswind operating conditions. Three configurations were investigated: (1) baseline (strakes off), (2) single strake (strake at upper shoulder on port side of boom), and (3) double strake (upper strake plus a lower strake on same side of boom). The strakes were employed as a means to separate airflow over the tail boom and change fuselage yawing moments in a direction to improve the yaw control margin and reduce tail rotor power. Crosswind data were obtained in 5-knot increments of airspeed from 0 to 35 knots and in 30 deg increments of wind azimuth from 0 deg to 330 deg. At the most critical wind azimuth and airspeed in terms of tail rotor power, the strakes improved the pedal margin by 6 percent of total travel and reduced tail rotor power required by 17 percent. The increase in yaw control and reduction in tail rotor power offered by the strakes can expand the helicopter operating envelope in terms of gross weight and altitude capability. The strakes did not affect the flying qualities of the vehicle at airspeeds between 35 and 100 knots.

Kelly, Henry L.; Crowell, Cynthia A.; Yenni, Kenneth R.; Lance, Michael B.

1993-01-01

211

A new approach to electromagnetic wave tails on a curved spacetime  

E-print Network

We present an alternative method for constructing the exact and approximate solutions of electromagnetic wave equations whose source terms are arbitrary order multipoles on a curved spacetime. The developed method is based on the higher-order Green's functions for wave equations which are defined as distributions that satisfy wave equations with the corresponding order covariant derivatives of the Dirac delta function as the source terms. The constructed solution is applied to the study of various geometric effects on the generation and propagation of electromagnetic wave tails to first order in the Riemann tensor. Generally the received radiation tail occurs after a time delay which represents geometrical backscattering by the central gravitational source. It is shown that the truly nonlocal wave-propagation correction (the tail term) takes a universal form which is independent of multipole order. In a particular case, if the radiation pulse is generated by the source during a finite time interval, the tail term after the primary pulse is entirely determined by the energy-momentum vector of the gravitational field source: the form of the tail term is independent of the multipole structure of the gravitational source. We apply the results to a compact binary system and conclude that under certain conditions the tail energy can be a noticeable fraction of the primary pulse energy. We argue that the wave tails should be carefully considered in energy calculations of such systems.

R. Mankin; T. Laas; R. Tammelo

2000-09-22

212

Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

1981-01-01

213

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers II: Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and HI rich, optically bright Eastern tail and an HI-rich, optically faint Western tail. Non-detection of CO in the Western Tail by Braine et al. (2001) suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H-alpha narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the Western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 micron [CII] emission at the location of the three most luminous H-alpha sources in the Eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H-alpha source in the Western tail. The Western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the Eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [CII] emission suggests the Western tail HII region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The Western tail is...

Knierman, Karen; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M; Charlton, Jane

2013-01-01

214

Genomic analyses of metal resistance genes in three plant growth promoting bacteria of legume plants in Northwest mine tailings, China.  

PubMed

To better understand the diversity of metal resistance genetic determinant from microbes that survived at metal tailings in northwest of China, a highly elevated level of heavy metal containing region, genomic analyses was conducted using genome sequence of three native metal-resistant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). It shows that: Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 contains metal transporters from P-type ATPase, CDF (Cation Diffusion Facilitator), HupE/UreJ and CHR (chromate ion transporter) family involved in copper, zinc, nickel as well as chromate resistance and homeostasis. Meanwhile, the putative CopA/CueO system is expected to mediate copper resistance in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 while ZntA transporter, assisted with putative CzcD, determines zinc tolerance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. The greenhouse experiment provides the consistent evidence of the plant growth promoting effects of these microbes on their hosts by nitrogen fixation and/or indoleacetic acid (IAA) secretion, indicating a potential in-site phytoremediation usage in the mining tailing regions of China. PMID:25597676

Xie, Pin; Hao, Xiuli; Herzberg, Martin; Luo, Yantao; Nies, Dietrich H; Wei, Gehong

2015-01-01

215

A Christmas "E-Tail"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather outside turns frightful, retail businesses with "e-tail" (electronic retail) Websites are hoping that consumers will turn to their home computers for their holiday shopping. A Forrester Research report estimates that seven million shoppers will spend close to $4 billion in online shopping, three times more than last year. However, this equals less than one percent of total holiday spending, estimated at $184 billion this holiday season. Most online retailers have increased the capacity and speed of their Websites in order to best serve holiday shoppers, hoping that this year's online shopping experiences will lead consumers to do a greater amount of next year's holiday shopping by way of the World Wide Web. While consumers are willing to try e-commerce sites, as many as 40 percent of experienced Internet users have found the process of online shopping confusing and complicated. This week's In the News examines the trend of online shopping with the following seven resources including news articles, advice, and related Websites.

Missner, Emily D.

216

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

none,

1981-09-01

217

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions.

none,

1981-09-01

218

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

Not Available

1981-07-01

219

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present.

none,

1981-09-01

220

Linker histone tails and N-tails of histone H3 are redundant: scanning force microscopy studies of reconstituted fibers.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms responsible for organizing linear arrays of nucleosomes into the three-dimensional structure of chromatin are still largely unknown. In a companion paper (Leuba, S. H., et al. 1998. Biophys. J. 74:2823-2829), we study the contributions of linker histone domains and the N-terminal tail of core histone H3 to extended chromatin fiber structure by scanning force microscopy imaging of mildly trypsinized fibers. Here we complement and extend these studies by scanning force microscopy imaging of selectively reconstituted chromatin fibers, which differ in subtle but distinctive ways in their histone composition. We demonstrate an absolute requirement for the globular domain of the linker histones and a structural redundancy of the tails of linker histones and of histone H3 in determining conformational stability. PMID:9635737

Leuba, S H; Bustamante, C; van Holde, K; Zlatanova, J

1998-01-01

221

Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail  

SciTech Connect

Chromodomains are modules implicated in the recognition of lysine-methylated histone tails and nucleic acids. CHD (for chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding) proteins regulate ATP-dependent nucleosome assembly and mobilization through their conserved double chromodomains and SWI2/SNF2 helicase/ATPase domain. The Drosophila CHD1 localizes to the interbands and puffs of the polytene chromosomes, which are classic sites of transcriptional activity. Other CHD isoforms (CHD3/4 or Mi-2) are important for nucleosome remodelling in histone deacetylase complexes. Deletion of chromodomains impairs nucleosome binding and remodelling by CHD proteins. Here we describe the structure of the tandem arrangement of the human CHD1 chromodomains, and its interactions with histone tails. Unlike HP1 and Polycomb proteins that use single chromodomains to bind to their respective methylated histone H3 tails, the two chromodomains of CHD1 cooperate to interact with one methylated H3 tail. We show that the human CHD1 double chromodomains target the lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail (H3K4me), a hallmark of active chromatin. Methylammonium recognition involves two aromatic residues, not the three-residue aromatic cage used by chromodomains of HP1 and Polycomb proteins. Furthermore, unique inserts within chromodomain 1 of CHD1 block the expected site of H3 tail binding seen in HP1 and Polycomb, instead directing H3 binding to a groove at the inter-chromodomain junction.

Flanagan, John F.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Cymborowski, Marcin; Clines, Katrina L.; Kim, Youngchang; Minor, Wladek; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh (ANL/SBC); (UV)

2010-07-19

222

MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Nittler, Larry R.; Raines, Jim M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Starr, Richard D.; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

223

The Pressure Distribution over the Horizontal Tail Surfaces of an Airplane II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the results obtained upon model tail surfaces can be used to accurately predict loads upon the full-sized tail; and also to find the distribution of load when large elevator angles are used, as the loads from such angles can not be obtained readily in free flight. The method consisted in using a metal horizontal tail surface inside of which small air passages, connecting with a series of holes in the surface, led the pressure off from the tail in rubber tubes. In this way the pressure at each of these holes was measured by a manometer at several angles of attack and several to the loading under similar conditions in the full-sized airplane and the manner of distribution is quite similar in the two cases when there is no slip stream.

Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

1921-01-01

224

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

Not Available

1981-09-01

225

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

226

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy  

PubMed Central

Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments. PMID:23284771

Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Danielsen, Carl Chr.; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S.; Rydtoft, Louise M.; Mortensen, Martin B.; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.

2012-01-01

227

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers. II. Comparing Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of NGC 2782  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ~4: 1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H? narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 ?m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H? sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H? source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.; Charlton, Jane

2013-09-01

228

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2013-09-10

229

The Relationship between Self-Determination and Quality of Life among Individuals with Disabilities Involved with a Center for Independent Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with disabilities have historically been compromised in their ability to assert independence with respect to concepts of independent living and self-determination. In turn this may potentially impact an individual's overall quality of life. Community integration and availability of a full quality of life and to be self-determined has…

Bekemeier, Karsten

2009-01-01

230

Orexigenic response to tail pinch: role of brain NPY(1) and corticotropin releasing factor receptors.  

PubMed

Tail pinch stimulates food intake in rats. We investigated brain mechanisms of this response and the influence of repeated exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats received acute (5 min) or repeated (5 min/day for 14 days) tail pinch using a padded clip. Acute tail pinch increased 5-min food intake compared with control (0.92 ± 0.2 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01 g, P < 0.01). This response was inhibited by 76% by intracerebroventricular injection of BIBP-3226, a neuropeptide Y1 (NPY1) receptor antagonist, increased by 48% by astressin-B, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, and not modified by S-406-028, a somatostatin subtype 2 antagonist. After the 5-min tail pinch without food, blood glucose rose by 21% (P < 0.01) while changes in plasma acyl ghrelin (+41%) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (+37%) were not significant. Two tail pinches (45 min apart) activate pontine and hindbrain catecholaminergic and hypothalamic paraventricular CRF neurons. After 14 days of repeated tail pinch, the 5-min orexigenic response was not significantly different from days 2 to 11 but reduced by 50% thereafter (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, the 5-min fecal pellet output increased during the last 5 days compared with the first 5 days (+58%, P < 0.05). At day 14, the body weight gain was reduced by 22%, with a 99% inhibition of fat gain and a 25% reduction in lean mass (P < 0.05). The orexigenic response to acute 5-min tail pinch is likely to involve the activation of brain NPY1 signaling, whereas that of CRF tends to dampen the acute response and may contribute to increased defecation and decreased body weight gain induced by repeated tail pinch. PMID:24338440

Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

2014-02-01

231

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

232

The sodium tail of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

2009-12-01

233

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed:

Adrián Rojo; Luis Cubillos

2009-01-01

234

Effects of White-Tailed Deer on Populations of an Understory Forb in Fragmented Deciduous Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grazing by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) on populations of Trillium spp. were examined in remnant, old-growth patches of the highly fragmented Big Woods forest ecosystem in south- eastern Minnesota. We conducted three separate studies involving an exclosure experiment, transplant exper- iments, and comparisons of Trillium populations among study sites. The highest grazing intensity was ob-

David J. Augustine; Lee E. Frelich

1998-01-01

235

Acceleration of Lithium Test Ions in the Quiet Time Geomagnetic Tail  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the active experiments to be performed as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers mission involves the release of lithium ions in the geomagnetic tail and their subsequent detection after earthward convection into the nightsidouter ring current region. In this paper we have used the guiding center approximation to integrate ion trajectories in a simple two-dimensional model

Sandra C. Chapman; S. W. H. Cowley

1984-01-01

236

Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population growth combined with the recalcitrant dispersal behavior of this social

John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

2002-01-01

237

THE IMPACT OF ROUTINE PIGLET PROCESSING PROCEDURES ON WELL-BEING. I. TEETH RESECTION, TAIL-DOCKING, AND CASTRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several potentially painful procedures are performed on piglets soon after birth. These procedures include teeth resection, tail docking, and castration. Several experiments were conducted to determine if less painful alternatives could be identified. Three experiments were conducted to compare: 1)...

238

Mating success of male bushy-tailed woodrats: when bigger is not always better  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors that regulate mating opportunities of male bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), we used stepwise multiple regression on measurable morphological and behavioral traits. DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the paternity of juveniles, allowing mating success (the number of females mated with), and reproductive success (the number of offspring fathered) to be quantified. Both measures of male success

Michael G. Topping; John S. Millar

1999-01-01

239

Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01

240

Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers: Star Formation Efficiency in the Western Tail of NGC 2782  

E-print Network

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios < 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of ~4:1 occurring ~200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{\\alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({\\Sigma}SFR) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed ...

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf; Wehner, Elizabeth; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L1

2012-01-01

241

Why do Birds have Tails? The Tail as a Drag Reducing Flap, and Trim Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds have tails, bats do not. Does this fundamental difference in flight morphology reveal a difference in flight capability, and if so are birds or bats better fliers? I use Munk's stagger theorem, and Prandtl's relation for the induced drag of a biplane to show that for a given lift, and given wingspan, the induced drag of the wing-tail combination

Adrian L. R. Thomas

1996-01-01

242

Scorpion Sheds ‘Tail’ to Escape: Consequences and Implications of Autotomy in Scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris)  

PubMed Central

Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen) was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or ‘tail’) in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches) automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion’s digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V) and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism. PMID:25629529

Mattoni, Camilo I.; García-Hernández, Solimary; Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Ochoa, José A.; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Prendini, Lorenzo

2015-01-01

243

Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.

Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt

1998-01-01

244

A generalized dynamic balancing procedure for the AH-64 tail rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tail rotors on the AH-64A Apache and AH-64D Longbow Apache incorporate a unique design, which includes two, two-bladed teetering rotors that have an azimuth spacing of 55°, instead of the more usual 90°. Maintainers have observed that some Apache tail rotors can be extraordinarily difficult to balance dynamically. This investigation uses RCAS (Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System) numerical simulations of tail rotor response when mass is added to the tips of single and adjacent blades to investigate possible causes for this balancing difficulty. The simulations show that the 1/rev, vertical, vibratory force response due to added tip mass varies as a function of the mass distribution between two adjacent blades, and the azimuth spacing between the two blades. As a result, the tail rotor balance sensitivity coefficients, if used as for a single blade, will be inaccurate; and may be a prime contributor to the problems observed while balancing tail rotors. An analytical model of the AH-64D tail rotor, with characteristics similar to the RCAS model, and which incorporates the influence of structural impedance through the balance sensitivity coefficients and phase angles, is used to develop a method for accurately determining the amount of tip mass required to reduce the 1/rev vibrations to acceptable levels.

Kunz, Donald L.; Newkirk, Mark C.

2009-09-01

245

Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

1988-01-01

246

The use of post detonation analysis of stable isotope ratios to determine the type and production process of the explosive involved  

SciTech Connect

The detonation of a series of explosives was performed in a controlled manner to collect the resulting, solid residue or {open_quotes}soot.{close_quotes} This residue was examined to determine the ratios of the stable carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes. The goal of the experiment was to determine if these ratios could be used to indicate, from the post detonation residues, the type and origin of the detonated explosive. The ratios of the stated stable isotopes in the undetonated explosive were also determined. Despite some reservations in the quality of the data resulting from contamination by nonexplosive components, certain trends can be discerned. (1) Carbon isotopes allow aromatic explosives to be distinguished from nonaromatic explosives. This trend seems to carry through the detonation so that the distinction might be made after the fact. (2) The amination process for TATB can be detected through the hydrogen and, to some extent, the nitrogen isotope ratios. Unfortunately, the data are not sufficiently good to determine if this differential carries through the detonation. (3) The relative magnitude and sign of the nitrogen isotope ratio seems to carry through the detonation: some exchange with atmospheric nitrogen is probable. Even though this set of experiments must also be viewed as preliminary, there is a definite indication that certain qualitative characteristics of explosives can be detected after the detonation. This {open_quotes}signature{close_quotes} could have application to both intelligence and counter terrorism.

McGuire, R.R.; Velsko, C.A.; Lee, C.G.; Raber, E.

1993-03-05

247

NESTING HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF SYMPATRIC CRESTED CARACARAS, RED-TAILED HAWKS, ANDWHITE-TAILED HAWKS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus )( n 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis )( n 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway )( n 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed

Michael A. Actkinson; WILLIAM P. KUVLESKY JR; Clint W. Boal; Leonard A. Brennan; Fidel Hernandez

2007-01-01

248

Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).  

PubMed

Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

2004-10-01

249

Breeding biology and nest-site selection of red-tailed hawks in an altered desert grassland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) have expanded their range as trees have invaded formerly-open grasslands. Desert grasslands of southern Arizona have been invaded by mesquite trees (Prosopis velutina) since Anglo-American settlement and now support a large population of Red-tailed Hawks. We studied a population of Red-tailed Hawks in an altered desert grassland in southern Arizona. Our objectives were to determine what environmental characteristics influence Red-tailed Hawk habitat selection in mesquite-invaded desert grasslands and to evaluate the habitat quality of these grasslands for Red-tailed Hawks based on nesting density, nest success, and productivity. Red-tailed Hawks had 86% (95% C.I. = 73-99) nest success and 1.82 young per breeding pair (95% C.I. = 1.41-2.23). Nesting density was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08-0.21) breeding pairs/km2 and the mean nearest-neighbor distance was 1.95 km (95% C.I. = 1.74-2.16). Red-tailed Hawks selected nest-sites with taller nest-trees and greater tree height and cover than were available at random. Mesquite trees in desert grasslands provide abundant potential nesting structures for Red-tailed Hawks. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Hobbs, R.J.; DeStefano, S.; Halvorson, W.L.

2006-01-01

250

X-Ray Tail in NGC 7619  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the southwest direction; moreover, we identify for the first time a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (northeast) side of the galaxy. The density, temperature, and pressure jump at the northeast discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to the surrounding hot gas. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (<=1/2 solar), indicating that the gas in the tail is originated from the galaxy. The possible origin of the head-tail structure is either ongoing ram pressure stripping or sloshing. The morphology of the structure is more in line with a ram pressure stripping phenomenon, while the position of NGC 7619 at the center of the Pegasus I group, and its dominance, would prefer sloshing.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eunhyeuk; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Trinchieri, Ginevra

2008-12-01

251

Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.  

PubMed

The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort. PMID:12485695

Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

2002-12-01

252

Mixing of propagules from discrete sources at long distance: comparing a dispersal tail to an exponential  

PubMed Central

Background Rare long distance dispersal events impact the demography and the genetic structure of populations. When dispersal is modelled via a dispersal kernel, one possible characterisation of long-distance dispersal is given by the shape of the tail of the kernel, i.e. its type of decay. This characteristic is known to directly act on the speed and pattern of colonization, and on the spatial structure of genetic diversity during colonization. In particular, colonization waves behave differently depending on whether the kernel decreases faster or slower than an exponential (i.e. is thin-tailed vs. fat-tailed). To interpret and extend published results on the impact of long-distance dispersal on the genetic structure of populations, we examine a classification of dispersal kernels based on the shape of their tails and formally demonstrate qualitative differences among them that can influence the predicted diversity of a propagule pool sampled far from two distinct sources. Results We show that a fat-tailed kernel leads asymptotically to a diverse propagule pool containing a balanced mixing of the propagules from the two sources, whereas a thin-tailed kernel results in all propagules originating from the closest source. We further show that these results hold for biologically relevant distances under certain circumstances, and in particular if the number of propagules is large enough, as would be the case for pollen or seeds. Conclusion To understand the impact of long-distance dispersal on the structure and dynamics of a metapopulation, it might be less important to precisely estimate an average dispersal distance than to determine if the tail of the dispersal kernel is fatter or thinner than that of an exponential function. Depending solely on this characteristic, a metapopulation will behave similarly to an island model with a diverse immigrant pool or to a stepping-stone model with migrants from closest populations. Our results further help to understand why thin-tailed dispersal kernels lead to a colonization wave of constant speed, whereas fat-tailed dispersal kernels lead to a wave of increasing speed. Our results also suggest that the diversity of the pollen cloud of a mother plant should increase with increasing isolation for fat-tailed kernels, whereas it should decrease for thin-tailed kernels. PMID:16504013

Klein, Etienne K; Lavigne, Claire; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

2006-01-01

253

Tailings Pond Characterization And Designing Through Geophysical Surveys In Dipping Sedimentary Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities results into generation of disintegrated waste materials attaining increased mobilization status and requires a safe disposal mechanism through back filling process or secluded storage on surface with prevention of its interaction with environment cycle. The surface disposal of waste materials will become more critical in case of mined minerals having toxic or radioactive elements. In such cases, the surface disposal site is to be characterized for its sub-surface nature to understand its role in environmental impact due to the loading of waste materials. Near surface geophysics plays a major role in mapping the geophysical characters of the sub-surface formations in and around the disposal site and even to certain extent helps in designing of the storage structure. Integrated geophysical methods involving resistivity tomography, ground magnetic and shallow seismic studies were carried out over proposed tailings pond area of 0.3 sq. kms underlined by dipping sedimentary rocks consisting of ferruginous shales and dolomitic to siliceous limestone with varying thicknesses. The investigated site being located in tectonically disturbed area, geophysical investigations were carried out with number of profiles to visualize the sub-surface nature with clarity. The integration of results of twenty profiles of resistivity tomography with 2 m (shallow) and 10 m (moderate depth) electrode spacing’s enabled in preparing probable sub-surface geological section along the strike direction of the formation under the tailings pond with some geo-tectonic structure inferred to be a fault. Similarly, two resistivity tomography profiles perpendicular to the strike direction of the formations brought out the existence of buried basic intrusive body on the northern boundary of the proposed tailings pond. Two resistivity tomography profiles in criss-cross direction over the suspected fault zone confirmed fault existence on the north-eastern part of tailings pond. Thirty two magnetic profiles inside the tailings pond and surrounding areas on the southern part of the tailings pond enabled in identifying two parallel east-west intrusive bodies forming the impermeable boundary for the tailings pond. The shallow seismic refraction and the geophysical studies in and around the proposed tailings pond brought out the suitability of the site, even when the toxic elements percolates through the subsurface formations in to the groundwater system, the existence of dykes on either side of the proposed ponding area won’t allow the water to move across them thus by restricting the contamination within the tailings pond area. Similarly, the delineation of a fault zone within the tailings pond area helped in shifting the proposed dam axis of the pond to avoid leakage through the fault zone causing concern to environment pollution.

Muralidharan, D.; Andrade, R.; Anand, K.; Sathish, R.; Goud, K.

2009-12-01

254

Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 "By our galactic standards, these are extremely lonely stars," said Mark Voit, another team member from MSU. "If life was to form out there on a planet a few billion years from now, they would have very dark skies." The gas that formed the orphan stars was stripped out of its parent galaxy by the pressure induced by the motion of the galaxy through the multimillion degree gas that pervades the intergalactic space of the galaxy cluster. Eventually most of the gas will be scoured from the galaxy, depleting the raw material for new stars, and effectively stopping further star formation in the galaxy. This process may represent an important but short-lived stage in the transformation of a galaxy. Although apparently rare in the present-day universe, galactic tails of gas and orphan stars may have been more common billions of years ago when galaxies were younger and richer in star-forming gas. These results will appear in the December 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. The SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope) is a joint project of Michigan State University, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas (CNPq-Brazil), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

2007-09-01

255

Design of tailing dam using red mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

2013-06-01

256

Significance of Microbial Communities and Interactions in Safeguarding Reactive Mine Tailings by Ecological Engineering?†  

PubMed Central

Pyritic mine tailings (mineral waste generated by metal mining) pose significant risk to the environment as point sources of acidic, metal-rich effluents (acid mine drainage [AMD]). While the accelerated oxidative dissolution of pyrite and other sulfide minerals in tailings by acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes has been widely reported, other acidophiles (heterotrophic bacteria that catalyze the dissimilatory reduction of iron and sulfur) can reverse the reactions involved in AMD genesis, and these have been implicated in the “natural attenuation” of mine waters. We have investigated whether by manipulating microbial communities in tailings (inoculating with iron- and sulfur-reducing acidophilic bacteria and phototrophic acidophilic microalgae) it is possible to mitigate the impact of the acid-generating and metal-mobilizing chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that are indigenous to tailing deposits. Sixty tailings mesocosms were set up, using five different microbial inoculation variants, and analyzed at regular intervals for changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters for up to 1 year. Differences between treatment protocols were most apparent between tailings that had been inoculated with acidophilic algae in addition to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and those that had been inoculated with only pyrite-oxidizing chemolithotrophs; these differences included higher pH values, lower redox potentials, and smaller concentrations of soluble copper and zinc. The results suggest that empirical ecological engineering of tailing lagoons to promote the growth and activities of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria could minimize their risk of AMD production and that the heterotrophic populations could be sustained by facilitating the growth of microalgae to provide continuous inputs of organic carbon. PMID:21965397

N?ancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

2011-01-01

257

TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782  

SciTech Connect

While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

2012-04-10

258

Determination of expression and activity of genes involved in starch metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum A6 during fermentation of a cereal-based gruel.  

PubMed

Traditional fermented gruels prepared from cereals are widely used for complementary feeding of young children in Africa and usually have a low energy density. The amylase activity of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) helps increase the energy content of gruels through partial hydrolysis of starch, thus enabling the incorporation of more starchy material while conserving the desired semi-liquid consistency for young children. Even if this ability is mainly related to the production of alpha-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1), in a recent molecular screening, genes coding for enzymes involved in starch metabolism were detected in the efficient amylolytic LAB Lactobacillus plantarum A6: alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20), neopullulanase (E.C. 3.2.1.135), amylopectin phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.1) and maltose phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.8). The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of these genes in a model of starchy fermented food made from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses were performed during the 18-h fermentation period. Liquefaction was mainly caused by an extracellular alpha amylase encoded by the amyA gene specific to the A6 strain among L. plantarum species and found in both Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus manihotivorans. The second most active enzyme was neopullulanase. Other starch metabolizing enzymes were less often detected. The dynamic detection of transcripts of gene during starch fermentation in pearl millet porridge suggests that the set of genes we investigated was not expressed continuously but transiently. PMID:24950021

Humblot, Christèle; Turpin, Williams; Chevalier, François; Picq, Christian; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2014-08-18

259

The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity.  

PubMed

Changes in skin blood and sweating are the primary mechanisms for heat loss in humans. A hot, humid environment concomitant with dehydration limits the ability to increase skin blood flow for the purpose of transferring heat from the body core to skin surface and evaporate sweat to maintain core temperature within safe limits during exercise. Adequate hydration improves thermoregulation by maintaining blood volume to support skin blood flow and sweating. Humans rely on fluid intake to maintain total body water and blood volume, and have developed complex mechanisms to sense changes in the amount and composition of fluid in the body. This paper addresses the interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status involved in body water and temperature regulation during exercise. In the controlled setting of a research laboratory, investigators are able to investigate the contributions of volume and tonicity of fluid in the plasma to body water and temperature regulation during exercise and recovery. For example, laboratory studies have shown that tonicity in a rehydration beverage maintains the thirst mechanism (and stimulates drinking), and contributes to the ongoing stimulation of renal fluid retention hormones, ultimately leading to a more complete rehydration. Research in the field cannot control the environment precisely, but these studies provide a natural, 'real-life' setting to study fluid and temperature regulation during exercise. The conditions encountered in the field are closest to the environment during competition, and data collected in the field can have an immediate impact on performance and safety during exercise. There is an important synergy between these two methods of collecting data that support performance and protect athletes from harm during training and improve performance during competition. PMID:24791921

Stachenfeld, Nina S

2014-05-01

260

Microbiological and geochemical characterization of fluvially deposited sulfidic mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

Wielinga, B.; Lucy, J.K.; Moore, J.N.; Seastone, O.F.; Gannon, J.E. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1999-04-01

261

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds.  

PubMed

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14 m s(-1). We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

2009-06-01

262

Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-billed streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and reducing their length by removing first the rectrices and then the entire tail (i.e. all rectrices and tail covert feathers). Flight performance was measured in a wind tunnel by measuring (i) the maximum forward speed at which the birds could fly and (ii) the metabolic cost of flight while flying at airspeeds from 0 to 14?m?s?1. We found a significant interaction effect between tail treatment and airspeed: an elongated tail increased the metabolic cost of flight by up to 11 per cent, and this effect was strongest at higher flight speeds. Maximum flight speed was concomitantly reduced by 3.4 per cent. Also, removing the entire tail decreased maximum flight speed by 2 per cent, suggesting beneficial aerodynamic effects for tails of normal length. The effects of elongation are thus subtle and airspeed-specific, suggesting that diversity in avian tail morphology is associated with only modest flight costs. PMID:19324747

James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

2009-01-01

263

Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered  

PubMed Central

Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

264

Behavioural observations of puppies undergoing tail docking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of 50 puppies of traditionally docked breeds was recorded during and after the procedure of tail docking at the University of Queensland Companion Animal Veterinary Hospital. The behaviours were recorded at the time of the procedure and then in 5 second intervals for the first minute followed by 10 second intervals until the pup settled to sleep. All

G. J. Noonan; J. S. Rand; J. K. Blackshaw; J. Priest

1996-01-01

265

TAIL-MOUNTED RADIO TRANSMITTERS FOR WATERFOWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We successfully tested tail-mounted radio transmitters on Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis), Brant (Branta bernicla) and Eur- asian Wigeon (Anas penelope). The range of detection of the transmitters was approximately 1 km and some birds were tracked for up to 4 mo. Movements and activity of the birds were not affected by the packages. We conclude that

JEAN-FRANCOIS GIROUX; DAVID V. BELL; STEVE PERCIVAL; RON W. SUMMERS

266

Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

1984-01-01

267

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

268

MODELING SERVICETIME DISTRIBUTIONS WITH NONEXPONENTIAL TAILS  

E-print Network

­tail distributions, beta distribution, confluent hypergeometric function, Tricomi function, Laguerre series expan distributions functions, Laplace transforms, moments and asymptotics by exploiting connections to the Tricomi­ sions, special functions, random splitting, products of independent random variables ABSTRACT Motivated

Whitt, Ward

269

Fluidized-bed combustion of flotation tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

After mechanical water removal, the flotation tailings containing about 30% moisture are stored in silo (1) which is specially designed for this purpose. The lime required for desulphurizing the flue gas is stored in silo (2) Special silo-discharge device and weigh-feeders pass the two materials to the mixing screw in proportional rates in accordance with the sulphur content and guaranteed

Belting

1979-01-01

270

The mine tailing accident in Aznalcollar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive amounts of acidic waters and mud (pH?3) containing toxic metals such as zinc, lead, arsenic, copper, antimony, cobalt, thallium, bismuth, cadmium, silver, mercury and selenium were released in the surroundings of Doñana Park as a consequence of the mine tailings spill accident in Aznalcollar (SW Spain). This introductory paper describes the main characteristics of Doñana Park, the mine activities

Joan O Grimalt; Miguel Ferrer; Enrique Macpherson

1999-01-01

271

VideoLab: Heads and Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flatworms known as planaria are proverbial for their ability to regenerate a head or tail properly when amputated (first clip in movie). But how does the organism "know" which end to regenerate? Gurley et al. found an answer in a molecular "switch", beta-catenin, a protein that regulates a variety of cell processes during development.

Kyle A. Gurley (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Jochen C. Rink (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy); Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy)

2008-01-18

272

Transverse tails and higher order moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tails that may be engendered in a beam's transverse phase space distribution by, e.g., intrabunch wakefields and nonlinear magnetic fields, are an important diagnostic and object of tuning in linear colliders. Wire scanners or phosphorescent screen monitors yield one dimensional projected spatial profiles of such beams that are generically asymmetric around their centroids, and therefore require characterization by the

W. L. Spence; F.-J. Decker; M. D. Woodley

1993-01-01

273

Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.  

PubMed

The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. PMID:22713114

Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

2013-04-01

274

Correlations in quantum plasmas. II. Algebraic tails  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a system of point charges that interact through the three-dimensional electrostatic Coulomb potential (without any regularization) and obey the laws of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Bose or Fermi statistics, the static correlations between particles are shown to have a 1\\/r6 tail, at least at distances that are large with respect to the length of exponential screening. After a review

F. Cornu

1996-01-01

275

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS  

E-print Network

URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÃ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

276

Multi-contrast late enhancement CMR determined gray zone and papillary muscle involvement predict appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial infarct heterogeneity indices including peri-infarct gray zone are predictors for spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias events after ICD implantation in patients with ischemic heart disease. In this study we hypothesize that the extent of peri-infarct gray zone and papillary muscle infarct scores determined by a new multi-contrast late enhancement (MCLE) method may predict appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol included LV functional parameter assessment and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR using the conventional method and MCLE post-contrast. The proportion of peri-infarct gray zone, core infarct, total infarct relative to LV myocardium mass, papillary muscle infarct scores, and LV functional parameters were statistically compared between groups with and without appropriate ICD therapy during follow-up. Results Twenty-five patients with prior myocardial infarct for planned ICD implantation (age 64±10 yrs, 88% men, average LVEF 26.2±10.4%) were enrolled. All patients completed the CMR protocol and 6–46 months follow-up at the ICD clinic. Twelve patients had at least one appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmias at follow-up. Only the proportion of gray zone measured with MCLE and papillary muscle infarct scores demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P?

2013-01-01

277

Histone H2A mobility is regulated by its tails and acetylation of core histone tails  

SciTech Connect

Histone tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions.

Higashi, Tsunehito [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Isobe, Keisuke [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morimoto, Akihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Shimada, Tomoko [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Shogo [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe, Wataru [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyoshi [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 567-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

2007-06-08

278

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Credit PED. Downstream elevation, near completion, showing tail race and trestle used to carry excavated rock and construction materials across tail race. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

279

Ion mobility based on column leaching of South African gold tailings dam with chemometric evaluation.  

PubMed

New column leaching experiments were designed and used as an alternative rapid screening approach to element mobility assessment. In these experiments, field-moist material was treated with an extracting solution to assess the effects of acidification on element mobility in mine tailings. The main advantage of this version of column leaching experiments with partitioned segments is that they give quick information on current element mobility in conditions closely simulating field conditions to compare with common unrepresentative air-dried, sieved samples used for column leaching experiments. Layers from the tailings dump material were sampled and packed into columns. The design of columns allows extracting leachates from each layer. The extracting solutions used were natural (pH 6.8) and acidified (pH 4.2) rainwater. Metals and anions were determined in the leachates. The concentrations of metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Cu) in sample leachates were determined using ICP OES. The most important anions (NO3-, Cl-, and SO4(2)-) were determined using the closed system izotacophoresis ITP analyser. The chemical analytical data from tailings leaching and physico-chemical data from field measurements (including pH, conductivity, redox potential, temperature) were used for chemometric evaluation of element mobility. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was used to evaluate ions mobility from different layers of tailings dump arising from varied pH and redox conditions. It was found that the results from the partitioned column leaching illustrate much better complex processes of metals mobility from tailings dump than the total column. The chemometric data analysis (PFA) proofed the differences in the various layers leachability that are arising from physico-chemical processes due to chemical composition of tailings dump deposit. PMID:15109878

Cukrowska, Ewa M; Govender, Koovila; Viljoen, Morris

2004-07-01

280

Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural practices and other land uses has contributed to the decline of sharp-tail habitat and populations putting this species at risk. The decline of this species is not new (Yokum, 1952, Buss and Dziedzic, 1955, Zeigler, 1979, Meints 1991, and Crawford and Snyder 1994). The Tribes (CCT and STOI) are determined to protect, enhance and restore habitat for this species continued existence. When Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Hydro-projects were constructed, inundated habitat used by this species was lost forever adding to overall decline. To compensate and prevent further habitat loss, the CCT proposed a project with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding to address this species and their habitat requirements. The projects main focus is to address habitat utilized by the current CSTG population and determine ways to protect, restore, and enhance habitats for the conservation of this species over time. The project went through the NPPC Review Process and was funded through FY03 by BPA. This report addresses part of the current CCT effort to address the conservation of this species on the Colville Reservation.

Whitney, Richard

2004-01-01

281

Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level, before and after the first visible tail damage. Video recordings of 14 pens with tail-biting outbreaks and

J. J. Zonderland; B. Kemp; M. B. M. Bracke; Hartog den L. A; H. A. M. Spoolder

2011-01-01

282

Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.  

PubMed

In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots. PMID:22217942

Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

2012-01-12

283

Uranium and thorium content in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis L.).  

PubMed

Concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in liver, breast muscle, leg muscle, stomach and heart of long-tailed ducks wintering in Gda?sk Bay during 1980-81. The highest concentration of uranium and thorium was found in stomach, and the lowest in breast muscle. PMID:6635654

Szefer, P; Falandysz, J

1983-08-01

284

EXPERIMENTAL CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MULE DEER, WHITE-TAILED DEER, PRONGHORN AND WAPITI1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ocis cana- densis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species devel- oped mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly

William R. Lance; Charles P. Hibler; James DeMartini

285

Evaluation of an electrified mat as a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose economic and safety problems for agricultural and transportation industries. We tested an electronic mat to determine if it would reduce deer crossing through fence openings. We measured deer intrusions and corn consumption at five sites with charged mats and five sites with non-charged mats. Weekly intrusions at treated sites decreased an average of 95% from

Thomas W. Seamans; David A. Helon

2008-01-01

286

White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesi...

287

Estimation of Presettlement Populations of the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Reply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the historical distribution and abundance of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicanus) is important as a component of the science underlying decisions on the future management of this species. Clearly, we differ from Knowles and colleagues (2002) in our interpretation of those data (see below). In addition, Knowles et al. (2002) introduce other lines of evidence rather than

Dallas Virchow; Scott E. Hygnstrom

2002-01-01

288

Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

1984-01-01

289

Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine effect of altitude and flight Mach number on performance of tail-pipe burner equipped with variable-area exhaust nozzle and installed on full-scale turbojet engine. At a given flight Mach number, with constant exhaust-gas and turbine-outlet temperatures, increasing altitude lowered the tail-pipe combustion efficiency and raised the specific fuel consumption while the augmented thrust ratio remained approximately constant. At a given altitude, increasing flight Mach number raised the combustion efficiency and augmented thrust ratio and lowered the specific fuel consumption.

Jansen, Emmert T; Thorman, H Carl

1950-01-01

290

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed  

E-print Network

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano, John Olson, and Jim are concerned about the negative effects coyotes may have on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus

Watson, Craig A.

291

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

292

The Action of Waving Cylindrical Tails in Propelling Microscopic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of the tail of a spermatozoon is discussed from the hydrodynamical point of view. The tail is assumed to be a flexible cylinder which is distorted by waves of lateral displacement propagated along its length. The resulting stress and motion in the surrounding fluid is analyzed mathematically. Waves propagated backwards along the tail give rise to a forward

Geoffrey Taylor

1952-01-01

293

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

Not Available

1994-09-01

294

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of  

E-print Network

G-tail telomere HPA: simple measurement of human single-stranded telomeric overhangs Hidetoshi of telomeric 3¢-overhang (G-tail) lengths is essential for investigation of the biological effects of telomere dysfunction. G-tail telomere hybridization protection assay (Gt-telomere HPA) has the advantages of being

Cai, Long

295

Aspects of the permanent storage of uranium tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium tailings are generated as solid and liquid wastes in uranium mining\\/milling operations. Since most of the uranium deposits in the world have low grades, millions of tonnes of such wastes are produced annually. Often, the uranium tailings are locally disposed of, using sites with suitable conditions to construct tailings basins. The main concern during the operation of a disposal

A. Al-Hashimi; G. J. Evans; B. Cox

1996-01-01

296

Aquatic Plant Establishment on Nickel Tailings Five Years After Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel tailings were deposited between 1978 and 1988 in Falconbridge's New Tailings Area located northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. In 1996, construction of a new dam and dredging split the site into an Upper Terrace (56 ha) and a Lower Terrace (30 ha) to facilitate flooding. Water covers minimize the oxidation of acid generating tailings but some oxidation and release

F. Wilkinson; P. J. Beckett

297

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated. Keywords Alaska Á DNA Á Feces Á Microsatellites Á Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis Á Sitka black-tailed deer

298

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1  

E-print Network

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy Kristian W. Sanggaard1 , Carl Chr shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

299

Animal model of simulated microgravity: a comparative study of hindlimb unloading via tail versus pelvic suspension  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare physiological effects of hindlimb suspension (HLS) in tail- and pelvic-HLS rat models to determine if severe stretch in the tail-HLS rats lumbosacral skeleton may contribute to the changes traditionally attributed to simulated microgravity and musculoskeletal disuse in the tail-HLS model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into suspended and control-nonsuspended groups were subjected to two separate methods of suspension and maintained with regular food and water for 2 weeks. Body weights, food and water consumption, soleus muscle weight, tibial bone mineral density, random plasma insulin, and hindlimb pain on pressure threshold (PPT) were measured. X-ray analysis demonstrated severe lordosis in tail- but not pelvic-HLS animals. However, growth retardation, food consumption, and soleus muscle weight and tibial bone density (decreased relative to control) did not differ between two HLS models. Furthermore, HLS rats developed similar levels of insulinopenia and mechanical hyperalgesia (decreased PPT) in both tail- and pelvic-HLS groups. In the rat-to-rat comparisons, the growth retardation and the decreased PPT observed in HLS-rats was most associated with insulinopenia. In conclusion, these data suggest that HLS results in mild prediabetic state with some signs of pressure hyperalgesia, but lumbosacral skeleton stretch plays little role, if any, in these pathological changes. PMID:24303103

Chowdhury, Parimal; Long, Ashley; Harris, Gabrielle; Soulsby, Michael E; Dobretsov, Maxim

2013-01-01

300

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Lakeview site, Lakeview, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The three alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I) and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II and III). Cost estimates range from about $6,000,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $7,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 10 miles. Three alternatives for reprocessing the Lakeview tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $450/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and hence reprocessing is not economical.

none,

1981-10-01

301

Spinal cord injury increases the reactivity of rat tail artery to angiotensin II  

PubMed Central

Studies in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suggest the vasculature is hyperreactive to angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, the effects of SCI on the reactivity of the rat tail and mesenteric arteries to Ang II have been investigated. In addition, the effects of SCI on the facilitatory action of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions of these vessels were determined. Isometric contractions of artery segments from T11 (tail artery) or T4 (mesenteric arteries) spinal cord-transected rats and sham-operated rats were compared 6–7 weeks postoperatively. In both tail and mesenteric arteries, SCI increased nerve-evoked contractions. In tail arteries, SCI also greatly increased Ang II-evoked contractions and the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. By contrast, SCI did not detectably change the responses of mesenteric arteries to Ang II. These findings provide the first direct evidence that SCI increases the reactivity of arterial vessels to Ang II. In addition, in tail artery, the findings indicate that Ang II may contribute to modifying their responses following SCI. PMID:25610365

Al Dera, Hussain; Brock, James A.

2015-01-01

302

Ecological studies of the white-tailed deer in western Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Activity patterns and microhabitat utilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are being studied at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Carroll and Gibson counties, Tennessee. Ten white-tailed deer have been fitted with radio-collars, and locations are being monitored using standard techniques. Home ranges and daily activity patterns are being determined. Preliminary analyses have shown that white-tailed deer are readily located using radio-techniques. Microhabitat utilization is being assessed by pellet transects and radio locations. Pellet counts from transects located in pastures and old fields are significantly different from those in other habitat types. Use of honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is being examined by observing the degree of browse along transects. No significant difference in utilization has been seen between the honeysuckle transects.

Frederick, R.D.; Kennedy, M.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

1993-04-01

303

MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, a series of 2-3 minute long enhancements of the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail were observed. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approximately 10 times less and the durations are 1 hr. These observations of extreme loading imply that the relative intensity of substorms at Mercury must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail enhancements and the calculated approximately 2 min Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere, suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles. Such signatures are puzzlingly absent from the MESSENGER flyby measurements.

Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Nittler, Larry R.; Raines, Jim M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Starr, Richard D.; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

304

Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

305

Experimental parametric studies of transonic T-tail flutter. [wind tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests of the T-tail of a wide-body jet airplane were made at Mach numbers up to 1.02. The model consisted of a 1/13-size scaled version of the T-tail, fuselage, and inboard wing of the airplane. Two interchangeable T-tails were tested, one with design stiffness for flutter-clearance studies and one with reduced stiffness for flutter-trend studies. Transonic antisymmetric-flutter boundaries were determined for the models with variations in: (1) fin-spar stiffness, (2) stabilizer dihedral angle (-5 deg and 0 deg), (3) wing and forward-fuselage shape, and (4) nose shape of the fin-stabilizer juncture. A transonic symmetric-flutter boundary and flutter trends were established for variations in stabilizer pitch stiffness. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

Ruhlin, C. L.; Sandford, M. C.

1975-01-01

306

Cartesian-Grid Simulations of a Canard-Controlled Missile with a Free-Spinning Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed paper presents a series of simulations of a geometrically complex, canard-controlled, supersonic missile with free-spinning tail fins. Time-dependent simulations were performed using an inviscid Cartesian-grid-based method with results compared to both experimental data and high-resolution Navier-Stokes computations. At fixed free stream conditions and canard deflections, the tail spin rate was iteratively determined such that the net rolling moment on the empennage is zero. This rate corresponds to the time-asymptotic rate of the free-to-spin fin system. After obtaining spin-averaged aerodynamic coefficients for the missile, the investigation seeks a fixed-tail approximation to the spin-averaged aerodynamic coefficients, and examines the validity of this approximation over a variety of freestream conditions.

Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

307

Mechano-coupling and regulation of contractility by the vinculin tail domain.  

PubMed

Vinculin binds to multiple focal adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins and has been implicated in transmitting mechanical forces between the actin cytoskeleton and integrins or cadherins. It remains unclear to what extent the mechano-coupling function of vinculin also involves signaling mechanisms. We report the effect of vinculin and its head and tail domains on force transfer across cell adhesions and the generation of contractile forces. The creep modulus and the adhesion forces of F9 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells (wild-type), vinculin knock-out cells (vinculin -/-), and vinculin -/- cells expressing either the vinculin head domain, tail domain, or full-length vinculin (rescue) were measured using magnetic tweezers on fibronectin-coated super-paramagnetic beads. Forces of up to 10 nN were applied to the beads. Vinculin -/- cells and tail cells showed a slightly higher incidence of bead detachment at large forces. Compared to wild-type, cell stiffness was reduced in vinculin -/- and head cells and was restored in tail and rescue cells. In all cell lines, the cell stiffness increased by a factor of 1.3 for each doubling in force. The power-law exponent of the creep modulus was force-independent and did not differ between cell lines. Importantly, cell tractions due to contractile forces were suppressed markedly in vinculin -/- and head cells, whereas tail cells generated tractions similar to the wild-type and rescue cells. These data demonstrate that vinculin contributes to the mechanical stability under large external forces by regulating contractile stress generation. Furthermore, the regulatory function resides in the tail domain of vinculin containing the paxillin-binding site. PMID:17890382

Mierke, Claudia Tanja; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Zitterbart, Daniel Paranhos; Smith, James; Fabry, Ben; Goldmann, Wolfgang Heinrich

2008-01-15

308

The Question of Spontaneous Wing Oscillations : Determination of Critical Velocity Through Flight-oscillation Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determination of the spontaneous oscillations of a wing or tail unit entail many difficulties, both the mathematical determination and the determination by static wing oscillation tests being far from successful and flight tests involving very great risks. The present paper gives a method developed at the Junkers Airplane Company by which the critical velocity with respect to spontaneous oscillations of increasing amplitude can be ascertained in flight tests without undue risks, the oscillation of the surface being obtained in the tests by the application of an external force.

Schlippe, B V

1936-01-01

309

Wind-tunnel investigation at supersonic speeds of a remote-controlled canard missile with a free-rolling-tail brake torque system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers 1.70, 2.16, and 2.86 to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics of a cruciform canard-controlled missile with fixed or free rolling tailfin afterbodies. Mechanical coupling effects of the free-rolling-tail afterbody were investigated by using an electronic electromagnetic brake system providing arbitrary tail-fin brake torques with continuous measurements of tail-to-mainframe torque and tail roll rate. Remote-controlled canards were deflected to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. Results indicate that the induced rolling moment coefficients due to canard yaw control are reduced and linearized for the free-rolling-tail (free-tail) configuration. The canards of the latter provide conventional roll control for the entire angle-of-attack test range. For the free-tail configuration, the induced rolling moment coefficient due to canard yaw control increased and the canard roll control decreased with increases in brake torque, which simulated bearing friction torque. It appears that a compromise in regard to bearing friction, for example, low-cost bearings with some friction, may allow satisfactory free-tail aerodynamic characteristics that include reductions in adverse rolling-moment coefficients and lower tail roll rates.

Blair, A. B., Jr.

1985-01-01

310

Hydrochemistry of the Falls City uranium mine tailings remedial action project, Karnes County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Acidic tailings and tailings solutions, created by sulfuric acid processing of uranium ores, were disposed of on the outcrop of the Whitsett Formation (Eocene). These solutions have recharged the sandstones of the Whitsett since the 1960`s. Previous workers found a larger, complex, and unexplained pattern of contamination. Our study determined the extent and nature of contamination by (1) characterizing the geology and hydrology of the two shallow aquifers at the site, (2) determining the chemistry of the contaminant source (tailings solutions), and (3) identifying geochemical reactions that have altered the composition of contaminant plumes within each aquifer. The tailings solutions are composed of sodium chloride and neutral sulfate salts of aluminum and ammonium, with lesser amounts of iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium sulfate. Hydrolysis of aluminum sulfate produces an acid pH (3 to 4). Also, aluminum sulfate is a pH buffer, and it controls acidity of the tailings solutions. Cation exchange and neutralization by calcite modify the tailings solutions as they migrate through the aquifers. These reactions explain chemical patterns, which delineate five separate contaminant plumes in the aquifers. In the Deweesville sandstone, cation exchange has removed ammonium from acidic contaminant plumes. However, neutralization is incomplete because of the paucity of calcite in the Deweesville. In contrast, in the calcite-rich Conquista fossilferous sandstone, cation exchange and complete neutralization by calcite have removed most contaminant ions. Those contaminant plumes are delineated by elevated concentrations of calcium and carbon dioxide. The amount of contamination in both aquifers is much smaller than that estimated previously.

Jackson, T.J.; Kreitler, C.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

311

Hydrochemistry at the Falls City Uranium Mine Tailings Remedial Action Project, Karnes County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Acidic tailings and tailings solutions, created by sulfuric acid processing of uranium ores, were disposed on the outcrop of the Whitsett Formation (Eocene). These solutions have recharged the sandstones of the Whitsett since the 1960s. Previous work found a large, complex, and unexplained pattern of contamination. The present study determined the extent and nature of contamination by (1) characterizing the geology and hydrology of the two shallow aquifers at the site, (2) determining the chemistry of the contaminant source (tailings solutions), and (3) identifying geochemical reactions that have altered the composition of contaminant plumes within each aquifer. The tailings solutions are composed of sodium chloride and neutral sulfate salts of aluminum and ammonium, with lesser amounts of iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium sulfate. Hydrolysis of aluminum sulfate produces an acid pH (3 to 4). Also, aluminum sulfate is a pH buffer and controls acidity of the tailings solutions. Cation exchange and neutralization by calcite modify the tailings solutions as they migrate through the aquifers. These reactions explain chemical patterns, which delineate five separate contaminant plumes in the aquifers. In the Deweesville Sandstone, cation exchange has removed ammonium from acidic contaminant plumes. However, neutralization is incomplete due to the paucity of calcite in the Deweesville. In contrast, in the calcite-rich Conquista fossiliferous sandstone, cation exchange and complete neutralization by calcite have removed most contaminant ions. Those contaminant plumes are delineated by elevated concentrations of calcium and carbon dioxide. The amount of contamination in both aquifers is much smaller than earlier estimated.

Jackson, T.J.; Kreitler, C.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

312

Energetic electron morphology in the central mid-tail plasmasheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster RAPID observations of the electron high energy tail (40-200keV) near 18 Re have revealed a highly dynamic and structured high energy electron plasmasheet. Detailed observations of the 3-D distribution show a rich variety of trapped, field aligned or beaming distributions, including some highly non-gyrotropic distributions. The origin of these particles is of central importance both as a possible source population for higher energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere, and as a possible "smoking gun" for reconnection-related acceleration processes. Understanding the nature of the energetic electron plasmasheet is very dependent on the observation locality with respect to the central plasmasheet (CPS). As energetic electrons are high-speed tracers of the magnetic field topology, being just above or below the CPS can map the observed particles a unknown distance down tail and may thus not be representative of the local CPS. Using single spacecraft measurement of Bx reversals has traditionally been used as an indicator of the CPS - but RAPID data has shown that the observations of energetic electrons has no 1-to1 relation to such reversals. This study focuses on 4-spacecraft determination of the magnetic field line curvature and defines the center of the energetic plasmasheet to be the region of minimum field line curvature. We will attempt to order the energetic electron observations with respect to this CPS definition in order to sort the data into trapped, streaming or locally accelerated categories.

Friedel, R. H.; Monk, S. P.; Tayor, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D.; Daly, P. W.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J. A.

2004-05-01

313

Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy and light ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process.

Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Crary, F. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Arridge, C. S.; Jones, G. H.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.

2012-04-01

314

Structure of the tail fin in teleosts.  

PubMed

A morphologic study of the structure of the tail fin in eight species of teleosts was performed by aid of the Picrosirius-polarization method, which is a specific histochemical method for the detection of collagen in tissue sections. This structure is composed mainly of skeletal elements, the fin rays, covered by skin. Fin rays are bound to each other and to the surrounding tissues by a series of collagenous ligaments forming a complex, highly pliable and resistant structure. Although the general structural pattern of tail fins was consistent in all species studied, the comparative aspects reported in this paper show that variations in the form and size of their components are responsible for the morphologic diversities which are closely related to specific functional adaptations. Morphometric data on the number and size of actinotrichia in normal adult specimens are presented. PMID:6850759

Becerra, J; Montes, G S; Bexiga, S R; Junqueira, L C

1983-01-01

315

Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

316

Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.  

PubMed

An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models. PMID:18449428

Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

2008-05-01

317

RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily fluctuations in resting heart rate (HR) were studied in a captive ? Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis) using radiotelemetry. HR's were recorded hourly during 10 consecutive days while the hawk was housed in an outdoor pen. Daytime HR's averaged 202 beats\\/min and were significantly higher than the average nocturnal HR of 134 beats\\/min (P < 0.001). Maximum HR's ( >200 beats\\/min)

WILLIAM A. DEGRAw; N. C. CLAMPITT

318

Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium  

E-print Network

We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.

T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram

2005-10-03

319

Decommissioning of the old pyritic tailings facility previously used in a talc operation, eastern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luikonlahti tailings facility was originally constructed for tailings from an old copper mine operation and was later used for tailings from talc processing. Geochemical partitioning showed that the pyritic tailings were only partially oxidized in dried layers under the magnesite tailings at the edges of the impoundment, whereas water saturated layers below these edges and the tailings in the

Marja Liisa Räisänen; Petri Juntunen

320

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

321

The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution  

SciTech Connect

We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

Papazyan, Romeo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rozengurt, Enrique [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rey, Osvaldo [Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)]. E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

2006-04-14

322

Effect of measured material properties on the finite element analysis of an OH-58 composite tail boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static and dynamic finite element analysis is conducted on a U.S. Army OH-58 composite tail boom and compared with test data. The tail boom is a filament-wound graphite/epoxy monocoque structure. The structural design of the composite tail boom skin is based on 50-percent graphite fiber volume. However, material tests on representative samples of the tail boom skin reveal that the graphite fiber-volume fraction varied from 44.6 to 49.3 percent. To determine the effect of using measured material properties, static and dynamic finite element analyses are conducted for three fiber-volume conditions of 45, 48, and 50 percent. The static and dynamic model with the 45-percent fiber-volume graphite skins gives the closest agreement with test data.

Bowman, L. M.

1985-01-01

323

The solid-phase controls on the mobility of heavy metals at the Copper Cliff tailings area, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Copper Cliff Tailings Disposal Area, located near Sudbury, Ontario, covers an area of approximately 2200 ha and constitutes more than 10% of the total area of all mine tailings in Canada. The area has been utilized since 1936, receiving sulphide-containing tailings from the Inco Sudbury operations. Field measurements of pore-gas oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vadose zone indicate that sulphide oxidation has progressed to depths of 1.6 m to 1.7 m within the tailings. The oxidation of sulphide minerals within the vadose zone, and the accompanying dissolution of carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals within these tailings releases SO 4, Fe(II) and other metals to the pore water. In the vadose and saturated zones, concentrations of Fe and Ni exceed 10100 mg/l and 2210 mg/l, respectively. These high concentrations of dissolved metals are attenuated by a series of precipitation, coprecipitation and adsorption reactions. The precipitation of secondary sulphate and hydroxide phases also create hardpan layers at or near the oxidation front. Geochemical modelling of the pore-water chemistry suggests that pH-buffering reactions are occurring within the shallow oxidized zones, and that secondary-phase precipitation is occurring at or near the underlying hardpan and transition zones. Mineralogical study of the tailings confirmed the presence of jarosite, gypsum and goethite within the shallow tailings, suggesting that these phases are controlling the dissolved concentrations of Fe, SO 4 and Ca. Extraction experiments conducted on the tailings solids indicate that the constituents contained in the water-soluble fraction of the shallow, weathered tailings are derived from the original pore water and the dissolution of highly soluble phases such as gypsum. The acid-leachable fraction of the weathered tailings accounts for up to 25% of the heavy metals, and the reducible fraction may contain up to 100% of the heavy metals within the shallow, weathered tailings. Based on the pore water profiles and the geochemistry of the tailings solids, a relative mobility scale of Fe=Mn=Ni=Co>Cd Zn>Cr=Pb>Cu can be determined.

McGregor, R. G.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.; Robertson, W. D.

1998-10-01

324

Citizen knowledge and perception of black-tailed prairie dog management; report to respondents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-state short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error +/- 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitudes about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation toward the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.

Sexton, N.R.; Brinson, Ayeisha; Ponds, P.D.; Cline, Kurt

2001-01-01

325

The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect

The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE`s UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996.

Smythe, C. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01

326

Li+ and muscarine cooperatively enhance the cationic tail current in rat cortical pyramidal cells.  

PubMed

Li+ is known to facilitate the onset of status epilepticus induced by cholinergic stimulation, although the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Under whole-cell current clamp conditions with a CsCl-based internal solution, cortical pyramidal cells display a single plateau-spike followed by a slow depolarizing afterpotential (DAP) in response to injection of a short current pulse. However, the same current pulse generated a burst of plateau-spikes after application of Li+ (2 mM) and muscarine (10 microM). As similar bursts of plateau-spikes were generated through an enhancement of the slow DAP when [K+]o was raised (Kang et al. 1998), we have investigated the effects of Li+ and muscarine on the Ca2+-dependent cationic current underlying the slow DAP, measured as the slow tail current evoked after the offset of depolarizing voltage pulses. Muscarine enhanced the amplitudes of both early and late components of the slow tail current. This effect of muscarine was markedly potentiated by Li+, while Li+ by itself affected the slow tail current only slightly. Intracellular application of heparin (0.5-1 mg/mL) suppressed the effect of muscarine in the presence of Li+. These results suggest that inositol-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release is involved in the cooperative enhancement of the slow tail current, and this cooperation may be one of the mechanisms underlying facilitation of the onset of epilepsy induced by these agents. PMID:10383629

Okada, T; Kang, Y; Ohmori, H

1999-07-01

327

The Effect of Plasma on Tail Regeneration of Tadpoles Xenopus Laevis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy wounds require a balanced combination of nutrients and growth factors for healing and tissue regeneration. Nitric oxide, (NO), is also crucial in wound healing processes and linked with production of several cytokines, interaction with other free radicals and influence on microcirculation. Hypothesize is that exposure to plasma will affect wound healing and tail regeneration in tadpoles Xenopus laevis and plasma induced endogenous NO production may have an important role to play at the cellular level. Tail amputation was immediately followed by exposure of the wound to the helium plasma. For histological features, blastema (growing regenerate) was fixed in 4% neutral buffer formalin for paraffin sections. In situ staining for NO was carried out 5 days post amputation. The rate of the regenerating tail was proportional to the plasma exposure time at the expense of metamorphic rate. Histological features show that the tadpoles exposed to the plasma had a higher level of cellular proliferation and microvasculature in blastema. In situ staining for NO indicated its increased endogenous production compared to the control. These findings suggest that accelerated wound healing and tail regeneration following exposure to the plasma may be due to its direct effect on cell proliferation and increased NO production which may be involved in microvascularization.

June, Joyce; Amadi, Chima; Menon, Jaishri; Martus, Kevin

2013-03-01

328

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

NONE

1995-11-01

329

An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.  

PubMed

An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines. PMID:14708993

Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

2003-01-01

330

Changes in Zinc Speciation with Mine Tailings Acidification in a Semiarid Weathering Environment  

SciTech Connect

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg{sup -1}) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg{sup -1}) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn{sub 0.8}talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn{sub adsFeOx}), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}), hemimorphite (Zn{sub 4}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

Hayes, Sarah M.; O’ Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon (UCM); (SLAC); (Ariz)

2012-10-09

331

Arsenic and heavy metals in native plants at tailings impoundments in Queretaro, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten native plants species that grow in three tailings dams from Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn mine in Queretaro, Mexico were studied. Total concentrations in tailings were 183-14,660 mg/kg As, 45-308 mg/kg Cd, 327-1754 mg/kg Pb, 149-459 mg/kg Cu and 448-505 mg/kg Zn. In the three tailings dams, the solubility of these elements is low. Tailings in dam 1 are acid generating while tailings in dams 2 and 3 are not acid-generating potential. Plants species that accumulate arsenic and heavy metals was identified; Nicotina glauca generally presented the highest concentrations (92 mg/kg As, 106 mg/kg Cd, 189 mg/kg Pb, 95 mg/kg Cu and 1985 mg/kg Zn). Other species that accumulate these elements are Flaveria pubescens, Tecoma stans, Prosopis Sp, Casuarina Sp and Maurandia antirrhiniflora. Two species were found that accumulates a large amount of metals in the root, Cenchrus ciliaris and Opuntia lasiacantha. Concentrations in soils in which plants grow were 488-5990 mg/kg As, 5-129 mg/kg Cd, 169-3638 mg/kg Pb, 159-1254 mg/kg Cu and 1431-13,488 mg/kg Zn. The Accumulation Factor (AF) determined for plants was less than 1, with exception of N. glauca for Cd. The correlation between arsenic and heavy metals found in soils and plants was low. Knowledge of plant characteristics allows it use in planning the reforestation of tailings dams in controlled manner. This will reduce the risk of potentially toxic elements are integrated into the food chain of animal species.

Santos-Jallath, José; Castro-Rodríguez, Alejandrina; Huezo-Casillas, José; Torres-Bustillos, Luis

332

Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation  

SciTech Connect

The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

Scherer, G.; Everett, R. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wenatchee, WA (United States). Forestry Science Lab.

1998-12-31

333

Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.  

PubMed

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

2011-09-01

334

Behavioral and Activity Assessment of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) after Tail Biopsy under Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Contemporary laboratory animal guidance suggests that tail biopsy of laboratory mice can be performed before 21 d of age without anesthesia, whereas older mice must receive anesthesia before biopsy. Our objective was to determine whether administration of isoflurane anesthesia before tail biopsy produced a measurable effect on the behavior of mice (n = 196). We evaluated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice at 21 to 24 (weaning), 28 to 31 (delayed weaning), and 42 to 45 (adult) d of age. Mice were observed at the time of biopsy and then twice within the first hour after a sham or tail biopsy. Anxiety-like responses were assessed by using an elevated plus-maze. Activity was evaluated remotely for 120 min. Isoflurane did not diminish acute responses to tail biopsy in mice 31 d or younger compared with sham-biopsied animals but had a significant effect in C57BL/6 biopsied adult mice. In addition, mice of all ages and strains that received anesthesia, regardless of biopsy, spent more time in the enclosed maze arms and had decreased activity up to 5 h after isoflurane exposure. Although tail biopsy should be performed in young mice to avoid transection of distal mature vertebrae, our experimental paradigm indicates that isoflurane anesthesia does not appreciably enhance wellbeing over that of mice biopsied without anesthesia at weaning ages. The influence of inhaled isoflurane was demonstrable and indicated that acute and prolonged alterations in anxiety and activity must be considered when interpreting the impact of anesthesia on tail biopsy across various ages and strains of laboratory mice. PMID:22330716

Hankenson, F Claire; Braden-Weiss, Gillian C; Blendy, Julie A

2011-01-01

335

Coplanar tail-chase aerial combat as a differential game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced-order version of the one-on-one aerial combat problem is studied as a pursuit-evasion differential game. The coplanar motion takes place at given speeds and given maximum available turn rates, and is described by three state equations which are equivalent to the range, bearing, and heading of one aircraft relative to the other. The purpose of the study is to determine those relative geometries from which either aircraft can be guaranteed a win, regardless of the maneuver strategies of the other. Termination is specified by the tail-chase geometry, at which time the roles of pursuer and evader are known. The roles are found in general, together with the associated optimal turn maneuvers, by solution of the differential game of kind. For the numerical parameters chosen, neither aircraft can win from the majority of possible initial conditions if the other turns optimally in certain critical geometries.

Merz, A. W.; Hague, D. S.

1977-01-01

336

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

337

Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Concentrations in Captive and Free-Ranging, White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive re...

338

Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from black- and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and Cynomys leucurus) in central and southeast Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces collected from live-trapped black- (Cynomys ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) from central and southeastern Wyoming were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of eimerian species. Six species (Eimeria adaensis [black-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 33%, white-tailed prairie dog prevalence = 51%], Eimeria beecheyi [8%, 28%], Eimeria callosper-mophili [64%, 71%], Eimeria lateralis [3%, 7%], Eimeria morainensis [19%, 8%], and Eimeria spermophili [2%, 1%]) were identified from both host species. Eimeria pseudospermophili was found infecting only black-tailed (prevalence = 1%) and Eimeria bilamellata only in white-tailed prairie dogs (2%). Reinfections in individual hosts were observed with E. callospermophili and E. adaensis. Comparison of these results with the published literature suggests that the host genera Cynomys and Spermophilus share a common guild of eimerians and that members of this guild have a long evolutionary association with these hosts, or host switching, or both, is common between these groups. PMID:9057719

Seville, R S

1997-02-01

339

Occupational exposure during remediation works at a uranium tailings pile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess by different approaches the occupational exposure during the remediation of a tailings dam in an abandoned uranium mining site, with an area of about 13.3 ha and an estimated volume of 1.39 million m³. A hypothetical scenario was created in which the workers involved in the remediation activities were exposed to radiation through both internal and external pathways. It was intended to assess quantitatively the potential exposure of the workforce involved in the remediation works, focussing particularly on the inhalation of radon and on the gamma irradiation from the contaminated soil. Different methodologies were considered based on a deterministic and a probabilistic approach for dose assessment and risk assessment, respectively. The deterministic approach typically employs a highly "conservative" single value for each input parameter. The probabilistic approach employs sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters using probabilistic distributions of the sensitive parameters. The results indicate that annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure (worst scenario case created) may reach a significant fraction of occupational radiation protection limits. This is also stressed by the values obtained for the occupational risk estimated by Monte Carlo methodology using probabilistic distributions for the input parameters. The results also showed that the pathway with the highest dose does not necessarily correspond to the pathway with the highest risk. Nevertheless, it is well known that probabilistic analysis generally produces more realistic results. PMID:22974553

Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiúza, António

2013-05-01

340

Pain-Suppressed Behaviors in the Red-tailed Hawk 1 (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Our ability to provide analgesia in wild and exotic patients is hampered by a lack of species-specific information on effective drugs and protocols. One contributing factor is the difficulty of applying data from traditional laboratory tests of nociception to clinical conditions frequently involving combinations of inflammatory, mechanical, and neuropathic pain. Pain-suppressed behaviors have become a valuable predictor of clinical utility in other species; in this study we extend this framework to red -tailed hawks in a wildlife hospital, in an attempt to develop a new, humane testing method for birds of prey. We scored six behaviors in hawks hospitalized either for orthopedic trauma or for non-painful conditions. These behaviors included: movement about the cage, grooming, head motions, foot shifts, beak clacks, and rouse. Movement, head motions, and beak clacks were all significantly reduced in hawks with recent orthopedic injury, but not in hawks with healed or minor injuries (P<0.05 for all behaviors). However, it should be noted that due to stringent admission criteria, and the difficulties inherent in studying naturally-occuring injury in wild patients, this study only included -subjects in four experimental groups, and this limited our ability to fully investigate confounds within our data. A follow-up experiment was conducted to determine potential effects of buprenorphine, a mu opioid agonist, on the behaviors listed above. Buprenorphine in the absence of pain caused minor, non-significant decreases in most behaviors, and had no effect on head movement frequency. This suggests that head movements in particular may be sensitive to pain but not to sedative side-effects of buprenorphine. Overall, red -tailed hawks with recent orthopedic trauma show consistent and marked red uctions in several normal maintenance behaviors. Head movements, reported for the first time in this study as a potential marker of pain in birds, in particular seem to be insensitive to sedative side effects of buprenorphine, while being a sensitive measu re of affective state in hawks with painful injuries. These behaviors can be scored humanely and with minimal expense, and should be considered for further research on pain and analgesia in avian species. PMID:24904190

Mazor-Thomas, Jana E; Mann, Phyllis E; Karas, Alicia Z; Tseng, Flo

2014-03-01

341

DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, Final Environmental Impact Statement (July 2005)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to clean up surface contamination and implement a ground water compliance strategy to address contamination that resulted from historical uranium-ore processing at the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Moab site), Grand County, Utah. Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) {section} 4321 et seq., DOE prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts of remediating the Moab site and vicinity properties (properties where uranium mill tailings were used as construction or fill material before the potential hazards associated with the tailings were known). DOE analyzed the potential environmental impacts of both on-site and off-site remediation and disposal alternatives involving both surface and ground water contamination. DOE also analyzed the No Action alternative as required by NEPA implementing regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality. DOE has determined that its preferred alternatives are the off-site disposal of the Moab uranium mill tailings pile, combined with active ground water remediation at the Moab site. The preferred off-site disposal location is the Crescent Junction site, and the preferred method of transportation is rail. The basis for this determination is discussed later in this Summary. DOE has entered into agreements with 12 federal, tribal, state, and local agencies to be cooperating agencies in the development and preparation of this EIS. Several of the cooperating agencies have jurisdiction by law and intend to use the EIS to support their own decisionmaking. The others have expertise relevant to potential environmental, social, or economic impacts within their geographic regions. During the preparation of the EIS, DOE met with the cooperating agencies, provided them with opportunities to review preliminary versions of the document, and addressed their comments and concerns to the fullest extent possible. DOE received over 1,600 comments on the draft EIS from the public, federal, state and local agencies, tribes, governors, and members of Congress. DOE has considered these comments in finalizing the EIS and has provided responses to all comments in the EIS.

N /A

2005-08-05

342

Correlation between aggregation structure and tailing mineral crystallinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct reduction is an emerging technology for the utilization of refractory iron ore. With this technology, iron oxides in the ore can be reduced to recoverable elemental iron. The structure of granular aggregates in direct reduction products was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that iron is mainly generated as a shell in the outer edge of the aggregates. The thermal conductivity of the iron shell is higher than that of other minerals. Thus, minerals close to the iron shell cool faster than those in the inner shells and do not crystallize well. These minerals mainly become stage 2 tailings. Hence the XRD intensity of stage 2 tailings is lower than that of stage 1 tailings. When iron is mainly generated in the interior of the aggregates, the crystallinity of stage 2 tailings will be higher than that of stage 1 tailings. This indicates that the crystallinity of tailings can be used as a marker for the aggregate structure.

Hu, Wen-tao; Li, Xin-wei; Wang, Hua-jun; Sun, Chuan-yao; Duan, Xu-qin

2014-09-01

343

Oblique self-assemblies and order-order transitions in polypeptide complexes with PEGylated triple-tail lipids.  

PubMed

We report on highly ordered oblique self-assemblies in ionic complexes of PEGylated triple-tail lipids and cationic polypeptides, as directed by side-chain crystallization, demonstrating also reversible oblique-to-hexagonal order-order transitions upon melting of the side chains. This is achieved in bulk by complexing cationic homopolypeptides, poly-l-lysine (PLys), poly-l-arginine (PArg), and poly-l-histidine (PHis), in stoichiometric amounts with anionic lipids incorporating two hydrophobic alkyl tails and one hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) tail in a star-shaped A(2)B geometry. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the PLys and PArg complexes fold into ?-helical conformation. Aiming to periodicities at different length scales, that is, hierarchies, the PEG tails were selected to control the separation of the polypeptide helices in one direction while the alkyl tails determine the distance between the hydrophilic polypeptide/PEG layers, resulting in an oblique arrangement of the helices. We expect that the high overall order, where the self-assembled domains are in 2D registry, is an outcome of a favorable interplay of plasticization due to the hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid tails combined with the shape persistency of the peptide helices and the crystallization of the lipid alkyl chains. Upon heating the complexes over the melting temperature of the alkyl tails, an order-order transition from oblique to hexagonal columnar morphology was observed. This transition is reversible, that is, the oblique structure with 2D correlation of the helices is fully returned upon cooling, implying that the alkyl tail crystallization guides the structure formation. Also PHis complex forms an oblique self-assembly. However, instead of ?-helices, FTIR suggests formation of helical structures lacking intramolecular hydrogen bonds, stabilized by steric crowding of the lipid. The current study exploits competition between the soft and harder domains, which teaches on concepts toward well-defined polypeptide-based materials. PMID:20973498

Hanski, Sirkku; Junnila, Susanna; Soininen, Antti J; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli

2010-12-13

344

Altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of tail-pipe burning with a Westinghouse X24C-4B axial-flow turbojet engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust augmentation of an axial-flow type turbojet engine by burning fuel in the tail pipe has been investigated in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The performance was determined over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel flows. The engine tail pipe was modified for the investigation to reduce the gas velocity at the inlet of the tail-pipe combustion chamber and to provide an adequate seat for the flame; four such modifications were investigated. The highest net-thrust increase obtained in the investigation was 86 percent with a net thrust specific fuel consumption of 2.91 and a total fuel-air ratio of 0.0523. The highest combustion efficiencies obtained with the four configurations ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. With three of the tail-pipe burners, for which no external cooling was provided, the exhaust nozzle and the rear part of the burner section were bright red during operation at high tail-pipe fuel-air ratios. With the tail-pipe burner for which fuel and water cooling were provided, the outer shell of the tail-pipe burner showed no evidence of elevated temperatures at any operating condition.

Fleming, William A; Wallner, Lewis E

1948-01-01

345

POST-FLIGHT TAIL-WAGGING IN THE MALLARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail-wagging is a display in the Mallard (Arias platyrhynchos) hypothesized to have evolved from a maintenance activity elicited by water on the tail. Birds taking off from or landing upon water show high occurrences (->84%) of tail-wagging in the post-flight sequences of activities. In a simple field experiment eliciting takeoff from and landing on land were found a statisiically indistinguishable

P. HAILMAN; JEFFREY R. BAYLIS

346

Investigations of trace metals in long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis L.) from the Gda?sk Bay.  

PubMed

The determination of iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, cadmium, cobalt and nickel was carried out on liver, breast muscle, heart, stomach and feathers of 50 male and 40 female long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis L.) staying in their winter quarters in Gda?sk Bay during 1980-81. There were no significant differences in the concentration of metals between male and female long-tailed ducks. The correlation coefficients between the concentration of metals in the liver and breast muscle were determined. PMID:6635653

Szefer, P; Falandysz, J

1983-08-01

347

Radical resection and outcome for malignant tumors of the pancreatic body and tail  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the factors influencing radical (R0) resection rate and surgical outcome for malignant tumor of the pancreatic body and tail. METHODS: The clinical and operative data and follow-up results of 214 pancreatic body and tail cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty/214 pancreatic body and tail cancer patients underwent surgical treatment; the overall resection rate was 59.2% (71/120), and the R0 resection rate was 40.8% (49/120). Compared with non-R0 treatment, the patients receiving an R0 resection had smaller size tumor (P < 0.01), cystadenocarcinoma (P < 0.01), less lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01), less peri-pancreatic organ involvement (P < 0.01) and earlier stage disease (P < 0.01). The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for pancreatic body and tail cancer patients were 12.7% (25/197), 7.6% (15/197) and 2.5% (5/197), respectively, and ductal adenocarcinoma patients had worse survival rates [15.0% (9/60), 6.7% (4/60) and 1.7% (1/60), respectively] than cystadenocarcinoma patients [53.8% (21/39), 28.2% (11/39) and 10.3% (4/39)] (P < 0.01). Moreover, the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates in patients with R0 resection were 55.3% (26/47), 31.9% (15/47) and 10.6% (5/47), respectively, significantly better than those in patients with palliative resection [9.5% (2/21), 0 and 0] and in patients with bypass or laparotomy [1.2% (1/81), 0 and 0] (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis is crucial for increasing the radical resection rate, and radical resection plays an important role in improving survival for pancreatic body and tail cancer patients. PMID:19908345

Han, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Shen, Xian; Zeng, Qi-Qiang; Ke, Qing-Hong

2009-01-01

348

Notochordal cell disappearance and modes of apoptotic cell death in a rat tail static compression-induced disc degeneration model  

PubMed Central

Introduction The intervertebral disc has a complex structure originating developmentally from both the mesenchyme and notochord. Notochordal cells disappear during adolescence, which is also when human discs begin to show degenerative signs. During degeneration later in life, disc cells decline because of apoptosis. Although many animal models have been developed to simulate human disc degeneration, few studies have explored the long-term changes in cell population and phenotype. Our objective was to elucidate the time-dependent notochordal cell disappearance and apoptotic cell death in a rat tail static compression-induced disc degeneration model. Methods Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rat tails were instrumented with an Ilizarov-type device and loaded statically at 1.3 MPa for up to 56 days. Loaded and distal-unloaded discs were harvested. Changes in cell number and phenotype were assessed with histomorphology and immunofluorescence. Apoptosis involvement was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and immunohistochemistry. Results The number of disc nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells decreased with the loading period; particularly, the decrease was notable at day 7 in larger, vacuolated, cytokeratin-8- and galectin-3-co-positive cells, indicating notochordal origin. Subsequently, the proportion of cells positive for TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3, markers of apoptosis induction, increased from day 7 through day 56. Although the percentage of cells immunopositive for cleaved caspase-8, a marker of apoptosis initiation through the death-receptor pathway, increased only at day 7, the percentage of cells immunopositive for cleaved caspase-9 and p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (p53AIP1), markers of apoptosis initiation through the p53-mediated mitochondrial pathway, increased from day 7 through day 56. The percentage of cells immunopositive for B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), antiapoptotic proteins, decreased consistently with compression. Conclusions This rat tail model mimics notochordal cell disappearance and apoptotic cell death in human disc aging and degeneration. Sustained static compression induces transient activation of apoptosis through the death-receptor pathway and persistent activation of apoptosis through the p53-mediated mitochondrial pathway in disc cells. The increased proapoptotic and decreased antiapoptotic proteins observed at all time points signify static compression-induced disc cell death and degeneration. PMID:24472667

2014-01-01

349

Research Article Survival of White-Tailed Deer Neonates  

E-print Network

, landscape, Minnesota, mortality, neonate, Odocoileus virginianus, predation, South Dakota, survival. Understanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics requires knowledge of survival

350

Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

2015-01-01

351

Sorption of copper by vegetated copper-mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lixiviation of copper (Cu) from vegetated mine tailings may present an environmental risk because of the potential adverse effects it may pose to ground and surface water around mines. However, bonding of Cu to mine tailings can limit transfer to surrounding water. The main objective of the present study is to assess Cu sorption by cultivated Cu-mine tailings containing calcite (pH 7.7) as influenced by commercial peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC) and chelating solution. Fresh tailing and tailing that had been used in pot experiments were tested and compared. Samples (0.50 g) of tailings were equilibrated with 20 cm3 of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cu dm-3, as CuCl2, for 72 h at room temperature. After equilibration period, the samples were centrifuged and filtered. Concentration of Cu in the equilibrium solution was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. The sorption experiment was replicated two times. Compost was the most effective organic amendment in enhancing Cu sorption. The Ks values were positively and significantly correlated with organic matter content and Cu associated with the organic fraction of tailing samples. The mineralogy and organic matter content can influence the sorption capacity of Cu-mine tailings. Calcite-containing mine tailings amended with PSC can be used to sorb Cu from chloride solutions.

de Coninck, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

352

Why do male snakes have longer tails than females?  

PubMed Central

In most snake species, males have longer tails than females of the same body length. The adaptive significance of this widespread dimorphism has attracted much speculation, but few tests. We took advantage of huge mating aggregations of red-sided gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in southern Manitoba to test two (non-exclusive) hypotheses about the selective forces responsible for this dimorphism. Our data support both hypotheses. First, relative tail length affects the size of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes). Males with longer tails relative to body length have longer hemipenes, presumably because of the additional space available (the hemipenes are housed inside the tail base). Second, relative tail length affects male mating success. Males with partial tail loss (due to predation or misadventure) experienced a threefold reduction in mating success. Among males with intact tails, we detected strong stabilizing selection on relative tail length in one of the two years of our study. Thus, our data support the notion that sex divergence in tail length relative to body length in snakes reflects the action of sexual selection for male mating success.

Shine, R.; Olsson, M. M.; Moore, I. T.; LeMaster, M. P.; Mason, R. T.

1999-01-01

353

Evaluating Target Cold Spots By the use of Tail EUDs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a new measure of target underdose that can be used in the evaluation and optimization of radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods and Materials: We compare various formulations of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and introduce a modification of existing EUD definitions, which we call tail EUD. Tail EUD is a measure of 'cold spots' below the prescription dose in the target dose distribution, using units of gray (Gy). We investigate the mathematical properties of various target EUD concepts, including tail EUD. We apply the tail EUD measure retrospectively to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans from our plan database. We also use tail EUD as an optimization objective in the optimization of prostate, pancreas, and head-and-neck plans. Results: Tail EUD has desirable mathematical properties. In particular, it is convex and it leads to convex level sets (i.e., no local minima) if the EUD from which it is derived is concave. The tail EUD value is correlated with the subjective degree of target coverage. Constraining tail EUDs to a certain level in plan optimization leads to comparable target coverage in different plans and treatment sites. Conclusions: The newly introduced concept of tail EUD appears to be useful for both plan evaluation and optimization. In addition it can potentially be applied in the design of new clinical protocols.

Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tbortfeld@partners.org; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halabi, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Romeijn, H. Edwin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

354

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

355

A red-tailed hawk at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

2000-01-01

356

A Chimeric Kinesin-1 Head/Kinesin-5 Tail Motor Switches between Diffusive and Processive Motility  

PubMed Central

Homotetrameric kinesin-5 motors are essential for chromosome separation and assembly of the mitotic spindle. These kinesins bind between two microtubules (MTs) and slide them apart, toward the spindle poles. This process must be tightly regulated in mitosis. In in vitro assays, Eg5 moves diffusively on single MTs and switches to a directed mode between MTs. How allosteric communication between opposing motor domains works remains unclear, but kinesin-5 tail domains may be involved. Here we present a single-molecule fluorescence study of a tetrameric kinesin-1 head/kinesin-5 tail chimera, DK4mer. This motor exhibited fast processive motility on single MTs interrupted by pauses. Like Eg5, DK4mer diffused along MTs with ADP, and slid antiparallel MTs apart with ATP. In contrast to Eg5, diffusive and processive periods were clearly distinguishable. This allowed us to measure transition rates among states and for unbinding as a function of buffer ionic strength. These data, together with results from controls using tail-less dimers, indicate that there are two modes of interaction with MTs, separated by an energy barrier. This result suggests a scheme of motor regulation that involves switching between two bound states, possibly allosterically controlled by the opposing tetramer end. Such a scheme is likely to be relevant for the regulation of native kinesin-5 motors. PMID:23442865

Thiede, Christina; Lakämper, Stefan; Wessel, Alok D.; Kramer, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christoph F.

2013-01-01

357

Identification of phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of the ?-opioid receptor.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation is considered a key event in the signalling and regulation of the ? opioid receptor (MOPr). Here, we used mass spectroscopy to determine the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal tail of the rat MOPr expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. Under basal conditions, MOPr is phosphorylated on Ser(363) and Thr(370), while in the presence of morphine or [D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), the COOH terminus is phosphorylated at three additional residues, Ser(356) , Thr(357) and Ser(375). Using N-terminal glutathione S transferase (GST) fusion proteins of the cytoplasmic, C-terminal tail of MOPr and point mutations of the same, we show that, in vitro, purified G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates Ser(375), protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates Ser(363), while CaMKII phosphorylates Thr(370). Phosphorylation of the GST fusion protein of the C-terminal tail of MOPr enhanced its ability to bind arrestin-2 and -3. Hence, our study identifies both the basal and agonist-stimulated phospho-acceptor sites in the C-terminal tail of MOPr, and suggests that the receptor is subject to phosphorylation and hence regulation by multiple protein kinases. PMID:23106126

Chen, Ying-Ju; Oldfield, Sue; Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Saxena, Kunal; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn

2013-01-01

358

Identification of phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of the ?-opioid receptor  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation is considered a key event in the signalling and regulation of the ? opioid receptor (MOPr). Here we used mass spectroscopy to determine the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal tail of the rat MOPr expressed in HEK-293 cells. Under basal conditions, MOPr is phosphorylated on Ser363 and Thr370, while in the presence of morphine or [D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), the COOH-terminus is phosphorylated at three additional residues, Ser356, Thr357, and Ser375. Using N-terminal Glutathione S Transferase (GST) fusion proteins of the cytoplasmic, C-terminal tail of MOPr and point mutations of the same, we show that, in vitro, purified G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates Ser375, PKC phosphorylates Ser363 whilst CaMKII phosphorylates Thr370. Phosphorylation of the GST fusion protein of the C-terminal tail of MOPr enhanced its ability to bind arrestin-2 and -3. Hence, our study identifies both the basal and agonist-stimulated phospho-acceptor sites in the C-terminal tail of MOPr, and suggests that the receptor is subject to phosphorylation and hence regulation by multiple protein kinases. PMID:23106126

Chen, Ying-Ju; Oldfield, Sue; Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Saxena, Kunal; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn

2012-01-01

359

Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

Not Available

1993-12-01

360

Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

2002-01-01

361

Mobility of heavy metals from tailings to stream waters in a mining activity contaminated site.  

PubMed

In this paper the results of a recent characterization of Rio Piscinas (SW of Sardinia, Italy) hydrological basin are reported. In such area (about 50 km2), previous mining activities caused a serious heavy metal contamination of surface waters, groundwater, soils and biota. Acid mine drainage phenomena were observed in the area. The main sources of contamination are the tailings stored in mine tunnels and abandoned along fluvial banks. A methodological approach was adopted in order to identify relations between tailings and water contamination. Representative samples of tailings and stream sediments samples were collected. XRD analyses were performed for mineralogical characterization, while acid digestion was carried out for determining metal contents. Batch sequential leaching tests were performed in order to assess metal mobility. Also groundwater and stream water were sampled in specific locations and suitably characterized. All information collected allowed the understanding of the effect of tailings on water contamination, thus contributing to the qualitative prediction of pollution evolution on the basis of metal mobility. Finally, a potential remediation strategy of stream water is proposed. PMID:16216301

Concas, A; Ardau, C; Cristini, A; Zuddas, P; Cao, G

2006-04-01

362

Myxofibrosarcoma: prevalence and diagnostic value of the “tail sign” on magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective Myxofibrosarcoma frequently shows curvilinear extensions of high T2 signal that also enhance on magnetic resonance imaging; these “tails” represent fascial extension of tumor at histopathological examination. This study was performed to determine whether the tail sign is helpful in distinguishing myxofibrosarcoma from other myxoid-containing neoplasms. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 44 patients with pathologically proven myxofibrosarcoma; the control group consisted of 52 patients with a variety of other myxoid-predominant tumors. Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently evaluated T2-weighted (and/or short-tau inversion recovery) and post-contrast MR images for the presence of one or more enhancing, high-signal intensity, curvilinear projections from the primary mass. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma were calculated for each reader. Interobserver variability was assessed with kappa statistic and percentage agreement. Results A tail sign was deemed present in 28, 30, and 34 cases of myxofibrosarcoma and in 11, 9, and 5 of the controls for the three readers respectively, yielding a sensitivity of 64–77 % and a specificity of 79–90 %. The interobserver agreement was moderate-to-substantial (kappa= 0.626). Conclusion The tail sign at MRI is a moderately specific and sensitive sign for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma relative to other myxoid-containing tumors. PMID:23318907

Landa, Jonathan; Hwang, Sinchun; Zabor, Emily C.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Panicek, David M.

2014-01-01

363

THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE H? TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627  

SciTech Connect

We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ?2 L{sub *} late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (?>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (?3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ?1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ?1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (?0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The H? data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ?21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (?12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ?23° and starting at a distance of ?7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary H? tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ?2? level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are briefly discussed.

Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ji, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Sarazin, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roediger, E. [Germany Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M., E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: mingsun.cluster@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-11-10

364

Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.

Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

1984-03-01

365

Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

366

Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Addendum D1  

SciTech Connect

This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junctions Project Office in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. The objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on- pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra- 226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

Ludlam, J.R.

1985-01-01

367

Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.  

PubMed

Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. PMID:25139752

Felice, Ryan N

2014-12-01

368

Food access by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding sites in eastern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, we studied aggressive behaviour of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at winter feeding stations in the Pohénégamook wintering area, Québec (47°29?N 69°14?W). The study aimed at determining if aggressive behaviour was related to priority of access to food by various age–sex classes. Deer were observed daily at four feeding sites and weekly at six others. More than 100 deer

Diane Grenier; Cyrille Barrette; Michel Crête

1999-01-01

369

Missile rolling tail brake torque system. [simulating bearing friction on canard controlled missiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for simulating varying levels of friction in the bearings of a free rolling tail afterbody on a canard-controlled missile to determine friction effects on aerodynamic control characteristics is described. A ring located between the missile body and the afterbody is utilized in a servo system to create varying levels of friction between the missile body and the afterbody to simulate bearing friction.

Davis, W. T. (inventor)

1984-01-01

370

Effects of ketamine on carfentanil and xylazine immobilization of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a crossover design, the effects of the addition of ketamine to a previously determined optimal hand-injected immobilization dosage of carfentanil\\/xylazine were evaluated in 11 adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Two i.m. ketamine dosages were evaluated: 0.15 mg\\/kg (low ketamine) and 0.30 mg\\/kg (high ketamine). Each deer was immobilized twice 2 wk apart. Inductions were video recorded and reviewed by

Timothy N. Storms; Juergen Schumacher; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Edward C. Ramsay

2006-01-01

371

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

372

GnRH immunocontraception of male and female white-tailed deer fawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocontraceptive vaccines based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been tested in adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but their effects on fawns are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if early immunization against GnRH would induce a long-lasting immune response in fawns, and if it would delay or prevent sexual development. We gave primary and subsequent booster injections

LOWELL A. MILLER; JAMES P. G IONFRIDDO; JACK C. RHYAN; KATHLEEN A. FAGERSTONE; DONALD C. WAGNER; GARY J. KILLIAN

373

40 CFR 61.253 - Determining compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.253 Determining compliance. Compliance with the emission standard in...

2010-07-01

374

40 CFR 61.253 - Determining compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.253 Determining compliance. Compliance with the emission standard in...

2011-07-01

375

40 CFR 61.253 - Determining compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.253 Determining compliance. Compliance with the emission standard in...

2012-07-01

376

40 CFR 61.253 - Determining compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.253 Determining compliance. Compliance with the emission standard in...

2013-07-01

377

40 CFR 61.253 - Determining compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Operating Mill Tailings § 61.253 Determining compliance. Compliance with the emission standard in...

2014-07-01

378

Controls on carbon mineralization in ultramafic mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon mineralization in ultramafic mine tailings provides the opportunity to offset a significant portion of CO2 emissions from mining operations if passive mineralization rates are accelerated. To help design acceleration strategies, it is important to determine the controls on carbon mineralization in tailings, and to capture these effects using a reactive transport model to provide better estimation of the rates that could be achieved at different mine sites. For instance, it is likely that climatic variables influence rates of passive carbon mineralization. We use the reactive transport model MIN3P [1] to investigate the degree to which temperature, rainfall, and evaporation control passive carbon mineralization rates, as constrained with field observations from a mine site. Preliminary results suggest that hot and dry climates are most suitable. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that passive carbon mineralization is largely limited by the rate of CO2 supply into pore waters [2]. Acceleration could be achieved in part by supplying CO2-rich gas streams into tailings to carbonate highly reactive low abundance (< ~15 wt.%) phases such as brucite [Mg(OH)2] [3]. Column experiments containing brucite were supplied with 10 vol.% CO2 gas streams to assess the controls on carbon mineralization when the CO2 supply is increased. The influence of heterogeneous water content along the flow path and brucite grain size on carbon mineralization efficiency was investigated. Because water acts as both a reaction medium for CO2 and brucite dissolution and as a reactant to form hydrated carbonate minerals that sequester CO2, the extent of carbon mineralization was found to mimic the water content distribution. At low water content (<15% saturation), the extent of carbonation was extremely limited by the lack of available water. Variations in water content from the pore to the field scale therefore complicate the assessment of the carbon mineralization potential of a mine site. Thus, the experimental data were used to calibrate MIN3P [4] to better account for the control of water content on mineral reactivity and allow more robust estimation of CO2 sequestration potential. The brucite grain size also influenced the rate and extent of carbon mineralization due to its effect on reactive surface area and the degree of surface passivation. An empirical function was derived and implemented in MIN3P to model the declining reactivity of brucite with reaction progress due to passivation of the mineral surface via carbonate precipitation. This experimentally calibrated reactive transport code, and the constraints provided by field observations, will enable better assessment of the CO2 sequestration capacity of mine sites and help guide implementation of acceleration strategies. For example, a target water content for a tailings storage facility to maximize carbon mineralization could be estimated. [1] Bea et al. (2012) Vadose Zone J 11. [2] Wilson et al. (2010) Environ Sci Technol 44, 9522-9529. [3] Harrison et al. (2013) Environ Sci Technol 47, 126-134. [4] Molins and Mayer (2007) Water Resour Res 43, W05435.

Harrison, A. L.; Power, I. M.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Wilson, S. A.

2013-12-01

379

Sulfur Biogeochemistry of Athabasca Oilsands Composite Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil sands tailings are important, globally relevant, S reservoirs, known to contain active and diverse microbial communities. As evidenced by increasing S emissions from the oil sands, active biogeochemical S cycling within composite tailings (CT, a mixture of tailings, post-processed sand and gypsum, used for dry reclamation), is likely; however the S biogeochemistry of these residues has not been investigated to date. With surface mining of Alberta's oil sands spanning over 142,000 square km and accelerated production, these tailings-based landscapes will become increasingly prevalent with the potential for significant environmental impacts. The objectives here, were thus to characterize depth dependent S biogeochemistry of a 40 meter CT deposit (Fort McMurray, AB, CANADA). Drill samples were collected in December of 2012 from 5 depths spanning 36 m in the CT deposit, for geochemical, metagenomic and functional enrichment analyses. Results establish widespread microbial S biogeochemical cycling within the CT deposit. Porewater H2S was detected extensively throughout the deposit with background levels ranging from 14-23 ?M and a concentrated pocket of 300 ?M occurring at depth. Porewater Fe(II) (1-40 ?M) was detected only within surficial depth samples. Current Fe(II) concentrations are not sufficient to sequester the levels of H2S generated by CT, indicating CT may become a net source of S emissions, as generated H2S at depth migrates to the surface, in untreated CT deposits. Metagenomic (454 pyrosequencing) characterization revealed highly diverse CT microbial communities, with 21 different phyla encountered overall and 1/3 of these presenting as candidate divisions. The cultivation independent identification of several known IRB and sulphate (SRB) reducing bacteria within these communities was consistent with observed positive growth in IRB and SRB functional metabolic enrichments. Furthermore, two depth dependent structurally distinct communities emerged: a surficial CT zone of Fe(III) reduction and an underlying zone of sulphate reduction, from multivariate statistical analyses of phylogenetic data (UniFrac http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). The emergence of a distinct IRB surficial zone, despite ~65% of the total bacterial community putatively having the capacity for Fe(III) reduction over the entire deposit depth and evident and increasing Fe(III) sources down core, suggests limitation of Fe(III) reducing bacteria (IRB) through some other factor. Indeed UniFrac analyses identified that the differentiation in microbial communities occurring in these Fe and S zones was driven by environmental parameters of DOC, ORP and salinity; revealing that IRB may be unable to access the more complex OC constituents of these materials. Pilot reclamation for CT is currently focusing on capping CT with a freshwater fen, which may provide a more labile OC source for CT associated IRB, potentially stimulating greater H2S sequestration through FeS formation. These processes will be evaluated in the on-going assessment of S biogeochemistry within untreated and treated CT as pilot reclamation proceeds.

Warren, L. A.; Kendra, K. E.

2013-12-01

380

SPONTANEOUS CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1994, cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in a diarrheic fawn from a captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd maintained for research purposes at The Uni- versity of Georgia's Warnell School of Forest Resources in Athens, Georgia (USA). From June through August 1995, 11 captive female white-tailed deer were housed in individual barn stalls where they gave birthto 18 fawns. Feces

Ronald Fayer; John R. Fischer; Christopher T. Sewell; Darrell M. Kavanaugh; David A. Osborn

381

VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

382

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Credit PED. View of tail race and dam showing dumping of construction rubble into river bed by rail car; and preparations for pouring a concrete cap onto tail race wall. Photo c. 1909. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

383

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

384

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

385

Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is

G. Schubert; C. P. Sonett; B. F. Smith; D. S. Colburn; K. Schwartz

1975-01-01

386

14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be assumed to be in their static positions. (b) For...ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in...are assumed to be in their static positions. (c) If a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is...

2013-01-01

387

Strategic inventory deployment for retail and e-tail stores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study a supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer. Customers can make purchases either from the retailer or directly from the manufacturer via an e-tail channel. From the manufacturer's perspective of managing the two channels, we study three different inventory strategies, namely centralized inventory strategy, a Stackelberg inventory strategy, and a strategy where the e-tail

Dong-Qing Yao; Xiaohang Yue; Samar K. Mukhopadhyay; Ziping Wang

2009-01-01

388

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

Sen?ilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

389

NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

390

Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.  

PubMed

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

391

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Main and tail rotor structure. 29.547 Section 29.547 Aeronautics...Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor is an assembly...their occurrence. (c) The rotor structure must be designed to withstand the...

2010-01-01

392

Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co­ lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos

393

TheFundamentalsofHeavyTails Properties, Emergence, & Identification  

E-print Network

Normal, Weibull, Zipf, Cauchy, Student's t, Frechet, ... Canonical Example: The Pareto Distribution a classesfocus on light-tailed distributions Simple, appealing statistical approaches have BIG problems #12;Heavy, & Controversial 1. Properties 2. Emergence 3. Identification #12;What is a heavy-tailed distribution

Wierman, Adam

394

Mixed Poisson distributions tail equivalent to their mixing distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed Poisson distribution can have an upper tail asymptotically equal to the upper tail of its mixing distribution. Two broad classes of mixing distributions that generate mixed Poisson distributions with this property are identified: unbounded, non-negative distributions with mild regularity conditions that satisfy either (a) the von Mises condition for the Fréchet extreme value domain of attraction; or (b)

Richard Perline

1998-01-01

395

3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

396

Changes in the distant tail configuration during geomagnetic storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the structure of the distant tail associated with geomagnetic storms are studied by using plasma and magnetic field data obtained from Geotail. Thirteen storm intervals between October 1993 and October 1994 are examined when the satellite was located in the distant tail between X=-83RE and X=-210RE. Geotail observed the magnetosheath during all storms including those when the satellite

R. Nakamura; S. Kokubun; T. Mukai; T. Yamamoto

1997-01-01

397

Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy  

PubMed Central

The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

2013-01-01

398

Morphological Analysis of the Tail Structures of Comet 1P/Halley 1910 II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight hundred and eighty six images from September 1909 to May 1911 are analysed for the purpose of identifying and measuring the morphological structures along the plasma tail of 1P/Halley. These images are from the Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 II. A systematic visual analysis revealed 304 wavy structures along the main tail and 164 along the secondary tails, 41 solitons, 13 Swan-like tails, 26 disconnection events (DEs), 166 knots and six shells. In general, it is possible to associate the occurrence of a DE and/or a Swan-Tail with the occurrence of a knot, but the last one may occur independently. It is also possible to say that the solitons occur in association with the wavy structures, but the reverse is not true. The 26 DEs documented in 26 different images allowed the derivation of two onsets of DEs. Both onsets of DEs were determined after the perihelion passage with an average of the corrected velocities Vc equal to (57 ± 15) km/s. The mean value of the corrected wavelength lc measured in 70 different wavy structures is equal to (1.7 ± 0.1) x 10^{6} km and the mean amplitude A of the wave (measured in the same 70 wavy structures cited above) is equal to (1.4 ± 0.1) x 10^{5} km. The mean value of the corrected cometocentric phase velocity Vpc measured in 20 different wavy structures is equal to (168 ± 28) km/s. The average value of the corrected velocities Vkc of the knots measured in 36 different images is equal to (128 ± 12) km/s. There is a tendency for A and lc to increase with increasing cometocentric distance.

Voelzke, M. R.; Izaguirre, L. S.

2014-10-01

399

SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN --Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are  

E-print Network

125 SEMI-MELANISTIC WHITE-TAILED DEER IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN -- Melanistic color morphs of white-tailed melanin and is considered rare in white-tailed deer populations (Severinghaus and Cheatum 1956, Sauer 1984 records of melanism in white-tailed deer existed prior to 1929 (Seton 1929). Melanism has since been

400

ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER --On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) died after  

E-print Network

47 ELECTROCUTION OF AN ADULT WHITE-TAILED DEER -- On 16 May 2002, an adult female white-tailed deer entanglements occur, they do not account for significant losses in white-tailed deer populations (Matschke et al fencing has been shown to be effective in deterring movement of white-tailed deer (George et al. 1983), we

401

Tail aggregation and domain diffusion in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

An extended multiscale coarse-graining model for ionic liquids is used to investigate the liquid crystal-like phase in certain ionic liquids. The tail groups of the cations with a sufficient side-chain length are found to aggregate, forming spatially heterogeneous domains, due to the competition between the electrostatic interactions between the charged head groups and the anions and the collective short-range interactions between the neutral tail groups. With a sufficiently long alkyl chain at a low enough temperature, the tail domains remain relatively stable, despite the diffusion of individual ions in the liquid phase. With increasing temperature, the average tail domains begin to diffuse, while beyond a transition temperature, their average density has an almost uniform distribution, although the tail groups still form instantaneous domains. PMID:16970489

Wang, Yanting; Voth, Gregory A

2006-09-21

402

Ram pressure statistics for bent tail radio galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the MareNostrum Universe Simulation, a large-scale, hydrodynamic, non-radiative simulation in combination with a simple abundance matching approach to determine the ram pressure statistics for bent radio sources (BRSs). The abundance matching approach allows us to determine the locations of all galaxies with stellar masses ? 1011 h- 1 M? in the simulation volume. Assuming that ram pressure exceeding a critical value causes bent morphology, we compute the ratio of all galaxies exceeding the ram pressure limit (RPEX galaxies) relative to all galaxies in our sample. According to our model 50 per cent of the RPEX galaxies at z = 0 are found in clusters with masses larger than 1014.5 h- 1 M? the other half resides in lower mass clusters. Therefore, the appearance of bent tail morphology alone does not put tight constraints on the host cluster mass. In low-mass clusters, M ? 1014 h- 1 M?, RPEX galaxies are confined to the central 500 h-1 kpc whereas in clusters of ? 1015 h- 1 M? they can be found at distances up to 1.5 h-1 Mpc. Only clusters with masses ? 1015 h- 1 M? are likely to host more than one BRS. Both criteria may prove useful in the search for distant, high-mass clusters.

Mguda, Zolile; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Heyden, Kurt van der; Gottlöber, Stefan; Cress, Catherine; Vaisanen, Petri; Yepes, Gustavo

2015-02-01

403

The ticking tail: daily oscillations in mRNA poly(A) tail length drive circadian cycles in protein synthesis  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Genes & Development, Kojima and colleagues (pp. 2724–2736) examined the impact of mRNA poly(A) tail length on circadian gene expression. Their study demonstrates how dynamic changes in transcript poly(A) tail length can lead to rhythmic protein expression, irrespective of whether mRNA accumulation is circadian or constitutive. PMID:23249731

Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

2012-01-01

404

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

405

Possible Vector Dissemination by Swift Foxes following a Plague Epizootic in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Northwestern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by ac- quiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and sero- logic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes

Brady K. McGee; Matthew J. Butler; Danny B. Pence; James L. Alexander; Janet B. Nissen

406

Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla collected in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners including highly toxic non-, mono-, and di-ortho coplanar members as well as their pattern were determined in breast muscles of white-tailed sea eagles collected dead between 1982 and 1990 in Poland. There was a wide variation in total PCB residue concentrations among eagles from various breeding sites, with the Baltic Sea coast registering

J. Falandysz; N. Yamashita; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; L. Rucifiska; T. Mizera; B. Jakuczun

1994-01-01

407

The study of comets, part 1. [conference on photometry and spectrum analysis of Kohoutek comet and comet tails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented dealing with observations of comets. Topic discussed include: photometry, polarimetry, and astrometry of comets; detection of water and molecular transitions in comets; ion motions in comet tails; determination of comet brightness and luminosity; and evolution of cometary orbits. Emphasis is placed on analysis of observations of comet Kohoutek.

Donn, B. (editor); Mumma, M. J. (editor); Jackson, W. M. (editor); Ahearn, M. (editor); Harrington, R. (editor)

1976-01-01

408

Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate

Bander

1982-01-01

409

Field responses to added organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fertilizer in reclamation of taconite iron ore tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three season study was conducted to determine the effect of added composted yard waste, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and fertilizer on plant cover, standing crop biomass, species composition, AM fungal infectivity and spore density in coarse taconite iron ore tailing plots seeded with a mixture of native prairie grasses. Plant cover and biomass, percent seeded species, mycorrhizal infectivity and

Robert K. Noyd; F. L. Pfleger; Michael R. Norland

1996-01-01

410

The effect of selenium on reproduction of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in Shasta County California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to determine if nutritional inadequacy of selenium may be responsible for a declining reproductive rate of a migratory herd of black-tailed deer. Selenium is an essential trace mineral for mammalian herbivores. Deficiency affects primarily neonates resulting in increased mortality rates. Shasta County, California is indigenously low in selenium due to soil characteristics. Local livestock enterprises have experienced

Flueck

1989-01-01

411

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PLASMA ACTIVITIES OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND CREATINE KINASE IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (Buteo jamaicensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and creatine kinase (CK) have been used as diagnostic indicators of muscle fitness and damage, respectively, in mammals. Activities of these enzymes were measured in three groups of red-tailed hawks (Buteojamaicensis) differing in flight capability (trained, untrained, and disabled) to determine whether their plasma enzyme activities were indicative of muscle fitness and flight training

SHANNON T. KNUTH; SUSAN B. CHAPLIN

412

In vitro studies of the influence of prolactin on tail regeneration in the adult newt Notophthalmus viridescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro experiments were carried out to determine the effects of prolactin, and prolactin in combination with other hormones on the regeneration of adult newt tail blastemata. A total of 271 blastemata were explanted 13 days postamputation and were organ cultured for 96 h at 20 (±1)°C. Treatment with prolactin alone resulted in an increase in the blastema cell density

Richard A. Liversage; Wendy E. Stewart; Danielle S. McLaughlin

1984-01-01

413

Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move

Daniel K. Riskin; Stuart Parsons; William A. Schutt; Gerald G. Carter; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

414

Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend that alternative strategies to reduce tail tip injury be explored. PMID:25184836

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

2014-10-01

415

STAR CLUSTERS IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF INTERACTING GALAXIES: CLUSTER POPULATIONS ACROSS A VARIETY OF TAIL ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W-band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, H I content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al., we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with M{sub V} < -8.5 and V - I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to M{sub V} = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of 'beads on a string' star formation morphology in V - I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes {approx}-2 to -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and interiors of interacting systems. We find that the tail regions with the largest number of observable clusters are relatively young ({approx}<250 Myr old) and bright (V {approx}< 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}), probably attributed to the strong bursts of star formation in interacting systems soon after periapse. Otherwise, we find no statistical difference between cluster-rich and cluster-poor tails in terms of many observable characteristics, though this analysis suffers from complex, unresolved gas dynamics and projection effects.

Mullan, B.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lee, K. H.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Hunsberger, S.; Palma, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Kepley, A. A.; Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Knierman, K. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences Center, Arizona State University, F-wing Room 686, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Bastian, N. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Box 745, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hibbard, J. E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trancho, G. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, Colina el Pino S/N, La Serena (Chile); Vacca, W. D., E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy/Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 144-2, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2011-04-20

416

[Comparative studys on ages-related changes in collagen structures of Achilles and tail tendons in rats].  

PubMed

The rate and degree of age changes in collagen structures of the Achilles and tail tendons were studied in 0.5, 1, 3, 12 and 24 month old rats. The hydration degree and imino acid content were det